Harrison, and LeBlanc

2004 CBC

DESIGN OF A FULL-WIDTH, FULL-DEPTH PRECAST CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK SLAB Alex Harrison, MS, PE, CH2M HILL, Sacramento, CA N. David LeBlanc, M.Eng, P.Eng., CH2M HILL, Detroit, MI ABSTRACT The existing West Sandusky Bridge over I-75, located in Findlay, Ohio, is scheduled to be replaced with a new 170’ span hybrid steel plate girder bridge with concrete deck. In order to minimize closure times on West Sandusky Street, and reduce traffic delays on I-75 during construction, full-width, fulldepth precast concrete deck panels will be used for the construction of the bridge deck. During preliminary design, a variety of alternate precast deck slab designs were considered, and a full-width, full-depth precast deck slab was selected as the preferred alternative. The precast deck panels are posttensioned both longitudinally and transversely to minimize cracking and improve durability. The deck panels are constructed with shear stud pockets to allow for the installation of shear studs after erection and post-tensioning. During detail design, a finite element analysis of the bridge deck was carried out to determine the required level of prestressing in the deck. A time dependent analysis was subsequently carried out to determine the long term creep effects and post-tensioning losses, including the effects of restraint from the steel girders. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the optimum curing time required prior to stressing the longitudinal posttensioning tendons and grouting the shear pockets. The steel plate girders were designed for the additional long term creep effects due to the posttensioning of the deck, which imposed additional axial loads and moments on the steel girders. Keywords: Precast, Post-Tensioned, Concrete, Deck Panels

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In order to reduce traffic disruptions during construction. and high performance concrete has improved the durability of cast-in-place concrete bridge decks. full-width. and minimize impact on traffic during construction. The existing West Sandusky Bridge over I-75 in Findlay. and labor intensive. full-depth precast concrete deck panels can be used as an alternative to cast-in-place concrete decks for girder type bridges. Ohio. 2 . A bridge replacement project in Findlay. located in Findlay. full-depth precast concrete deck panel alternative will be used for the deck of the replacement bridge. a full-width. cast-in-place concrete bridge decks are still time consuming to construct. and LeBlanc INTRODUCTION 2004 CBC The majority of concrete bridge decks for steel girder bridges are constructed using cast-inplace reinforced concrete construction methods. However. and is scheduled for replacement in 2004. has been selected as a pilot project to assess the benefits of using full-depth. Ohio. is a 3 span steel rolled girder bridge with concrete riding deck.Harrison. full-width. Elevation views of the existing and new bridges are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The span of the replacement bridge is 170’. The use of high performance materials such as epoxy coated reinforcing. precast concrete deck panels. is scheduled for replacement in 2004 with a single span hybrid steel plate girder bridge. Ohio. STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION The existing West Sandusky Street Bridge over I-75. The replacement structure will consist of a single span steel plate girder bridge with a fulldepth precast concrete deck riding surface. In order to reduce construction time.

3 . The proposed cross-section is shown in Figure 3. The thickness of the top and bottom flange plates is increased at the splice points to optimize the plate girder size. The deck is supported by 4 hybrid steel plate girders spaced at 11’. consisting of 2 – 12’ lanes with 1’-6” shoulders. Splice points are located at 38 ft from the abutments for shipping purposes. consisting of ASTM A588/709 Grade 50W steel for the webs.Harrison. and ASTM A709 grade HPS70W steel for the top and bottom flanges. and 1’-6” railings on each side. 6’ sidewalks. The total girder depth at midspan is 74”. The total deck width is 41’. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC The replacement structure will carry two lanes of West Sandusky Street traffic over I-75 freeway traffic.

