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CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY Consumer buying behavior is the study of human responses to products or services and the marketing of products/services. The study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make their decisions to spend their available resources (time, money, effort) on consumption related items or consumption related aspects (What they buy? When they buy? How they buy?).It also study of individuals, or organizations and the processes consumers use to search, select, use and dispose of products, services, experience, or ideas to satisfy needs and its impact on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is deeply rooted in psychology with dashes of sociology thrown in just to make things more interesting. Since every person in the world is different, it is impossible to have simple rules that explain how buying decisions are made. But those who have spent many years analyzing customer activity have presented us with useful guidelines in how someone decides whether or not to make a purchase. The evaluation of marketing concept from mere selling concept to consumer oriented marketing has resulted in buyer behavior becoming an independent discipline. The growth of consumerism and consumer legislation emphasizes the importance that is given to the consumer. Some consumers are characterized as being more involved in products and shopping than others. A consumer who is highly involved with a product would be interested in knowing a lot about it before purchasing. Hence he reads brochures thoroughly, compares brands and models available at different outlets, asks questions, and looks for recommendations. Thus consumer buying behavior can be defined as heightened state of awareness that motivates consumers to seek out, attend to, and think about product information prior to purchase.

2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


PRIMARY OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this study is identifying the customer Buying Behaviour. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES To measure the Buying Behaviour To measure the customer service standards Identifying satisfaction about the price For measuring the availability of product To motivate customer to remain loyalty to the company

NEED FOR THE STUDY To understand the consumer perceptions and attitudes towards Fire Extinguishers To find out how the need is changed into buying behavior. To find out the consumer feel about the product.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study can be extended to more number of variables such as different income groups, different occupations, different personality traits and life styles of consumers. The study may further investigate reasons for differences between different consumer groups. To realize the knowledge of consumer behavior in their needs and interests which helps the marketers to take vital decisions on marketing strategies..

Consumer behavior: Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers -individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. The central question for marketers is: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? Model of Buyer Behavior

Factors affecting buying behavior There are four factors affecting consumer buying behavior 1. Cultural factor 2. Social factor 3. Personal factor 4. Psychological factor

1. Culture Factor:
Culture: Culture is most important and fundamental determinant of a persons want and behavior. A person acquires a set of values, perceptions, preference and behavior through his or her family and it leads to behave him a particular way.

Subculture: Each culture is divided into a smaller subculture. It includes nationalities, religion, social and geographic region. There buying process is affected. Social class: The social classes refer to several homogeneous groups within society. There is a caste system where the members of different caste behave in different pattern and cannot change their behavior. People of the same caste are motivated by similar marketing appears.

2. Social Factor:
Consumer is influence by such social factor as reference group, family, social role and status. Reference group: Means a group that has a direct and indirect influence on persons attitude or behavior. e.g. family, neighbors, friends and they influence in a new behavior, life style, concept, attitude for a product. E.g. Trousers, Skin fitter, etc. Family: From parent a person acquire an orientation towards religion, policies, economics, ambition, love and gain once life or children will have influence. Roles and Status: Influence by clubs, organization, if he or she member. He or She influenced by status e.g. Vice president have Mercedes, wears suits, etc.

3. Personal Factor:
Buyers decisions are affected by age, occupation, life styles.

With the age purchase decision regarding the products change. Occupation also plays an important role e.g. workers will buy cloths which would be more useful in his work. Life style also leads him to behave on a particular manner. Personality of a person will make him to think in a particular way.

4. Psychological Factor:
Major psychological factor that influence the person are motivation, perception learning, belief, and attitude. Motivation: Theories that emphasize on the factors which motivate the customer Hezbergs theory: Psychological needs like food, water, and shelter, safety needs like securities and protection, social needs like sense of belongness, and love, esteem needs and self actualization also affect.

Knowledge: Knowledge is defined as an individuals state of awareness and understanding of a person, group, object institution and ideas. It is necessary in designing of marketing activities and also awareness should be there.

Attitude: Attitude is also important to determining behavior. Attitude means to feel or act in a given manner towards a person, group, objects, and ideas. Customers attitude, understanding and awareness of the product are intimately related. A customer giving preference for a particular product shows his attitude.

