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DEMONSTRATING OXYGEN UPTAKE
Name ID Group Lecturer’s Name
: Abdul Afiq bin Abdul Hamid : 2010615814 : 11M11 : ASSOC. Prof. Madya Dr. Nor’aini binti Mohd. Fadzillah
but also have aerobic methods of energy production (facultative anaerobes). In this experiment. Common on plant leaves and flowers. fuse with other ascospores. Schizosaccharomyces). brewer's yeast in beer fermentation.1 Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration (obligate aerobes). as with certain yeast. Yeast are characterized by a wide dispersion of natural habitats. These ascospores may fuse with adjoining nuclei and multiply through vegetative division or. Yeast multiply as single cells that divide by budding (eg Saccharomyces) or direct division (fission. Yeast are also found on the skin surfaces and in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals.ABSTRACT Every living organism respires throughout their whole life in order to stay alive.2 The useful physiological properties of yeast have led to their use in the field of biotechnology.org/wiki/Yeast 3 http://en. an increase of the amount of yeast seems to increase the amount of oxygen uptake thus the rate of respiration is higher.wikipedia. yeast in wine fermentation and for xylitol production. where they may live symbiotically or as parasites.yeastgenome.org/wiki/Yeast . eg. Fermentation of sugars by yeast is the oldest and largest application of this technology. INTRODUCTION Yeast Yeast are unicellular fungi. Yeasts grow best in a neutral or slightly acidic pH environment.org/VL-what_are_yeast. Below is an equation showing yeast fermentation.3 C6H12O6 → 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2) + Energy 1 2 http://www. A replicate of the experiment is also done by changing the amount of yeast tested and any difference of the oxygen uptake is recorded.shtml http://en. yeast is used to represent the organisms and the amount of oxygen uptake for five minutes is measured.wikipedia. which contain up to eight haploid ascospores. soil and salt water. The aim of this experiment is to demonstrate the uptake of oxygen in respiration. From the results obtained. or are anaerobic. or they may grow as simple irregular filaments (mycelium). Many types of yeasts are used for making many foods: baker's yeast in bread production. In sexual reproduction most yeast form asci.
displacing the liquid. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Source: http://www. As this is absorbed by the soda lime.org/wiki/Respirometer .gstatic.jpg Respirometer A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. such as soda lime pellets or cotton wads soaked with potassium hydroxide. 4 Figure 2: A simple Respirometer Source: http://t3.azurebio.com/images?q=tbn: ANd9GcS0lOMw0fA4DvbNVbn9CX3q uTGL_PQC_PuGdlsVMcjChxOkvdTmA g 4 http://en. When the organism takes in oxygen it gives off an equal volume of carbon dioxide.com/img/yeast 1.Figure 1: Baker’s yeast.wikipedia. air is sucked in from the U-tube to keep the pressure constant. The oxygen uptake is detected by displacement of manometric fluid in a thin glass U-tube connected to the container. A simple whole animal respirometer designed to measure oxygen uptake consists of a sealed container with the living specimen together with a substance to absorb the carbon dioxide given off during respiration.
HYPOTHESIS The amount of oxygen uptake is higher with more organisms. three-way tap. gauze basket. VARIABLES Manipulated Responding Fixed : Number of filter paper covered with yeast : The distanced of coloured liquid travelled in U-tube : Temperature of surrounding. micropipette. volume of potassium hydroxide MATERIALS Potassium hydroxide. syringe. coloured liquid APPARATUS U-tube. stopwatch. measuring cylinder . filter paper covered with yeast. boiling tube. NULL HYPOTHESIS The amount of oxygen uptake is the same despite of the increase in the number of organisms.
2. The experiment was repeated by replacing the current yeast with two filter paper containing yeast. . The coloured liquid was placed in the U-tube by using the micropipette. 3. The apparatus was set up as shown below without the filter paper rolled and also the seeds are replaced with a filter paper containing yeast.PROCEDURE 1. The stopwatch was started and any movement of the coloured liquid are recorded in a five minutes interval.
15 0.10 0.50 8.30 6.20 5.50 6.70 6.05 0.10 0.40 5.05 0.90 8.10 5.05 0.30 5.15 5.55 Tube Control 5.20 5.40 8.95 Distance moved by the marker fluid (cm) 0.65 Table 2: The amount of oxygen uptake by yeast in 2 filter papers for 5 minutes .05 0.00 4.40 0.60 6.60 5.00 0.45 Distance moved by the marker fluid (cm) Table 1: The amount of oxygen uptake by yeast in 1 filter paper for 5 minutes Time (min) Yeast 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total 7.60 5.RESULTS Time (min) Yeast 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total 6.10 0.40 5.35 8.75 Tube Control 5.30 8.50 6.20 0.
