Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

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Here are 309 references linking electrosmog with adverse reproductive effects. The current ICNIRP’s safety guidelines for radiofrequency exposures were only developed to protect healthy adult males from periodic 6 minute exposures. They were not designed to protect the general population against chronic exposures. How much evidence will be needed before we apply the precautionary principle? For other EMF bibliographies see: http://www.scribd.com/collections/3440803/ElectrosmogBibiographies

New: (added 20 June)
Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjørge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22354128 Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N. (2012). Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674188

1. Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN, (1999). [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase
isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] Biofizika 44(5):931-932 [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10624539

2. Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on
semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

3. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief
review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771892

4. Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009).
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 18804757

5. Agarwal A, Singh A and Hamada A (2011):Cell phones and male infertility: review of recent
innovations in technology and consequences. International Brazilian Journal of Andrology Vol. 37 (4): 432-454. http://www.brazjurol.com.br/july_august_2011/Agarwal_432_454.htm

6. Aghdam Shahryar H, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami (2008). Effects of Electromagnetic
Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijzr.2008.230.233

7. Ahangarpour A, Fathi-Moghaddam H, Birgani MJ, Shahbazian H, Badavi M. (2009).
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responses of the male rats to short and long time alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz) exposure. J Res Med Sci.14(4):231-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772889

8. Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. (2005). Impact of radio frequency
electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int. J. Androl 28: 171– 179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15910543

9. Akdag Z, Celik MS, Ketani A, Nergiz Y, Deniz M, Dasdag S (1999). Effect of chronic lowintensity microwave radiation on sperm count, sperm morphology, and testicular and

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epididymal tissues of rats. Electro Magnetobiol 18 (2): 133 – 145 http://www.emfportal.de/viewer.php?sform=&fb=yes&aid=9425&l=e

10. Aldad TS, G Gan, XB Gao, HS Taylor. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From
800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2: 312 7 p http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/pdf/srep00312.pdf

11. Algers B, K. Hennichs (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. A review. Vet. Res.
Commun. 6: 265–279. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6359665

12. Andrienko LG, Dumanskiĭ IuD, Rudichenko VF, Meleshko GI. (1977). [Effect of industrialfrequency electromagnetic fields on the spermatogenic function].Vrach Delo. 9:116-8. [Article in Russian]. No abstract available. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/919464

13. Anselmo, CWSF., PB Pereira, MTJA. Catanho and MC Medeiros, (2007). Effects of the
electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 μT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats. Braz. J. Biol., 69: 397-404. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjb/v69n2/24.pdf

14. Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. (2012). Use of laptop computers
connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. 97(1):39-45.e2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22112647

15. Avendaño, C; A. Mata; A.M. Juarez Villanueva; V.S. Martínez; C.A. Sanchez Sarmiento (2010).
Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (4), Supplement, pg. S73-S73 http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/Laptop_Expositions.pdf

16. Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900
megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health . 25(6). 377 – 384. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671630

17. Baste V, Riise T and BE Moen (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility
and sex ratio of offspring Eur J Epidemiol. 23(5):369–377 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18415687

18. Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjørge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes
after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22354128

19. Bastide M, B.J. Youbicier-Simoa, J.C. Lebecq, J. Giaimis. (2001). Toxicologic study of
electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice, Indoor Built Environ. 10: 291–298. http://www.iirec.co.il/Data/FilesUploads/Bastide_Youbicier.pdf

20. Batellier F, Couty I, Picard D, Brillard JP. (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell
phone in "call" position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology. 69 (6):737-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18255134?dopt=Abstract

21. Bayat PD, Ghanbari A, Saeid B, Khazaei M, Ghorbani R, Ayubian M. (2011). Effect of
exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen. Indian J Exp Biol. 49(8):634-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870432? dopt=Abstract

22. Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and
Bracken, M.B. (1998). Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds. Epidemiology, 9: 36-42 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9430266

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______________________________________________________________________ 23. Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to
electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22315933

24. Beraldi R, Sciamanna I, Mangiacasale R, Lorenzini R, Spadafora C. (2003). Mouse early
embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res. 538(1-2):163-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834765

25. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

26. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

27. Bereznitskaya AN. (1968). [Certain indices of fertility in female mice irradiated with 10centimeter waves]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 12(9):33-7. [Article in Russian] No Abstract. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5731624

28. Bereznitskaya, A. N. and Rysina, T. Z. (1974). Embryotropic Effects of Microwaves. In:
Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V.,editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub.Research Service, 1974, pp. 230-36.. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

29. Bereznitskaya, A. N., and Kazhokov, I.M (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V., editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub. Research Service, 1974, pp. 221-29. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

30. Bereznitskaya, A.N. and I.M. Kazbekov (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp. 221-229 (1974). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

