This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Devised By: The Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; Hare, 1980) consists of 22 items. The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised was developed by Hare, R.D. in 1985, and was formally published in 1991. The 20item revision of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) is a rating scale designed to measure traits of psychopathic personality disorder. The two versions of the PCL have much the same psychometric properties (Harpur, Hare, & Hakstian, 1989). The instrument can be used to aid in making a diagnosis of psychopathy or can be a trait measure of psychopathic personality (Hare, Harpur, Hakstian, Forth, Hart, & Newman, 1990). The PCL-R was originally developed for use in experimental psychopathy (Cooke, Michie, Hart, & Hare, 1999). The PCL was derived from a factor analysis of characteristics (e.g., callousness) and historical items (e.g., criminal versatility) based on the clinical conception of psychopathy detailed in Cleckley‟s (1976) The Mask of Sanity. Qualifications and training: The PCL-R manual (Hare, 1990) outlines the recommended qualifications for clinical use of the instrument. They include: possession of an advanced degree in the social, medical, or behavioral sciences, such as a Ph.D., D.Ed. or M.D. Registration with a state or provincial body that regulates the assessment and diagnosis of mental disorder as well as experience in working with forensic populations is required. Adequate training and supervised experience in the use of the PCL-R is also required.
Type of Instrument and Scoring Method: The PCL–R is a 20-item clinical rating scale, each item reflects a different symptom or characteristic of psychopathy. The items are rated on a 3-point scale (0 = item doesn’t apply, 1 = item applies somewhat, 2 = item definitely applies). The items are rated on the basis of the person‟s lifetime functioning and not solely on the basis of the person‟s present state; this state may be atypical of his/her usual functioning due to extreme situational factors or an exacerbation of acute psychopathology. The items are summed to yield total scores, ranging from 0 to 40, that reflects the degree to which an individual resembles the prototypical psychopath. Scoring PCL-R items requires
clinical judgement and inference, as well as the ability to carry out the task in an objective, professional manner (Hare, 1998). A cutoff score of 30 or greater (in some studies 25) is used to diagnose psychopathy. The PCL-R items are scored on the basis of an individual‟s functioning over most of the life span. This means that a clinician or researcher who wants to measure change in psychopathic symptomatology during incarceration cannot use the PCL-R. The standard error of measurement for the PCL-R is approximately three points (Hare, 1998). The PCL-R: Standard Errors of Measurement Reliability Estimate Alpha GC Mean SEM1 2.88 3.39 3.14 SEM3 3.94 4.58 4.26
Note: SEM1 = Standard error of measurement SEM3 = Standard error of prediction GC = Generalisability coefficient
(Source: Hare, 1990). In research on psychopathy, it is often necessary to identify groups of inmates with high, medium, and low levels of psychopathy using specific cut off scores (Wong, 1988). Analysis of variance indicated that the overall difference between low, medium, and high psychopathy groups was highly significant, F(2, 298) = 208.9, p < .001; post hoc comparisons (Scheffe) revealed that each group differed significantly from the other (Schroeder, Schroeder, & Hare 1983). The items can also be summed to yield scores on two distinct, yet moderately correlated (.5) factors (Harpur, Hakstian, & Hare, 1988). The two factors have proven to be reliable and are replicable across institutions and countries (Hart, & Hare 1989). Factor 1 of the PCL–R reflects the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy. Factor 1 has been labeled the Selfish, Callous, and Remorseless Use of Others. The items in this factor are concerned with impressions and inferences about interpersonal processes and are typically scored using both file information and impressions formed during the interview. In particular, this factor reflects the psychopath‟s verbal and interpersonal style.
long-term goals Impulsivity Irresponsibility Failure to accept responsibility for own actions Many short-term marital relationships Juvenile delinquency Revocation of conditional release Factor Loading 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 .Revised Item Glibness/superficial charm Grandiose sense of self-worth Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom Pathological lying Conning/manipulative Lack of remorse or guilt Shallow affect Callous/lack of empathy Parasitic lifestyle Poor behavioral control Promiscuous sexual behavior Early behavior problems Lack of realistic.Factor 2 reflects social deviant behaviors and has been labelled Chronically Unstable and Antisocial Lifestyle (Zagon. most often using the inmate‟s file. The items that define the factor predominately depend on identifying the occurrence of specific behaviors. & Jackson. 1994). Items in the Hare Psychopathy Checklist .
