# Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic

【CH31】Alternating Fields and Current 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, 21, 25, 29, 33, 36, 37, 45, 51, 55, 57, 63, 65 【Problem 31-7】 The energy in an oscillating LC circuit containing a 1.25 H inductor is 5.7 µ J . The maximum charge on the capacitor is 175µ C . For a mechanical system with the same period, find the (a) mass, (b) spring constant, (c) maximum displacement, and (d) maximum speed. <解>：(a) The mass m corresponds to the inductance, so m = 1.25 kg. (b) The spring constant k corresponds to the reciprocal of the capacitance. Since the total energy is given by U = Q2/2C, where Q is the maximum charge on the capacitor and C is the capacitance, 175 × 10−6 C Q2 C= = = 2.69 × 10−3 F −6 2U 2 5.70 × 10 J And k = 1 = 372 N / m. 2.69 × 10−3 m / N

c c

h h
2

(c) The maximum displacement corresponds to the maximum charge, so xmax = 1.75 ×10−4 m. (d) The maximum speed vmax corresponds to the maximum current. The maximum current is I = Qω = Q = LC 125 c . 2 b Hg.69 × 10 Fh
−3

175 × 10−6 C

= 3.02 × 10−3 A.

Consequently, vmax = 3.02 × 10–3 m/s. 【Problem 31-9】 In an oscillating LC circuit with L = 50mH and C = 4 µ F , the current is initially a maximum. How long will it take before the capacitor is fully charged for the first time? <解>：The time required is t = T/4, where the period is given by T = 2 π / ω = 2 π LC. Consequently, T 2 π LC 2 π t= = = 4 4 【Problem 31-11】

0. 4 b050 Hg.0 × 10 Fh 7.0 × 10 c =
−6

−4

4

s.

the capacitor is charged to V = 34. (a) What is the ratio of maximum frequency to minimum frequency that can be obtained with such a capacitor? If this circuit is to obtain frequencies from 0.2µ F .20 × 10−6 F c h c h (b) When the switch is thrown. and L = 54mH . Consequently.0 × 10 −3 H 6.2 ×10−6 F )(34V ) = 2. The switch is kept in position a for a long time and then thrown to position b. Thus. What are the (a) frequency and (b) current amplitude of the resulting oscillations? （圖 31-28） <解>：(a) After the switch is thrown to position b the circuit is an LC circuit. LC f = ω 1 1 = = = 275 Hz. this range can be adjusted. The angular frequency 1 of oscillation is ω = . and the ideal battery has emf ε = 34V . the maximum charge on the capacitor is Q = CV = (6.11×10−4 C .0 V and the current is zero. b g c h 【Problem 31-15】 A variable capacitor with a range from 10 to 365 pF is used with a coil to form a variable-frequency LC circuit to tune the input to a radio.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 In Fig. R = 14Ω . 2 π 2 π LC 2 π 54. Consequently. C = 6.60 MHz. The current amplitude is I = ωQ = 2 πfQ = 2 π 275 Hz 2. the smaller value of C gives the larger value of f.11 × 10−4 C = 0. and 第 2 頁，共 13 頁 . (b) what capacitance should be added and (c) what inductance should the coil have? <解>：(a) Since the frequency of oscillation f is related to the inductance L and capacitance C by f = 1 / 2 π LC . f max = 1 / 2 π LCmin .365 A. By adding a capacitor in parallel to the variable capacitor. To obtain the desired frequency range. the ratio computed in (a) is too large. f min = 1 / 2 π LCmax . 31-28.54 MHz to 1.

