Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Here are 309 references linking electrosmog with adverse reproductive effects. The current ICNIRP’s safety guidelines for radiofrequency exposures were only developed to protect healthy adult males from periodic 6 minute exposures. They were not designed to protect the general population against chronic exposures. How much evidence will be needed before we apply the precautionary principle? For other EMF bibliographies see: http://www.scribd.com/collections/3440803/ElectrosmogBibiographies

New: (added 20 June)
Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjørge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22354128 Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N. (2012). Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674188

1. Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN, (1999). [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase
isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] Biofizika 44(5):931-932 [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10624539

2. Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on
semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

3. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief
review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771892

4. Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009).
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 18804757

5. Agarwal A, Singh A and Hamada A (2011):Cell phones and male infertility: review of recent
innovations in technology and consequences. International Brazilian Journal of Andrology Vol. 37 (4): 432-454. http://www.brazjurol.com.br/july_august_2011/Agarwal_432_454.htm

6. Aghdam Shahryar H, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami (2008). Effects of Electromagnetic
Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijzr.2008.230.233

7. Ahangarpour A, Fathi-Moghaddam H, Birgani MJ, Shahbazian H, Badavi M. (2009).
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responses of the male rats to short and long time alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz) exposure. J Res Med Sci.14(4):231-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772889

8. Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. (2005). Impact of radio frequency
electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int. J. Androl 28: 171– 179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15910543

9. Akdag Z, Celik MS, Ketani A, Nergiz Y, Deniz M, Dasdag S (1999). Effect of chronic lowintensity microwave radiation on sperm count, sperm morphology, and testicular and


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

epididymal tissues of rats. Electro Magnetobiol 18 (2): 133 – 145 http://www.emfportal.de/viewer.php?sform=&fb=yes&aid=9425&l=e

10. Aldad TS, G Gan, XB Gao, HS Taylor. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From
800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2: 312 7 p http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/pdf/srep00312.pdf

11. Algers B, K. Hennichs (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. A review. Vet. Res.
Commun. 6: 265–279. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6359665

12. Andrienko LG, Dumanskiĭ IuD, Rudichenko VF, Meleshko GI. (1977). [Effect of industrialfrequency electromagnetic fields on the spermatogenic function].Vrach Delo. 9:116-8. [Article in Russian]. No abstract available. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/919464

13. Anselmo, CWSF., PB Pereira, MTJA. Catanho and MC Medeiros, (2007). Effects of the
electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 μT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats. Braz. J. Biol., 69: 397-404. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjb/v69n2/24.pdf

14. Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. (2012). Use of laptop computers
connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. 97(1):39-45.e2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22112647

15. Avendaño, C; A. Mata; A.M. Juarez Villanueva; V.S. Martínez; C.A. Sanchez Sarmiento (2010).
Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (4), Supplement, pg. S73-S73 http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/Laptop_Expositions.pdf

16. Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900
megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health . 25(6). 377 – 384. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671630

17. Baste V, Riise T and BE Moen (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility
and sex ratio of offspring Eur J Epidemiol. 23(5):369–377 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18415687

18. Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjørge L, Mild KH. (2012). Pregnancy outcomes
after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occup Environ Med.54(4):431-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22354128

19. Bastide M, B.J. Youbicier-Simoa, J.C. Lebecq, J. Giaimis. (2001). Toxicologic study of
electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice, Indoor Built Environ. 10: 291–298. http://www.iirec.co.il/Data/FilesUploads/Bastide_Youbicier.pdf

20. Batellier F, Couty I, Picard D, Brillard JP. (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell
phone in "call" position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology. 69 (6):737-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18255134?dopt=Abstract

21. Bayat PD, Ghanbari A, Saeid B, Khazaei M, Ghorbani R, Ayubian M. (2011). Effect of
exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen. Indian J Exp Biol. 49(8):634-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870432? dopt=Abstract

22. Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and
Bracken, M.B. (1998). Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds. Epidemiology, 9: 36-42 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9430266


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 23. Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to
electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22315933

24. Beraldi R, Sciamanna I, Mangiacasale R, Lorenzini R, Spadafora C. (2003). Mouse early
embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res. 538(1-2):163-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834765

25. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

26. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

27. Bereznitskaya AN. (1968). [Certain indices of fertility in female mice irradiated with 10centimeter waves]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 12(9):33-7. [Article in Russian] No Abstract. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5731624

28. Bereznitskaya, A. N. and Rysina, T. Z. (1974). Embryotropic Effects of Microwaves. In:
Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V.,editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub.Research Service, 1974, pp. 230-36.. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

29. Bereznitskaya, A. N., and Kazhokov, I.M (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V., editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub. Research Service, 1974, pp. 221-29. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

30. Bereznitskaya, A.N. and I.M. Kazbekov (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp. 221-229 (1974). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

31. Berman E, Carter HB and House D. 1984: “Growth and development of mice offspring after
irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves”. Teratology. 30(3):393-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6515565

32. Berman E, Carter HB, House D. (1982). Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero
exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics3(2): 285-291. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7126279

33. Berman E, Carter HB. (1984). Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450MHz (CW) microwaves. Health Phys 46: 537–542. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6698781


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 34. Berman E, Kinn JB, and Carter HB (1978). Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with
2.45 GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/738884 and http://journals.lww.com/healthphysics/Abstract/1978/12000/Observations_of_Mouse_Fetuses_After_Irradiation.6.aspx

35. Berman, E.L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., et al. (1990). Development of chicken embryos
in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169–187 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2242052

36. Bernabò N, Tettamanti E, Russo V, Martelli A, Turriani M, Mattoli M, Barboni B. (2010).
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model. Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176397

37. Bernabo N., Tettamanti E., Pistilli M.G., Nardinocchi D., Berardinelli P., Mattioli M., Barboni
B. (2007). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency magnetic field on the morphology and function of boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro. Theriogenology, 67 (4), pp. 801-815 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196643

38. Blaasaas K, T Tynes, A Irgens, R Lie (2002). Risk of birth defects by parental occupational
exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study Occup Environ Med. 59(2): 92–97. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.2.92 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740256/

39. Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels
of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ; 9(2):129–140 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3377861

40. Blackman CF. (2006). Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Electromagn Biol Med. 25(4):217-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17178582

41. Blackman, C. (2009).Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more
inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology.16. 205-216. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264460

42. Borhani N, Rajaei F, Salehi Z, Javadi A. (2011). Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse
embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):246-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047462

43. Brent RL,WE Gordon, WR Bennett, DA. Beckman (1993). Reproductive and teratologic effects
of electromagnetic fields. Reprod. Toxicol. 7: 535–580. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8118107

44. Brown-Woodman PD, Hadley JA, Waterhouse J, Webster WS. (1988). Teratogenic effects of
exposure to radiofrequency radiation (27.12 MHz) from a shortwave diathermy unit. Ind Health. 26(1):1-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3283078

45. Brown-Woodman, PDC, Hadley, JA, Richardson L., Bright D. and Porter D. (1989). Evaluation
of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency field (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device. Health Physics 56(4): 521-525. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=2925391

46. Brugh VM and Lipshultz LI (2004). Male factor infertility: evaluation and management. Med.
Clin. North Am. 88(2): 367–85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15049583

47. Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztürk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. (2009). Effects of intrauterine
and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73: 391-99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19108901