Costs estimates. In order to minimize disruptions to local commuters and traffic on I-75. and West Sandusky Street will be closed during construction. Bridge components are detailed in accordance with the Ohio Bridge Design Manual. A future wearing surface allowance of 60 psf is also included in the bridge design as specified by the owner. founded on H-Piles driven to bedrock. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC The bridge replacement is designed for HS25 Case II loading and Alternate Military loading. The performance of this type of bridge deck has generally been good. A top mat of epoxy coated reinforcing steel is placed above the deck panels. prestressed concrete deck panels spanning between the steel girders. A variety of precast manufacturers. In selecting the preferred alternative. The prestressing steel in the deck panels serves as the bottom mat of reinforcing. contractors.Harrison. 4 . concerns were raised regarding traffic delays on I-75 and West Sandusky Street during construction. As the bridge is located in a developed urban area. Significant traffic disruptions occur during installation and removal of the formwork for the deck cantilevers. see Figure 4. traffic detours during construction are not feasible. using the Load Factor Design Method. 2002. with a 1 week reduction in construction time. The following is a brief summary of the deck alternatives considered during preliminary design. in accordance with AASHTO ‘Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges’. and in the deck cantilevers. Placement of the reinforcement and concrete deck is also time consuming and labor intensive. construction specialists and DOT staff with previous experience in the use of full-width precast concrete deck panels were consulted. DECK PANEL ALTERNATIVES During preliminary design. construction schedules and traffic impacts on I-75 were evaluated in order to select the preferred precast concrete deck panel arrangement. a literature survey of previous bridge projects incorporating concrete deck panels was conducted. STAY-IN-PLACE FORMS The stay-in-place precast concrete deck panel alternative consists of placing 3” thick precast. This construction methodology has been used on a wide variety of projects in the past. The additional cost for this alternative over a traditional cast-in-place deck was estimated to be $20.000. The girders are supported on semi-integral abutments. but formwork would still be required to form and cast the deck cantilevers. a number of precast concrete deck panel alternatives were considered for the replacement bridge to accelerate the construction schedule. This method of construction does not require the erection of formwork between the girders. and the remainder of the deck and cantilevers is cast with normal or high performance concrete. although there have been many instances of reflective cracking occurring above the joints and the ends of the panels.

The additional cost for this alternative over a traditional cast-in-place deck was estimated to be $80. A 2” concrete overlay is placed on top of the deck panels to achieve the desired surface profile and to provide additional protection to the top deck surface. and post-tensioning the deck in the transverse and longitudinal directions. 5 . Placement and curing of the concrete overlay would also prolong the construction schedule of the bridge deck. Fabrication of the precast panels in a controlled environment provides good quality control. The concrete overlay also provides an additional layer of protection for the deck. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC FULL-DEPTH PRECAST DECK PANELS WITH CONCRETE TOPPING The full-width precast concrete deck panel alternative consists of placing 8” thick precast. Although this method of construction does not require erection of formwork. The deck panel segments are approximately 10’ to 12’ wide.000. with a 4 week reduction in construction time. minor disruptions to traffic occur during the erection of the deck panels. or a shear keyway is provided between panels and the keyway grouted after erection. which are grouted after post-tensioning.Harrison. grouting of joints. and are either match cast and epoxied to ensure a proper fit. prestressed deck panels over the full width of the bridge. see Figure 5. Past performance of this type of deck panel system has generally been good. and placement of the concrete overlay. Shear stud pockets are blocked out of the deck panels to allow shear studs to be installed on the top flange of the girders.

Pockets are blocked out of the deck panels to allow shear studs to be installed on the top flange of the girders. Good to excellent joint performance has been reported for deck panels post-tensioned longitudinally. minimizing disruption to traffic during construction. and post-tensioning the panels both longitudinally and transversely. a number of cases of poor performances of the joints between deck panels have been reported. and are either match cast and epoxied to ensure a proper fit. or a shear keyway is provided between panels and the keyway grouted after erection. resulting in accelerated deterioration of the bridge deck. Post-tensioning of the decks significantly improves the bridge deck performance by maintaining the joints between deck panels in compression. Fabrication of the precast panels in a controlled environment provides good quality control. This method of construction also requires the least amount of time to construct. However. On this basis. which are grouted after post-tensioning. The deck end blocks at the abutments are cast after post-tensioning. The poor performance with some of the bridge decks appears to have been due too little or no prestressing of the deck joints. this alternative was selected as the preferred deck 6 . and LeBlanc 2004 CBC FULL-DEPTH PRECAST DECK PANELS The full-depth precast concrete deck panels alternative consists of constructing the entire deck with precast panels.Harrison. The deck panel segments are approximately 10’ to 12’ wide. The gap between the top flange of the girder and the deck underside is grouted after erection and post-tensioning in order to achieve the desired deck profile. Past performance of this type of deck panel system has varied significantly.

