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The Jewish community of Alexandria, numbering (in 1900) 10,000 persons, is gover ned by an elective body of prominent men

called the "Communit." This body numbers sixteen members, four being elected annually to serve for four years; only thos e contributing to the congregational treasury have the right to elect. The amoun t qualifying for the voting privilege ranges from 1 ($5) to 10 ($50) annually, acc ording to the circumstances of the individual. The constitution and by-laws of t he community are registered with the Austrian government. The Communit has entire control of the finances and affairs of the several congregations, making no dis tinction between natives and foreigners, or between Sephardim and Ashkenazim. In the year 1899 there were distributed at Passover 1,700 kilos (3,400 pounds) of ma??ot. The Communit is called upon almost every week to provide means of transpo rt for poor travelers. For such cases of illness as do not need hospital treatme nt, it maintains in the city a dispensary with attendant physicians. The revenues of the community are derived from synagogue dues and offerings, bur ial fees, and the tax on "kosher-meat," as well as from real estate and the dowr y tax. All ecclesiastical matters are in the hands of a chief rabbi. A printing-house was founded in 1874 by ?ayyim Mizra?i, from which numerous pray er-books, sermons, and responsa, and many volumes in Arabic and Hebrew as well a s in European languages have been issued. In equipment and in the quality of its work it bears comparison with the best European presses. With the exception of the blood accusation of March, 1881 (see Fornaraki Affair) , which threatened for a time the peace of the community, the condition of the J ews in Egypt has been very satisfactory. They are under no special restrictions. Their trade is with Europe in general, and with England in particular. Many of them are bankers and capitalists; while merchants, commercial travelers, scribes , and artisans are numerous among them. They are also represented among the lawy ers and officials of the courts. The languages spoken by the Jews of Alexandria represent many tongues. They are of various nationalities, and include Syrians, Turks, Rumanians, Russians, Austrians, Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen, with al l the diverse characteristics and customs of each nation. Situated as it is on the Mediterranean highway, Alexandria always has a large tr ansient population of poor Jewish emigrants, going east or west, and these often are a heavy tax upon the resources of the community. Synagogues. The synagogues are: (1) "Keneset Eliyahu," the most ancient of all, recognized a s the synagogue of the community, and so called because it is said that the Prop het dwelt on that spot for some time. In the year 1487 Rabbi Obadiah da Bertinor o visited Alexandria on his journey from Italy to Jerusalem, and referred to thi s synagogue, stating that there were about twenty-five Jewish families in the ci ty, and two ancient synagogues, in the smaller of which (dedicated to Elijah the prophet) the majority of the community worshiped. About the year 1870, prominen t men of the community set about restoring this relic of antiquity; and it is no w an elegantly appointed building with marble pillars and pavement, glass window s, and modern sittings. The women's gallery runs round three sides of the audito rium, and the building is situated in a well-kept garden or park. One-storied ho uses face both sides of the park; and into these sick persons, both Jews and Moh ammedans, are taken in the belief that miracles are performed there by the proph et Elijah. This synagogue is well attended by the wealthier portion of the commu nity: on the Day of Atonement as many as five hundred persons worship there. Alo ngside is a large hall where funeral services are held. (2) The chief synagogue in Alexandria is known as the "Zeradel." Its antiquity i s evidenced by a stone slab inserted in one of its walls, which bears the follow ing inscription in square Hebrew characters: "I, Judah, son of R. Saul of Spain (unto whom be peace), bought this site and built this synagogue for the welfare