31. Berman E, Carter HB and House D. 1984: “Growth and development of mice offspring after
irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves”. Teratology. 30(3):393-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6515565

32. Berman E, Carter HB, House D. (1982). Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero
exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics3(2): 285-291. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7126279

33. Berman E, Carter HB. (1984). Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450MHz (CW) microwaves. Health Phys 46: 537–542. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6698781

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______________________________________________________________________ 34. Berman E, Kinn JB, and Carter HB (1978). Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with
2.45 GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/738884 and http://journals.lww.com/healthphysics/Abstract/1978/12000/Observations_of_Mouse_Fetuses_After_Irradiation.6.aspx

35. Berman, E.L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., et al. (1990). Development of chicken embryos
in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169–187 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2242052

36. Bernabò N, Tettamanti E, Russo V, Martelli A, Turriani M, Mattoli M, Barboni B. (2010).
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model. Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176397

37. Bernabo N., Tettamanti E., Pistilli M.G., Nardinocchi D., Berardinelli P., Mattioli M., Barboni
B. (2007). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency magnetic field on the morphology and function of boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro. Theriogenology, 67 (4), pp. 801-815 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196643

38. Blaasaas K, T Tynes, A Irgens, R Lie (2002). Risk of birth defects by parental occupational
exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study Occup Environ Med. 59(2): 92–97. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.2.92 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740256/

39. Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels
of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ; 9(2):129–140 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3377861

40. Blackman CF. (2006). Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Electromagn Biol Med. 25(4):217-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17178582

41. Blackman, C. (2009).Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more
inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology.16. 205-216. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264460

42. Borhani N, Rajaei F, Salehi Z, Javadi A. (2011). Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse
embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):246-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047462

43. Brent RL,WE Gordon, WR Bennett, DA. Beckman (1993). Reproductive and teratologic effects
of electromagnetic fields. Reprod. Toxicol. 7: 535–580. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8118107

44. Brown-Woodman PD, Hadley JA, Waterhouse J, Webster WS. (1988). Teratogenic effects of
exposure to radiofrequency radiation (27.12 MHz) from a shortwave diathermy unit. Ind Health. 26(1):1-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3283078

45. Brown-Woodman, PDC, Hadley, JA, Richardson L., Bright D. and Porter D. (1989). Evaluation
of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency field (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device. Health Physics 56(4): 521-525. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=2925391

46. Brugh VM and Lipshultz LI (2004). Male factor infertility: evaluation and management. Med.
Clin. North Am. 88(2): 367–85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15049583

47. Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztürk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. (2009). Effects of intrauterine
and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73: 391-99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19108901

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______________________________________________________________________ 48. Buiatti E, Barchielli A, Geddes M, Nastasi L, Kriebel D, Franchini M, Scarselli G. (1984). Risk
factors in male infertility: a case-control study. Arch Environ Health. 39(4):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6497442

49. Cairnie AB, Harding RK (1981). Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz
continuous-wave microwaves. Radiat Res 87(1):100-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7255665

50. California EMF Risk Evaluation (2002): Final Report. Chapter 13: Miscarriage.
http://www.ehib.org/emf/RiskEvaluation/Chapter13.pdf

51. Cameron IL, Hardman WE, Winters WD, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. (1993).
Environmental magnetic fields: influences on early embryogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 51(4):417-25 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8496244

52. Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). [Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70 [Article in Chinese]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978513

53. Celik O, Hascalik S. (2004). Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on foetal
heart rate patterns. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 112(1): 55-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14687739

54. Celik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdogan S, Polat S, Doran S (2011). An evaluation of the effects
of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology: 79(2): 346-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429511025933

55. Chación L, M. A. Trillo, A. Ubeda, J. Leal (1990). A 30-HZ Pulsed Magnetic Field Can Stop
Early Embryonic Development. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 9(1): 61–66. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379009027760

56. Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. (2010). Comparison of biological effects
between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. Mutat Res. 700(1-2):51-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20472095

57. Chen HY, Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zhao L, Zuo HY, Dong J, Su ZT: (2011).
[Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 17(3):214-8 [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485541

58. Cherry, N. (2002). Reproductive effects from EMF/EMR exposure. Open access report:
http://www.neilcherry.com/documents/90_s7_EMR_Reproductive_Review_effects.pdf

59. Chia SE, Tay SK. (2001). Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218
infertile and 227 fertile men. J Occup Environ Med 43: 946–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11725334?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

60. Chiang ‌ H and G. D. Yao ‌ (1987). Effects of Pulsed Microwave Radiation Pre-and Post-natally
on the Developing Brain in Mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 6(2): 197-204 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378709027739

61. Chiang H, Wu RY, Shao BJ, Fu YD, Yao GD, Lu DJ. (1995). Pulsed magnetic field from video
display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(1):70-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7748205

62. Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N.
Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674188

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______________________________________________________________________ 63. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR,(2000).
Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21(7):524-537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11015117