with a 5 week reduction in construction time. DECK PANEL DETAILS A preliminary structural evaluation of the bridge deck was carried out in order to determine the required level of prestressing in the deck. and increased the time required for lifting operations during erection. but was not pursued due to the additional weight of the sidewalks. a refined finite element analysis and a time dependent structural analysis was carried out to design the deck slab and steel plate girders. The additional cost for this alternative over a traditional cast-inplace deck was estimated to be $100. a significant effort was made during preliminary design to incorporate details into the deck panels which would simplify fabrication and construction. and to develop preliminary deck panel details. Consideration was also given to precasting the panels with the sidewalks. A ten foot wide full-width precast deck panel configuration was chosen. as shown in Figure 6.Harrison. Larger panel sizes would have resulted in handling and transportation difficulties due to the additional weight of the panels. Subsequently. resulting in 17 panel units. Smaller sized units would have increased the number of joints in the deck. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC for the bridge replacement. As local contractors and precast fabricators do not have much experience in the fabrication and construction of concrete deck panels.000. prolonging the construction schedule. 7 .

as they are simpler to splice and will facilitate placement of the longitudinal prestressing strands through the ducts after installing the panels and grouting the shear keyways. Round ducts were therefore selected for the longitudinal direction. The transverse ducts are stressed in the plant to prevent cracking during handling and transportation. However flat ducts are difficult to splice and feed strands through.Harrison. The round ducts are placed along the centerline of the slab in the longitudinal direction. A thixotropic non-shrink grout was specified for grouting of the tendons. 8 . This duct arrangement was selected to minimize the eccentricity of the centroid of the prestressing and the centroid of the deck. A combination of round and flat ducts was selected as the preferred alternative. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC POST-TENSIONING ARRANGEMENT A variety of flat and round post-tensioning duct arrangements were considered during preliminary design. are were galvanized for additional protection. Flat ducts are used in the transverse direction over the full width of the deck panels. which allow for a thinner deck thickness. The ducts are draped slightly at the ends to maintain minimum cover to the tendon anchors. and the flat ducts alternate above and below the longitudinal ducts in the transverse direction. as they have a shallower duct profile. Typical views of the longitudinal and transverse post-tensioning arrangement are given in Figures 7 and 8. Internal type anchorages were specified for both the transverse and longitudinal tendons.

The haunches are grouted along with the shear stud pockets. after stressing of the longitudinal tendons. The shear stud pockets are grouted along with the girder haunches after all post-tensioning operations have been completed to ensure post-tensioning forces are not transferred to the steel plate girders during stressing operations. Shear studs are required between the girders and the precast deck to develop the composite action of the slab. 12” x 12” wide and spaced at 2’ centers are located in the deck panels over the girder top flanges to allow shear studs to be installed in the field. shaped to match the final road profile forms the haunch. A variety of methods were considered to form the haunch between the deck panels and the top of the girder flange. 9 . see Figure 9. A bedding strip of rigid insulation glued to the edge of the top flange on both sides. Each block-out contains two rows of three 7/8” diameter shear studs which are installed after erection of the deck panels. Leveling bolts are used to make any adjustments to the final grade once the deck panels are in place.Harrison. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC SHEAR STUD POCKETS The concrete deck is designed to act compositely with the steel plate girders to minimize the required steel plate girder size. Bevelled shear stud pockets.

and LeBlanc 2004 CBC TRANSVERSE SHEAR KEYWAY JOINT A grouted shear keyway joint is detailed for the transverse joint between the deck panels. as grouted shear keyway joints have a greater allowance for out-of-tolerance in the fabrication of the deck panels. Match casting was not considered to be practical for the transverse joints.Harrison. 10 . see Figure 10. A ¾” backing rod is placed at the bottom of the keyway to prevent grout from leaking through the joint. The post-tensioning ducts between adjacent panels are connected with duct couplers.

This level of prestressing would ensure the joints remain in compression under all loading conditions. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The structural design of the deck panels and steel girders was carried out in two parts. The finite element model consisted of plate elements to model the concrete deck. an initial structural analysis was carried out to determine the required deck configuration. and to determine the additional stresses in the plate girders due to load redistribution effects. a refined analysis was carried out to determine the long term load redistribution effects due to creep. temperature effects. The loading conditions included all applicable dead loads. The refined analysis consisted of a finite element analysis of the deck and girder to determine the imposed stresses in the bridge deck due to dead and live loads. which will be cast-in-place after stressing of the longitudinal tendons. Subsequently. The longitudinal prestressing was therefore designed for 400 psi compression in the bridge deck in both directions. During preliminary design. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC DECK DETAILS In order to provide a good riding surface. and beam elements to model the girders.Harrison. The sidewalks will be cast-in-place after erection and stressing of the deck. and preliminary plate girder sizes. The time-dependent analysis was carried out to determine the effects of creep and prestressing losses. Previous studies have indicated that the performance of the transverse joints in precast deck panels is significantly improved if the decks are post-tensioned and maintained in compression. The precast decks will be terminated short of the concrete diaphragms. the magnitude of prestressing losses over time. as well as temperature and shrinkage effects. live loads. The results of the analysis indicated that a minimum compressive stress of 400 psi was required to ensure the deck joints do not go into tension under any loading condition. the deck panels will be fabricated to a 10 ¼” thickness. and subsequently milled longitudinally to 9 ¾” after construction. and the additional stresses imposed on 11 . The final top and bottom covers are 2” and 1” respectively in accordance with AASHTO specifications for precast concrete. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS A finite element analysis was carried out using SAP 2000 software to determine the magnitude of tensile stresses and the required level of prestressing in the bridge deck. Milling the deck will also improve the long term durability of the deck by smoothing out the transverse joints. TIME DEPENDENT ANALYSIS A time dependent analysis was performed to determine the load redistribution effects of creep. prestressing layout and forces. as well as shrinkage of the concrete deck.

The entire width of the bridge deck was modelled in BD2. The actual construction sequence of the bridge deck was modelled in the analysis. In order to minimize additional loads imposed on the deck girders due to creep effects. Figure 11. rigid links were added to the model between the centroid of the concrete deck and the centroid of the steel plate girders to model the composite action of the bridge deck.Harrison. and incorporated into the design of the deck panels and plate girders. The time dependent concrete material properties were determined in accordance with Comite Euro-International du Beton. Model Description The girders and deck were modeled as two independent elements. Time Dependent Model Construction Sequence The time dependent analysis was carried out to reflect the actual construction sequence of the bridge deck. considering loading conditions and structural configuration of the bridge at each stage of the analysis. prestressing. Prior to grouting the shear stud pocket. 1990. 12 . This analysis tool uses matrix analysis and time dependent material properties to determine the force effects in each structural component over time. The first model assumed that the deck was cast 45 days prior to stressing the longitudinal tendons. the effects of concrete age of the precast deck panels at the time of stressing the longitudinal post-tensioning tendons could be determined. The second model assumed that the longitudinal tendons were stressed after 7 days. the effects of age of the precast deck panels at the time of stressing was considered. The time dependent analysis for dead load. After grouting of the shear stud pockets. CEB-FIP Model Code. creep and shrinkage was performed using Bridge Designer II (BD2). and LeBlanc 2004 CBC the plate girders. By comparing the difference between the two models. Loads were applied to the model as they would be applied in the field. the deck was assumed to be sitting on top of the plate girders. with no composite action.

Harrison. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC The construction sequence modeled in the BD2 analysis program for the 7 day and 45 day model is given in Figure 12. Construction Sequence 13 . Figure 12.

The diagrams given in Figure 13 give the time related parameter curves used in the BD2 model.Harrison. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC Time Dependent Properties All time dependent properties for the concrete deck panels were calculated in accordance with the CEB FIP 90 for creep parameters. and ACI 2009R-82 for time related changes in Modulus of Elasticity. Deck Modulo of Elasticity vs Time as us ACI 209R-82 equation 2-5 Post Tension Steel Relaxation vs Time as per AASHTO "Guide Specification for the Design and Construction of Segmental 14 .

Harrison. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC Creep Coefficient Term as per CEB-FIP 90 Equation 2.1-68 15 .1-70 Creep Coefficient Term as per CEB-FIP 90 Equation 2.

7 k. or 11% greater than the 45 day cycle.5 k. The additional axial load acting on each individual girder is 380 kips at the splice location and 437. For the 7 day cycle.ft and 1875. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC Creep Coefficient Term as per CEB-FIP 90 Equation 2. Time Dependent Concrete Properties Time Dependent Analysis Results The results of the time dependent analysis indicate an 11. 16 . The increase in compressive stress is greatest at the splice point location. and the corresponding bending moments acting on the steel section only are 1621. The unfactored stress history of the bottom and top flanges at the splice locations is given in Figures 14 and 15.1-79 Figure 13.5 kips at midspan. and bending due to the eccentricity of the axial load. where the top flange changes in thickness.5 ksi increase in compressive girder stress in the top flange due creep and shrinkage for the 45 day cycle.8 ksi.ft respectively.Harrison. the increase in compressive stress is 12. The additional stress results from a combination of axial load due to creep.

Unfactored Stresses in the Bottom and Top Flanges 17 .Harrison. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC Figures 14 and 15.

and bending moments acting at the splice points. The age of the deck panels at the time of stressing the longitudinal post-tensioning tendons was also considered. shear stud pockets. connections. The factored stresses were limited to allowable values given in AASHTO. and added to the dead and live load effects to design the splice connection. and to 400 psi the 7 day cycle.Harrison. This increase is stress indicates the load redistribution from the deck to the plate girders due to creep. axial loads. and a minimum compressive stress of over 400 psi is provided in the deck to minimize cracking. with an additional 0. and other components also needed to incorporate the results of the time dependent analysis. the additional stresses in the girders could be reduced by 11%. full-depth precast concrete deck to reduce construction time and traffic disruptions during construction. The long term prestressing losses were also reduced through additional curing time. The gradually rise in stress after application of ADL indicates the increase in stress from the time the deck is composite until 25 years and 75 years time. The results indicated a significant increase in top flange stress due to load redistribution effects over time. A time dependent analysis was carried out to determine the effects of long term creep. The additional stresses acting on the girders at the splice locations were converted to additional shears. based on the Hybrid Steel Girder properties. The additional stresses calculated by BD2 were applied to the naked girder section. STEEL PLATE GIRDER DESIGN The design of the steel plate girders included the time dependent effects from the BD2 analysis.2”. 18 . and improve the long term durability of the precast concrete deck. CONCLUSIONS The proposed West Sandusky Street bridge replacement over I-75 features the use of a fullwidth. The compressive stress in the deck decreased from 435 psi at the time of stress to 405 psi for the 45 day cycle. In addition to the increase in stresses on the girders. and were added to previously calculated dead and live load stresses. and it was found that by delaying the stressing from 7 to 45 days.65” shortening occurring at 75 years. attention was given to developing details for the transverse joints. and LeBlanc 2004 CBC The jumps in girder stress indicate the application of loads and changes in structural configuration. During preliminary design. The shortening of the deck at time of stressing was calculated to be 0. Other components were also designed for the additional time dependent effects. post-tensioning losses and additional stresses in the plate girders. haunches and post-tensioning arrangement to address constructibility concerns associated with this type of construction. the design of the splices.

Idriss. M. M. and Baishya. 2004 CBC Yamane.. 40. Jan-February 1995. 43. PCI Journal. S. 43. Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deck Panels”.. pp. No. CEB-FIP Model Code... Khayyat. Khayyat. M. PCI Journal. and Khayyat. Issa. Yousif. A. Badie. M... 2. 1990.. January-February 1998. Issa. PCI Journal. 5066 Issa. No. I. 19 . Yousif. Kaspar. I. May-June 1998. “Full Depth Precast. A. V.. Tadros.. 40. “Analysis of Full Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck Panels”... I. M. 59-80 Comite Euro-International du Beton.. Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deck System”. S. “Full Depth Precast and Precast. Kaspar. M. S. V. 1.. No. 4. I. 74-85 Issa. 3. pp. S. May-June 1995. 82-108 Issa. 5. pp.. and LeBlanc REFERENCES 1. 1. No.. M.. 3. “Field Performance of Full Depth Precast Concrete Panels in Bridge Deck Construction”. T. PCI Journal.Harrison. 3. Kaspar.. V.. pp. V.

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