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Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Here are 309 references linking electrosmog with adverse reproductive effects. The current ICNIRPs safety guidelines for radiofrequency exposures were only developed to protect healthy adult males from periodic 6 minute exposures. They were not designed to protect the general population against chronic exposures. How much evidence will be needed before we apply the precautionary principle? For other EMF bibliographies see:

New: (added 20 June)

Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjrge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8. Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N. (2012). Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]

1. Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN, (1999). [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase
isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] Biofizika 44(5):931-932 [Article in Russian]

2. Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on
semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128.

3. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief
review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553.

4. Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009).
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25. 18804757

5. Agarwal A, Singh A and Hamada A (2011):Cell phones and male infertility: review of recent
innovations in technology and consequences. International Brazilian Journal of Andrology Vol. 37 (4): 432-454.

6. Aghdam Shahryar H, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami (2008). Effects of Electromagnetic
Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233.

7. Ahangarpour A, Fathi-Moghaddam H, Birgani MJ, Shahbazian H, Badavi M. (2009).

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responses of the male rats to short and long time alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz) exposure. J Res Med Sci.14(4):231-8.

8. Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. (2005). Impact of radio frequency
electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int. J. Androl 28: 171 179.

9. Akdag Z, Celik MS, Ketani A, Nergiz Y, Deniz M, Dasdag S (1999). Effect of chronic lowintensity microwave radiation on sperm count, sperm morphology, and testicular and


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

epididymal tissues of rats. Electro Magnetobiol 18 (2): 133 145

10. Aldad TS, G Gan, XB Gao, HS Taylor. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From
800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2: 312 7 p

11. Algers B, K. Hennichs (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. A review. Vet. Res.
Commun. 6: 265279.

12. Andrienko LG, Dumanski IuD, Rudichenko VF, Meleshko GI. (1977). [Effect of industrialfrequency electromagnetic fields on the spermatogenic function].Vrach Delo. 9:116-8. [Article in Russian]. No abstract available.

13. Anselmo, CWSF., PB Pereira, MTJA. Catanho and MC Medeiros, (2007). Effects of the
electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 T, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats. Braz. J. Biol., 69: 397-404.

14. Avendao C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. (2012). Use of laptop computers
connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. 97(1):39-45.e2

15. Avendao, C; A. Mata; A.M. Juarez Villanueva; V.S. Martnez; C.A. Sanchez Sarmiento (2010).
Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (4), Supplement, pg. S73-S73

16. Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900
megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health . 25(6). 377 384.

17. Baste V, Riise T and BE Moen (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility
and sex ratio of offspring Eur J Epidemiol. 23(5):369377

18. Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjrge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes
after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8.

19. Bastide M, B.J. Youbicier-Simoa, J.C. Lebecq, J. Giaimis. (2001). Toxicologic study of
electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice, Indoor Built Environ. 10: 291298.

20. Batellier F, Couty I, Picard D, Brillard JP. (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell
phone in "call" position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology. 69 (6):737-45.

21. Bayat PD, Ghanbari A, Saeid B, Khazaei M, Ghorbani R, Ayubian M. (2011). Effect of
exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen. Indian J Exp Biol. 49(8):634-8. dopt=Abstract

22. Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and
Bracken, M.B. (1998). Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds. Epidemiology, 9: 36-42


Electrosmog and Reproduction

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______________________________________________________________________ 23. Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to
electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6.

24. Beraldi R, Sciamanna I, Mangiacasale R, Lorenzini R, Spadafora C. (2003). Mouse early

embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res. 538(1-2):163-70.

25. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). Fields.pdf

26. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). Fields.pdf

27. Bereznitskaya AN. (1968). [Certain indices of fertility in female mice irradiated with 10centimeter waves]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 12(9):33-7. [Article in Russian] No Abstract.

