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Migration Measures

Nimfa B. Ogena, Ph.D


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What is Migra+on?
It is a population process along with fertility and mortality It is the movement of people
across a specied boundary during a given 2me interval and involving a change of residence

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Boundaries Crossed
The terms immigra2on and emigra2on are used to refer to moves between countries (interna2onal migra2on) In-migra2on and out-migra2on are used for internal movement between dierent areas within a country (internal migra2on).

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Deni+on
Internal Migra2on or short-distance mobility: mobility across relevant poli2cal or administra2ve boundaries (e.g. a region, province, town, barangay) within a given country

Interna2onal migra2on: crossing na2onal borders. It entails emigra2on from a standpoint from which the movement occurs and immigra2on from the receiving na2on.

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Time Reference
Life2me Migra2on Period Migra2on:
ive-year Migra2on F wo-year Migra2on T

ne-year Migra2on O

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Life+me Migrant
One whose current area of residence is dierent from the area of birth (mothers usual place of residence NOT place of birth per se) regardless of intervening migra2ons.
QuesAons to determine lifeAme migrants were present in the 1970, 1980, 1990 Censuses. The quesAon was dropped starAng the 2000 round.

Source: Shryock, Siegal and Associates, 1976


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Period Migrant
One whose current area of residence is dierent from the area of residence in a specied period prior to enumera2on. Derived from Ques2on P23 in the Common Household Ques2onnaire. For the 2000 Census the ques2on was:
In what municipality did ___ reside on May 1, 1995?
Foreign Country 0007 Same Municipality 0008 Unknown 0009 If another city/municipality, specify city/municipality and province
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Migra+on Stream
The total number of moves made during a given migra2on interval that have a common area of origin and a common area of des2na2on is a migra2on stream.
Examples: Rural-urban migra2on Rural-rural migra2on

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Migra+on Streams
Migra2on streams - Group of migrants having a common origin and des2na2on in a given migra2on period. Counter streams movement in the opposite direc2on; usually the smaller of the two streams Net Streams = dierences for individual pairs of streams and counter streams
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Out-migrants from Area A Area A

In-migrants to Area A

Migra2on Stream and counter stream


In-migrants to Area B Area B Out-migrants from Area B

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Gross vs. Net Migra+on


Gross Migra2on = In-migra2on + Out-migra2on Net Migra2on = In-migra2on - Out-migra2on

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Other Concepts
Short-distance or local mover: a person who moved only within a specied poli2cal or administra2ve area Non-migrant: a person who has remained a resident of a migra2on-dening area but who may have changed residence within the area. Return migrant: a person who moved back to the area where the migrant formerly resided.
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Other Concepts
Area of origin (departure). The area from which a migrant moves. Area of desAnaAon (arrival). The area to which a migrant moves. (With some sources of migra2on data, there are intervening residences that are not recorded as origins or des2na2ons.)

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Sources of Internal Migra+on Data


Census and surveys -migra2on histories -status at prior date Popula2on Registers
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Sources of Interna+onal Migra+on Data


1995 Census Overseas worker 1990 Census Overseas worker Place of schooling Place of work 1988 NDS emigra2on migra2on return migra2on Survey of Overseas Filipinos (SOF) a yearly (rider Qre in the LFS)

Sources of Proxy Interna2onal Migra2on Data


hilippine Overseas P

Employment Administra2on (POEA) Overseas (CFO)

ommission on Filipinos C ureau of Immigra2on B

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Issues
Changes of area boundaries Lack of data on interna2onal migra2on Under-enumera2on across census Dura2on of residence
Permanent Temporary

Distance Double-coun2ng in place of origin and in place of des2na2on


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Interna+onal Migra+on Measures


Crude immigra2on rate =I/P X1000 Crude emigra2on rate =E/P X1000 Crude net (intl) migra2on rate = (I-E)/P X1000 Crude gross (intl) migra2on rate = (I+E)/P X1000 P =midyear popula2on
I = number of immigrants E =number of emigrants

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Migra2on Matrix
Current residence in 2000 Region 1 2 3 Previous residence in 1995 . . . J Total 1 NM1 M21 M31 . . . MJ1 C1 2 M12 NM2 M32 . . . MJ2 C2 3 M13 M23 NM3 . . . MJ3 C3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NMJ CJ
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J M1J

Total P1 P2 P3 . . . PJ T

Inmigra2on rate for a region


IM1 = Mj1 /0.5x(P1 + C1) X 100 Where:

Mj1 refers to inmigrants to region 1 from the jth region P1 C1 population enumerated in region1 in earlier census population enumerated in region1 in later census
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Outmigra2on rate for a region


OM1 = M1j /0.5x(P1 + C1) X 100 Where:

M1j refers to outmigrants from region 1 to the jth region P1 C1 population enumerated in region1 in earlier census population enumerated in region1 in later census
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Net migra+on rate for a region


NM1 = {( Mj1 - M1j) / [P1 + 0.5 (P1 - C1)]} X 100
Where:

Mj1 refers to inmigrants to region 1 from the jth region M1j P1 C1 refers to outmigrants from region 1 to the jth region population enumerated in region1 in earlier census population enumerated in region1 in later census

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Time to do some exercises!


Training Course on Basic Demography Richville Hotel, Mandaluyong City

Thank You!