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 48. Buiatti E, Barchielli A, Geddes M, Nastasi L, Kriebel D, Franchini M, Scarselli G. (1984). Risk
factors in male infertility: a case-control study. Arch Environ Health. 39(4):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6497442

49. Cairnie AB, Harding RK (1981). Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz
continuous-wave microwaves. Radiat Res 87(1):100-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7255665

50. California EMF Risk Evaluation (2002): Final Report. Chapter 13: Miscarriage.

51. Cameron IL, Hardman WE, Winters WD, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. (1993).
Environmental magnetic fields: influences on early embryogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 51(4):417-25 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8496244

52. Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). [Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70 [Article in Chinese]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978513

53. Celik O, Hascalik S. (2004). Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on foetal
heart rate patterns. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 112(1): 55-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14687739

54. Celik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdogan S, Polat S, Doran S (2011). An evaluation of the effects
of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology: 79(2): 346-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429511025933

55. Chación L, M. A. Trillo, A. Ubeda, J. Leal (1990). A 30-HZ Pulsed Magnetic Field Can Stop
Early Embryonic Development. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 9(1): 61–66. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379009027760

56. Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. (2010). Comparison of biological effects
between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. Mutat Res. 700(1-2):51-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20472095

57. Chen HY, Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zhao L, Zuo HY, Dong J, Su ZT: (2011).
[Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 17(3):214-8 [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485541

58. Cherry, N. (2002). Reproductive effects from EMF/EMR exposure. Open access report:

59. Chia SE, Tay SK. (2001). Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218
infertile and 227 fertile men. J Occup Environ Med 43: 946–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11725334?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

60. Chiang ‌ H and G. D. Yao ‌ (1987). Effects of Pulsed Microwave Radiation Pre-and Post-natally
on the Developing Brain in Mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 6(2): 197-204 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378709027739

61. Chiang H, Wu RY, Shao BJ, Fu YD, Yao GD, Lu DJ. (1995). Pulsed magnetic field from video
display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(1):70-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7748205

62. Christ A, Guldimann R, Buhlmann B, Zefferer M, Bakker JF, van Rhoon GC, Kuster N.
Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions, Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674188


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 63. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR,(2000).
Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21(7):524-537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11015117

64. Cocozza, G., A. Blasio, and B. Nunziata (1960): [Remarks on short-wave embryopathies].
Pediatria (Napoli). 68 (1): 7-23 [Article in Italian. No abstract]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=13810837

65. Colt JS and Blair A. (1998). Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.
Environ Health Perspect. 106 Suppl 3: 909-925. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9646055 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1533069/?tool=pubmed

66. Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z. Ersay AR. Sari, I. Demirtas OC, Celik MS. (1999). Wholebody microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res. 27(3):219-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10422825

67. Daşdag S, MZ Akdag, O Ayyıldız, ÖC Demirtaş, M Yayla, C Sert. (2000). Do cellular phones
alter blood parameters and birth weight of rats? Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 19(1): 107-113. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-100100301

68. Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. (2002). Der Einfluß elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die
Spermienmotilität [The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility]. Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie. 19:18-22 http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php? aid=9854&l=g

69. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. (2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive
oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One.4(7):e6446 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19649291

70. De Roos, A.J., Teschke, K., Savitz, D.A., Poole, C., Grufferman, S., Pollock, B.H. and Olsham,
A.F. (2001). Parental occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields and radiation and the incidence of Neuroblastoma in offspring. Epidemiology 12(5): 508-517. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=11505168

71. De Vita R, Cavallo D, Raganella L, Eleuteri P, Grollino MG, Calugi A. (1995). Effects of 50 Hz
magnetic fields on mouse spermatogenesis monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(5):330-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8554635

72. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the
relationship. Reprod Biomed Online.15(3):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854521

73. De-Kun Li, Roxana Odouli, S Wi, T Janevic, I Golditch, TD Bracken, R Senior, R Rankin, R
Iriye (January 2002). A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology 13 (1): 9-20 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805581

74. Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982). Embryological changes induced by
weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Anatomy 134 (3): 533–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/7107514/?tool=pubmed

75. Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis-Jones DI. (2006). Growing concern over
the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility. Arch Androl. 52(1):9–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338863

76. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative
stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7:114 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19849853


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 77. Dimitrova M, Dobrev B, Kiriakov K, Kirkov V, Panova Z (1982). [Effect of wide-band
modulated electromagnetic fields on the workers of high-frequency telephone exchanges]. Problemi na khigienata ;7:21-9 http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/7178066

78. Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2010). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in
young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. Dec 7.; doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115402 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21138897

79. Divan, HA; Kheifets, L.; Obel, C & J.Olsen (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell
Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Epidemiology.9(4). pp 523-29. http://newsatjama.jama.com/2011/08/01/author-insights-magnetic-fields-may-increaseasthma-risks/

80. Dundar B., Cesur G., Comlekci S., Songur A., Caliskan S., et al .(2009). The Effect of Prenatal
and Post-Natal Long-Term Exposure To 50 Hz Electric Field On Growth, Pubertal Development And Igf-1 Levels in Female Wistar Rats. Toxicol Ind. Health. Vol. 25, Pg. 479 – 487. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783573

81. Eckert EE.(1976). [Plötzlicher und underwarteter Tod im Kleinkindesalter und
elektromagnetische] Felder. Med Klin. 71(37):1500–05. [Article in German]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/958113

82. Environmental Health Criteria 16 (1981): Radiofrequency and Microwaves, WHO, Geneva,
Switzerland, ISBN 92- 4- 154076- 1. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc016.htm#SubSectionNumber:1.1.3

83. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim, T. Kir, E. Aydur, G. Komesli, H.C. Irkilata, M.K. Irmak, A.F.
Peker (2006). Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch. Med.Res. 37 (2006) 840–843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971222

84. Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation
induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys., 30 (1): (84-9). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460416

85. Falugi , M Grattarola, G Prestipino (1987). Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields
on the early development of sea urchins. Biophys J. 51(6): 999–1003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1330035/

86. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. (2011). The effect of pulsed
900MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 34(1):206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236367

87. Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie FlR, Toivo T, Leszczynski D & Franken DR. (2008) In vitro effect
of 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 268–276. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.20390/abstract

88. Farkhad, S.A., S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi and A. Qadiri (2007). Effects of extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on testes in Guinea pig. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 4519-4522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19093523

89. Farrell JM, Barker M., Krause D., Litovitz TA. (1997). Effects of low-frequency electromagnetic
fields on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in developing chicken embryos. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 43: 91-96. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0302459896051744

90. Fejes, Z. Závaczki, J. Szöllősi, S. Koloszár, J. Daru, L. Kovács, A. Pál. (2005). Is there a
relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch. Androl. 51: 385–393. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16087567


Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

______________________________________________________________________ 91. Figà-Talamanca I., P. Nardone, C. Giliberti. (2010). Exposure to electromagnetic fields and
human reproduction: the epidemiologic evidence. In: Non Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter , European J. OncologyLibrary.5: 387-402. L. Giuliani and M. Soffritti (eds).

