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CHAPTER 1 THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE Learning objectives: Inquiring about the World of Life 1.

Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences. - 1. Evolution - overarching theme 2. Emergent properties 3. Organisms interact with environment Exchanging matter, energy 4. Structure and function are correlated 5. Cells are basic unit of structure and function 6. Continuity based on heritable information 7. Feedback mechanisms 8. Scientific Inquiry 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization. -Biosphere, ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules. 3. Explain how novel (emergent) properties of life emerge from complex organization. -Emergent properties emerge from complex properties because it takes certain and specific arrangement for something to occur or to happen. The main thing to remember is that arrangement is key. 4. Describe the dilemma of reductionism. -If something is broken to simple form it will be more easy to study, but it will not function because it has been broken down so much. 5. Describe the two major dynamic processes of any ecosystem. -They house different types of animals and all ecosystems work together to form a biosphere 6. Name two characteristics shared by all cells. -Cell membrane and the cytoplasm 7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. -Prokaryotic are simple, the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane- bounded nucleus. The Eukaryotic on the other hand have a nucleus with DNA in the middle. 8. Describe the basic structure and function of DNA. -Keeps inheritance going.

9. Discuss the goals and activities of systems biology. List the three research developments that have advanced systems biology. -The goal of system biology is to find out how things work with one another such as medication affecting the body. DNA machine and other machinery 10. Explain the importance of regulatory mechanisms in living things. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback. -Negative feedback: in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows down the whole process. Positive Feedback: is when it speeds up its own production. Organizing the Diversity of Life 11. Distinguish among the three domains of life. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular, eukaryotic life. -Achaea: organisms that live in extreme conditions, bacteria: most known and widespread prokaryotic, and then Eukarya: which is all living things. 12. Explain the phrase: lifes dual nature of unity and diversity. Explain how evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living things. - Everything must work together in order so that a stable environment is able to thrive. At the same time it might diversify because it branches out. 13. Describe the observations and inferences that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution by natural selection. Observation: Variation Observation: Far more offspring than can survive Observation: Species suit there environment Inference: Individuals best-suited to the local environment more likely to survive and reproduce Inference: Over many generations - evolutionary adaptation 14. Explain why diagrams of evolutionary relationships have a treelike form. -Because animals branch out The Process of Science 15. Distinguish between discovery science and hypothesisbased science. Explain why both types of exploration contribute to our understanding of nature. 16. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data. 17. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.

18. Explain why hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable but are not provable. 19. Describe what is meant by a controlled experiment. 20. Distinguish between the everyday meaning of the term theory and its meaning to scientists. 21. Describe an example that illustrates how science may be influenced by social and cultural factors. 22. Distinguish between science and technology. Explain how science and technology are interdependent.