【Problem 31-19】 In an oscillating LC circuit.98 ×10−6 J. b96g− 1 2 2 (c) We solve f = 1 / 2 π LC for L. f min Cmin 10 pF (b) An additional capacitance C is chosen so the ratio of the frequencies is 160 MHz . (b) the maximum charge on the capacitor. r= = 2.80 ×10 F ) −6 A) 2 ( 25. If C is in picofarads (pF). the charge on the capacitor is 3. then C + 365 pF C + 10 pF = 2.0. What then is φ ? <解>：(a) The total energy U is the sum of the energies in the inductor and capacitor: U =U E +UB = −6 q2 i2 L + 2C 2 2 −3 ( 3. The solution for C is 365 − 2.8µ F .54 × 10 Hzh 2π c 0 c 2 2 2 −12 6 2 1 = 1 = 2. and (c) the maximum current? (d) If the charge on the capacitor is given by q = Q cos(ωt + φ ) .20 ×10 = 2 ( 7. its capacitance adds to that of the tuning capacitor.8µ C . . and the capacitor is charging.54 MHz Since the additional capacitor is in parallel with the tuning capacitor.54 MHz. Thus L= 2 π Cf bg bg401 × 10 Fh. .2 × 10−4 H.80 × 10 −6 F 198 × 10 −6 J = 556 × 10 −6 C. 第 3 頁，共 13 頁 c c h h . except that the capacitor is discharging at t = 0 . For the minimum frequency C = 365 pF + 36 pF = 401 pF and f = 0. b pFgb96g10 pFg 36 pF. What are (a) the total energy in the circuit.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 Cmax 365 pF f max = = = 6.80 ×10 C ) + ( 9. 0.96.96. At time t = 0 the current is 9.20 mA. what is the phase angle φ ? (e) Suppose the data are the same. L = 25mH and C = 7. (b) We solve U = Q2/2C for the maximum charge: Q = 2CU = 2 7. b = C= 2.0 ×10 −3 H) 2 = 1.

q 380 GJ G × 10 C J Q 556 . The current (as a function of time) is i= dq = ωQ cos ωt . L = 3mH and C = 2. for φ = –46.00 × 10 Hh. b gc. and (c) what is that greatest rate? <解>：(a) The charge (as a function of time) is given by q = Q sin ωt .9°) is negative. the correct value for increasing charge is φ = –46.00 A 3 2 = . which we wish to be positive.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 (c) From U = I2L/2. At t = 0 the charge on the capacitor is zero and the current is 2. it is I = ω Q.9° . Since sin(+46. (b) The energy stored in the capacitor is given by q 2 Q 2 sin 2 ωt = 2C 2C and its rate of change is UE = dU E Q 2ω sin ωt cos ωt = dt C 1 We use the trigonometric identity cosωt sin ωt = 2 sin 2ωt to write this as bg 第 4 頁，共 13 頁 . A sine function was chosen so that q = 0 at time t = 0. 2U I= = = 126 × 10−2 A. 【Problem 31-21】 In an oscillating LC circuit. then q0 = Q cos φ and c h φ = cos−1 F I = cos F. we take φ = +46.00 A.7 µ F . Thus.9°. (e) Now we want the derivative to be negative and sin φ to be positive. .9°. × 10 C I = ±46. We obtain –ω Q sin φ . HK H K −1 −6 −6 For φ = +46. where Q is the maximum charge on the capacitor and ω is the angular frequency of oscillation. (a) What is the maximum charge that will appear on the capacitor? (b) At what earliest time t > 0 is the rate at which energy is stored in the capacitor greatest. Q = I LC = 2.0 × 10 −3 H (d) If q0 is the charge on the capacitor at time t = 0. Since ω = 1/ LC . we find the maximum current: 2 198 × 10−6 J . To check this.9° it is increasing.9° the charge on the capacitor is decreasing. we calculate the derivative of q with respect to time.9°) is positive and sin(– 46.70 × 10 Fh 180 × 10 c −3 −6 −4 C. L 25. evaluated for t = 0. dt and at t = 0.