92. Findlay, R.P.; Lee, AK & P. J. Dimbylow (2009): FDTD calculations of SAR for child voxel
models in different postures between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 135(4): 226-231. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589878

93. Fleming AH, Joyner KH. (1992). Estimates of absorption of radiofrequency radiation by the
embryo and fetus during pregnancy. Health Phys. 63(2):149-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1399613

94. Forgács Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay G, Bakos J, Hudák A, Surján A, Révész C, Thuróczy G. (2005).
Effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like Exposure on the Gonadal Function and Haematological Parameters of Male Mice Magy Onkol. 49(2):149-51 [Article in Hungarian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16249811

95. Forgacs Z, Z Somosy, G Kubinyi, J Bakos (2005) Effect of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like
microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 22(1): 111-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623805002716

96. Fracki S, Bablok L, Mezynski J. (1994). Fertility disturbances in males working as professional
computer operators. Ginekol Pol 65: 41–4. [Article in Polish] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8070704?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

97. Fragopouloua AF, SL Koussoulakos, and LH Margaritisa. (2010). Cranial and postcranial
skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation. Pathophysiology. 17(3):169-77; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854628

98. Frey AH. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification
due to microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a http://pdn.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277708&_user=10&_pii=S0006349578855295&_check=y &_coverDate=1978-03-31&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLbVlSzSkzV&md5=1179f0a92b804f0983aa54398572a76a/1-s2.0-S0006349578855295main.pdf

99. Frölen H, Svedenstål BM, Paulsson LE. (1993). Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on the
developing mouse embryo. Bioelectromagnetics. 14(3):197-204. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323570


Galat VV, Mezhevikina LM, Zubin MN, Lepikhov KA, Khramov RN, Chaĭlakhian LM. (1999). [Effect of millimeter waves on the early development of the mouse and sea urchin embryo]. Biofizika; 44(1):137-40. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330591 Galvin MJ, Tilson HA, Mitchell CL, Peterson J, and McRee DI.(1986). Influence of Preand Postnatal Exposure of Rats to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation on Neurobehavioral Function. Bioelectromagnetics 7: 57-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3730002 Gao XF, Wang SM, Peng RY (2007). [Status quo of the researches on the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation on the testis and epididymal sperm]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 13(9):826-9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17929563 Gildersleeve RP, Bryan TE, Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Thaxton JP. (1988). Serum enzymes in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):531-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2899471





Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Gildersleeve RP, MJGalvin, DI McRee, JP Thaxton (1986). Response of Japanese quail to hemorrhagic stress after exposure to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 85(4): 679-687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=2879671 Gildersleeve RP, Satterlee DG, McRee DI, Bryan TE, Parkhurst CR. (1988). Plasma corticosterone in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(3):415-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2896572 Goldhaber MK, Polen MR, Hiatt RA. (1988). The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. Am J Ind Med 13:695706. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3389364 Goldhaber, M. K., M. R. Polen and R. A. Hiatt. (1988). Risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 13:695-706. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3389364 Goldsworthy, A. (2011). How Smart Meters May Cause Autism and Cancer. MSCA News 6(8). Pp 2-7. http://mcs-america.org/August2011pg234567.pdf Gonet B., Kosik-Bogacka DI., Kuźna-Grygiel W. (2009). Effects of extremely lowfrequency magnetic fields on the oviposition of Drosophila melanogaster over three generations. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(8):687-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630039 Gorodetskaia SF, Kerova NI. (1966). [Changes in some functional and biochemical criteria in animal testicles under effect of three centimeter radio waves]. Fiziol Zh. 12(2):246-53. [Article in Ukrainian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5986793 Grigor'ev IuG. (2003). [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 43(5):541-3. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658287 Grigor'ev VV, Ogurtsov RP, Zubzhitskiĭ IuN: (1981). [Immunomorphologic changes in the testes upon exposure to a microwave electromagnetic field]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol; 80(2):69-75 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7020654 Gul A., Celebi H., Ugras S. (2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 280 (5): 729-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494549




108. 109.






Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010): The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1):59-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20371881 115.Gunn SA., Gould TC. Anderson,W. A. D.: The effect of microwave radiation on morphology and function of rat testis. Lab. Invest. 10:301-14, 1961.


Gutschi T, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. (2011). Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011 Mar 28. E-pub ahead of print. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21486411 Gye MC, Park CJ. (2012). Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Mar;39(1):1-9. Epub 2012 Mar 31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341445/pdf/cerm-39-1.pdf Haidt SJ, McTighe AH (1973). The effect of chronic, low-level microwave radiation on the testicles of mice. In: Maley, SW., ed. IEEE-G-MIT International Microwave Symposium, University of Colorado, June 4-6, 1973, pp. 324-325. DOI: 10.1109/GMTT.1973.1123206. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1123206&isnumber=24832




Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Hamada AJ, Singh A and Agarwal A (2011): Cell Phones and their Impact on Male Fertility: Fact or Fiction. The Open Reproductive Science Journal, Special Issue on Advances in Andrology and Male Reproductive Health 3: 125-137. http://www.benthamscience.com/open/torsj/articles/V003/SI0001TORSJ/125TORSJ.pdf Hardell L, Carlberg M, Ohlson CG, Westberg H, Eriksson M, Hansson Mild K. (2007). Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer. Int J Androl.30(2):11522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209885 Hassa H, Yalcin O, Basmak N, et al. (1999). Teratogenic effects of electromagnetic fields on the skeletal systems of rat fetuses. Tr J of Medical Sciences. 29: 555-9. http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Sag-29-5-10-98043.pdf Hatch, E.E., Linet, M.S., Kleinerman, R.A., Tarone, R.E., et al. (1998). Association between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and use of electrical appliances during pregnancy and childhood. Epidemiology 9(3): 234-245. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9583414 Hemminki K, Niemi ML, Koskinen K, Vainio H. (1980). Spontaneous abortions among women employed in the metal industry in Finland. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 47:53-60 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1650457/ Hirsh A (2003). Male subfertility. BMJ 327 (7416): 669–72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500443 Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E. & Skotte J. (1997) Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment Reprod. Toxicol. 11(6): 897 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9407601 Hong R, Liu Y, Yu YM, Hu K, Weng EQ. (2003). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on male reproduction in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 21(5):342-5. [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761395 Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ. (2005). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 23(6):414-7.[Article in Chinese]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16405771 Huuskonen H, Juutilainen J, Julkunen A, et al. (1998). Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on fetal development in CBA/Ca Mice, Bioelectromagnetics 19: 477-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=9849917 Infante-Rivand, C., (1995). Electromagnetic field exposure during pregnancy and childhood leukaemia. Lancet 346: 177. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7603238 Infante-Rivard C, Mur P, Armstrong B, Alvarez-Dardet C, Bolumar F. (1991). Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among Spanish children and mothers' occupation: a case-control study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 45(1):11-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1060694/ (Is organic dust a co-founding variable linked to EMF fields from electric sewing machines?) Ingole IV, S.K. Ghosh. (2006). Cell phone radiation and developing tissues in chicken embryo—a light microscopic study of kidneys, J. Anat. Soc. India 55: 19–23. http://medind.nic.in/jae/t06/i2/jaet06i2p19.pdf Iorio R, Delle Monache S, Bennato F, Di Bartolomeo C, Scrimaglio R, Cinque B, Colonna RC. (2011). Involvement of mitochondrial activity in mediating ELF-EMF stimulatory effect on human sperm motility. Bioelectromagnetics.32(1):15-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20690107





124. 125.




129. 130.