64. Cocozza, G., A. Blasio, and B. Nunziata (1960): [Remarks on short-wave embryopathies].
Pediatria (Napoli). 68 (1): 7-23 [Article in Italian. No abstract]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=13810837

65. Colt JS and Blair A. (1998). Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.
Environ Health Perspect. 106 Suppl 3: 909-925. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9646055 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1533069/?tool=pubmed

66. Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z. Ersay AR. Sari, I. Demirtas OC, Celik MS. (1999). Wholebody microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res. 27(3):219-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10422825

67. Daşdag S, MZ Akdag, O Ayyıldız, ÖC Demirtaş, M Yayla, C Sert. (2000). Do cellular phones
alter blood parameters and birth weight of rats? Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 19(1): 107-113. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-100100301

68. Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. (2002). Der Einfluß elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die
Spermienmotilität [The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility]. Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie. 19:18-22 http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php? aid=9854&l=g

69. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. (2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive
oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One.4(7):e6446 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19649291

70. De Roos, A.J., Teschke, K., Savitz, D.A., Poole, C., Grufferman, S., Pollock, B.H. and Olsham,
A.F. (2001). Parental occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields and radiation and the incidence of Neuroblastoma in offspring. Epidemiology 12(5): 508-517. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=11505168

71. De Vita R, Cavallo D, Raganella L, Eleuteri P, Grollino MG, Calugi A. (1995). Effects of 50 Hz
magnetic fields on mouse spermatogenesis monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(5):330-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8554635

72. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the
relationship. Reprod Biomed Online.15(3):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854521

73. De-Kun Li, Roxana Odouli, S Wi, T Janevic, I Golditch, TD Bracken, R Senior, R Rankin, R
Iriye (January 2002). A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology 13 (1): 9-20 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805581

74. Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982). Embryological changes induced by
weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Anatomy 134 (3): 533–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/7107514/?tool=pubmed

75. Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis-Jones DI. (2006). Growing concern over
the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility. Arch Androl. 52(1):9–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338863

76. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative
stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7:114 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19849853

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______________________________________________________________________ 77. Dimitrova M, Dobrev B, Kiriakov K, Kirkov V, Panova Z (1982). [Effect of wide-band
modulated electromagnetic fields on the workers of high-frequency telephone exchanges]. Problemi na khigienata ;7:21-9 http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/7178066

78. Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2010). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in
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79. Divan, HA; Kheifets, L.; Obel, C & J.Olsen (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell
Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Epidemiology.9(4). pp 523-29. http://newsatjama.jama.com/2011/08/01/author-insights-magnetic-fields-may-increaseasthma-risks/

80. Dundar B., Cesur G., Comlekci S., Songur A., Caliskan S., et al .(2009). The Effect of Prenatal
and Post-Natal Long-Term Exposure To 50 Hz Electric Field On Growth, Pubertal Development And Igf-1 Levels in Female Wistar Rats. Toxicol Ind. Health. Vol. 25, Pg. 479 – 487. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783573

81. Eckert EE.(1976). [Plötzlicher und underwarteter Tod im Kleinkindesalter und
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82. Environmental Health Criteria 16 (1981): Radiofrequency and Microwaves, WHO, Geneva,
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83. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim, T. Kir, E. Aydur, G. Komesli, H.C. Irkilata, M.K. Irmak, A.F.
Peker (2006). Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch. Med.Res. 37 (2006) 840–843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971222

84. Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation
induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys., 30 (1): (84-9). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460416

85. Falugi , M Grattarola, G Prestipino (1987). Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields
on the early development of sea urchins. Biophys J. 51(6): 999–1003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1330035/

86. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. (2011). The effect of pulsed
900MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 34(1):206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236367

87. Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie FlR, Toivo T, Leszczynski D & Franken DR. (2008) In vitro effect
of 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 268–276. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.20390/abstract

88. Farkhad, S.A., S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi and A. Qadiri (2007). Effects of extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on testes in Guinea pig. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 4519-4522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19093523

89. Farrell JM, Barker M., Krause D., Litovitz TA. (1997). Effects of low-frequency electromagnetic
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The Electrosmog Bibliography Collection also contains: Autism (10 References) Blood Brain Barrier (47 References) Breast Cancer (77 References) Cataracts (61 References) Hearing (39 References) Headaches (48 References) Base Stations, TV and radio masts, Power lines (92 References) Depression and suicide (48 References) Male fertility (135 References) Prenatal Effects (166 References) Wildlife (149 References) Other EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest include: http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228470 (Conflict of interest in science) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228507 (Electrosmog and wildlife) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222035 (Electrosensitivity) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3221670 (Electrosmog and male fertility) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222195 (The precautionary principle) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3220833 (EMF-related health risks) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3651795 (2012 research - mobile phones, wifi)

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