Tengstrom. 1999) - The PCL–R is completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview of 90 to 120mins duration. . 1990). & Stalenheim. The interrater reliability and the mean ratings obtained without the benefit of the interview are not significantly different from that obtained using interviews (Z = -. Thus far.91.1 (SD = 6. provided that the material contained in the files is extensive and detailed. Hart. Wong‟s (1988) study found that reliable ratings of psychopathy can be obtained based on comprehensive file information alone (Pearson r = . & Michie. & Hare (1990) administered the PCL-R to 40 female inmates of Lakeside Correctional Institute in British Columbia. 1990).94. (Source: Cooke. Hart. & Hare. & Hare. The mean score for the sample was 21. 1998). the interrater reliability was. Stauchan. Fulero (1995) described the PCL-R as the “state of the art. 1994). ns).” The PCL–R takes approximately 2 hours for a trained interviewer to complete a PCL-R evaluation based on a semi-structured clinical interview and file information (Grann. it appears that the distribution of scores and reliability are comparable with those obtained in male samples. both clinically and in research use. The PCL-R „s psychometric properties are well established with male offenders and forensic patients (Hare.79 and the mean inter-item correlation was . However. The PCL-R is costly to administer in terms of time and effort. with female (Strachan.95. The mean total scores pooled across two raters was 24. 1996). Early indications from several studies are encouraging. Michie.9 (SD = 7. Female Offenders The PCL-R has been used with only a few samples of female offenders. Langstrom. Neary (1990) administered the PCL-R to 120 female inmates of the Federal Prison. the alpha coefficient was . Williams. and adolescent offenders (Forth. including criminal record is required. & Hare. the sex of the rater appears to make little difference in the PCL and PCL-R assessments of male inmates or forensic patients. Interestingly. Hart. the alpha coefficient was .Criminal versatility Note: A dash indicates the item does not load on either factor.77 and the mean inter-item correlation was . the PCL-R is regarded as the instrument of choice for measuring psychopathic personality disorder (Cooke. that the PCL-R cannot be scored on the basis of an interview alone (Hare. as access to detailed interview and case history information. These considerations led to the development of the Screening Version of the PCL-R (PCL:SV. and to an increasing extent. it appears that several items may not be as useful with female offenders as they are with male offenders (Hare.19.14.5). the interrater reliability was .74).2). It is important to note. Cox. 1998). 1997). The PCL-R can be scored on the basis of file information alone. However. 1995).
33. & Hare. .90. These results indicate that the PCL-R is a homogeneous.84 . Lissitz.93.97 (M = . These values are all consistent with the use of the PCL as a homogeneous.89. respectively. Summary of Generalizability Coefficients and Classical Test Score Indices of Reliability Obtained in Five Studies.85 .86. as evidenced in five published studies (Schroeder.93 . · Test-Retest Reliability and Inter-rater Reliability The test-retest reliability of the PCL instrument has shown to be high.78. intraclass correlation coefficients were . & Mulaik (1977) for the three samples (. The ICC for single and average ratings was .82 .92 GC . The results of the study show the interrater reliability and internal consistency to be high.29. there is evidence from a study conducted by Forth.85. .24 respectively. Reliability: · Cronbach’s Alpha Hare. and the United States and on 80 male patients in a Canadian forensic psychiatric facility.86) for a single rating and from . The generalizability coefficients were .78 to . 1983).88 and .90 and the mean inter-item correlation was .93) for the average of two ratings. inter. Hare. The generalizability coefficient for a test-retest study was .and intra-rater reliability) ranged from . In a study conducted by Hare. Schroeder.89 for the years 1977-1981. Similarly. which ranged from .94 (M = . The mean correlation among the items on the PCL for samples 1 to 3 were .86. The alpha coefficient was .83 Rater 2 .78. the statistical values of Green. and . (1991) argued that within North America the PCL-R shows considerable homogeneity. .82 to .72) are indicative of a high degree of homogeneity. & Newman (1990) analyses of data from five prison samples (N = 925) revealed inter-rater reliability. & Hakstian (1989) examined data on 937 inmates of several prisons in Canada. Hart.23. A study conducted by Harpur. Hart.Young Offenders Although the PCL-R was developed for use with adults. & Hare (1990) indicating its use in the assessment of psychopathy in young male offenders.88). . and .87 to . Alpha coefficient Study 1977 1978 N 72 71 Rater 1 .84 Interrater Reliability . Harpur. Forth.86 .97 (M = . . Hakstian.94 respectively. unidimensional scale. unidimensional scale. Classical indices of reliability (alpha coefficients.87 to. and . Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbarch‟s coefficient alpha.