the numbers of organisms do affect the total oxygen uptake. it can be seen that with only one filter paper. As for ethical issue. the usage of potassium hydroxide is to absorb carbon dioxide in the boiling tube. thus allowing the coloured liquid in the U-tube to move towards it. In this experiment. More organisms are present causing more oxygen being used up for . certain factors need to be taken note to enable the experiment can be done without any problems. Therefore. this experiment is quite ethical and also humane.DISCUSSION When carrying out this experiment. These shows that there are some reduction in the volume of the boiling tubes containing yeast. The reaction shows how carbon dioxide reacts with potassium hydroxide which produce potassium hydrogen carbonate. In table 1. Since respiration uses oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. Besides that. Therefore. This means that more oxygen is taken up in the boiling tube with two filter papers than with one filter paper. First of all. KOH + CO2 → KHCO3. In contrast. As a result. the usage of coloured liquid in the U-tube allow easier reading of the scale since the U-tube is very small and the readings could be deceiving. it can be concluded that the yeast used up the oxygen in the boiling tube for respiration leading to a lower volume. the distance moved by the coloured liquid in the U-tube is only 0. It can be seen in both table (table 1 and 2).65 cm during the five minutes. the movement of coloured liquid is further in the boiling tube with two filter papers. potassium hydroxide reacts with the carbon dioxide thus allowing measurement the oxygen uptake to be done without measuring the carbon dioxide as well. respiration. Besides than demonstrating respiration in this experiment. Consequently. another aim of the experiment which is to determine either different number of organisms have different total uptake of oxygen or not is also demonstrated.45 cm. the aim is to demonstrate the respiration in living organisms and from the results obtained in this experiment. the usage of yeast does not rise any ethical issue since yeast are used widely in many things besides in experiment such as in bakery. the coloured liquid seems to move at a certain distance. in table 2 which contained two filter papers covered with yeast. the colour liquid moved by 0. it is clear that living organisms do carry out respiration in order to stay alive.
The production of ethanol may cause the volume of the boiling tube to increase thus moving the coloured liquid in an opposite way.SAFETY MEASURES There are a few safety measures that must be taken when carrying out this experiment. The production of carbon dioxide is not a problem because it will react with potassium hydroxide but ethanol may causes an inaccuracy in the results. The apparatus set up may be not well done and may causes air to leak out from the boiling tube. all the laboratory safety measure must be followed. in this experiment potassium hydroxide is used to absorb the carbon dioxide. as usual. This is to ensure that experiment can be conducted without problems. Firstly. If any potassium hydroxide is split on our hand. As for the limitations in this experiment. unequal pressure on both boiling tube when connecting the tubes to the U-tube may also cause the reading to be imbalanced at the start of the experiment. . LIMITATION AND SOURCE OF ERRORS There are some errors that might contribute to inaccuracy of the results of the experiment. These anaerobe yeast does not need oxygen to respire but will produce carbon dioxide and ethanol instead. Potassium hydroxide is a corrosive substance therefore can be quiet dangerous. This may cause the reading to move only a little or not at all. some reading may be taken wrongly if the eye is not perpendicular at the right level. this may causes the yeast to carry out anaerobic respiration if the oxygen content is depleted. Besides that. Lab coats must be worn at all times in the laboratory as a standard protocol when conducting the experiment. Eye goggles should also be worn to prevent any splash of the potassium hydroxide from entering the eyes. One of it is the setting up of apparatus. Besides that. Parallax error might also in this experiment. since the reading of the scale on the U-tube is very small. the amount of oxygen in the boiling tubes may be limited once it is sealed and closed using the three-way tap. quickly wash it with water to dilute it.
FURTHER WORK A further work that can be done using the same set of apparatus is by demonstrating respiration in different temperature. As to prevent the imbalance pressure.practicalbiology. Besides that. At the same time.org/data /images/originals/measuring-rate-ofmetabolism-respirometer-in-use-500346.jpg .SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENT Some improvements can be done in this experiment to allow it to give more accurate results. the experiment could also be done to study the uptake of oxygen at different temperature. Making sure that the three-way tap is not close at all before starting the experiment is a good way to avoid the oxygen content from being used before the experiment is even started. Besides that. This experiment can be done by immersing the boiling tubes in water baths of different temperature allows the temperature to be manipulated. since in this experiment temperature of surrounding is set to constant. immersing the boiling tubes in a water bath could be done to avoid any unnecessary error. the set up of the apparatus must be completely tight to prevent any air from leaking out of the tube or entering the tube. limitations could also be reduced in this experiment during the set up of the experiment. Only close the three-way tap when the experiment start could minimise the probability of oxygen being depleted during the five minutes. make sure that both three-way tap on each tubes are not close when setting up the experiment. First of all. Having someone with a good eye sight or use a magnifying glass to read the scale of the U-tube is also a good alternative to avoid any parallax error. This in turn would also prevent the yeast from carrying out fermentation and therefore avoiding the production of ethanol. Figure 4: A Respirometer immersed in a water bath Source: http://www.
yeastgenome.CONCLUSION From the results obtained in this experiment.html 3.org/areas/advanced/energy/gas-balance-in-respiration-andphotosynthesis/measuring-the-rate-of-metabolism. http://en. the amount of oxygen uptake is higher with more organisms. REFRENCE 1.org/wiki/Respirometer .EXP.org/wiki/Yeast 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_hydroxide 4. Edexcel A2 Biology Student’s Book. Ann Fullick – Pearson Education 2. Therefore. it can be seen that the increase in the number of yeast increases the amount of oxygen uptake.117. Hypothesis is accepted.org/VL-what_are_yeast.wikipedia. http://en.shtml 6.wikipedia. http://www.practicalbiology. http://www.
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