- 10 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Iorio R, Scrimaglio R, Rantucci E, Delle Monache S, et al (2007). A preliminary study of oscillating electromagnetic field effects on human spermatozoon motility. Bioelectromagnetics. 28(1):72-5 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17019728 Irgens A, Kruger K, Ulstein M. (1999). The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway. J Occup Environ Med 41: 1116–20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10609232?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg Ivanova LA, Kartashev AG. (1991). [The effect of alternating electric field of industrial frequency on testicles of white mice]. Fiziol Zh. 37(6):71-8. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1820954 Jensh RP, Vogel WH, Brent RL. (1983). An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted exposure of pregnant rats to 2450-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. J Toxicol Environ Health. 11(1):37-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9241682 Jensh, R.P. (1997). Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: Is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens Reprod Toxicol. 11(4):601-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9241682 Jing J, Zhang Yuhua, Yang Xiao-qian, Jiang Rongping, Guo Dong-mei, Cui Xi (2012). The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on 23 Jan 2012. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.624652 Jørgensen N, Vierula M, Jacobsen R, Pukkala E, Perheentupa A, Virtanen HE, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J. (2011). Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men. Int J Androl. 34(4 Pt 2):e37-48. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366607 Jové M, Torrente M, Gilabert R, Espinar A, Cobos P, Piera V. (1999). Effects of static electromagnetic fields on chick embryo pineal gland development. Cells Tissues Organs. 165(2):74-80 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10516420 Juutilainen J, Harri M, Saali K, Lahtinen T. (1986). Effects of 100-Hz magnetic fields with various waveforms on the development of chick embryos. Radiat Environ Biophys. 25(1):65-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3714975 Juutilainen, J., Matilainen, P., Saarikoski, S., Laara, E. and Suonio, S. (1993). Early pregnancy loss and exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 14(3): 229-236. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323573 Källén B, Malmquist G, Moritz U. (1982). Delivery outcome among physiotherapists in Sweden: is non-ionizing radiation a fetal hazard? Arch Environ Health. 37(2):81-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7073327 Kane, R.C. (2004). A Possible Association Between Fetal/neonatal Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and the Increased Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Medical Hypotheses 62, 195-197. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14962625 Kang N, Shang XJ, Huang YF. (2010). [Impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 16(11):1027-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218649 Kaplan, J., P. Polson, C. Rebert, K. Lunan, and M. Gage. (1982). Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450-Mhz electromagnetic radiation in the squirrel monkey. Radio Science., 17(5S): 135-144 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1982/RS017i05Sp0135S.shtml














- 11 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Karolinska Institute Press Release (2011). Press Release. Stockholm, Sweden: “Scientists Urge Halt of Wireless Rollout and Call for New Safety Standards: Warning Issued on Risks to Children and Pregnant Women.” http://electromagnetichealth.org/wpcontent/uploads/2011/02/Karolinska_Institute_press_release1.pdf Kesari KK and Behari J. (2010). Microwave Exposure Affecting Reproductive System in Male Rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 162 (2): 416-428. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768389 Kesari KK, Kumar S, & Behari J. (2010). Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 48(10):987-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299041 Kesari, K.K, Kumar, S & Behari, J. (2011). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 164(4):546-59 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21240569 Kesari, K.K.& Behari, J.(2008). Effect of mobile phone radiation exposure on reproductive system of male rats, IEEE: 564 – 567. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp? arnumber=4763230 Khaki AA, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Rad JS, Khaki A, Farahani RM, Zarrintan S, Nag TC (2006). The effects of an electromagnetic field on the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules of the rat: A light and transmission electron microscope study. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2006 Aug;65(3):188-94 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988914 Khaki AA, Zarrintan S, Khaki A, Zahedi A. (2008). The effects of electromagnetic field on the microstructure of seminal vesicles in rat: a light and transmission electron microscope study. Pak J Biol Sci. 11(5):692-701. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819564 Khillare B and J Behari (1998) Effect of amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation on reproduction patterns in rats. Electro and Magnetobiology 17(1), 43-55. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379809012886 Kilgallon SJ, Simmons LW. (2005). Image content influences men's semen quality. Biol Lett.;1:253-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617155/ Kilicalp D, S. Dede, Y. Deger and L. Aslan, (2009). Effects of Green Tea on Mineral Levels of Liver and Testis of Guinea Pigs Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Mobil Phones. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4: 86-92. http://scialert.net/abstract/? doi=ajava.2009.86.92 Kismali G, Ozgur E, Guler G, Akcay A, Sel T, Seyhan N. (2012). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280439 Knave B, Gamberale F, Bergström S, Birke E, Iregren A, Kolmodin-Hedman B, Wennberg A (1979). Long-term exposure to electric fields. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation of occupationally exposed workers in high-voltage substations. Scand J Work Environ Health 5(2):115-125 www.sjweh.fi Kowalczuk CI, Saunders RD, Stapleton HR. (1983). Sperm count and sperm abnormality in mice after exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation Mutat Res. 122(2):155-61 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6656806 Krueger WF, AJ Giarola, JW Bradley, A Shrekenhamer (1975). Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fecundity in the Chicken, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 247: 391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1054241 Krueger WF, Giarola AJ, Bradley JW, Daruvalla SR (1972). Influence of low-level electric and magnetic fields on the growth of young chicks. Biomed.Sci. Instrum. 9:183-86.


149. 150.





155. 156.






- 12 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Krylov VV. (2010). Effects of electromagnetic fields on parthenogenic eggs of Daphnia magna Straus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(1): 62-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658289 Kuijten RR, Bunin GR, Nass CC, and Meadows AT. (1992). Parental occupation and childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study. Cancer Res. 15; 52(4):782-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1737337 Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats. Fertil Steril. 95(4): 1500-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20723534 Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 66(7):1237-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148471/pdf/cln-66-07-1237.pdf La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, et al. (2011). Effects of the Exposure to Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature. J Androl. 2011 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799142 Lähdetie J (1995) Occupation and exposure-related studies on human sperm. J Occup Environ Med. 37: 922-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8520954 Lahijani MS, S Farivar, and M Khodaeian. (2011). Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-Catenin on the livers of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryos. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(3): 158-169. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.596603 Lahijani MS, SE Nojooshi, SF Siadat (2007). Light and Electron Microscope Studies of Effects of 50 Hz Electromagnetic Fields on Preincubated Chick Embryo. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 26(2): 83-98. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368370601185888 Lancranjan I, Miicfnescu M, Rafaili E, Klepsch I, Popescu HI. (1975). Gonadic function in workmen with long-term exposure to microwaves. Health Phys. 29:381-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1193858 Larsen A.I., (1991). Congenital malformations and exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation among Danish physiotherapists. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 17(5): 318-323. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1947917 Larsen AI, Olsen J, Svane O. (1991). Gender specific reproductive outcome and exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation among physiotherapists. Scand J Work Environ Health. 17(5):324-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1947918 Leach WM (1980). Genetic, growth, and reproductive effects of microwave radiation. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 56(2): 249-57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805139/pdf/bullnyacadmed00111-0059.pdf Lee GM., Neutra RR, Hristova L, Yost M. and Hiatt RA.(2002). A nested case-control study of residential and personal magnetic field measures and miscarriages. Epidemiology, 13: 2131. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805582 Lee, J.S., S.S. Ahn, K.C. Jung, Y.W. Kirn and S.K. Lee (2004). Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice. Asian J. Androl., 6: 29-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15064831 Lemaire, V., Koehl, M., Le Moal, M., Abrous, D.N., 2000. Prenatal stress produces learning deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. http://www.pnas.org/content/97/20/11032.full


164. 165.