The test-retest reliability of the PCL-R total scores was .57 . based on a small sample.72 . 1983). & Alterman (1990) examined the temporal stability of the PCL-R in a sample of 10 male opiate addicts attending a methadone clinic. the test-retest reliability is similar to that reported by Schroeder. These patients were assessed at intake.54 . (Source: Schroeder.76 .46 .60 .55 . Rutherford. Corrected Item Total Correlations.51 .61 .90 . Cacciola.70 . & Hare. & Descriptive Statistics for each Item Item Glibness/Superficial Charm Grandiose sense of self worth Need for stimulation/ Pathological lying Conning/manipulation Lack of remorse of guilt Shallow affect Callous/lack of empathy Inter-rater .85 1. According to Hare (1998) properly conducted assessments should routinely produce inter-rater reliabilities (intra-class correlations) of at least .39 .79 .1979 1980 1981 47 44 58 .75 .76 .89 Note: GC = generalizability coefficient.92 .52 Item Total .91 .80 for the PCL-R.54 .88 .90 .45 1. Schroeder. & Hare.57 .75 .94.15 1.90 . · Item Reliability The PCL-R: Mean Interrater Reliability.02 1.86 .86 . and then reassessed by a second rater (blind to the intake assessment) after a period of one month. Schroeder.61 .84 . Although.96 1.79 .54 .90 .52 . 1983.72 .87 .53 .25 SD . The results indicate that the instrument is a very reliable (generalizable) instrument when used with prison populations.61 M .48 .
1990) Validity · Predictive Validity The value of the PCL-R in forensic and clinical settings is supported by evidence of its predictive validity.79 .12 1.28 1.43 . & Quinsey.74 . 1997).52 1. Greenwood.85 . the PCL-R is equal to actuarial risk scales in predicting general recidivism.62 . and poor treatment response to correctional treatment programs (Ogloff.89 .42 1.67 .42 . 1993). 1990).17 .51 . including criminal violence (Cooke.41 1.92 .86 .36 . Wong.66 .23 1.65 . & Michie.39 1.35 .42 .30 . Criminal Violence . but is superior in predicting violent recidivism.99 1.80 .66 .57 .56 . The PCL-R scores predict a variety of antisocial behaviors.Parasitic lifestyle Poor behavioral control Promiscuous sexual behavior Early behavior problems Lack of realistic long-term goals Impulsivity Irresponsibility Failure to accept responsibility for own actions Many short-term marital relationships Juvenile delinquency Revocation of conditional release Criminal versatility .51 .79 .68 .46 . According to Serin (1992).51 .38 .82 Note: N = 1632 (Source: Hare.11 1. Rice.78 .85 .62 .31 . violent recidivism following release from prison or hospital (Harris.39 .58 .78 .12 .70 .73 .
0 5. (Source: Hare. Hare & McPherson (1984a) performed a discriminate analysis in which 20 of the PCL items were used to discriminate between groups of inmates classified as violent or nonviolent on the basis of their criminal records.7 1.3 9.0 64.Psychopathic criminals tend to commit more crimes and are more violent that non-psychopaths.6 16.0 75 Medium 5.3 2.005 level for all but murder and rape. & Hakstian (1989).3 24.3 54.2 4.3 6.3 45.49 3. Correlates of the PCL Factors and Performance Variables Variables Institutional behavior N 1 2 313 PCL Total Score .0 13. The discriminate functions were highly significant.0 22.33 .9 73 High 5.50 Za .1 84.5 34.2 49.5 19. & McPherson.61 . Correlates of the PCL: Percentage of Inmates convicted of Violent Crime PCL Scores Crime Category Murder Possession of a weapon Robbery Assault Kidnapping Rape Vandalism Fighting Any violent crime N 12.3 1.7 8. 1984a). Hare.1 Note: Group differences were significant at the p<.3 6.9 44.0 Low 10. Inmates‟ behavior while incarcerated correlated significantly more with factor 2 than with factor 1 of the PCL in a study conducted by Harpur.4 15.4 79 21.