we obtain ln F I = − Rt q G J 2L Q HK max which leads to 2 L  qmax R=− ln  t  Q 【Problem 31-29】 第 5 頁，共 13 頁 2 ( 220 ×10−3 H )  ln ( 0.70 × 10 Fh 5.00 × 10 Hh.7 W.0% of its initial value in 50.66 × 10−3 Ω .655 × 10 c 180 . dt max 2TC TC t= F I G J H K E Now T = 2 π LC = 2 π 3 2 = c.99 ) = 8.655 × 10 sh. 【Problem 31-25】 What resistance R should be connected in series with an inductance L = 220mH and capacitance C = 12 µ F for the maximum charge on the capacitor to decay to 99. 4ω 4 4 (c) Substituting ω = 2π/T and sin(2ω t) = 1 into dUE/dt = (ω Q2/2C) sin(2ω t). The time required for 50 cycles (with 3 significant figures understood) is  2π  t = 50T = 50   = 50 2π LC = 50 2π ω  = 0. dU F I = πc × 10 Ch = 66.70 ×10−6 F) = 7.07 ×10−5 s.0 ×10 F) ) −3 −6 The maximum charge on the capacitor decays according to q max = Qe − Rt / 2 L (this is called the exponentially decaying amplitude in §31-5). where Q is the charge at time t = 0 (if we take φ = 0 in Eq. 31-25).5104s. Dividing by Q and taking the natural logarithm of both sides. This means bg π π π = LC = ( 3. we obtain dU E 2 πQ 2 πQ 2 = = . =− 0.0 cycles? (Assume ω ′ ≈ ω .70 × 10 Fh H K 5 dt 2 c −3 −6 −4 2 max −4 −6 −4 s.5104s  . ( ) ( ( 220 ×10 H ) ( 12.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 dU E ωQ 2 = sin 2ωt . G J c. indicating that the energy in the capacitor is indeed increasing at t = T/8. we may write T = 2π/ω as the period and ω = 1/ LC as the angular frequency.00 ×10−3 H ) ( 2.) <解>：Since ω ≈ ω '. dt 2C The greatest rate of change occurs when sin(2ω t) = 1 or 2ω t = π/2 rad. so We note that this is a positive result.

At what time after t = 0 4 does (a) the generator emf first reach a maximum and (b) the current first reach a maximum? (c) The circuit contains a single element other than the generator.0×10 H)(10 ×10 F) (b) The inductive reactance is XL = ω dL = 2πfdL = 2π(650 Hz)(6. the same as we found in part (a). inductance. Therefore. an inductor. (d) What is the value of the capacitance.73 × 10−3 s . or a resistor? Justify your answer. 4ω d 4(350 rad / s) (b) The current is a maximum when sin(ω dt – 3π/4) = 1.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 (a) At what frequency would a 6. The current 4 produced in a connected circuit is i (t ) = I sin(ωd t − 3π ) .0 × 10–3 H) = 24 Ω. where I = 620mA . −3 −6 2π 2π LC 2π (6. . where ε m = 30V and ωd = 350rad / s . or resistance. The first time this occurs after t = 0 is when ω dt – 3π/4 = π/2 (as in part (a). or ω dt – 3π/4 = (π/2) ± 2nπ [n = integer]. or ω d = 1/ LC . and the capacitive reactance is given by XC = 1/ω dC. Therefore. The frequency is fd = ωd 1 1 = = = 6.5 ×102 Hz. n = 0). The two reactances are equal if ω dL = 1/ω dC. The capacitive reactance has the same value at this frequency. 5π 5π t= = = 112 × 10−2 s . as the case may be? <解>：(a) The generator emf is a maximum when sin(ω dt – π/4) = 1 or ω dt – π/4 = (π/2) ± 2nπ [n = integer]. <解>：(a) The inductive reactance for angular frequency ω d is given by X L = ωd L . Is it a capacitor. n = 0). The first time this occurs after t = 0 is when ω dt – π/4 = π/2 (that is. 4ω d 4(350 rad / s) 第 6 頁，共 13 頁 .0 mH inductor and a 10 _F capacitor have the same reactance? (b) What would the reactance be? (c) Show that this frequency would be the natural frequency of an oscillating circuit with the same L and C. 3π 3π t= = = 6. (c) The natural frequency for free LC oscillations is f = ω / 2π = 1/ 2π LC . 【Problem 31-33】 π An ac generator has emf ε = ε m sin(ωd t − ) .

Therefore.0 = 2. but at resonance the impedance Z becomes purely resistive (Z = R) so that we can divide the emf amplitude by the current amplitude at resonance to find R: 8. and ε m = 36V . the amplitude of the potential difference across the element must be the same as the amplitude of the generator emf: VL = εm.7 Ω remain unchanged. εm = Iω dL and ε 30. Thus. (d) The current amplitude I is related to the voltage amplitude VL by VL = IXL. so the circuit element must be an inductor. where the vertical axis scale is set by I s = 4 A . (b) φ . 31-7 and set R = 200Ω . 31-4) C = (ω 2L)−1 = [(25000)2 ×200 × 10−6]−1 = 8. where XL is the inductive reactance. which means (using Eq. What are (a) Z . 【Problem 31-37】 Remove the capacitor from the circuit in Fig.0/4.0 A. the impedance is 第 7 頁，共 13 頁 . and the emf amplitude is 8. given by XL = ω dL. Furthermore. while R = 200 Ω and XL = ω L = 2πfdL = 86.0 µF. 31-29.0 V. What are (a) C and (b) R? （圖 31-29） <解>：(a) The graph shows that the resonance angular frequency is 25000 rad/s. . and (c) I ? (d) Draw a phasor diagram.0V L= m = = 0138 H. since there is only one element in the circuit. (b) The graph also shows that the current amplitude at resonance is 4. −3 Iω d (620 × 10 A)(350 rad / s) 【Problem 31-36】 The current amplitude I versus driving angular frequency ωd for a driven RLC circuit is given in Fig.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 (c) The current lags the emf by +π / 2 rad. f d = 60 Hz .0 Ω. （圖 31-7） <解>：(a) Now XC = 0. The inductance is 200 µ H . L = 230mH .

(b) The phase angle is.165 A)(200 Ω) ≈ 33V VL = IX L = (0.165 A . and ε m = 30V . 31-7 has R = 5Ω . Z 218 Ω (d) We first find the voltage amplitudes across the circuit elements: VR = IR = (0.3V This is an inductive circuit.  X − XC φ = tan −1  L R   −1  86. so εm leads I. 31-16? (b) What is this maximum value? At what (c) lower angular frequency ωd 1 and (d) higher angular frequency ωd 2 will the current amplitude be half this maximum value? (e) What is the fractional half-width ωd 1 − ωd 2 of the resonance curve for this circuit? ω （圖 31-7） <解>：(a) For a given amplitude εm of the generator emf.7Ω) ≈ 14.165A)(86.  = tan    200 Ω  (c) The current amplitude is now found to be ε 36. C = 20 µ F .7 Ω)2 = 218 Ω .4° . The phasor diagram is drawn to scale below. L = 1H . (a) At what angular frequency ωd will the current amplitude have its maximum value. the current amplitude is given by 第 8 頁，共 13 頁 .0 V I= m = = 0.7 Ω − 0   = 23. as in the resonance curves of Fig. 31-65. from Eq. 【Problem 31-45】 An RLC circuit such as that of Fig.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 2 Z = R 2 + X L = (200 Ω)2 + (86.

it does so for ω d = 1/ LC = ω .0 ×10−6 F) 3(20.00 A .0 × 10−6 F) .00 Ω)2 + 4(1. Z R 2 + (ω d L −1/ ωd C )2 We find the maximum by setting the derivative with respect to ω d equal to zero: dI 1 = − ( E ) m [ R 2 + (ω d L − 1 / ω d C ) 2 ]−3/ 2 ω d L − dω d ωdC L M N OL + 1 O L .00 Ω) ω2 = = 2 LC 2(1. we obtain ω 2 ( LC ) ± ω d d d3CRi− 1 = 0 . ωd = = 224 rad / s . For this 1 = LC 1 (100 H)(20. (d) The largest positive solution 第 9 頁，共 13 頁 . Using the quadratic formula.00 Ω (c) We want to find the (positive) values of ω d for which I = ε m / 2 R : εm R 2 + (ω d L − 1/ ω d C )2 = εm . ω G ω CJ H K 2 2 d d Taking the square root of both sides (acknowledging the two ± roots) and multiplying by ω d C .00 H)(20.00 H)(20. we find the smallest positive solution − 3CR + 3C 2 R 2 + 4 LC − 3(20. 2R This may be rearranged to yield F L − 1 I = 3R . and the current amplitude is ε 30. P ω CP M Q Q N 2 d The only factor that can equal zero is ω d L − (1 / ω d C ) . (b) When ω d = ω .0 V I= m = = 6.0 × 10−6 F) = 219 rad/s . the impedance is Z = R.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 I= εm εm = .0 ×10−6 F)2 (5.0 ×10−6 F) + 2(1. R 5.00 H)(20.0 × 10−6 F)(5.

(a) What is the resonant frequency of the circuit? (Hint: See Problem 47 in Chapter 30. (c) L1 is increased.30 × 10−3 H 4. inductances L1 = 1. ω0 224 rad/s 【Problem 31-51】 In Fig.00 Ω) ω1 = = 2 LC 2(1.) What happens to the resonant frequency if (b) R is increased. (b) The resonant frequency does not depend on R so it will not change as R increases. (e) The fractional width is ω1 − ω 2 228rad/s − 219rad/s = = 0. C2 = 2. −1/2 (d) Since ω ∝ Ceq and Ceq decreases as C3 is removed.5µ F . 31-33.50 × 10−6 F .5µ F . ω will increase.0 × 10−6 F) + 2(1.50 × 10−6 F + 3.00 H)(20. a generator with an adjustable frequency of oscillation is connected to resistance R = 100Ω .00 Ω)2 + 4(1.00 H)(20. it will decrease as L1 increases.040.0 × 10−6 F)2 (5.00 H)(20.00 × 10−6 F + 2. and (d) C3 is removed from the circuit? （圖 31-33） <解>：(a) Since Leq = L1 + L2 and Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 for the circuit. c h c 1 h = 796 Hz. the resonant frequency is ω= = 1 = 2 π Leq Ceq 2 π L C b+ L g +C +C g b 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 π 170 × 10−3 H + 2.3Ω inductive reactance in series.7 mH and L2 = 2. and capacitances C1 = 4µ F . 【Problem 31-55】 An air conditioner connected to a 120 V rms ac line is equivalent to a 12Ω resistance and a 1.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 + 3CR + 3C 2 R 2 + 4 LC + 3(20. (c) Since ω ∝ (L1 + L2)–1/2. and C3 = 3.0 × 10−6 F) = 228 rad/s .0 × 10−6 F) 3(20.3mH .0 × 10−6 F)(5. 第 10 頁，共 13 頁 . Calculate (a) the impedance of the air conditioner and (b) the average rate at which energy is supplied to the appliance.

1 Ω. (b) Since φ < 0. which leads to XC > XL. The current leads the emf. (f) The inductive reactance may be zero. ω t – φ > ω t.0 Ω ) 2 + ( 1. φ = – 42. This means the box must contain a capacitor and a resistor.30 Ω − 0 ) = 12. (c) The phase constant is related to the reactance difference by tan φ = (XL – XC)/R. tan φ would be zero.19 ×103 W. and φ would be zero. 2 (b) The average rate at which energy has been supplied is ε 2 R ( 120 V ) ( 12. so there need not be an inductor.0° and cos φ = cos(– 42.186 ×103 W ≈ 1. we conclude the circuit is not in resonance.900. The box contains an RLC circuit. Measurements outside the box reveal that ε (t ) = (75V )sin ωd t and i (t ) = (1. Therefore. possibly even a multiloop circuit. (e) Since tan φ is negative and finite. neither the capacitive reactance nor the resistance are zero. the impedance is Z= ( 12.0°) = –0. Since φ is not zero. We have tan φ = tan(– 42. 第 11 頁，共 13 頁 .2 A) sin(ωd t + 420 ) (a) What is the power factor? (b) Does the current lead or lag the emf? (c) Is the circuit in the box largely inductive or largely capacitive? (d) Is the circuit in the box in resonance? (e) Must there be a capacitor in the box? (f) An inductor? (g) A resistor? (h) At what average rate is energy delivered to the box by the generator? (i) Why don’t you need to know ωd to answer all these questions? （圖 31-35） <解>：(a) The power factor is cos φ . (g) Yes. (d) If the circuit were in resonance XL would be the same as XC. there is a resistor. 31-61. whose elements and connections we do not know. XL – XC is negative. 2 Z ( 12. a negative number. The circuit in the box is predominantly capacitive.07 Ω ) 2 【Problem 31-57】 Figure 31-35 shows an ac generator connected to a “black box” through a pair of terminals.743.0 Ω ) Pavg = rms2 = = 1.0°) = 0. where φ is the phase constant defined by the expression i = I sin(ω t – φ ).Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 <解>：(a) Using Eq. Thus.

what are (a) the voltage decrease ∆V along the transmission line and (b) the rate Pd at which energy is dissipated in the line as thermal energy? If Vt = 8kV . L and C then the value of the frequency would also be needed to compute the power factor.4 W. what is the current in the (b) primary and (c) secondary? <解>：(a) The stepped-down voltage is Vs = V p F I = b Vg 10 I = 2. which is given. .30 Ωg19 V . the current in the secondary is I s = We find the primary current from Eq.3Ω / cable . the current in the secondary is I s = 0.4 V = = 0. The transmission line resistance is 0.16A. Therefore.16 A. Rs 15 Ω F I = b Ag10 I = 3. If values were given for R.0 V 120 A 0. 3125 bb . what are (e) ∆V and (f) Pd ? 3 3 .2 × 10 N G J 016 F J H N 500 HK . what is Vs with an open circuit? If the secondary now has a resistive load of 15Ω . <解>：(a) The rms current in the cable is I rms = P / Vt = 250 × 10 W / 80 × 10 V = 3125 A. GK s p −3 A.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 (h) The average power is Pavg = 1 1 ε m I cos φ = 75. (a) If V p is 120 V (rms). (c) As shown above. 【Problem 31-63】 A transformer has 500 primary turns and 10 secondary turns. the rms voltage drop is ∆V = I rms c h R = b A gg.4 V. 2 2 b g g g b b (i) The answers above depend on the frequency only through the phase constant φ . 第 12 頁，共 13 頁 . If Vt = 80kV . and the power of the generator is 250 kW. N GK G J 120 F J H N 500 HK s p (b) By Ohm’s law.743 = 33.8kV . what are (c) ∆V and (d) Pd ? If Vt = 0. 2 0 = . 【Problem 31-65】 An ac generator provides emf to a resistive load in a remote factory over a two-cable transmission line. 31-80: I p = Is Vs 2. At the factory a step-down transformer reduces the voltage from its (rms) transmission value Vt to a much lower value that is safe and convenient for use in the factory.

80 ×10 V ) = 312. (b) The rate of energy dissipation is Pd = I rms R = 3125 A 2 0.60 Ω = 5. (f) Pd = ( 312.0 × 10 V = 3125 A .60 Ω ) = 19V.5 A ) ( 0.25A ) ( 0. so ∆V = ( 312. b g0.9 × 10 W.5 A ) ( 0. so ∆V = ( 31. 第 13 頁，共 13 頁 .9 W. b = 2 2 2 3 3 (e) I rms = 250 ×10 W/ ( 0.9 ×104 W.60 Ωg5. b gg g bb c h (d) Pd = 3125 A .60 Ω ) = 5.5 A .60 Ω ) = 1. (c) Now I rms = 250 × 10 W / 8.Fundamentals of Physics Halliday & Resnic 東海大學物理系 98 學年度第 2 學期 2 . 3 3 .9 × 102 V .

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