Image: Product image also play equally important role. In determining the types of image for a product. It is also important to decides the distinctiveness of the image. The image of the product, company is established in purchasers mind which affects the consumer buying decision. Intention: It refers to the anticipated future action of the customer. The plan of the family to purchase car, and the plan of an organization for the forth coming year are example of intention, e.g. booking a car in advance visit to departmental stores to purchase a T.V. CONSUMER BUYING DECISION PROCESS Definition: Consumer buying decision process is the processes undertaken by consumer in regard to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product or service.

Consumer decision making process generally involves five stages

Problem Recognition Purchase decision making process begins when a buyer becomes aware of an unsatisfied need or problem. This is the vital stage in buying decision process, because without recognizing the need or want, an individual would not seek to buy goods or services. There are several situations that can cause problem recognition, these include: Depletion of stock Dissatisfaction with goods in stock Environmental Changes Change in Financial Situation Marketer Initiated Activities Information Search After the consumer has recognized the need, he / she will trying to find the means to solve that need. First he will recall how he used to solve such kind of a problem in the past, this is called nominal decision making. Secondly, a consumer will try to solve the problem by asking a friend or goes to the market to seek advice for which product will best serve his need, this is called limited decision making. Sources of information include: Personal sources Commercial Sources Public sources Personal experience Alternatives Evaluation Consumers evaluates criteria refer to various dimension; features, characteristics and benefits that a consumer desires to solve a certain problem. Product features and its benefit is what influence consumer to prefer that particular product. The consumer will decide which product to buy from a set of alternative products depending on each unique feature that the product offers and the benefit he / she can get out of that feature.

Purchase Action This stage involves selection of brand and the retail outlet to purchase such a product. Retail outlet image and its location are important. Consumer usually prefers a near by retail outlet for minor shopping and they can willingly go to a far away store when they purchase items which are of higher values and which involve higher sensitive purchase decision. After selecting where to buy and what to buy, the consumer completes the final step of transaction by either cash or credit.

Post-Purchase Actions Consumer favorable post-purchase evaluation leads to satisfaction. Satisfaction with the purchase is basically a function of the initial performance level expectation and perceived performance relative to those expectations. Consumer tends to evaluate their wisdom on the purchase of that particular product. This can result to consumer experiencing post purchase dissatisfaction. If the consumers perceived performance level is below expectation and fail to meet satisfaction this will eventually cause dissatisfaction, and so the brand and/ or the outlet will not be considered by the consumer in the future purchases. This might cause the consumer to initiate complaint behavior and spread negative word-of-mouth concerning that particular product.

ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE

General Information
Name Age Gender : : : Male / Female

1. Which type of Fire Extinguishers do you have? Powder based Water based Gas based Foam based

2. How many years you are using Fire Extinguishers? Less than 6 Months 18 to 24 Months 6 to 12 Months More than 24 Months 12 to 18 Months

3. What type of Fire Extinguishers before purchasing Cease Fire? Usha fire Safety first Faicon fire Minimax

4. What is the need for buying Fire Extinguishers? Safety Govt norms Others

5. Through which source you have came to know about Cease Fire. Engineer Sales Person Through Internet Others

6. What made you to prefer Cease Fire? Brand Price Technology Aesthetic

7. Which Factor motivated you to purchase Cease Fire? Brand Service Customer Others

8. What is the Monthly Income of your company? Less than 50000 1,00000 3,00000 50,000 1,00000 Above 3,00000

9. Whether the Fire Extinguishers is affordable for your income? Yes No

10. Have you felt that you have made the correct decision on choosing Cease Fire? Yes No

If No means_________________________________

11. Have you availed any service after purchasing the product? Yes No

If yes Means, Choose the level of Satisfaction Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Neutral

Highly Dissatisfied

12. To Which level you satisfied with Cease Fire Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Neutral

Highly Dissatisfied

13. Do you like to refer Cease Fire for others?

Yes

No

If No means_________________________________

14. Do you like to purchase other products from Cease Fire?

Yes

No

If Yes means, What Product would you like to buy? CCtv Escape gears Fire Alarm

15. What is your opinion about the price of Cease Fire after purchased? Very High Reasonable High Low