8 9.8 Note: Group differences were significant at the p<. Hart.3 10. Harris.0 29. Hare (1988) concluded that psychopaths were more likely to violate the conditions of their release than non-psychopaths and the PCL total scores were found to be useful in predicting release outcome.3 9. Rice.7 4. & Hare (1988) reported that criminal psychopaths were four times more likely than non-psychopaths to fail release.Conditional Release Violation 231 .005.0 45. Correlates of the PCL: Percentage of inmates who displayed violent and aggressive behavior in prison PCL Scores Behavior Attempted suicide Self-mutilation Verbal abuse Verbal threats Easily annoyed/irritated Belligerent Aggressive Homosexuality Fighting Any of the above N 46.6 6.2 6.2 21. 1984a). Kropp. selfmutilation and aggressive homosexuality.9 55.38 .3 80.3 73 24. Kropp.3 8.6 26. & McPherson. Violent Recidivism A study conducted by Hart.3 28. P = <.8 9.1 79 Medium 10.0 75 High 19.47 Note: Za Testing the difference between the correlation‟s of Factor 1 and Factor 2 with the variable.33 3.0 3.7 26. & Cormier (1989) noted that the PCL correctly identified 80% of violent recidivists in a maximum- .3 Low 15.4 3.8 2.7 86.18 . (Source: Hare.0 3.8 50.001 level for all but attempted suicide.
(1989) examined the association between psychopathy and other mental disorders (Axis I and Axis II criteria of the DSM-111) in 80 male forensic patients. and low (17 and below) psychopathy groups. & Sewell (1996) described the predictive ability of the PCL-R as “unparalleled and unprecedented” in the assessment of dangerousness.97 (SD = 6. The results showed the inter-rater reliability (between raters A & B) for the PCL-R total scores was . Langstrom. The pattern of total scores is consistent with clinical descriptions of the psychopath as superficial. exploitative. than did either of the others groups. · Construct Validity The PCL-R has good construct validity. & Gunnar (1999) found that psychopaths were at about twice the risk for recidivism relative to non-psychopaths. The results showed that the high psychopathy group differed significantly from each of the other groups. and with little evidence of psychotic symptoms. they are not equivalent or interchangeable. Salekin. 1990). the PCL and APD are designed to measure a more or less common construct and are significantly correlated with one another. In summary. PCL-R total scores were positively correlated with ratings of antisocial. & Kosson. base rates in forensic populations are typically above . medium (18+). The internal consistency of these final ratings (Cronbach‟s alpha) was . A study by Grann. Preliminary analyses suggested that the factor structure of the PCL-R was identical to that obtained in criminal. & Hare.86.5. . A study conducted by Hart and Hare. · Content Validity The items of the PCL-R are generally consistent with traditional and current clinical views on the personality traits and behaviors that define the construct of psychopathy. The average total score of raters A & B were 21. the most widely used psychiatric category related to psychopathy is Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). and showed less improvement. In addition.98 (95%). Wong. 1988 and Newman. Global clinical ratings and Checkley‟s core criteria for psychopathy correlated highly with Factor 1 and Factor 2 (Hare. put in less effort. & Greenwood (1990) evaluated the progress of 80 male forensic patients enrolled in a therapeutic community program designed to treat personality-disordered offenders. The relative risk for violent recidivism was 1. A diagnosis of APD depends on almost entirely on evidence of antisocial behaviors. as a result. histrionic. the high psychopathy group remained in the program for a shorter period of time.security psychiatric sample.76). and. emotionally shallow. Hakstian. In contrast. PCL-R scores were used to divide the patients into high (scores 27+). Response To Treatment Ogloff. non-anxious. On average. Rogers.91. callous. The significant association between the PCL and antisocial personality disorder is consistent with extensive data on the construct validity of the PCL in male prison populations (Harpur. and narcissistic personality disorder and negatively correlated with ratings of avoidant personality disorder. Although. non-psychiatric populations. Tengstrom. egocentric. 1986).
BPRS. · Convergent Validity Convergent validity for the PCL-R has been demonstrated by its strong relationship (.20 (Harpur.04 -. typically around 1.083) with DSM-III diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (Hare.15 -.08 -. 1983). With respect to forensic issues.13 Total Factor 1 Factor 2 . & Hakstian). ratings of other personality disorders.04 -. 1989). 33* .08 . base rates for PCL defined psychopathy in forensic populations are low. it may also help clinicians to differentiate individuals who are legally “insane” and thus incompetent to stand trial and/or not criminally responsible (Hart.14 .11 . Hare. PCL total scores were either uncorrelated or negatively correlated with these measures. The association between psychopathy and axis II measures of the DSM-III in Hart.06 . & Hare (1989) study were low enough to support the discriminate validity of the PCL.37* .70 to . & Hare. · Discriminate Validity Research on the discriminate validity of psychopathy diagnoses has important theoretical and practical implications. It may yield clues concerning the position of psychopathy in a hierarchical structure of mental disorders.27 -.13 .13 . This study also found that the pattern of correlations between the PCL and schizophrenia.5 to . Correlations Between Prototypicality Ratings of DSM-111 Disorders and Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) Scores PCL Scores DSM-111 prototypicality ratings Axis I Schizophrenia Axis II Personality disorders Paranoid Schizoid Schizotypal Histrionic . and GAS scores provided further evidence for the discriminate validity of the PCL. It may also help to improve predictions about future behavior and response to treatment in cases where disorders are thought to co-exist.the PCL measures both personality traits and antisocial behaviors.01 -.
The PCL-R: Descriptive statistics for sample of male prison inmates Sample 1 Mean SD 23.6 8.83* . there is question about the generalisability of the results to populations with low base rates of either psychopathy or other mental disorders and that many of the diagnoses and ratings were not entirely independent of each other. The PCL total scores were not significantly correlated with BPRS ratings (r = -. mean ratings for the entire sample was 49.20 -.20 (SD = 9.24 . several methodological factors need considerations.13 -.01. The descriptive statistics for the PCL-R were drawn from 11 different samples. & Hare 1989).27 .26 -.7 8. Norms: The normative data of the PCL-R is derived mainly from studies of White males detained in a prison or a forensic psychiatric institute.30* -. some of the diagnoses weren‟t reliable.2 7 21.2 3 23.9 7. DSM-III = third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The familywise Type I error rate (PFW) was held at .Narcissistic Antisocial Borderline Avoidant Dependent .8 5 20. The sample was small (N = 80).12 Note.9 . The BPRS (Overall & Gorham.40* -.03 -.33* -.97 (SD = 16.14).4 8.8 7.10. in the Hart and Hare (1989).10) respectively.39* . *PFW<.10 by testing each value in a column at PT<.34* .9 Pooled 23.71* .8 6a 25.6 8.49* .0 4 21. N = 80. Fleiss.6 7.12) or with GAS scores (r = -. However. Spizer.37 and 36.1 8. 7 samples comprised male prisoners and 4 samples comprised forensic psychiatric patients. & Cohen. PT<.1 2 23.01. 1962) and GAS (Endicott. 1976). (Source: Hart.
with a standard deviation of from 6 to 8. p<. about 20. However. Cross Cultural Comparisons: The empirical literature strongly suggest that psychopathy as measured by the PCL-R is highly generalisable within North American correctional and forensic psychiatric populations (Hare. 1990) The PCL-R: Descriptive statistics for sample of male forensic psychiatric patients Sample 8 Mean 22.0 165 7. Peterson (1984) found that the reliability and distribution of PCL-R scores to be similar in White and Black inmates.1 6. reliability. F(1.00.1 22. (Source: Hare. (Source: Hare. Black inmates received significantly higher psychopathy ratings than did White inmates. Cooke‟s (1995) study of the Scottish prison population indicated that the underlying constructs being measured in North America and Scotland were similar.352) = 10. Mean scores in forensic psychiatric populations are somewhat lower. Smith.01.0 SD N 20. 1990) The mean PCL-R scores in male and female offender populations typically range from approximately 22 to 24.0 131 7.8 440 10 11a Pooled Note: a = Outpatients. A study by Raine (1985) assessed the cross-cultural generalisability of the checklist and concluded that Hare‟s checklist is applicable to an English prison population. Similarly. The study indicated that there was little difference between the two groups in the distribution. Wong‟s (1984) random sample of Canadian federal prisoners included both white and Native Indians. or factor structure of the PCL.7 9 20. Several researchers have examined the generalisability of the PCL-R to subcultural groups in North America. there is no systematic research looking at its generalisability to cultures and countries outside North America.6 9. Kosson. with about the same standard deviation (Hare.7 80 17.N 321 122 369 106 87 127 60 1192 Note: a = Black inmates. & Newman (1990) demonstrated significant differences in both the level and pattern of scores. . 1996). external correlates.0 64 7. 1991).
Analysis based on classical test theory and IRT indicate that the PCL-R has excellent psychometric properties. 3-13.S.. S. Lousis. R.D. The instrument has been designed to measure traits of psychopathy.) St.E. (5th ed.. Legal and Criminological Psychology. (1997). D. 2.. the PCL-R has a clear pattern of convergent and discriminant validities. C. the interrater reliability of individual items is acceptable. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual. Rutherford. In Hare. & Hare. . and the interrater and test-retest reliabilities of total scores range from good to excellent. Furthermore. Cleckley. (1976). 342-344.. (1990). D. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. and various groups of nonoffenders. Michie.. S.D. C. · · · To conclude. R. Evaluating the screening version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL:SV): An item response theory analysis. Psychological Assessment. 11 (1). 3-14.. Psychological Assessment.. Reviews of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Cooke.. R. Finally. Assessment of psychopathy in male young offenders. 1990). Hart.I. the PCL-R is a 20 item rating scale.M.J. Racial differences in mean PCL-R total scores appear to be relatively small in practical terms and may be attributable more to sampling error than race.J. Forth. In Hare. adult female offenders. (1995).. A. The items have good validity and the total scores have high internal consistency and item homogeneity. 9 (1). S... & Michie.D. designed for use in adult male forensic populations in Canada and the United States. (1990). M. & Hare.D..J. Psychological Assessment.Due to the limited amount of data available in relation to the use of the PCL-R with different racial groups only tentative conclusions can be made: · The reliability of the PCL and the PCL-R total scores does not differ among the racial groups studied thus far. (1990). 3.D. The Hare PCL-R: Some issues concerning its use and misuse. (1999). More data is required before one can determine whether or not the factor structure of the PCL and PCL-R is the same for other racial groups as it is for Whites (Hare. An item response theory analysis of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Hart. References Cacciola. H. & Altman.. The scale has also been used successfully in other populations.. including adult male European offenders. young male offenders.D. R. J. The use of the Psychopathy Checklist with opiate addicts. 99-119. A. Fulero. MO: Mosby. The external correlates of the PCL-R total scores are similar for racial groups. The mask of sanity. Cooke. (1998).. Total scores reflect the extent to which an individual matches the prototypical psychopath.
(1990).. & Stalenheim. D. 2 (4). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised...J. (1997). Psychological Assessment.416-426. & Mulaik. S.. The Hare PCL-R: Some issues concerning its use and misuse. Hare. S.. T..E. In Cooke. Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications... Green. 887-890. R. 70 (3). Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in two prison populations.A. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1 (1). M. A.. (1991). (1989). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology..D. Rice. (1990). C. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual.. 23 (2).J. (1984a). N. & Cormier.J. (1989). R. R. Langstrom. (1998). Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications. & Kullgren. Predictors of psychopathy and release outcome in a criminal population.. 23 (1). Tengstrom..B. Hare. & Hakstian. Hare. 419-422.. 6-17.D. 99-119. R.M.. J. & Hakstain.. Harpur..D. A. Hakstian. . Limitations of coefficient alpha as an index of test dimensionality. L. Hare..J. G. Tengstrom. R.D. A.D.. C... Hare. Harris. R. 338-341. (1977). In Serin. & Barbaree. R. R. 7.. & McPherson.A. S.D.. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.D.. (1998).. The Revised Psychopathy Checklist: Descriptive statistics. 25-54. American Journal of Psychiatry. (1989). R. G. 140. Violent and aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths. Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden. T. 3. An item response theory analysis of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised..D. (1999). Forth. R. Hare.. Harpur. 1 (1). Langstrom. R.G. and factor structure. Violent recidivism among psychopaths and non-psychopaths treated in a therapeutic community. Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. A. Hare. Hare. R.D.. reliability. 9 (1). (1983). (1996).Grann. In Harpur. M.... N. 35-50. R.P. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry. Law and Human Behavior.T. Peters. Reliability of file-based retrospective ratings of the psychopathy with the PCL-R. 205-217.E. 3-14... M. Hart. 2.. Grann. (1990). T... H. 6-17. E. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. & Michie. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. & Newman.A.D... Legal and Criminological Psychology. Hare. R.W. Lissitz. Criminal Justice and Behavior.R.
D. 3-13. (1990). & Sewell. S.. 247-258. (1993).R. Neary. 211-218.S.. D..R. S.L.J. Rogers.. R. 511-516. C. In Hare. R.. A psychometric assessment of Hare‟s checklist for psychopathy on an English prison population. (1996). Michie. & Hare. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. 211-218.D. 250-259. Violent recidivism of mentally disordered offenders: The development of a statistical prediction instrument. R. G.D. (1990). M..G. Newman. K. 51 (4).. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. K. Psychological Assessment: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 20. A. K. (1999). 315-335. Kosson. 3. & Hare... & Kosson.. Kropp. (1989).. R. S... Rice. (1984). R. A review oand meta-analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Predictive validity of dangerousness. B. Discriminate validity of the Psychopathic Checklist in a forensic psychiatric population..D. Schroeder. Hart... & Hare. A. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual. (1989). Treating adult psychopaths in a therapeutic community program within a correctional setting.S.P. (1990). Cross-validation of the Checklist for the assessment of psychopathy in a prison sample. Newman. A. J.. 1 (3).. (1985)....D.. Williams. & Greenwood. V. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. D. Psychopathy and female offenders. 11 (1).. Peterson.D. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.E. Hart. 56. (1983). Passive avoidance learning in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Wong.. (1990). Smith. R. Evaluating the screening version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL:SV): An item response theory analysis. Salekin.D. (1990). Generalizability of a Checklist for assessment of psychopathy. & Quinsey.. Hare.D.D. The performance of male psychopaths following conditional release from prison. R. Evaluating the construct validity of psychopathy in Black and White male inmates: Three preliminary studies.S. (1986).Harris. In Hart. Criminal Justice and Behavior. S.D. Ogloff. S. 99 (3).. Discriminant Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist in a forensic psychiatric population. R. In Hare. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual.D.1 (3). Psychological Assessment.. & Hare. 227-232.T. In Cooke..P. 24. R.. Hart.D.. Schroeder.D. R.L. (1990). . R.. 203-215. P.. S. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. J. Strachan. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. & Hare. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. M.D.. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual. J. S. (1990). Raine. DSM 3 and Psychopathy Checklist assessment of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Black and White female felons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. In Hare.. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.. (1988).
(1988). but I have a tendency to get bored very easily and so. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Criminal and institutional behaviours of psychopaths. Wong. I am curious to see what other people score. 62.. 48 (5). The clinical application of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a prison population. but for something to do I self tested for psychopathy using the PCL-R as a guide. & Jackson. Assessment of psychopathy in female offenders. Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come.D. Criminal Justice and Behavior. I've already been diagnosed with AsPD. 17 (1). R. 637-642. (1994). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual. (1994). Serin.C.. Precautions Obviously. C.. H. if there is an old thread on this exact topic.. the test must be administered by professionals who have been specifically trained in its use and who have a wideranging and up-to-date familiarity with studies of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a diagnostic tool used to rate a person's psychopathic or antisocial tendencies. == PCL-R Self Test by Demon » Sat Apr 23. It is accepted by many in the field as the best method for determining the presence and extent of psychopathy in a person. 23 (1)... By the way. . S. R. It has important implications for a person and for his or her associates in family. but I thought it would be interesting to see what score I would get anyway. 930-934. A self test obviously means the results are invalid. I. S. (1990). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. forget it exists and respond to this one anyway. Is Hare‟s psychopathy checklist reliable without the interview? Psychological Reports.D. Construct validity of a psychopathy measure.Strachan.K. 25-54. In Hare. the PCL-R consists of a 20-item symptom rating scale that allows qualified examiners to compare a subject's degree of psychopathy with that of a prototypical psychopath. clinical and forensic settings. 2011 4:09 pm I don't know about the rest of you. R.. I've selftested in the past out of curiosity and thought I would create a thread on this topic so that others could do the same. diagnosing someone as a psychopath is a very serious step. Originally designed to assess people accused or convicted of crimes. (1996). occasionally I'll take an online test or two just for the hell of it. 125-135. Therefore. Wong.J. (1984). Zagon. (1992).. In Hare. Personality and Individual Differences.
contemptuous and inconsiderate.no feelings or concern for losses. score 2 if it fully applies to you. underhanded and unscrupulous when high. Lack of remorse or guilt . 8. 1. A prototypical psychopath would receive a maximum score of 40. coldhearted and unempathic. crafty. Fails to accept responsibility for own actions – denial of responsibility and an attempt to manipulate others through this. Needs stimulation/prone to boredom – an excessive need for new. interpersonal coldness. Pathological lying – shrewd. deceitful. 3. The twenty traits assessed by the PCL-R score are: Score 0 if it does not apply to you. cold. exciting stimulation and risk-taking. score 1 if it somewhat applies. Many non-psychopathic criminal offenders score around 22. Callous/lack of empathy – a lack of feelings toward others. Cunning/manipulative – uses deceit and deception to cheat others for personal gain. 1. 4. or 2 based on how well it applies to the subject being tested. engaging and slick. 2. deceptive. Each of the twenty items is given a score of 0. sly and clever when moderate. People with no criminal backgrounds normally score around 5. 6.Scoring and Result The PCL-R provides a total score that indicates how closely the test subject matches the "perfect" score that a classic or prototypical psychopath would rate. Glibness and superficial charm – smooth-talking. 5. Grandiose self-worth – greatly inflated idea of one’s abilities and self-esteem. . arrogance and a sense of superiority. 9. 7. pain and suffering of others. A score of 30 or above qualifies a person for a diagnosis of psychopathy. while someone with absolutely no psychopathic traits or tendencies would receive a score of zero. Shallow affect / emotional poverty – limited range or depth of feelings.
11. 20. 19. 14." . Revocation of Conditional Release – Violating probation or other conditional release because of technicalities. Many short-term marital relationships – lack of commitment to a long-term relationship. Promiscuity – brief. 18. 0577526159 ''We've all got the power in our hands to kill. Poor behavioral controls – expressions of negative feelings. manipulative. superficial relations. 13. Irresponsible – repeated failure to fulfill or honor commitments and obligations. Parasitic lifestyle – Intentional.. verbal abuse and inappropriate expressions of anger. 12. 16. Impulsiveness – behaviors lacking reflection or planning and done without considering consequences. I also found a self-test of the PCL-R that somebody created: http://www.. Criminal versatility – diversity of criminal offenses. selfish and exploitative financial dependence on others. 15. but most people are afraid to use it.Richard Ramirez . Juvenile delinquency – criminal behavioral problems between the ages of 13-18.okcupid.10. The ones who aren't afraid. 17.com/tests/take?testi . control life itself. No realistic long-term goals – inability or constant failure to develop and accomplish long-term plans. numerous affairs and an indiscriminate choice of sexual partners. Early behavior problems – a variety of dysfunctional and unacceptable behaviors before age thirteen. whether or not the individual has been arrested or convicted.
1 2. just north of Hell.1 4. 2011 5:04 pm Location: Somewhere below Heaven. Pathological lying . Local time: Wed Jul 27.2 3. Grandiose self-worth . Lack of remorse or guilt .2 . 2011 8:19 am Blog: View Blog (0) Top Re: PCL-R Self Test by Demon » Sat Apr 23. Glibness and superficial charm .Demon Consumer 6 Posts: 1433 Joined: Wed Jan 12.1 5. 2011 4:56 pm 1. Cunning/manipulative .
1 16. 19.2 13. Revocation of Conditional Release . Poor behavioral controls .2 14.2 9. Promiscuity . 20. Many short-term marital relationships . which is why this one doesn't apply to me. Irresponsible . Fails to accept responsibility for own actions . Needs stimulation/prone to boredom . Shallow affect / emotional poverty .2 8.6. Early behavior problems . Criminal versatility .0 I've never been caught for any crime committed.1 17. Callous/lack of empathy . None of them lasted very long.2 12.2 11. No realistic long-term goals . Parasitic lifestyle . Impulsiveness .2. The majority of them were broken up by me.2 10.2 7.2 My Score = 32 .2 I've been in about nine different relationships over the years.1 15. Juvenile delinquency . I much prefer a slave over a lover any day. 18.