28. Bereznitskaya, A. N. and Rysina, T. Z. (1974). Embryotropic Effects of Microwaves. In:

Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V.,editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub.Research Service, 1974, pp. 230-36.. Fields.pdf

29. Bereznitskaya, A. N., and Kazhokov, I.M (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V., editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub. Research Service, 1974, pp. 221-29. Fields.pdf

30. Bereznitskaya, A.N. and I.M. Kazbekov (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp. 221-229 (1974). Fields.pdf

31. Berman E, Carter HB and House D. 1984: Growth and development of mice offspring after
irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves. Teratology. 30(3):393-402.

32. Berman E, Carter HB, House D. (1982). Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero
exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics3(2): 285-291.

33. Berman E, Carter HB. (1984). Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450MHz (CW) microwaves. Health Phys 46: 537542.


Electrosmog and Reproduction

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______________________________________________________________________ 34. Berman E, Kinn JB, and Carter HB (1978). Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with
2.45 GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801 and

35. Berman, E.L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., et al. (1990). Development of chicken embryos
in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169187

36. Bernab N, Tettamanti E, Russo V, Martelli A, Turriani M, Mattoli M, Barboni B. (2010).

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model. Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-305.

37. Bernabo N., Tettamanti E., Pistilli M.G., Nardinocchi D., Berardinelli P., Mattioli M., Barboni
B. (2007). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency magnetic field on the morphology and function of boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro. Theriogenology, 67 (4), pp. 801-815

38. Blaasaas K, T Tynes, A Irgens, R Lie (2002). Risk of birth defects by parental occupational
exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study Occup Environ Med. 59(2): 9297. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.2.92

39. Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels
of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ; 9(2):129140

40. Blackman CF. (2006). Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Electromagn Biol Med. 25(4):217-25.

41. Blackman, C. (2009).Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more
inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology.16. 205-216.

42. Borhani N, Rajaei F, Salehi Z, Javadi A. (2011). Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse
embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):246-52.

43. Brent RL,WE Gordon, WR Bennett, DA. Beckman (1993). Reproductive and teratologic effects
of electromagnetic fields. Reprod. Toxicol. 7: 535580.

44. Brown-Woodman PD, Hadley JA, Waterhouse J, Webster WS. (1988). Teratogenic effects of
exposure to radiofrequency radiation (27.12 MHz) from a shortwave diathermy unit. Ind Health. 26(1):1-10.

45. Brown-Woodman, PDC, Hadley, JA, Richardson L., Bright D. and Porter D. (1989). Evaluation
of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency field (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device. Health Physics 56(4): 521-525.

46. Brugh VM and Lipshultz LI (2004). Male factor infertility: evaluation and management. Med.
Clin. North Am. 88(2): 36785.

47. Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztrk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. (2009). Effects of intrauterine
and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73: 391-99.


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______________________________________________________________________ 48. Buiatti E, Barchielli A, Geddes M, Nastasi L, Kriebel D, Franchini M, Scarselli G. (1984). Risk
factors in male infertility: a case-control study. Arch Environ Health. 39(4):266-70.

49. Cairnie AB, Harding RK (1981). Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz
continuous-wave microwaves. Radiat Res 87(1):100-8.

50. California EMF Risk Evaluation (2002): Final Report. Chapter 13: Miscarriage.

51. Cameron IL, Hardman WE, Winters WD, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. (1993).
Environmental magnetic fields: influences on early embryogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 51(4):417-25

52. Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). [Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70 [Article in Chinese].

53. Celik O, Hascalik S. (2004). Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on foetal
heart rate patterns. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 112(1): 55-6.

54. Celik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdogan S, Polat S, Doran S (2011). An evaluation of the effects
of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology: 79(2): 346-50.

55. Chacin L, M. A. Trillo, A. Ubeda, J. Leal (1990). A 30-HZ Pulsed Magnetic Field Can Stop
Early Embryonic Development. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 9(1): 6166.

56. Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. (2010). Comparison of biological effects
between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. Mutat Res. 700(1-2):51-61.

57. Chen HY, Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zhao L, Zuo HY, Dong J, Su ZT: (2011).
[Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 17(3):214-8 [Article in Chinese]

58. Cherry, N. (2002). Reproductive effects from EMF/EMR exposure. Open access report:

59. Chia SE, Tay SK. (2001). Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218
infertile and 227 fertile men. J Occup Environ Med 43: 94651.

60. Chiang H and G. D. Yao (1987). Effects of Pulsed Microwave Radiation Pre-and Post-natally
on the Developing Brain in Mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 6(2): 197-204

61. Chiang H, Wu RY, Shao BJ, Fu YD, Yao GD, Lu DJ. (1995). Pulsed magnetic field from video
display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(1):70-4.

62. Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N.
Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]


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______________________________________________________________________ 63. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR,(2000).
Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21(7):524-537.

64. Cocozza, G., A. Blasio, and B. Nunziata (1960): [Remarks on short-wave embryopathies].
Pediatria (Napoli). 68 (1): 7-23 [Article in Italian. No abstract].

65. Colt JS and Blair A. (1998). Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.
Environ Health Perspect. 106 Suppl 3: 909-925.

66. Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z. Ersay AR. Sari, I. Demirtas OC, Celik MS. (1999). Wholebody microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res. 27(3):219-23.

67. Dadag S, MZ Akdag, O Ayyldz, C Demirta, M Yayla, C Sert. (2000). Do cellular phones
alter blood parameters and birth weight of rats? Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 19(1): 107-113.

68. Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. (2002). Der Einflu elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die
Spermienmotilitt [The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility]. Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie. 19:18-22 aid=9854&l=g

69. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. (2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive
oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One.4(7):e6446

70. De Roos, A.J., Teschke, K., Savitz, D.A., Poole, C., Grufferman, S., Pollock, B.H. and Olsham,
A.F. (2001). Parental occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields and radiation and the incidence of Neuroblastoma in offspring. Epidemiology 12(5): 508-517.

71. De Vita R, Cavallo D, Raganella L, Eleuteri P, Grollino MG, Calugi A. (1995). Effects of 50 Hz
magnetic fields on mouse spermatogenesis monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(5):330-4.

72. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the
relationship. Reprod Biomed Online.15(3):266-70.

73. De-Kun Li, Roxana Odouli, S Wi, T Janevic, I Golditch, TD Bracken, R Senior, R Rankin, R
Iriye (January 2002). A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology 13 (1): 9-20

74. Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982). Embryological changes induced by
weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Anatomy 134 (3): 53351.

75. Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis-Jones DI. (2006). Growing concern over
the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility. Arch Androl. 52(1):914.

76. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative
stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7:114


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______________________________________________________________________ 77. Dimitrova M, Dobrev B, Kiriakov K, Kirkov V, Panova Z (1982). [Effect of wide-band
modulated electromagnetic fields on the workers of high-frequency telephone exchanges]. Problemi na khigienata ;7:21-9

78. Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2010). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in
young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. Dec 7.; doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115402

79. Divan, HA; Kheifets, L.; Obel, C & J.Olsen (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell
Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Epidemiology.9(4). pp 523-29.

80. Dundar B., Cesur G., Comlekci S., Songur A., Caliskan S., et al .(2009). The Effect of Prenatal
and Post-Natal Long-Term Exposure To 50 Hz Electric Field On Growth, Pubertal Development And Igf-1 Levels in Female Wistar Rats. Toxicol Ind. Health. Vol. 25, Pg. 479 487.

81. Eckert EE.(1976). [Pltzlicher und underwarteter Tod im Kleinkindesalter und

elektromagnetische] Felder. Med Klin. 71(37):150005. [Article in German].

82. Environmental Health Criteria 16 (1981): Radiofrequency and Microwaves, WHO, Geneva,
Switzerland, ISBN 92- 4- 154076- 1.

83. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim, T. Kir, E. Aydur, G. Komesli, H.C. Irkilata, M.K. Irmak, A.F.
Peker (2006). Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch. Med.Res. 37 (2006) 840843.

84. Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation
induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys., 30 (1): (84-9).

85. Falugi , M Grattarola, G Prestipino (1987). Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields
on the early development of sea urchins. Biophys J. 51(6): 9991003.

86. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. (2011). The effect of pulsed
900MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 34(1):206.

87. Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie FlR, Toivo T, Leszczynski D & Franken DR. (2008) In vitro effect
of 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 268276.

88. Farkhad, S.A., S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi and A. Qadiri (2007). Effects of extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on testes in Guinea pig. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 4519-4522.

89. Farrell JM, Barker M., Krause D., Litovitz TA. (1997). Effects of low-frequency electromagnetic
fields on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in developing chicken embryos. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 43: 91-96.

90. Fejes, Z. Zvaczki, J. Szllsi, S. Koloszr, J. Daru, L. Kovcs, A. Pl. (2005). Is there a
relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch. Androl. 51: 385393.


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______________________________________________________________________ 91. Fig-Talamanca I., P. Nardone, C. Giliberti. (2010). Exposure to electromagnetic fields and
human reproduction: the epidemiologic evidence. In: Non Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter , European J. OncologyLibrary.5: 387-402. L. Giuliani and M. Soffritti (eds).

92. Findlay, R.P.; Lee, AK & P. J. Dimbylow (2009): FDTD calculations of SAR for child voxel
models in different postures between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 135(4): 226-231.

93. Fleming AH, Joyner KH. (1992). Estimates of absorption of radiofrequency radiation by the
embryo and fetus during pregnancy. Health Phys. 63(2):149-59.

94. Forgcs Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay G, Bakos J, Hudk A, Surjn A, Rvsz C, Thurczy G. (2005).
Effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like Exposure on the Gonadal Function and Haematological Parameters of Male Mice Magy Onkol. 49(2):149-51 [Article in Hungarian]

95. Forgacs Z, Z Somosy, G Kubinyi, J Bakos (2005) Effect of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like
microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 22(1): 111-17.

96. Fracki S, Bablok L, Mezynski J. (1994). Fertility disturbances in males working as professional
computer operators. Ginekol Pol 65: 414. [Article in Polish]

97. Fragopouloua AF, SL Koussoulakos, and LH Margaritisa. (2010). Cranial and postcranial
skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation. Pathophysiology. 17(3):169-77;

98. Frey AH. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification
due to microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a _ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277708&_user=10&_pii=S0006349578855295&_check=y &_coverDate=1978-03-31&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLbVlSzSkzV&md5=1179f0a92b804f0983aa54398572a76a/1-s2.0-S0006349578855295main.pdf

99. Frlen H, Svedenstl BM, Paulsson LE. (1993). Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on the
developing mouse embryo. Bioelectromagnetics. 14(3):197-204.


Galat VV, Mezhevikina LM, Zubin MN, Lepikhov KA, Khramov RN, Chalakhian LM. (1999). [Effect of millimeter waves on the early development of the mouse and sea urchin embryo]. Biofizika; 44(1):137-40. [Article in Russian] Galvin MJ, Tilson HA, Mitchell CL, Peterson J, and McRee DI.(1986). Influence of Preand Postnatal Exposure of Rats to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation on Neurobehavioral Function. Bioelectromagnetics 7: 57-71. Gao XF, Wang SM, Peng RY (2007). [Status quo of the researches on the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation on the testis and epididymal sperm]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 13(9):826-9 Gildersleeve RP, Bryan TE, Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Thaxton JP. (1988). Serum enzymes in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):531-4.





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Gildersleeve RP, MJGalvin, DI McRee, JP Thaxton (1986). Response of Japanese quail to hemorrhagic stress after exposure to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 85(4): 679-687. term=2879671 Gildersleeve RP, Satterlee DG, McRee DI, Bryan TE, Parkhurst CR. (1988). Plasma corticosterone in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(3):415-24. Goldhaber MK, Polen MR, Hiatt RA. (1988). The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. Am J Ind Med 13:695706. Goldhaber, M. K., M. R. Polen and R. A. Hiatt. (1988). Risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 13:695-706. Goldsworthy, A. (2011). How Smart Meters May Cause Autism and Cancer. MSCA News 6(8). Pp 2-7. Gonet B., Kosik-Bogacka DI., Kuna-Grygiel W. (2009). Effects of extremely lowfrequency magnetic fields on the oviposition of Drosophila melanogaster over three generations. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(8):687-9. Gorodetskaia SF, Kerova NI. (1966). [Changes in some functional and biochemical criteria in animal testicles under effect of three centimeter radio waves]. Fiziol Zh. 12(2):246-53. [Article in Ukrainian] Grigor'ev IuG. (2003). [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 43(5):541-3. [Article in Russian] Grigor'ev VV, Ogurtsov RP, Zubzhitski IuN: (1981). [Immunomorphologic changes in the testes upon exposure to a microwave electromagnetic field]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol; 80(2):69-75 Gul A., Celebi H., Ugras S. (2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 280 (5): 729-33.




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Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010): The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1):59-66. 115.Gunn SA., Gould TC. Anderson,W. A. D.: The effect of microwave radiation on morphology and function of rat testis. Lab. Invest. 10:301-14, 1961.


Gutschi T, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. (2011). Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011 Mar 28. E-pub ahead of print. Gye MC, Park CJ. (2012). Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Mar;39(1):1-9. Epub 2012 Mar 31. Haidt SJ, McTighe AH (1973). The effect of chronic, low-level microwave radiation on the testicles of mice. In: Maley, SW., ed. IEEE-G-MIT International Microwave Symposium, University of Colorado, June 4-6, 1973, pp. 324-325. DOI: 10.1109/GMTT.1973.1123206.




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Saygin M, Caliskan S, Karahan N, Koyu A, Gumral N, Uguz A. (2011). Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field. Toxicol Ind Health. 27(5):455-63. Schnitzer PG, Olshan AF, Erickson JD. (1995). Paternal occupation and risk of birth defects in offspring. Epidemiology 6(6): 577-583 Schrader SM, Langford RE, Turner TW, Breitenstein MJ, Clark JC, Jenkins BL, Lundy DO, Simon SD, Weyandt TB. (1998). Reproductive function in relation to duty assignments among military personnel Reprod Toxicol. 12(4):465-8.




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Tsybulin O, E Sidorik, S Kyrylenko, D Henshel, I Yakymenko (2012). GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on 23 Jan 2012. :


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Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 29(1):41-3 [Article in Chinese] term=7600890%20


Ye LL, Suo YS, Cao WL, Chen M. (2007). Radar radiation damages sperm quality, Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 13(9): 801-3. [Article in Chinese] Yoshida Y, Seto T, Ohsu W, Hayashi S, Okazawa T, Nagase H, Yoshida M, Nakamura H. (1995). [Endocrine mechanism of placental circulatory disturbances induced by microwave in pregnant rats]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 47(2):101-8. [Article in Japanese] Zareen N, Khan MY & LA Minhas (2009). Dose Related Shifts In The Developmental Progress Of Chick Embryos Exposed To Mobile Phone Induced Electromagnetic Fields. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 21(1): 130-134. Zareen N, Khan MY. (2008). Effect of mobile phone induced electromagnetic fields on the development of chick embryo. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 18(8):528-9. Zareen, N. Khan, M Yunus. Minhas, L A. (2009). Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Congenital Anomalies.49(1): 15-9. Zhang Q, F. L. Tabrah, G. C. Whittow (1993). Effect of 60-HZ Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field on Avian Embryonic Growth and Oxygen Consumption. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 12(1): 27-37. Zusman I., Yaffe P, Pinus H, Ornoy A. (1990). Effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the prenatal and postnatal development in mice and rats. Teratology. 42(2):157-70.







The Electrosmog Bibliography Collection also contains: Autism (10 References) Blood Brain Barrier (47 References) Breast Cancer (77 References) Cataracts (61 References) Hearing (39 References) Headaches (48 References) Base Stations, TV and radio masts, Power lines (92 References) Depression and suicide (48 References) Male fertility (135 References) Prenatal Effects (166 References) Wildlife (149 References) Other EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest include: (Conflict of interest in science) (Electrosmog and wildlife) (Electrosensitivity) (Electrosmog and male fertility) (The precautionary principle) (EMF-related health risks) (2012 research - mobile phones, wifi)

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