167. 168.









- 13 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Lerchl A., Bornkessel C.(2010). Letter to the editor on 'effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit' by Salama et al. Int J Androl. 33: 95 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816354/?tool=pubmed Li DK, H Chen & R Odouli. (2011). Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Published online August 1, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.135. http://electromagnetichealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Li_et_al_2011.pdf Li DK, Odouli R, Wi S, Janevic T, Golditch I, Bracken TD, Senior R, Rankin R, Iriye R. (2002). A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology.13(1):9-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805581 Li DK., Yan B., Gao E., Ferber J. R., Yuan W., et al . (2010). Exposure To Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Poor Sperm Quality. Reprod Toxicol 29(1):86-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19910156 Li P., McLaughlin J., Infante-Rivard C. (2009). Maternal Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Brain Cancer In The Offspring. Cancer Causes Control. 20:945 – 955. http://www.urucan.org.uy/iah/toc/7520/2009/7520-20090800-6-15.pdf Lindbohm, M-L, Hietanen, M., Kyyronen, P., Sallmen, M., von Nandelstadh, P., Taskinen, H.,Pekkarinen, M., Ylikoski, M. and Hemminki, K., (1992). Magnetic fields of video display terminals and spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol 136:1041-1051. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1462964 Linsenmeyer T, Wilmot C, Anderson RU. (1989). The effects of the electroejaculation procedure on sperm motility. Paraplegia. 27(6):465-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2608300 Liu X. Y., Bian X. M., Han J. X., Cao Z. J., Fan G. S., Zhang C., Zhang W. L., Zhang S.Z. and Sun X. G., (2007). Risk factors for the living environment of early spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 29(5): 661-664. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18051725 Loft S, Kold-Jensen T, Hjollund NH, Giwercman A, Gyllemborg J, Ernst E, Olsen J, Scheike T, Poulsen HE, Bonde JP. (2003). Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm influences time to pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 18(6):1265-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12773457 Lokhmatova S A (1993). [An ultrastructural analysis of the testes in mice subjected to longterm exposure to a 17-kHz electrical field]. Radiobiologiia.33(3):342-6. [article in Russian]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8332711 Lokhmatova S A (1994). The effect of low-intensity prolonged impulse electromagnetic irradiation in the UHF range on the testes and the appendages of the testis in rats. Radiat Biol Radioecol 34: 279-285 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8193721 Lokhmatova SA, Pastukhova IuR. (1993). [Morphologic and histoenzymologic analysis of effect of electrical fields at 17 khz on testis and testis appendages in mice]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 27(3):50-4. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8044153 Lukac N Massanyi P, Roychoudhury S, Capcarova M, Tvrda E, Knazicka Z, Kolesarova A, Danko J. (2011). In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 46(12):141723 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21942395 Lyaginskajaa AM, Grigorieva YG, Osipova VA,. Grigorieva OA, and AV Shafirkin. (2010). Autoimmune Processes after Long-Term Low-Level Exposure to Electromagnetic














- 14 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Fields Experimental Results) Part 5. Study of the Influence of Blood Serum from Rats Exposed to Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields on Pregnancy and Fetal and Offspring Development. Biophysics, 55(6): 1059–66. http://iemfa.org/images/pdf/Autoimmune_Process_after_Long-Term_LowLeve_Exposure.pdf


Mageroy N, O J Mollerlokken, T Riise, V Koefoed, BE Moen (2006). A higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of personnel who served aboard a Norwegian missile torpedo boat. Occup Environ Med. 6392: 92-97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2078078/ Magras I.N. & T. D. Xenos (1997). RF Radiation–Induced Changes in the Prenatal Development of Mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455–461. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261543 Magras IN, Xenos TD (1997). RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics, 18: 455-461. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261543 Mailankot M, Kunnath AP, Jayalekshmi H, Koduru B, Valsalan R. (2009). Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 64(6):561-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578660 Makker K, AC Varghese, NR Desai, R Mouradi, & A Agarwal. (2009). Cell phones: modern man's nemesis. Reproductive BioMedicine .18(1) 148 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19146782 Makler A, Tatcher M, Vilensky A, Brandes JM. (1980). Factors affecting sperm motility. III. Influence of visible light and other electromagnetic radiations on human sperm velocity and survival. Fertil Steril. 33(4):439-44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7364072 Manikowska E., Luciani, J. M., Servantie, B., Czerski, P., Obrenovitch, J., & Stahl, A. (1979) Effects of 9.4 GHz microwave exposure on meiosis in mice. Experientia (Basel), 35: 388-390. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/446630 Manikowska-Czerska E, Czerski P, Leach WM. (1985). Effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on meiotic chromosomes of male CBA/CAY mice. J Hered. 76(1):71-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3980975 Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Niemiec T, Sokolska G, Troszyński M, Luczak M, Szmigielski S. (1986). Microwave radiation enhances teratogenic effect of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Biol Neonate 50(2):75-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3756258 Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Troszyński M, Szmigielski S. (1984). [Are microwaves a coteratogen? Experimental model concept and its verification]. Probl Med Wieku Rozwoj. 13:168-75. [Article in Polish]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6531346 Mariea, T.J. & G.L. Carlo. (2007). Wireless Radiation in the Etiology and Treatment of Autism: Clinical Observations and Mechanisms. J. Aust. Coll. Nutr. & Env. Med. 26 (2): 37: http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/EMR-Autism-ACNEM-final.pdf Martin A., (1988) Magnetic fields and time dependent effects on development. Bioelectromagnetics, 9: 393-396. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3190765 Martin, A.H. (1992). Development of chicken embryos following exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields with differing waveforms. Bioelectromagnetics, 13: 223-230. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1590821 McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry N, Nolin AD, Robert D. (1988). Work with visual display units in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med. 45(8):509-15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1009643/pdf/brjindmed00148-0005.pdf


193. 194.








202. 203.