of my soul and the souls of my family, in the year 1311 after the destruction. . . ." The remainder is obliterated by decay. The lowestline reads: "These pillar s and the lintel came from the door of the sanctuary . . . and this is the door . . . to support it upon them . . . for a memorial." A particular treasure of th is synagogue is a Hebrew Bible in elegantly written square characters, the work of a veritable artist. Each column or page is surrounded with elaborate ornament ation consisting of the Masorah, both "Great" and "Small," written in the most m icroscopic Hebrew letters, which are legible only with a magnifying-glass; the r eadings of Ben Asher and Ben Naphtali are also given. The last page bears the in scription, "The property of David ha-Kohen, called Kutina, 5127" (1367). The nam e of the writer and date are unknown. There is also a Pentateuch, together with the early prophets, written upon parchment of larger size, of about the same per iod. Both these valuable manuscripts are jealously guarded, and are taken from t he ark only upon the annual festival of the "Rejoicing of the Law," to be borne around the synagogue in the customary Procession of the Scrolls. In 1880 this sy nagogue was repaired and restored. (3) A synagogue named "'Azuz"; date unknown, smaller in size than the "Zeradel." In addition to these there are the following: (4) The Franks' (that is, the Eur opean Spanish) synagogue, founded in 1840. The building is hired, not owned, by the congregation. (5) A hired room used as a bet ha-midrash (college) and a syna gogue by the Moroccan Jews. (6) A bet ha-midrash named after Jedidiah, a former rabbi of the city. (7) The Gohar synagogue founded by Elijah Gohar. (8) Two hall s hired by the Ashkenazi Jews for worship according to their own particular rite . (9) The Menasce synagogue, founded in 1878 by Baron J. L. de Menasce: a handso me building with marble ark, pillars, and pavement, costing about 8,000 ($40,000) . It is supported by the revenues of two houses set apart by the Baron for this purpose. In 1900 the president was M. Joseph Tilche, who has so carefully manage d the funds derived from the synagogue offerings and fees that the interest rece ived from their investment is sufficient to defray the expenses of the school co nnected with it. (10) A synagogue, projected by Abraham Green, to be erected in a suburb where there has been a steady settlement of Jews for the past twenty-fi ve years. The hall hitherto hired for prayer-meetings becoming too small, M. Gre en purchased (1900) a site in a suitable location and will erect a building to c ost about 5,000 ($25,000). Schools. The community possesses several schools, but owing to the lack of those conducte d upon modern lines, the children of the upper-and middle-class Jews attend the Christian private schools of the city. The most important Jewish schools are (1) that established by Baron J. L. de Menasce at a cost of more than 5,000 ($25,000 ). This is pleasantly situated in ample grounds. In 1900 it had 160 pupils, who received free education in the Pentateuch and secular subjects. French Arabic (t he language of the country), and, of course, Hebrew were taught. The director wa s Joseph Tilche; and associated with him was M. Solomon Barda. School materials are supplied gratuitously to the pupils, the expenses being defrayed from the re ceipts of the Menasce synagogue. Needy pupils receive clothing twice a year. (2) A Talmud Torah school, called the Aghion School, established about the year 188 0 by the brothers Moses and Isaac Aghion, owing to the fact that the Menasce Sch ool was unable for want of room to accommodate all applicants. On the death of t hese brothers their children set aside 20,000 fr. ($3,900) as a sinking-fund for its support; and Moses Jacob Aghion gave an additional sum of 20,000 fr. for a school for girls. In 1900 there were about 280 pupils, of both sexes, who receiv ed free education in religion, Hebrew, French, and Arabic. The salaries of teach ers and expenses for materials amount to 880 ($4,400) annually; clothing-supplies , shoes, etc., cost 160 ($800) more. (3) Other small elementary schools teaching the Pentateuch, prayer-book, etc., according to the grades of their pupils. (4) A school established about 1896 by the Alliance Isralite Universelle for boys and girls, at which a moderate charge was made for tuition. In its first year the s chool was attended by more than 200 boys and 150 girls; but owing to frequent ch

anges in the teaching staff, due to a dearth of capable teachers, the attendance fell rapidly. French, English, and Arabic were taught, as well as Hebrew and re ligious subjects; the girls were instructed additionally in sewing. A new teache r was secured in 1900; and there was then every indication of a return of the sc hool's original prosperity. Charitable Institutions. A number of eleemosynary institutions have been founded in the community, and of these the following are the most important: (1) An association, "'Ezrat A?im," to aid poor and deserving Israelites, which expends annually 700 ($3,500) in dona tions of money, flour, and meat. It is supported by 370 members, who contribute three francs or more monthly. The president is Abramino Tilche, and its secretar y ?ema? Amram, a son of Rabbi Nathan Amram. (2) The association "Berit Abraham," founded about 1880, extends assistance in obstetric cases among the poor, who r eceive medical attendance and small grants of money. It is supported by voluntar y contributions. (3) The society "Hakhnasat Or?im" (Care of Strangers) founded, 18 82, to assist poor travelers: it hires a house as a "refuge" and shelters and fe eds them during their sojourn. It was established by subscription, but is now ma intained by the Order of B'ne B'rith. (4) The Order of B'ne B'rith, the wellknow n Jewish-American order, was established here in 1892, with a membership of 150. It opened a trade-school which, however, gradually declined and has now only a feeble support. (5) In 1885 a Dowry Association was established, to assist eight poor girls annually, with a dowry of 500 fr. ($97.50) each. When the annual out lay of 4,000 fr. ($780) was no longer easily obtained from the membership though, by reason of the growth of population, the number of deserving candidates had in creased Joseph Tilche and Moses Aziz exerted themselves in behalf of the associati on, and through a collection amounting to 6,000 ($30,000) provided a fund, the in come of which secures every year a donation of 10 ($50) to each of forty maidens on her wedding-day. (6) The Menasce Hospital built by Baron J. L. de Menasce and his brother Felix, in memory of their father, Bechor, is a spacious edifice wit h ample grounds, situated outside the city proper, in a well-selected location. The building and appointments cost 5,000 ($25,000). Annual expenses are 30,000 fr . ($5,850). It is supported by a one-per-cent tax, levied on all marriage dowrie s of 100 ($500) and over. An annual entertainment is given in its behalf. The hos pital is provided with a dispensary for the poor. (7) A Home for the Aged, devot ed in part also to the reception of convalescents from the Menasce Hospital, who frequently need more care and nourishment than their own homes afford. At the l aying of the corner-stone of the Green Synagogue, the chief rabbi took the oppor tunity to urge the attention of those assembled to the matter. A subscription wa s taken up at once and headed by Baron Jacques de Menasce,the president of the c ommunity, who was supported by various other generous members. The sum, which am ounted to 1,785 ($8,925), has been augmented by later collections. Aged Hebrews w ithout means of support, as well as convalescents from the hospital, are thus pr ovided for in this real "Home": the former for life; the latter until they have regained their strength.