- 15 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

McGivern RF, Sokol RZ, Adey WR (1990). Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats. Teratology; 41(1):1-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2106174 McGivern RF, Sokol RZ, Adey WR. (1990). Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats. Teratology. 41(1):1-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2106174 McRee DI, Thaxton JP, Parkhurst CR. (1983). Reproduction in male Japanese quail exposed to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Radiat Res. 96(1):51-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6622655 Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, Husain S, Khan MM, Imran MB. (2010). Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats. Saudi Med J. (8):869-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20714683 Meo SA, Arif M, Rashied S, Khan MM, Vohra MS, Usmani AM, Imran MB, Al-Drees AM. (2011). Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 21(5):262-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575531 Michaelson SM., Howland JW., Deichmann WB. (1971). Response of the dog to 24,000 and 1285 MHz microwave exposure. Ind. Med. 40:18-23. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5285767 Milan PB, DM Nejad, AA Ghanbari, JS Rad, HT Nasrabadi, MH Roudkenar, AM Roushandeh and M Goldust, (2011). Effects of Polygonum aviculare Herbal Extract on Sperm Parameters after EMF Exposure in Mouse. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 720-724. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2011.720.724 Milham S. (2009). Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of ‘‘diseases of civilization”. Med Hypotheses. 74(2):337-45. http://electromagnetichealth.org/pdf/MILHAM_-_HISTORICAL_EVIDENCE.pdf Muraca, Jr. GL., Ferri ES., Buchta FL (1976). A Study of the Effects of Microwave Irradiation of the Rat Testes. In: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Johnson, C. C. and Shore, M.L., editors. Rockville, Md., Food and Drug Administration (HEW Publication (FDA) 77-8010). l: 484-94. Nakamura H, Nagase H, Ogino K, Hatta K, Matsuzaki I. (2000). Uteroplacental circulatory disturbance mediated by prostaglandin F(2alpha) in rats exposed to microwaves. Reprod Toxicol 14(3):235-240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10838124 Nakamura, H, Seto, T, Hatta, K, Matsuzaki, I, Nagase, H, Yoshida, M, Ogino, K. (1998). Natural killer cell activity reduced by microwave exposure during pregnancy is mediated by opioid systems. Environ Res 79(2):106-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9841809 Nakamura, H, Seto, T, Nagase, H, Yoshida, M, Dan, S, Ogino, K. (1997). Effects of exposure to microwaves on cellular immunity and placental steroids in pregnant rats. Occup Environ Med 54(9): 676-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1128843/ Narra VR, Howell RW, Goddu SM, Rao DV. (1996) Effects of a 1.5-Tesla static magnetic field on spermatogenesis and embryogenesis in mice. Invest Radiol, 31(9): 586-590 Nawrot PS, McRee DI, Staples RE. (1981). Effects of 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation on embryofetal development in mice. Teratology. 24(3): 303-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7330780












217. 218.

- 16 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Nawrot, P.S , D. I. McRee, M. J. Galvin. (1985). Teratogenic, Biochemical, and Histological Studies with Mice Prenatally Exposed to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation. Radiation Research. 102(1): 35-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7330780 Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S. (2008). Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Res. 1238: 224-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18761003 Olsen, R.G., (1997). Insect teratogenesis in a standing-wave irradiation system. Radio Science 12: 199-207. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1977/RS012i06Sp00199.shtml Olshan AF, De Roos AJ, Teschke K, Neglia JP, Stram DO, Pollock BH, and Castleberry, R.P. (1999). Neuroblastoma and parental occupation. Cancer Causes Control 10(6):539- 49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10616823 Ossenkopp KP. (1972). Maturation and open-field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to an ELF low-intensity rotating magnetic field. Psychol Rep. 30(2):371-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5024911 Ossenkopp, K.-P., Koltek, T., & Persinger, M.A. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and increases in thyroid and testicle weights Developmental Psychobiology 5: 275-285 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4655961 Ossenkopp, KP., Koltek, T., & Persinger, M.A. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and increases in thyroid and testicle weights Developmental Psychobiology 5: 275-285 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4655961 Ostrovskaya, I.S., Yashina, L.N., and Yevtushenko, G.l. (1974). Changes in the testes of animals due to a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field. JPRS 66512, p. 51. Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO. (2010). Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 84(1):51-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19816647 Ouellet-Hellstrom R. and Stewart W. F. (1993). Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Am J Epidemiol 138(10): 775-786. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8237966 Ozguner M, Koyu A, Cesur G, Ural M, Ozguner F, Gokcimen A, Delibas N: (2005). Biological and morphological effects on the reproductive organ of rats after exposure to electromagnetic field. Saudi Med J 26(3):405-410. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/15806208? dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000,f1000m,isrctn Ozlem Nisbet H, Nisbet C, Akar A, Cevik M, Onder Karayigit M. (2011). Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats. Res Vet Sci. 2011 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22130559 Panagopoulos and Margaritis LH, (2010a): The effect of Exposure Duration on the Biological Activity of Mobile Telephony Radiation, Mutation Research, 699(1/2), 17-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399887 Panagopoulos and Margaritis LH, (2010a): The effect of Exposure Duration on the Biological Activity of Mobile Telephony Radiation, Mutation Research, 699(1/2), 17-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399887 Panagopoulos D.J., Karabarbounis A., and Margaritis L.H., (2004). Effect of GSM 900MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 23(1), 29-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17045516


221. 222.




226. 227.







- 17 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Panagopoulos DJ, A Karabarbounis, LH. Margaritis (2004). Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 23( 1): 29–43. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-120039350 Pay TL, E.C. Beyer and C.F. Reichelderjer (1972) Microwave Effects on Reproductive Capacity and Genetic Transmission in Drosophila Melanogaster. JMPEE 7(2): 75-82. http://www.jmpee.org/JMPEE_temp/7-2_bl/JMPEEA-7-2-Pg75.htm http://www.jmpee.org/JMPEE_PDFs/07-2_bl/JMPEE-Vol7-Pg75-Pay.pdf Persinger MA, Pear JJ. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and subsequent increase in conditioned suppression. Dev Psychobiol. 5(3):269–274. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4655960 Persinger, M. (1969). Open-field Behaviour in Rats Exposed Prenatally to a Low IntensityLow Frequency Rotating Magnetic Field. Developmental Psychobiology. 2/3: 168-171. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5407665 Persinger, M.A., & Ossenkopp, K.-P. (1973). Some behavioral effects of pre- and neo-natal exposure to an ELF rotating magnetic field. International Journal of Biometeorology 17: 217-220. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=4756234 Peyman A, Gabriel C, Benedickter HR, Fröhlich J. (2011). Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Phys Med Biol.56(7):N93-8. Epub 2011 Mar 2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364261 Picazo ML, De Miguel MP, Leyton V, et al. (1995). Long-term effects of ELF magnetic fields on the mouse testis and serum testosterone levels. Electro Magnetobiol 14(2): 127-34. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379509022552 Popescu HI, Lancranjan I. (1975). Spermatogenesis alterations during protracted irradiation in man. Health Phys. 28(5):567-73. [No abstract available]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=1158698 Pourlis, A.F. (2009). Reproductive and developmental effects of EMF in vertebrate models. Pathophysiology 16:179-189. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19272761 Pyrpasopoulou A, Kotoula V, Cheva A, Hytiroglou P, Nikolakaki E, Magras IN, Xenos TD, Tsiboukis TD, Karkavelas G. (2004). Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics. 25(3):216-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15042631?dopt=Abstract Rajasekaran M, Hellstrom WJ, Sparks RL, Sikka SC. (1994). Sperm-damaging effects of electric current: possible role of free radicals. Reprod Toxicol. 8(5):427-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841663 Rajendra P, HN Sujatha, D Devendranath, B Gunasekaran, RB Sashidhar, C Subramanyam, Channakeshava (2004). Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryos Biomagn Res Technol. 2: 1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC375542/ Ray, S., Behari, J., (1990). Physiological changes and rats after exposure to lower levels of microwaves. Radiation Research 123 (2): 199-202 http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/abs/10.2307/3577545?journalCode=rare Redmayne M, Smith E, Abramson MJ. (2011). Adolescent in-school cellphone habits: a census of rules, survey of their effectiveness, and fertility implications. Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Nov;32(3):354-9. Epub 2011 Sep 6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21920431








242. 243.





- 18 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Rezk A. Y., Abdulqawi K., Mustafa R. M., Abo El-Azm T. M. and Al-Inany H. (2008). Fetal and neonatal responses following maternal exposure to mobile phones, Saudi Med J 29(2): 218-223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18246230 Robinette et al (1980) Embryonic Changes Induced by Weak Extra-Low Frequency EMF's Rosli Y, Teoh PJ. (2009). The effect of low electromagnetic field in the cerebellar layers of mice. Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 601-6. http://scialert.net/abstract/? doi=jbs.2009.601.606 Roushangar L Rad JS (2007). Ultrastructural Alterations and Occurrence of Apoptosis in Developing Follicles Exposed to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field in Rat Ovary. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 4413-4419. http://scialert.net/abstract/? doi=pjbs.2007.4413.4419 Roychoudhury S, Jedlicka J, Parkanyi V, Rafay J, Ondruska L, Massanyi P, Bulla J. (2009). Influence of a 50 hz extra low frequency electromagnetic field on spermatozoa motility and fertilization rates in rabbits. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 44(10):1041-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19827497 Rubin, A. and Erdman, II, W. J. (1959). Microwave exposure of the human female pelvis during early pregnancy and prior to conception - Case reports. Am. J. Phys. Med. 38:219-20. [No abstract} http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14439864 Saito K, Kinoshita Y, Hosaka M. (1999). Direct and indirect effects of electrical stimulation on the motility of human sperm. Int J Urol. 6(4):196-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10226838 Saito K, Suzuki K, Motoyoshi S. (1991). Lethal and teratogenic effects of long-term lowintensity radio frequency radiation at 428 MHz on developing chick embryo. Teratology. 43(6):609-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1882352 Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S. (2009). The mobile phone decreases fructose but not citrate in rabbit semen: a longitudinal study. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 55:1817. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19938952 Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S. (2010). Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study, Int J Impot Res. 22(2):12733 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19940851 Salama N, T Kishimoto and Kanayama HO. (2009). Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit. International journal of andrology 33: 8894. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19076254 (see comment by Lerchl & Bornkessel). Salama N., Kishimoto T., Kanayama H. and Kagawa S. (2009) Mobile phone decreases fructose but not citrate in rabbit semen: a longitudinal study. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine 55: 181-187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19938952 Saunders RD, Kowalczuk CI. (1981). Effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and heat on mouse spermatogenic epithelium. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med 40(6):623632. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6978299 Savić T, Janać B, Todorović D, Prolić Z. (2011). The embryonic and post-embryonic development in two Drosophila species exposed to the static magnetic field of 60 mT. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(2):108-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591895 Savitz DA John EM, Kleckner RC. (1990). Magnetic Field Exposure from Electric Appliances and Childhood Cancer. American J Epidemiology.131:763-773. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2321620

249. 250.













- 19 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Saygin M, Caliskan S, Karahan N, Koyu A, Gumral N, Uguz A. (2011). Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field. Toxicol Ind Health. 27(5):455-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310776 Schnitzer PG, Olshan AF, Erickson JD. (1995). Paternal occupation and risk of birth defects in offspring. Epidemiology 6(6): 577-583 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8589087 Schrader SM, Langford RE, Turner TW, Breitenstein MJ, Clark JC, Jenkins BL, Lundy DO, Simon SD, Weyandt TB. (1998). Reproductive function in relation to duty assignments among military personnel Reprod Toxicol. 12(4):465-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9717697




Schull, W.J. & M. Otake. (1999). Cognitive Function and Prenatal Exposure To Ionizing Radiation. Teratology 59:222–26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10331523 267.Shaw, G.M., Croen, L.A., Human adverse reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic field exposures: review of epidemiologic studies. Environment Health Perspectives 1993 Dec;101 Suppl 4:107-19

268. 269.

Shine R, Peek J, Birdsall M (2008). Declining sperm quality in New Zealand over 20 years, N Z Med J, 121(1287): 50-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19098968 Shore, M. L., Felten, R. P., and Lamanna, A.: The Effect of Repetitive Prenatal Low-level Microwave Exposure on Development in the Rat. In: Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency! Microwaves-Proceedings of a Conference, Hazzard, D. G., editor. Rockville, Md., Food and Drug Administration (HEW Publication (FDA) 778026), 1977, pp. 280-88. Sigler, A. T., Lilienfeld, A. M., Cohen, B. H., et al.: Radiation exposure in parents of children with mongolism (Down's Syndrome). Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 117:374-99, 1965. Sikka SC, Wang R, Kukuy E, Walker CF, Hellstrom WJ. (1994). The detrimental effects of electric current on normal human sperm. J Androl. 15(2):145-50. http://www.andrologyjournal.org/cgi/reprint/15/2/145 Singh Y & J Behari (2005). The effect of whole body exposure of 50 GHz microwave radiation on sperm counts in rats. Proceedings of the USRI conference, New Delhi. http://ursi.org/Proceedings/ProcGA05/pdf/KP.13(0744).pdf St-Pierre LS, Mazzuchin A, Persinger MA. (2008). Altered blood chemistry and hippocampal histomorphology in adult rats following prenatal exposure to physiologicallypatterned, weak (50-500 nanoTesla range) magnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol. 84(4):325-35 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386197 St-Pierre LS, Persinger MA. (2008). Behavioral changes in adult rats after prenatal exposures to complex, weak magnetic fields. Electromagn Biol Med. 27(4):355-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19037784 Sun H, Che Y, Liu X, Zhou D, Miao Y, Ma Y. (2010). Effects of prenatal exposure to a 50Hz magnetic field on one-trial passive avoidance learning in 1-day-old chicks. Bioelectromagnetics 31 (2): 150 – 55 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19739132? dopt=Abstract Susa M, Pavicić I: (2007). [Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mammalian spermatogenesis]. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol; 58(4):449-59 [Article in Croatian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18063530 Suvorov, N.B., Boitsova, V.V., Medvedeva, M.V., Bogdanov, O.V., and Vasilevskii, N.N. (1994). The biological action of physical factors in the critical periods of embryogenesis. Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 30(6):762-768.









- 20 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Svedenstal BM, Johanson KJ. (1995). Fetal loss in mice exposed to magnetic fields during early pregnancy. Bioelectromagnetics; 16: 284-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8554628 Taskinen, H., Kyyronen, P., and Hemminki, K. (1990). Effects of ultrasound, shortwaves and physical exertion on pregnancy outcome in physiotherapists. J. of Epidemiology and Community Health, 44:196-210. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1060641/? tool=pubmed Tayefi H, A Kiray, M Kiray, BU Ergur, HA Bagriyanik, C Pekcetin, M Fidan, C Ozogul (2010). The effects of prenatal and neonatal exposure to electromagnetic fields on infant rat myocardium. Arch Med Sci 6( 6): 837-842. http://www.termedia.pl/Basic-research-Theeffects-of-prenatal-and-neonatal-exposure-to-electromagnetic-fields-on-infant-ratmyocardium,19,15969,0,1.html Tenorio BM, Jimenez GC, Morais RN, Torres SM, Albuquerque Nogueira R, Silva Junior VA (2011). Testicular development evaluation in rats exposed to 60Hz and 1mT electromagnetic field. J Appl Toxicol; 31(3):223-30 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20936650 Thornton, I.M. (2006). Out of time: A possible link between mirror neurons, autism and electromagnetic radiation . Medical Hypotheses 67: 378–382. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16530334 Tofani S, Agnesod G, Ossola P, Ferrini S, Bussi R. (1986). Effects of continuous low-level exposure to radiofrequency radiation on intrauterine development in rats. Health Phys. 51(4):489-99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3759462 Tomruk A, G Guler and A S Dincel. (2009). The Influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like Signals on Hepatic Oxidative DNA and Lipid Damage in Nonpregnant, Pregnant, and Newly born Rabbits. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. http://www.springerlink.com/content/46152j013h563535/ Tomruk A, Guler G, Dincel AS., (2010): The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem Biophys. 56(1):39-47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19851891 Troyanskiy, M. P. (1968). On the Question of Irreversible Biological Effects caused by the Chronic Influence of SHF Fields. Gigiyena i sanitariya. 12, pp. 76-79. Cited in: Radio Frequencies and Microwaves. Magnetic and Electrical Fields Yu. I. Novitskiy, Z. V. Gordon, A. S. Presman and Yu. A. Kho1odov p 146. NASA Technical Translation (1970). NASA TT F-14, 021 http://www.scribd.com/doc/25099500/The-Soviet-Classics-2 Troyanskiy, M. P. and R. I. Krug1ikov. (1968). On the Question of the Effect of SHF Electromagnetic Waves on Offspring. Collection: Gigiyena truda I bio1ogicheskoye deystviye e1ektromagnitnykh vo1n radiochastot. Moscow, pp. 157-158. Cited in: Radio Frequencies and Microwaves. Magnetic and Electrical Fields Yu. I. Novitskiy, Z. V. Gordon, A. S. Presman and Yu. A. Kho1odov p 146. NASA Technical Translation (1970). NASA TT F-14, 021 http://www.scribd.com/doc/25099500/The-Soviet-Classics-2 Trubukait B, Cekan E, Paulsson LE. (1987). Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on embryonic development in mice. In: Proceedings of the international scientific conference on work with display units, Stockholm, May 1986. Stockholm: Elsevier, 1987:68-70. Truta Z (2011). Biophysic effects of electromagnetic fields on haploid cells. PhD Dissertation. Babes-bolyai universitity of cluj-napoca. http://doctorat.ubbcluj.ro/sustinerea_publica/rezumate/2011/fizica/TRUTA_ZAMFIR_EN.p df












- 21 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Tsybulin O, E Sidorik, S Kyrylenko, D Henshel, I Yakymenko (2012). GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on 23 Jan 2012. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.624656 :


Ubeda, A., M. Trillo, L. Chacon, M. Blanco and J. Leal. (1994). Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 15: 385-398. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7802707 292.Varma, W. M. and Traboulay, Jr., E.A.: Biological effects of microwave radiation on the testes of Swiss mice. Experientia 31:301-02, 1975.


Vaughan TL, Daling JR., Starzyk PM. (1984). Fetal death and maternal occupation: An analysis of birth records in the State of Washington.. J.Occup. Med. 26(9): 676-678. http://journals.lww.com/joem/Citation/1984/09000/Fetal_Death_and_Maternal_Occupation __An_Analysis.13.aspx Wang, Xiao-Wu (2010) Mechanisms involved in the blood–testis barrier increased permeability induced by EMP. Toxicology 276(1): 58-63. http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/Wang_et_al.__2010.pdf Watson, W. C. DeHaas and S. S. Hauser. (1975). Effect of Electric Fields on Growth Rate of Embryonic Chick Tibiae in vitro. Nature 254: 331. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1118013 Wdowiak A, Wdowiak L, Wiktor H. (2007). Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Ann Agric Environ Med. 14(1):16972 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655195 Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1986). Possible effects of electric blankets and heated waterbeds on fetal development. Bioelectromagnetics. 7(1):13-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3729998 Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1989). Fetal loss associated with two seasonal sources of electromagnetic field exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 129(1):220-4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2910064 Weyandt T B, Schrader S M, Truner T W, Simon S D. (1996). Semen analysis of military personnel associated with military duty assignments. Reprod Toxicol. 10: 521-28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8946566 Whittow WG; Panagamuwa, C.J.;Edwards, R.M.and Ma, L. (2008). Indicative SAR Levels due to an active Mobile Phone in a Front Trouser Pocket in Proximity to Common Metallic Objects. Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference. 17-18 March 2008. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/3340/1/04516888.pdf Wilkins JR 3rd, and Wellage LC. (1996). Brain tumor risk in offspring of men occupationally exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Scand J Work Environ Health 22(5): 339-345. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=8923606 Xenos TD, Magras IN. In (Ed) Stavroulakis P. (2003). Low power density RF-radiation effects on experimental animal embryos and foetuses. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation.. Springer (ISBN 3-540-42989-1, 793 pages) pp 579 – 602. http://emfportal.de/viewer.php?aid=16936&l=e Yan JG, M. Agresti, T. Bruce, Y.H. Yan, A. Granlund, H.S. Matloub. (2007). Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats. Fertil. Steril. 88: 957–964. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628553 Yao G, Fu Y, Lu D. (1995). [Effects of pregnant exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets on brain catecholamine and behavior in offspring mice]. Zhonghua Yu












- 22 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012

Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 29(1):41-3 [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=7600890%20


Ye LL, Suo YS, Cao WL, Chen M. (2007). Radar radiation damages sperm quality, Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 13(9): 801-3. [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17929556 Yoshida Y, Seto T, Ohsu W, Hayashi S, Okazawa T, Nagase H, Yoshida M, Nakamura H. (1995). [Endocrine mechanism of placental circulatory disturbances induced by microwave in pregnant rats]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 47(2):101-8. [Article in Japanese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7706849 Zareen N, Khan MY & LA Minhas (2009). Dose Related Shifts In The Developmental Progress Of Chick Embryos Exposed To Mobile Phone Induced Electromagnetic Fields. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 21(1): 130-134. http://ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/PAST/211/Zareen.pdf Zareen N, Khan MY. (2008). Effect of mobile phone induced electromagnetic fields on the development of chick embryo. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 18(8):528-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18798598 Zareen, N. Khan, M Yunus. Minhas, L A. (2009). Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Congenital Anomalies.49(1): 15-9. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/cga/2009/00000049/00000001/art00004 Zhang Q, F. L. Tabrah, G. C. Whittow (1993). Effect of 60-HZ Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field on Avian Embryonic Growth and Oxygen Consumption. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 12(1): 27-37. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379309012860 Zusman I., Yaffe P, Pinus H, Ornoy A. (1990). Effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the prenatal and postnatal development in mice and rats. Teratology. 42(2):157-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2218943







The Electrosmog Bibliography Collection also contains: Autism (10 References) Blood Brain Barrier (47 References) Breast Cancer (77 References) Cataracts (61 References) Hearing (39 References) Headaches (48 References) Base Stations, TV and radio masts, Power lines (92 References) Depression and suicide (48 References) Male fertility (135 References) Prenatal Effects (166 References) Wildlife (149 References) Other EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest include: http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228470 (Conflict of interest in science) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228507 (Electrosmog and wildlife) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222035 (Electrosensitivity) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3221670 (Electrosmog and male fertility) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222195 (The precautionary principle) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3220833 (EMF-related health risks) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3651795 (2012 research - mobile phones, wifi)

- 23 -

Electrosmog and Reproduction

Updated 20 June 2012


- 24 -

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful