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Telepathy

Telepathy

Writings
ThoughtForceinBusinessandEverydayLife TheLawoftheNewThought NuggetsoftheNewThought MemoryCulture:TheScienceofObserving,RememberingandRecalling DynamicThoughtorTheLawofVibrantEnergy ThoughtVibrationortheLawofAttractionintheThoughtWorld PracticalMindReading PracticalPsychomancyandCrystalGazing TheMindBuildingofaChild TheSecretofMentalMagic MentalFascination SelfHealingbyThoughtForce MindPower:TheLawofDynamicMentation PracticalMentalInfluence ReincarnationandtheLawofKarma TheInnerConsciousness TheSecretofSuccess Memory:HowtoDevelop,TrainandUseIt SubconsciousandtheSuperconsciousPlanesofMind SuggestionandAutoSuggestion TheArtofExpression TheArtofLogicalThinking TheNewPsychology:ItsMessage,PrinciplesandPractice TheWill ThoughtCulture HumanNature:ItsInnerStatesandOuterForms MindandBodyorMentalStatesandPhysicalConditions Telepathy:ItsTheory,FactsandProof TheCrucibleofModernThought ThePsychologyofSalesmanship ThePsychologyofSuccess ScientificParenthood TheMessageoftheNewThought YourMindandHowtoUseIt TheMasteryofBeing MindPower:TheSecretofMentalMagic TheNewPsychologyofHealing NewThought:ItsHistoryandPrinciples

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ItsTheory,FactsandProof

Telepathy
1910

William Walker Atkinson


18621932

YOGeBooks:Springfield,MO
2010:04:12:11:46:43

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Contents
ChapterI WhatisTelepathy ChapterII TheNatureoftheProblem ChapterIII ExperimentalTelepathy ChapterIV TheEnglishExperiments ChapterV MoreEnglishExperiments ChapterVI TheWeltmerExperiment ChapterVII ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment ChapterVIII ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) ChapterIX TheTheories

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Telepathy

Telepathy

Chapter I

he term telepathy is of quite recent origin. A few yearsagoitwasnottobefoundinanyofthestandard dictionaries,anditsusewasconfinedtothesmallcircle of investigators who were pursuing experiments in thought transference, and who regarded the Society for Psychical ResearchofEnglandastheircentreofinfluence.Atthepresent time, however, the word has passed into popular usage, is found in the current editions of the dictionaries and heard frequently on the streets. It was derived from the two Greek words,tele,meaningafar,andpathosmeaningfeeling.The term itself has been severely criticized as conveying a wrong impression, for thoughttransference is not the same as feelingtransference. Some authorities have preferred the termTelsthesia,which,freelytranslated,meansperception bythesensesatadistance.Thepresentwriterhassoughtto introduce the term Telementatian which, freely translated, meansmentalactionatadistanceandthesaidtermhasmet with considerable favor among scientific investigators of the subject.But,inspiteoftheobjections,thepublicclingstothe original term, and Telepathy is generally used to designate thephenomenaofthoughttransference,orasthedictionaries 3

What is Telepathy

Telepathy stateit:Theactionofonemindonanotheratadistanceand withoutcommunicationbymeansofthesenses. Thoughttransference is not a new thing in the thought of theworld,althoughitmayseemtotheordinaryreadertobea recentdiscovery.Itsbeginningislostinthehazeofthehistory of the primitive peoples of the race. The ancient writings of Indiagiveusmanyinstancesoftheeffectofonemindupon anotheratadistance.Andtheoccultlegendsofotherancient peoples give evidence that the belief in the effect of mind uponmindatadistancewasquitecommon.Inmanyofthe oldoccultwritingswefindtracesofthisalmostuniversalbelief inthoughttransmissionandthoughtforce,andwehaveevery reasontobelievethattheoldalchemistswerefullyacquainted withthephenomena. In India, especially, has the belief in thoughttransference prevailed from time immemorial. Passing over the legendary tales,andcomingdowntothetimeofrecenthistory,wesee manyinstancesoftheacceptanceofthisideabythepeopleof thatoldlandofthestrangeandmysterious.TheEnglishwho livedthroughthegreatuprisinginIndiainthelastcenturyhave passedontousmanytalesofthestrangepowerofthenative HinduswhichenabledthemtoflashfromonepartofIndiato anotherthenewsofgreatbattlesanduprisings.Itisrecordedby thosewhopassedthroughthisgreatuprisingthattheHindus were noticedtobeagitatedinastrangewayaboutthetime oftheactualoccurrencesinfardistantpartsoftheland,and seemedtobefullyinformedregardingtheseoccurrences,while theEnglishwerecompelledtowaitfordaysuntiltheircouriers broughtthemthenewsintheregularway.Inotherwords,the natives maintained a mentaltelegraphic system, while the Englishwerecompelledtorelyuponcouriers,thedaysofthe electrictelegraphnothavingasyetarrived. But,sofarasthesubjectofmodernTelepathyisconcerned wemayaswellassumethatTelepathyhaditsbirthintomodern scientificthoughtatthetimeoftheformationoftheEnglish 4

WhatisTelepathy SocietyforPsychicalResearchin1882.Oneofthestatedobjects of the said Society was to conduct an examination into the nature and extent of any influence which may be exerted by oneminduponanother,apartfromanygenerallyrecognized mode of perception. While the latter years of the Societys existence has been devoted principally to an investigation of the phenomena of clairvoyance, spiritreturn, trance mediumship,etc.,itsfirstdecadewasalmostentirelydevoted to the investigation of telepathy, thoughttransference, and similarphenomena.TheearlyexperimentsoftheSocietyhave beenfullyreported,andthesereports,whichcompriseseveral volumes,havegiventheworldarecordofpsychicphenomena ofthegreatestvaluetoscience. The celebrated Sidgwick experiments, conducted under theauspicesoftheSocietyforPsychicalResearchin1889and 1890,excitedgreatinterestinscientificcircles,andplacedthe subject of Telepathy upon a basis which science could not affordtorefusetoperceive.Andtheresulthasbeenthatmany careful scientists have freely acknowledged that there may besomethingtoit,somegoingsofarastoopenlyadvocate Telepathy as an established scientific fact, although there are manyscientistswhostilladheretotheopinionthatTelepathy remains to be proven scientifically, while some of the ultra conservativesgosofarastoinsistthatTelepathyisscientifically impossible,thislatteropinionbeingcalculatedtocauseasmile to one who remembers how many scientifically impossible thingshaveafterwardbeenproventobenotonlyscientifically possible, or probable, but also actually existent. It is either a very bold man, or else a foolish one, who in these days can positivelyassertthatanythingisscientificallyimpossible.Inthis connectiononeisremindedofthelearnedbodyofscientists who sitting in conference solemnly decided that it was scientifically impossible for a vessel to cros the ocean by the powerofsteam.Whilethedecisionwasbeingrecordedonthe minutes,thewordwasreceivedthatasteamshiphadactually 5

Telepathy made the voyage across the ocean, and was that moment enteringtheharbor.Onealsorecallsthestoryoftheeminent English scientist who had for a lifetime positively disputed the possibility of certain facts, and who in his old age, when askedtowitnesstheactualdemonstrationofthedisputedfact, refusedtolookintothemicroscopeforthepurpose,andleft theroom,angrilyshakinghisheadandsaying,Itisimpossible. Yesterdaysimpossibilitiesareoftentomorrowsprovenfacts. Inviewofwhathasbeensaidabove,thefollowingopinions of certain wellknown scientists may prove of interest to the reader as indicating the change in the mental attitude of sciencetowardthephenomenaofTelepathy. SirWilliamCrookes,inanaddressdeliveredseveralyearsago atBristol,England,beforetheRoyalSociety(ofwhichhewas president),said:
Were I now introducing for the first time these inquiries to the world of science, I should choose a starting point different from thatofold,whereweformerlybegan.Itwouldbewelltobeginwith Telepathy;withthefundamentallaw,asIbelieveittobe,thatthoughts andimagesmaybetransferredfromonemindtoanotherwithoutthe agencyoftherecognizedorgansofsensethatknowledgemayenter thehumanmindwithoutbeingcommunicatedinanyhithertoknown orrecognizedways.Althoughtheinquiryhaselicitedimportantfacts withreferencetothemind,ithasnotyetreachedthescientificstage ofcertaintywhichwouldenableittobeusefullybroughtbeforeone of the sections. I will therefore confine myself to pointing out the direction in which scientific investigation can legitimately advance. If Telepathy take place, we have two physical factsthe physical change in the brain of A. the suggestor, and the analogous physical change in the brain of B. the recipient of the suggestion. Between thesetwophysicaleventstheremustexistatrainofphysicalcauses. Whenevertheconnectingsequenceofintermediatecausesbeginsto berevealed,theinquirywillthencomewithintherangeofoneofthe sections of the British Association. Such a sequence can only occur

WhatisTelepathy
throughaninterveningmedium.AllthephenomenaoftheUniverse arepresumablyinsomewaycontinuous,anditisunscientifictocall in the aid of mysterious agencies when with every fresh advance in knowledgeitisshownthatethervibrationshavepowersandattributes abundantlyequaltoanydemandeventhetransmissionofthought.

Thesameeminentauthorityalsosays:
Itissupposedbysomephysiologiststhattheessentialcellsofnerves donotactuallytouch,butareseparatedbyanarrowgapwhichwidens insleepwhileitnarrowsalmosttoextinctionduringmentalactivity. ThisconditionissosingularlylikethatofaBranlyorLodgecoherer(a devicewhichhasledMarconitothediscoveryofwirelesstelegraphy) astosuggestafurtheranalogy.Thestructureofthebrainandnerves, being similar, it is conceivable that there may be present masses of such nerve coherers in the brain, whose special function it may be to receive impulses brought from without through the connecting sequenceofetherwavesofappropriateorderofmagnitude.Roentgen has familiarized us with an order of extreme minuteness compared withthesmallestwaveswithwhichwehavehithertobeenacquainted, and of dimensions comparable with the distances between the centers of the atoms of which the material universe is built up; and there is no reason for believing that we have reached the limits of frequency.Itisknownthattheactionofthoughtisaccompaniedby certainmolecularmovementsinthebrain,andherewehavephysical vibrations capable from their extreme minuteness of acting direct uponindividualmolecules,whiletheirrapidityapproachesthatofthe internalmovementsoftheatomsthemselves.

Prof.CamilleFlammarion,thewellknownFrenchastronomer, says:
Wesumup,therefore,ourprecedingobservationsbytheconclusion thatonemindcanactatadistanceuponanother,withoutthehabitual medium of words, or any other visible means of communication. It

Telepathy
appearstousaltogetherunreasonabletorejectthisconclusionifwe accept the facts. There is nothing unscientific, nothing romantic, in admitting that an idea can influence the brain from a distance. The actionofonehumanbeinguponanother,fromadistance,isascientific fact;itisascertainastheexistenceofParis,ofNapoleon,ofOxygen,or ofSirius.Therecanbenodoubtthatourpsychicalforcecreatesa movementoftheether,whichtransmitsitselfafarlikeallmovements ofether,andbecomesperceptibletobrainsinharmonywithourown. The transformation of a psychic action into an ethereal movement, andthereverse,maybeanalogoustowhattakesplaceonatelephone, wherethereceptiveplate,whichisidenticalwiththeplateattheother end,reconstructsthesonorousmovementtransmitted,notbymeans ofsound,butbyelectricity.

Prof.Ochorowiczsays:
Everylivingbeingisadynamicfocus.Adynamicfocustendsever to propagate the motion that is proper to it. Propagated motion becomestransformedaccordingtothemediumittraverses.Motion tendsalwaystopropagateitself.Thereforewhenweseeworkofany kindmechanical, electrical, nervic, or psychicdisappear without visibleeffect,then,oftwothings,onehappens,eitheratransmissionor atransformation.Wheredoesthefirstend,andwheredoesthesecond begin?Inanidenticalmediumthereisonlytransmission.Inadifferent mediumthereistransformation.Yousendanelectriccurrentthrough athickwire.Youhavethecurrent,butyoudonotperceiveanyother force.Butcutthatthickwireandconnecttheendsbymeansofafine wire;thefinewirewillgrowhot;therewillbeatransformationofthe currentintoheat.Takeaprettystrongcurrentandinterposeawirestill moreresistant,oraverythincarbonrod.Thecarbonwillemitlight.A partofthecurrentthenistransformedintoheat and light.Thislight actsineverydirectionaroundabout,firstvisiblyaslight,theninvisibly asheatandaselectriccurrent.Holdamagnetnearit.Ifthemagnet isweakandmovable,intheformofamagneticneedle,thebeamof light will cause it to deviate; if it is strong and immovable, it will in

WhatisTelepathy
turncausethebeamoflighttodeviate.Andallthisfromadistance, without contact, without special conductors. A process that is at oncechemical,physicalandpsychical,goesoninabrain.Acomplex actionofthiskindispropagatedthroughthegraymatter,aswavesare propagatedinwater.Regardedonitsphysiologicalside,anideaisonly a vibration, a vibration that is propagated, yet which does not pass outofamediuminwhichitcanexistassuch.Itispropagatedasfaras otherlikevibrationsallow.Itispropagatedmorewidelyifitassumes the character which subjectively we call emotive. But it cannot go beyondwithoutbeingtransformed.Nevertheless,likeforceingeneral, itcannotremaininisolationitescapesindisguise.Thoughtstays athome,asthechemicalactionofabatteryremainsinabattery;itis representedbyitsdynamiccorrelate,calledinthecaseofthebattery, acurrent,andinthecaseofthebrainIknownotwhat;butwhatever itsnamemaybe,itisthedynamiccorrelateofthought.Ihavechosen thetermdynamiccorrelate.Thereissomethingmorethanthat;the universe is neither dead nor void. A force that is transmitted meets otherforces,andifitistransformedonlylittlebylittle,itusuallylimits itself to modifying another force at its own cost, though without sufferingperceptiblythereby.Thisisthecaseparticularlywithforces thatarepersistent,concentrated,wellsecondedbytheirmedium;itis thecasewiththephysiologicalequilibrium,nervicforce,psychicforce, ideas,emotions,tendencies.Thesemodifyenvironingforceswithout themselvesdisappearing;theyarebutimperceptiblytransformed,and ifthenextmanisofanatureexceptionallywelladaptedtothem,they gainininductiveaction.

Itisquitegratifyingtofindsucheminentscientificauthority expressingitsconvictionoftherealityofthoughttransference. But the average person, in the end, believes in Telepathy not somuchbecausethisscientistorthatonethinksitreasonable, butbecauseheorshehashadsomepersonalexperienceorbit ofindividualproof.Whoofushasnothadtheexperienceof thinkingofsomeonewhomwehavenotseenorheardoffor months or years, only to see the individual in person shortly 9

Telepathy afterward? Often in speaking to another person, we will find thathewilluttertheverywordsthatwehadinmind.Itisnot uncommonfortwopersonstostartinatthesamemomentto saypreciselythesamethingtoeachother.Howoftenhasthe personofwhomwehavebeenspeakingwalkedunexpectedly intoourpresence.Theoldsaying,Speakoftheangels,andyou heartherustleoftheirwingsvoicesthecommonexperience oftheraceinthisrespect.Severalyearsago,MarkTwainwrote amagazinearticleinwhichhestatedanexperiencecommon tomanyothers.Hesaidthathewasinthehabitofwritinga lettertoaperson,andthen,afterdulyaddressingit,destroying it instead of mailing it. He added that he had noticed that very frequently he would receive an answer to the unmailed letter, written by the person addressed about the same time that the original letter was written, addressed and destroyed, andthattheseanswersfrequentlycoveredtheidenticalpoints mentionedintheoriginalletter. Moreover many persons have experimented with the willinggameandsimilarparlorfeatsalongthelinesofmind reading,andhavefoundthatthereissomethinginit,afterall. TheriseintopopularityoftheteachingsoftheNewThoughtor MentalSciencehasfamiliarizedmanypersonswiththeideaof thoughttransferenceinsomeofitsvariedforms,untiltoday wefindthatthemajorityofpersonsarepreparedtoadmitthat theremustbesomefirewherethereissomuchsmoke.We trustthatwewillbeabletomakethesubjectsomewhatclearer inthislittlevolume.

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Chapter II

The Nature of the Problem

anypersonswhoareinterestedinthephenomena ofTelepathy,andwhoaccepttheproofsofferedby its advocates, seem to regard these phenomena as quite ordinary and as fully in accord with the more familiar manifestationsofNaturesforces.WefrequentlyhearTelepathy comparedtothemanifestationofelectricity,particularlyinthe phaseofwirelesstelegraphy.Butthematterisnotsosimpleas thisitcannotbelightlydismissedorplacedinanyordinary category. It is, scientifically, sui generisin a class by itself; unique; peculiar. While we shall not attempt to put forward anyspecialhypothesisatthispoint,weinviteyoutoconsider the following statement from the lips of an eminent English statesman, himself an earnest investigator of Telepathy. After reading his statement, you will begin to appreciate the full natureoftheproblemconfrontingthosewho,whileadmitting theproofsofTelepathy,wouldseektoaccountforthesameby scientificprinciples. TheRightHonorableA.J.Balfour(afterwardPrimeMinister ofEngland)inanaddressdeliveredin1894,whilehewasthe PresidentoftheSocietyforPsychicalResearch,saidinrelation toTelepathy: 11

Telepathy
Now I will give you a case of what I mean by a scientifically extraordinary event, which, as you will at once perceive, may be one which at first sight, and to many observers, may appear almost commonplaceandfamiliar.Ihaveconstantlymetpeoplewhowilltell you, with no apparent consciousness that they are saying anything moreoutofthewaythananobservationabouttheweather,thatby anexerciseoftheirwilltheycanmakeanybodyatalittledistanceturn round and look at them. Now such a fact (if fact it be) is far more scientifically extraordinary than would be the destruction of this globebysomecelestialcatastrophe.Howprofoundlymistakenthen are they who think that this exercise of willpower, as they call it, is themostnaturalthingintheworld,somethingthateverybodywould haveexpected,somethingwhichhardlydeservesscientificnoticeor requiresscientificexplanation.Inrealityitisaprofoundmystery,ifit betrue,orifanythinglikeitbetrue,andnoevent,howeverstartling, whicheasilyfindsitsappropriatenicheinthestructureofthephysical sciencesoughttoexcitehalfasmuchintellectualcuriosityasthisdull andatfirstsightcommonplacephenomenon. NowdonotsupposethatIwantyoutobelievethateverygentlemanor ladywhochoosestosupposehimselforherselfexceptionallyendowed withthissocalledwillpowerisotherthanthedupeofanillregulated fancy.Thereis,however,quiteapartfromthetestimony,avastmassof evidenceinfavorofwhatwenowcallTelepathy,andtoTelepathythe observationsIhavebeenmakingdoinmyopinionmoststrictlyapply. For,consider:IneverycaseofTelepathyyouhaveanexampleofrealor apparentactionatadistance.Examplesofrealorapparentactionata distanceare,ofcourse,verycommon.Gravitationissuchanexample. We are not aware at the present time of any mechanism, if I may usethephrase,whichcantransmitgravitationalinfluencefromone gravitatingbodytoanother.Nevertheless,scientificmendonotrest contentwiththatview.Irecollectitusedtobemaintainedbythelate Mr.JohnMillthattherewasnogroundforregardingwithanyspecial wonderthephenomenonofactionatadistance.Idonotdogmatize uponthepoint,butIdosayemphaticallythatIdonotthinkyouwill findafirstclassphysicistwhoispreparedtoadmitthatgravityisnot

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TheNatureoftheProblem
a phenomenon which still wants an explanation. He is not ready, in otherwords,toacceptactionatadistanceasanultimatefact,though he has not even got the first clue to the real nature of the links by whichtheattractingbodiesmutuallyactupononeanother. Butthoughgravitationandtelepathyarealikeinthis,thatweare quite ignorant of the means by which in either case distant bodies influence one another, it would be a great mistake to suppose that the two modes of operation are equally mysterious. In the case of Telepathy there is not merely the difficulty of conjecturing the nature of the mechanism which operates between the agent and thepercipient,betweenthemanwhoinfluencesandthemanwhois influenced;butthewholecharacterofthephenomenarefusestofit inwithanyofouracceptedideasastothemodeinwhichforcemay beexercisedfromoneportionofspacetoanother.Isthistelepathic action an ordinary case of action from a center of disturbance? Is it equallydiffusedinalldirections?Isitlikethelightofacandle,orthe lightofthesun,whichradiatesequallyintospaceineverydirection at the same time? If it is, it must obey the lawat least, we should expect it to obey the lawof all other forces which so act through a nonabsorbing medium, and its effects must diminish inversely as thesquareofthedistance.Itmust,sotospeak,getbeatenoutthinner andthinnerthefurtheritgetsremovedfromitsoriginalsource.But isthisso?Isitevencrediblethatthemerethoughts,or,ifyouplease, theneuralchangescorrespondingtothesethoughts,ofanyindividual, couldhaveinthemtheenergytoproducesensibleeffectsequallyin alldirections;fordistanceswhichdonot,asfarasourinvestigationsgo, appeartohaveanynecessarylimit?Itis,Ithink,incredible,andinany casethereisnoevidencewhateverthatthisactualdiffusionevertakes place.Thewillpower,wheneverthewillisused,or thethoughts,in caseswherethewillisnotused,haveaneffect,asarule,onlyuponone ortwoindividualsatmost.Thereisnoappearanceofgeneraldiffusion. Thereisnoindicationofanydisturbanceequaltoequaldistancesfrom itsorigin,andradiatingfromitalikeineverydirection. But if we are to reject this idea, which is the first which ordinary analogieswouldsuggest,whatarewetoputinitsplace?Areweto

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supposethatthereissomemeansbywhichtelepathicenergycanbe directedthroughspacefromtheagenttothepatient,fromtheman who influences to the man who is influenced? If we are to believe this,asapparentlywemust,wearefacetofacenotonlywithafact extraordinary in itself, but with a kind of fact which does not fit in withanythingweknowatpresentintheregioneitherofphysicsor physiology.Itistrue,nodoubt,thatwedoknowplentyofcaseswhere energyisdirectedalongagivenline,likewaterinapipe,orlikeelectrical energyalongthecourseofawire.Buttheninsuchcasesthereisalways somematerialguideexistingbetweenthetwotermini,betweenthe placefromwhichtheenergycomesandtheplacetowardwhichthe energygoes.IsthereanysuchmaterialguideinthecaseofTelepathy? Itseemsabsolutelyimpossible.Thereisnosignofit.Wecannoteven formtoourselvesanynotionofitscharacter,andyet,ifwearetotake whatappearstobetheobviouslessonoftheobservedfacts,weare forcedtotheconclusionthatinsomeshapeorotheritexists.Forto supposethatthetelepathicagentshootsouthisinfluencetowarda particularobject,asyoushootabulletoutofagun,orwateroutof a hose, which appears to be the only other alternative, involves us seeminglyingreaterdifficultiesstill. Here, then, we are face to face with what I call a scientifically extraordinary phenomenon, as distinguished from a dramatically extraordinary one. Anyone who has endeavored to wade through themassofevidencecollectedbyourSocietyonthesubjectwillbe preparedtoadmitthatitisnotexcitingorinterestinginitself,thatit doesnotarouseafoolishwonder,orappealundulytoanycravingfor themarvellous.Butdullastheseexperimentsmayseem,dullindeed astheyoftenare,theirdullnessisreallyoneoftheirgreatadvantages.It effectuallyexcludessomeperturbinginfluencesthatmightotherwise affectthecoolanalysisoftheexperimentaldata;andinconsequence itmakesthoseinvestigations,inmyjudgment,thebeststartingpoint fromwhichtoreconsider,shoulditbenecessary,ourgeneralview,Iwill notsayofthematerialuniverse,butoftheuniverseofphenomenain space.Evenifwecannotentertainanyconfidenthopeofdiscovering what laws these halfseen phenomena obey, at all events it will be

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TheNatureoftheProblem
somegaintohaveshown,notasamatterofspeculationorconjecture, butasamatterofascertainedfact,thattherearethingsinHeavenand earthnothithertodreamedofinourscientificphilosophy.

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Chapter III

Experimental Telepathy

eginningwiththeyear1882,andcontinuingforseveral years thereafter, the English Society for Psychical Researchconductedanimportantseriesofexperiments inTelepathy,therecordsofwhichhavebeenpreservedinthe severalreportsoftheSocietywhichareonfileintheprincipal librariesoftheworld.IntheGlossaryofTermsusedinPsychical Research by the Society, we find Telepathy defined as the communicationofimpressionsofanykindfromonemindto another,independentlyoftherecognizedchannelsofsense. In 1882, the President of the Society, Prof. Henry Sidgwick, appointed a committee to investigate ThoughtReading or ThoughtTransference, the members of the committee being Prof.W.F.Barrett,ProfessorofPhysicsintheRoyalCollegeof ScienceforIreland;EdmundGurney,M.A.,LateFellowofTrinity College;andF.W.H.Myers,M.A.,LateFellowofTrinityCollege, Cambridge. The purpose of the inquiry by the committee wasstatedasfollows:Isthereoristherenotanyexistingor attainableevidencethatcanstandfairphysiologicalcriticism, tosupportabeliefthatavividimpressionoradistinctideain onemindcanbecommunicatedtoanothermindwithoutthe intervening help of the recognized organs of sensation? And 17

Telepathy if such evidence be found, is the impression derived from a rareorpartiallydevelopedandhithertounrecognizedsensory organ,orhasthementalperceptbeenevokeddirectlywithout anyantecedentsensepercept? The committee classified the phenomena of Thought Transferenceasfollows: I.Phenomenamanifested,inwhichthehandsoftheoperator areincontactwiththesubject. II.Phenomenamanifestedwithoutcontactwiththeperson willingorsendingthethoughtimpulse. III.Phenomenamanifested,inwhichsomenumber,wordor cardisguessedwithoutanyapparentphysicalcommunication betweentheoperatorandsubject. In the first class of phenomena the committee places the ordinarymindreadingofthepublicperformer,inwhichthe operatorplaceshishandsuponthesubject,orinwhichheis placedinsomekindofphysicalcontactwiththelatter.Ithas beenheldthatthisclassofphenomenareallycomesunderthe head of muscle reading, inasmuch as there is transmitted to the subject some slight muscular impulse, often given involuntarily and unconsciously by the operator. This theory was first advanced by Dr. W. B. Carpenter, the distinguished English psychologist, who held that the communications are made by muscular action on the part of one person and automatically interpreted by the other. Dr. Carpenter explained this involuntary muscular action by his celebrated theory of unconscious cerebration, in which there is the intermediationofthoseexpressionalsignswhicharemadeand interpretedalikeunconsciously.Thefamiliarwillinggameso oftenperformedforparloramusementbelongstothiscategory, asdoalsotheperformancesofmanyofthecelebratedpublic mindreaders.Thecommitteeconductednumerousseriesof carefulexperimentswithphenomenaofthisclass,and,while theresultswereveryinteresting,itwasfeltthattheconstantly present possibility of unconscious muscular movement 18

ExperimentalTelepathy rendered the phenomena unsatisfactory from the scientific standpoint. Thesecondclassofphenomenacamemorenearlyunderthe trueclassificationofTelepathy,foriftherebecommunication without physical contact it is reasonable to assume that some new hypothesis is necessary. If the subject was able to selectandproceedtosomeobjectpreviouslyagreeduponby the operator or the roomful of people, in the willing game, withoutknowingtheobjectandwithoutphysicalcontactwith anypersonknowingit,thenitwouldseemthattheremustbe sometransmissionofthoughtimageswithouttheintervening helpoftherecognizedorgansofsensation.Butsocarefulwere themembersofthecommittee,andsocloselydidtheyadhere to the strictest scientific methods, that they discarded this class of phenomena as unsatisfactory and unconvincing, and as open to the suspicion that the subject may have received involuntaryguidancefromtheeyesofthecompany,orperhaps from the different shades of tone in the conversation as the subjectapproachedorrecededfromtheselectedobjecttobe found. Even though the subject might be blindfolded, it was possible for impressions to be received through the sense of sight. The writer remembers an instance in which, in his opinion, a wellknown mindreader visiting in this country received impressions through her sense of hearing, although carefully blindfolded. The following quotations are from the account written by him at the time, and give an idea of the modus operandi(thenameoftheperformerisomittedhere,although appearingintheoriginalpublicationoftheaccount):
The room was well filled with intelligent people, eager for an exhibition of the wondrous phenomenon of telepathy. Miss appearedanddeliveredashortaddressuponherwondrouspower. Shethenplacedtwolongstemmedflowersontheplatform,andwas led away into another room to be blindfolded. During her absence

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twopersonssteppeduptotheplatform,asperinstructions,andeach touchedaflower.Misswasthenledbackintotheroom,blindfolded withasilkhandkerchief,andstartedintofindthepersonswhohad touched the flowers. She succeeded and handed each the flower previouslytouched.Shethenunitedaseparatedcouple,byfinding oneandleadinghimtotheother.Shethenlocatedtheweaponwith whichanimaginarymurderhadbeencommitted,themurderer,the hiddenbody,and(wonderuponwonders)evenfoundthepoliceman toarrestthecriminal.Shefoundapieceofjewelryandrestoreditto the owner. She correctly disclosed the number of a banknote. The audience was pleased and many went away apparently convinced thatherewastelepathythattelepathed.Itdoeslookwonderfulnow, doesntit?Wehavegivenyouanideaofhowitseemedtothegeneral observer,nowletustellyouhowitappearedtothosewhowereon theinside. In the first place, Miss was a much cleverer performer than the average mindreader. She performed her feats with much less personal contact than any other public performer whom we have seen.Shewentaboutherworkwithoutlossoftimeandwithanair ofconfidenceandassurancewhichcreatedagoodeffect.Itappeared tous,however,thatherfeatscouldbefullyaccountedforuponthe theoryoftheuseofthefivesenses,sharpenedbypractice,andthat anyofthefeatscouldbeduplicatedbyonefamiliarwiththesubject, withouttheaidoftelepathy.Ofcourse,Missmayhaveperformed herfeatsbymindreadingnobodybutherselfcanspeakpositivelyon thatpoint,butwesaythatthesamefeatscanbeperformedbythe useofthefivesensesalone.Inthefirstplace,theordinaryblindfolding doesnotshutoutthesensesofsightandhearing,asyoumayascertain byalittlepersonalpractice.Thenthesenseoffeelingisfreeforones use, and when it is remembered that thought takes form in action, andthattheaveragepersonwillgiveunconsciousmovementsinthe direction of the object or person thought of, it readily will be seen thataperformerwhohasdevelopedtouchandperceptiontoahigh degree will be able to find a person or thing upon which a number ofpeopleareconcentratingtheirthoughts,withoutbeingcompelled

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ExperimentalTelepathy
tofallbackupontelepathy.Thisisquitesimplewhencontactishad with the audience, but more difficult when contact is not resorted to.InMisssflowerfeat,itwasnoticedthattheentireaudience was looking intently in the direction of that one of the thought of personswhohappenedtobethenearertoher.Manypeopleinthe roomwerewhispering,butassheapproachedthedesiredpersonthe whispering decreased until almost a perfect silence prevailed when the proper person was reached. Miss placed her hands upon a numberofpersonsbeforereachingtheproperone,butassoonasshe placedherhandsontherightonetheaudienceapplaudedloudly,and thesearchended.Itwasnoticedthatsomeoftheladiespresentwere so carried away with sympathy and enthusiasm that, unconsciously, theywouldwhisper,No.no!Yes,thatsright!Thisway,thisway!To theright,right!etc,etc.,andbyotherinvoluntaryexclamationsand motionsgivecueswhichcouldbetakenadvantageofbyaperformer dependingupontheuseofhersharpenedsenses.Inshort,itwasan uptodatevariationoftheoldgameofhotandcold,familiartoour childhooddays. You all know how expert some of your crowd of boys and girls becameinthisgame,andhowsoonthehiddenobjectwasfoundby theaidofthehotandcoldsuggestions.Youallrememberhowsome sympatheticandenthusiasticlittlegirlwouldbecomesoexcitedthat whenyounearedthehiddenobjectshecouldscarcelykeepherseat, and her hot, hot, HOT! fairly sent you spinning toward the hidden handkerchief. We well remember our own childhood days, when this was our own favorite game, and when we were the champion lightweighthotandcoldfinderofourjuvenileset.Andweremember, oh,howwellweremember,thatlittlefairfacedgirlwiththelonggolden curlsandthatsweetlittletrickofdemurelyliftingherbigblueeyesto meetourownboyishgaze.Wewellrememberhowouryouthfulheart wouldbeatwhenthoseeyesofbluewouldbutthatsanotherstory. Whatwewishedtosaywasthatthatlittlegirlwasourmascotinthe game of hot and cold. Even when she was singing cold, cold, cold, she would be looking intently toward the hidden object, and even leaninginthatdirection.Andwhenwewoulddrawneartotheobject,

21

Telepathy
wecouldhavefounditifwehadbeendeafanddumb,providedwe retained our sense of sight. That little girl was our guiding star, our compass. There were many grownups that evening who reminded us forciblyofthewaysofthatlittlegoldenhairedfairy.Theyjustwanted Misstofindthosechosenpeopletheworstway,andtheynodded their heads, shook them, frowned, smiled, inclined in the indicated direction, rose to their feet when she got hot, and when the right person was finally reached led the applause. Bless their hearts, they werejustsendingthoughtwavestohelpheralong,and,then,wasnt sheblindfolded,sowhatdifferencediditmakeafterall?Oh,itjustmade ushomesickforasightofthatlonglostlittlegirl,theresemblancewas soperfect.Well,Missfoundthepeoplewhohadtouchedtheflowers, andeachreceivedthechoiceblossomasarewardofmerit.Shethen started in to reunite a separated couple. It was the same thing over againthe same feat, same method, same result. New name, thats all.Thistimeweexperimented.Weturnedourbackwhenthecouple wasbeingselected,sothatwemightnotknowwhoweretheguilty individuals.Whenthehuntbeganweturnedaroundandfoundthat wewereabletopickouttheseparatedtwinsoulssimplybymeansof thehotandcoldsuggestionsbeinggiven,althoughrememberthat wehadtodependonsightandhearing,oursenseoffeelingnotbeing calledintoplay.WecouldeasilytellwhenMisswasgettinghot and,inshort,wereabletopointouttoourcompaniontheprogress ofthehunt. Whenitisrememberedthatthechosenpersonnearlyalwaysgives an involuntary indication to the trained observer who is touching him,itwillbeseenthatexperience,trainingandquickenedpowersof perceptionaretheprimerequisitesfortheperformanceofthemajority ofthesesocalledtelepathicfeats.Insomeofthesubsequentfeats some doubting Thomases would occasionally applaud when Miss reachedsomepersonotherthantherightone.Onsuchoccasionsshe wouldstopjustwhereshewasandwouldapparentlythinkthatthe rightpartyhadbeenreached,untilanominoussilencewouldreveal

22

ExperimentalTelepathy
thefactthatshewascold.This,ofcourse,mayhavebeenmerelya seriesofcoincidences,andwesimplystateitasanitemofinterest.

It is interesting to note that the same performer, at a later exhibition, in which she was subjected to scientific test conditions(includingthepropercoveringoftheeyesbymeans oflittleovalsofsurgeonscotton,placedneatlyoneoverthe other, and a bunch on top of all, and then the handkerchief boundoverthat;andthefillingofherearswithcotton,with another handkerchief bound around them) failed utterly to performthefeatsthatshehadsosuccessfullyperformedatthe previousexhibition.Sheclaimedthatherfailurewasduetothe audiencebeingagainsther,andevenaccusedthepersonwho had brought about her failure of having hypnotised her. The opinionofthescientificinvestigatorspresentwasthatshewas unabletoreceivetheimpressions,consciouslyorunconsciously, through the senses of sight or hearing, and hence failed. We have related the case merely to show that it is possible for thesefeatstobeperformedwithoutcontactbymeansofthe ordinary senses. It is possible that this performer may have beenselfdeceivedsuchcasesarecommoninthehistoryof experimentalpsychology. In view of what we have said, it may be seen why the committeeoftheSocietyforPsychicalResearchruledoutthis secondclassofphenomenaasnotbeingabovethesuspicionof errorandunconsciouscerebration.IftheproofsofTelepathy terminatedherethedecisionwouldhavetobetheoldScotch verdictofnotproven.Butasweproceedtoaconsideration ofthethirdclassofphenomenawewillseethattheinquiryhas onlybegun.

23

Telepathy

24

Chapter IV

The English Experiments

y reference to the preceding chapter you will see that the third class of phenomena of Thoughttransference, according to the classification adopted by the English Society for Psychical Research, comprises cases in which somenumber,wordorcardisguessedwithoutanyapparent communicationbetweentheoperatorandsubject,sofaras theordinarysensesareconcerned. The experiments of the Society were eventually confined to this class of phenomena. It was recognized that if it were possibletoestablishtheexistenceofthisclassofphenomena, in which the operation of the ordinary senses was inhibited, thentherewouldbelaidthefoundationforarationalscientific belief in the reality of Thoughttransference. Voluntary or involuntarytransmissionofinformationbymeansofthefive senses being rendered impossible, it will be seen that the onlyelementofdangerwasthatofcollusionortrickery.This latter contingency was fully recognized by the Society and its committee took steps to guard against the danger. It was ruled that experiments conducted before a general audience werealwaysopentothedangerofcollusionandtrickery,and that, therefore, results obtained therein lacked true scientific 25

Telepathy value. Accordingly, the experiments of the committee were conductedbeforealimitednumberofpersons,theindividuals beingpersonsfamiliarwithscientificmethodsandhavingno personalinterestintheresults. One of the early series of experiments by the committee wasthatcommonlyknownasTheCreeryExperiments.The subjectswerethefourchildrenoftheRev.A.M.Creery,B.A., ofDerbyshire,England.Mr.Creeryhadexperimentedwithhis childrenforaperiodofseveralyears,beginningwiththefamiliar willing game, and then gradually rising to higher phases of phenomenasuchastheguessingofnames,numbers,cards, etc. Mr. Creery reported to the committee in these words: Webeganbyselectingthesimplestobjectsintheroom;then chosenamesoftowns,people,dates,cardsoutofapack,lines fromdifferentpoems,etc.,infact,anythingorseriesofideas thatthosepresentcouldkeepbeforethemindsteadily.They seldom made a mistake. I have seen seventeen cards chosen bymyselfnamedrightinsuccessionwithoutanymistake.We soonfoundthatagreatdealdependedonthesteadinesswith which the ideas were kept before the minds of the thinkers andupontheenergywithwhichtheywilledtheideastocome topass.Imaysaythisfacultyisnotbyanymeansconfined to members of one family; it is much more general than we imagine.ToverifythisconclusionIinvitedtwoofaneighbors childrentojoinusinourexperimentsandequallysatisfactory resultswereobtained. The committee investigated Mr. Creerys statements, and coming to the conclusion that he was acting in good, faith and upon reasonable evidence, they began this remarkable series of experiments which continued over the period of about one year. The following report will give an idea of the scientificmethodsemployed,andtheprecautionstaken.The committeereports:TheinquiryhastakenplacepartlyinMr. Creeryshouseandpartlyinlodgingsorinaprivateroomat ahoteloccupiedbysomeofournumber.Havingselectedat 26

TheEnglishExperiments random one child, whom we desired to leave the room and wait at some distance, we would choose a pack of cards, or writeonpaperanameoranumberwhichoccurredtousat themoment.Generally,butnotalways,thiswasshowntothe membersofthefamilypresentintheroom;butnoonemember wasalwayspresent,andweweresometimesentirelyalone.We thenrecalledthechild,oneofusalwaysassuringhimselfthat, whenthedoorwassuddenlyopened,shewasataconsiderable distance, though this was usually a superfluity of caution, as ourhabitwastoavoidallutterancesofwhatwaschosen.On reenteringshestoodsometimesturnedbyuswithherface tothewall,oftenerwithhereyesdirectedtotheground,and usuallyclosetousandremotefromthefamilyforaperiodof silencevaryingfromafewsecondstoaminute,tillshecalled outtoussomenumber,cardorwhateveritmightbe. The result of the first experiment was that the child succeeded in naming the object selected, in six cases out of fourteen. In the card tests she succeeded six times out of thirteen.Inthenametestsshesucceededinfivecasesoutof ten.Andinthenamingofsmallobjectsheldinthehandsof members of the committee she succeeded in five cases out of six. This percentage was considered so remarkable, and so muchgreaterthantheaverageexpectancywouldindicate,that thecommitteefeltthattheywereconsideringacaseofgenuine Thoughttransference.Andaccordinglyotherexperimentswere begun. Thefollowingisashortreportofoneofthemostinteresting of the Creery experiments: One of the children was sent into an adjoining room, the door of which I saw was closed. On returning to the sitting room and closing its door also, I thoughtofsomeobjectinthehouse,fixeduponatrandom; writingthenamedownIshowedittothefamilypresent,the strictest silence being preserved throughout. We then all silently thought of the name of the thing selected. In a few seconds the door of the adjoining room was heard to open, 27

Telepathy andinaveryshortintervalthechildwouldenterthesitting room, generally appearing with the object selected. No one wasallowedtoleavetheroomaftertheobjecthadbeenfixed upon;nocommunicationwiththechildwasconceivableasthe placewasoftenchanged.Further,theonlyinstructionsgivento thechildweretofetchsomeobjectinthehousethatIwould fixuponand,togetherwiththefamily,silentlykeepinmindto theexclusion,sofaraspossible,ofallotherideas.InthiswayI wrotedown,amongotherthings,ahairbrushitwasbrought; an orangeit was brought; a wineglassit was brought; an appleitwasbrought;etc.,etc. Many other experiments of the greatest interest were performed,whichwemustomitforwantofspace.Thefollowing summary,however,willgiveanideaoftheremarkablesuccess attendingtheseries.Atotalrecordofthreehundredandeighty twoseparateexperimentsappearsinthereports.Acalculation ofthechancesofsuccessaregivenasfollows:Inthecaseof lettersofthealphabet,ofcards,andofnumbersoftwofigures, thechancesagainstsuccessonafirsttrialwouldnaturallybe 25to1;51to1;and89to1;respectively.Inthecaseofsurnames the chances against success would of course be indefinitely greater.Cardswerefarmostfrequentlyemployed,andtheodds intheircasemaybetakenasafairmediumsample,according towhich,outofthewholeseriesofthreehundredandeighty twotrials,theaveragenumberofsuccessesinthefirstattempt byanordinaryguesserwouldbesevenandonethird.Inview oftheabovestatedcalculationofchancesagainstsuccess,itis interestingtonotethatintheseriesoftrials127successesatthe firstattemptwerereported;56onthesecondattempt;19on thethirdattempt,makingthe remarkable total of 202 successes out of a possible 382. But one of the special experiments reveals a still more remarkable result. The committee selected a card without revealingittothefamily.Atonetimefive cards runningwere guessed correctly on first attempt. The odds against this 28

TheEnglishExperiments happeningwereover1,000,000to1.Anothertimetherewasa sequenceorrunofeight cardssuccessfullyguessedatfirsttrial, againstwhichtheoddswereestimatedat142,000,000to1;and asequenceorrunofeightnamessuccessfullyguessedatfirst trial,theoddsagainstsuchahappeningbeingalmostbeyond calculation.Thecommitteeinmakingitsreportsaidthatthey feltthatallchanceoffraudorcollusionhadbeenpractically eliminated, and that the hypothesis of coincidence being overbornebytheabovestatedcalculations,thereremainedbut theconclusionthatthephenomenawasreallyamanifestation ofThoughttransferance. Prof. Balfour Stewart, LLD., F. R. S., who was present at a number of these experiments, reported as follows regarding certainpointsnoticedbyhim:
In the first instance, the thoughtreader was outside a door. The objectorthingthoughtofwaswrittenonpaperandsilentlyhanded to the company in the room. The thoughtreader was then called in, and in the course of perhaps a minute the answer was given. Definiteobjectsintheroom,forinstance,werefirstthoughtof,and inthemajorityofcasestheanswerswerecorrect.Thennumberswere thoughtof,andtheanswersweregenerallyright,but,ofcourse,there weresomecasesoferror.Thenamesoftownswerethoughtof,anda goodmanyofthesewereright.Thenfancynameswerethoughtof.I wasaskedtothinkofcertainfancynamesandmarkthemdownand hand them round to the company. I then thought of and wrote on paper,Bluebeard,TomThumb,Cinderella,andtheanswerswereall correct.

Laterintheyear,thecommitteeresumedtheexperiments with the Misses Creery, this time, however, not at their own homebutattheresidenceofMr.F.W.H.MyersinCambridge, England. These experiments continued over a period of ten days.Theresultswereasremarkableasthoseobtainedinthe earlierexperiments.Forinstanceinthecardtestsmadewith 29

Telepathy thefullpackoffiftytwocards,outof248trialsthegirlsguessed 22 absolutely correct; on the first trial; and 18 on the second trial; besides which there were 69 guessed partially correct. Asthechancesofcorrectguessesshouldhavebeenbut1out of52trials,itwillbeseenthattheexperimentwasadecided success.Ononedayoftheseries,outof32experiments5were completely successful at the first attempt, and 20 partially correct.Onthisdaytherewasarecordofthesuitbeingnamed correctly 14 times in succession, the chances against such an occurrencebeing4,782,969to1. In the experiments with figures known alone by the committee,outof64trialswithfiguresrangingfrom10to99, thegirlguessed5correctatfirsttrial;and6atsecondtrial.The average, of course, would be but 1 in 90 trials, according to thelawofaverage,whereasthegirlssucceededinaverymuch greaterdegree.

30

Chapter V

More English Experiments

nother series of experiments conducted by the English committee which has attracted the attention ofinvestigators,isthatknownastheBlackburnSmith experiments. These experiments were conducted before the committeeunderthedirectionoftwoofitsmembers,Messrs. F.W.H.MyersandEdmundGurney.Mr.G.A.Smithwasthe percipientandMr.DouglassBlackburnwastherecipient.The placeoftheexperimentswasBrighton,England. The recipient, Mr. Smith, was blindfolded, and sat with his back toward the percipient, Mr. Blackburn. Every precaution againstfraudwasobserved.Inordertoshutouttheonlysense possiblyavailabletotherecipient,thatofhearing,hisearswere coveredwithheavybandages;andincertainexperimentshis ears were filled with putty which was in turn covered by a thickbandage,overthiswasdrawnabolstercase,andthenhis entireheadandbodywascoveredbyablanket.Moreoverthe committeegroupeditselfaroundMr.Blackburn,thepercipient, so as to prevent his attempting to communicate with the recipientinanyway,Mr.Blackburnbeingalsorequiredtosit perfectlystillandquietsometwofeetbehindtherecipient.The resultswereobtainedunderthesestrictandrigidrequirements. 31

Telepathy Thenames,figures,etc.,weregivenbythecommittee,oneata timebeforeeachexperiment,toMr.Blackburn,thepercipient, whothenclosedhiseyesandconcentratedhisminduponMr. Smiththepercipient,whoshortlyafternamedtheobject,etc., thoughtof,orelsedrewwithapencilthefigureselected. Thefollowingistherecordoftheresultsobtained: Color Selected. Answer. Gold Gilt(colorofpictureframe.) LightWood DarkBrown,Slaty. Crimson FieryLooking,Red. Black Black OxfordBlue Yellow,Gray,Blue. White Green,White. OrangeReddishBrown. Black Iamtired.Iseenothing.

Names Chosen. Answer. Barnard Harland,Barnard. Bellairs Humphreys,BenNevis,Benaris. Johnson Jobson,Johnson. RegentStreet RembrantStreet,RegentStreet. QueenAnne Queechy,Queen Wissenschaft Wissie,Wissenaft. Then followed a series of experiments in which pain was inflictedonthebodyofMr.Blackburn,thepercipient,andMr. Smith, the recipient, told what part of his own body felt the pain. Part of Body. Answer. LeftUpperArm LeftUpperArm. LobeofRightEarLobeofRightEar. 32

MoreEnglishExperiments HaironTopofHead HaironTopofHead. LeftKnee LeftKnee. Thenfollowedaseriesofremarkableexperimentsinwhich geometricalandsimilarfigureswerevisualizedbythepercipient, and reproduced by the recipient, the reproduction, however, usuallybeinginreverseorderandupsidedown.Outofaseries of37drawingssubmitted,only8wereconsideredtobefailures. Infourcasestherecipientfailedtoseeanything,andinfour casesthereproductionwassoimperfectthatitwasClassedas afailure.Theoriginaldrawingsandthereproductionsthereof are given in the Societys reports, and must be seen to be appreciated. In the committees report, the results obtained are summarizedasfollows:
Thusgivingeveryexperimentwhenthechancesagainstsuccesswere beyond50to1,wefindupwardof40percentcorrectlyanswered. Purechancewouldhavegivencertainlylessthanfrom1to2percent. As the chance of hitting, by pure guesswork, on a fictitious name, inventedbyoneofus,wouldbeatleastonetomanythousands,and asnoneofthechanceswaslessthan1to50,wemayroughlysaythat ifpureguessworkonlywereconcerned,weshouldnothavehadmore thanonequiterightinonehundredtrials;whereasourexperiments showedwehad,iffirstresponsesonlybeallowed,onequiterightin4 13trials.Intheseresultswehavenotincludedtherecentexperiments on the reproduction of drawings. Here, obviously, an incalculable number of trials might be made before pure guesswork would hit uponaresemblanceasnearasthatobtainedinalmosteverycaseby Mr.G.A.Smith.

Inadditiontomanyseriesofexperiments,similartothose recordedaboveandintheprecedingchapter,theSocietyfor PsychicalResearchgatheredalargevolumeoftestimonyfrom various sources, in which reputable persons related cases of 33

Telepathy involuntary telepathy which had come under their personal observation and in their own experience. It is impossible to reproducetheseaccountsatlength,butthefollowingmaybe quotedasafairrepresentativecase:
ThelateBishopofWilberforcewasinhislibraryatCuddeson,with three or four of his clergy with him at the same table. The Bishop suddenlyraisedhishandtohisheadandexclaimed:Iamcertainthat somethinghashappenedtooneofmysons.Itafterwardtranspired that just at that time his eldest sons foot was badly crushed by an accident on board his ship, the son being at sea. The Bishop thus records the case in a letter to Miss Noel, dated March 4, 1847: It is curiousthatatthetimeoftheaccidentIwassopossessedwiththe depressingconsciousnessofsomeevilhavingbefallenmyson,Herbert, that at the last, on the third day after the 13th, I wrote down that I was quite unable to shake off the impression that something had happenedtohim,andnotedthisdownforremembrance.

TheSocietyalsoreportsuponanumberofinterestingcases ofvoluntarytelepathyatadistance,butfromthenatureofthe casetheseexperimentscouldnotbeconductedunderthesame stricttestconditions,andtheresultslackthepositivequality possessed by the class of experiments we have mentioned. I omitaspecialreferencetotheselongdistanceexperiments inthischapter,moreparticularlybecauseIintendcallingyour attentiontoawellknownseriesofsuchexperimentsconducted by Prof. S. W. Weltmer, of Nevada, Missouri, and his son, Mr. Ernest Weltmer, which is generally known as The Weltmer Experiment,andwhichhasattractedmarkedattentionfrom investigatorsofthesubjectbothinthiscountryandinEurope: InofferingtheresultoftheEnglishexperimentsImakeno attempttoproveanyspecialhypothesis,ortheory,butmerely desire to lay the facts before you that you may intelligently determine for yourself whether the proofs of Telepathy are 34

MoreEnglishExperiments worthy of careful consideration and account. Northcote W. Thomashaswellsaid,inhisworkonThoughtTransference:


Nothing is more difficult than to sum up the net result of experiments so diverse in their nature and outcome as the various seriesdescribedabove.Withtheexceptionofthecardseries,noneof thetrialsembracedanygreatnumberofseparateexperiments,andin noneofthebriefseriesisthepossibilityofchancecoincidenceexcluded, howeverimprobableitmayappearincertaincases.Theresultsofthe cardexperiments,ontheotherhand,arehardlysufficientlydecisive forittobepossibletobaseanyconclusiononthem.Iamlessdisposed tosumupthemiscellaneousexperimentsherepublishedasitis,a priori, certain that no argument based upon them is likely to affect any ones convictions. Those who are satisfied that telepathy and all that nonsense is impossible, will not be moved, even if an angel comefromheaven.Thosewhoholdthatthemassofevidenceisyet toosmall,orthatinmanyoftheprevioustrialstheconditionshave notbeensuchastoexcludeundesiredperturbations,willnotfindin thepresentcontributionmatterofsufficientweighttoturnthescale in favor of telepathy. Perhaps those who are already convinced that thoughttransferenceisafactwillthinkmeundulyexacting,whenI demandmoreevidenceandespeciallymorerecentevidencethanany whichtheSocietyofPsychicalResearchhasputbeforeus.Iadopt, therefore,thesaferplanofleavingmyreaderstomakeuptheirminds on the subject of these experiments for themselves. If I venture to expressmyownconvictiononthesubject,itisthatmuchmoreeffort, andparticularly,muchmoresystematiceffort,isneededbeforewecan safely assert that telepathy is a proved fact. (By this I mean proved bydirectexperiment.Whenwetakeintoaccountcrystalgazingand thespontaneouscases,theweightofevidenceinfavoroftelepathyis considerablygreater).Noinquirycanlayclaimtobescientificwhich expressesItsresultsingeneraltermswhenitcangivetheminprecise. terms.TheSocietyforPsychicalResearchwasformedtoinvestigate telepathy as well as spiritualism. At present all its energies seem to be directed towards inquiries into trance mediumship, automatic

35

Telepathy
writing,andthelike,totheexclusionoftheworkwhichshouldreally formthefoundationofthewholestructureofPsychicalScience,the establishmentofthetheoryoftelepathy,iftrue,anditsformulation in the most definite terms possible. For if thought transference is evertobeproved,itmustbebyshowingthatitisafacultycommon to the human race and not absolutely limited to a few individuals. Reasonably or unreasonably, if thought transference cannot, with sufficient patience and sufficiently delicate methods of analysis, be demonstrated on the corpus vile, or rather the anima vilis, of the ordinaryman,itwillforthemassofscientificmenremainatanyrate ontheborderland,ifnotinthelimboofsuperstitionsanddelusions.If ahundred,orfivehundred,orfivethousand,personswerepreparedto try,underproperconditions,experimentsofthesortdescribedhere, leavingthediscussionandanalysistoexperts,itmightbepossible,if nottodemonstratethoughttransferencefromtheresults,atanyrate tosaymoredefinitelythanwecanatpresent,whethertheordinary personshowsanytracesofsuchafaculty,

36

Chapter VI

The Weltmer Experiment

erhapsthebestknownseriesofexperimentsinTelepathy conductedbyinvestigatorsinAmericaisthatknownas TheWeltmerExperiment.conductedbyProf.SidneyA. Weltmer.andhiseldestson.ErnestWeltmer,ofNevada,Missouri. Prof.WeltmeristheheadoftheWeltmerInstitute,ofNevada, Missouri,atwhichinstitutionhealingbysuggestionandother mental agencies, including absent treatment by means of telepathy,hasbeenpracticedsuccessfullyformanyyears.Mr. Ernest Weltmer has investigated the subject of telepathic phenomenaformanyyearsandhasconductedagreatnumber of personal experiments along these lines. Feeling, however, that it was advisable to institute a series of experiments on a much larger scale and covering a much broader field, the Messrs. Weltmer began the celebrated Weltmer Experiment in1907. In the August, 1907, issue of Weltmers Magazine, the followingannouncementappears:Forthepastyearwehave beenconductingaclass(inadditiontotheregularcoursein healing)fortheinvestigationofpsychicphenomena,andthe resultswehaveachievedconvinceusmorethaneverthatitis possibletoapplycarefulmethodsofobservationtothestudy 37

Telepathy of the unseen as well as to the seen world. We have made a greatmanyexperimentsintelepathy,withofttimesremarkable results,andnowwewishtoextendourresearchestobroader lines and in one series of experiments gather more material thanwouldordinarilybeobtainableinalifetimeofhardwork. Wearegoingtobeginaseriesofexperimentsintelepathyto testthe possibility of a large number of people receiving messages from one sender. We are well fitted to make this experiment successful.Wehaveamagazinewhichreachesalargenumber of people each month, through which we can communicate with the ones who are helping to make the experiments, andwehaveacentrearoundwhichtogatheragreatdealof effortandfromwhichtosendweeklymessagestoallwhoare tryingtoreceivethem.Wehavemenwhoaretrainedtosend thoughtstoothers,whounderstandperhapsaswellasanyone atthepresenttime,theactionofthenaturallawswhichmake thesethingspossible,and,infact,wethinkwehaveeverything necessary to give the experiment a large chance of being a success.Webelievethatwecansendtoathousandpeopleas wellastooneanythoughtuponwhichweconcentrate;that thedifficultywillbeingettingreceivers,notsomuchingetting senders, although, of course, for the latter is required a man oftrainedmindwhocanthinkwhathewishestothink;and further,webelievethattherewillbelittletroubleinteaching peoplehowtoreceive,iftheyarewillingtomakeaneffortto learn,asourexperiencehasshownusthatitiscomparatively easytoteach,themainthingbeinganeffortonthepartofthe pupiltolearn.
Telepathyisaprovenfact.Ithasbeenprovensomanytimesunder strictly test conditions that it is no more questioned now than is hypnotism, and only, as one would expect, by the same people, to wit:thosewhoknownothingwhateveraboutwhathasbeendonein eitheroftheselines;inotherwords,bytheignorant.Wedonotexpect inthisexperimenttoproveanythingnewsofarasordinarytelepathy

38

TheWeltmerExperiment
isconcerned,butweexpecttoconformwhatisalreadyproven,and wewishtodiscover,ifpossible,whetheronepersoncansendmessages toalargenumberofpeopleatthesametime.Thenwewillcarrythe experimentastepfurtherandendeavortodeterminewhetheralarge numberofpersonscanbemadetofeelthesamesensationsatacertain timefromonevolitionofthesender,withouttheirconsciousnessof thesendersintention.Thiswouldmakeafurtherbasisforanabsent methodoftherapeutictreatment. Ourplanforthisexperimentisasfollows:Weareprintingablank inthisnumberofthemagazinewhichweexpectatleastfivehundred ofoursubscriberstocutout,signproperlyandreturntous,thereby promising to spend half an hour, more or less, each week, in trying toreceiveamessagetobesentfromhereandtoreportimmediately afterthetrialthethoughtstheythinktheycanidentifyasbeingthe messagetheyhavebeentryingtoreceive.Weshallpublishfourblanks each month for them to use in making their weekly reports, which willsavethemmuchtroubleofwritinglettersandmakeiteasierfor ustotakecareofthemassofmaterialthatwillhavetobearranged infirmwhatisalreadyproven,andwewishtodispublishatimetable fortryingtheexperiment,makingthetimesuitforthewholeworld, sothatwhenthesenderistryingtoreachthereceiverstheycanallbe waitingforthemessage.Theneachweekatthetimeset,oneofour trained senders will concentrate his mind on some thought for the purposeofsendingitouttoallwhoaremakinganefforttoreceiveit. Hewillalsowritethewordsexpressingthethought,onaslipofpaper whichhewillhavewitnessedbyanotaryonthesameday,makingit impossible to substitute a bogus message for the real one sent, and giving the evidence obtained from an agreement of the thoughts receivedwiththemessagesent,strongvalueinthemindsofthemost skeptical.Or,ifthiswillnotdohewillbegiventhemessagetobesent afterenteringtheroominthepresenceofwitnesseswhowillmake affidavit to this fact. These messages will be published each month, togetherwithalltherepliessentin,andthenwhenthereceivergets hismagazinehecanseewhatsuccesshehashadandhowotherswho aretryingtheexperimenthaveprospered.Astheenrollmentblanks

39

Telepathy
arereceivedweshallnumberthemandwhenwepublishthereplies of the respondents we shall publish only the numbers, but we shall alsokeeponfilealltheoriginalrepliessignedwiththefullnameofthe writersothatifanyofthemarecalledinquestionbytheskepticalwe canprovethemgenuine. This manner of conducting the experiment will make its results conclusive, and if we are successful in proving that these things are possiblewithdataofthissortitwillbepossibletomakeascienceof telepathywhichshallhavearighttothename.

In the September, 1907, issue of the same magazine, the editorsstate:TheTelepathyExperimentisago.Wehaveover threehundredreceiversenrolledtoday,andeverymailbrings abigsheafofnewapplications.Allthosewhoareenrolledwill receiveasheetofinstructions,timetables,etc.,enclosedintheir magazine. ThefollowingquotationsfromtheInstructionssenttothe ReceiverintheWeltmerTelepathyExperiment,willgiveanidea ofthemethodsfollowed,etc:
Telepathy is a function of the deeper, subconscious mind, both as to the sending and receiving of messages. Thoughts sent by the subconsciousness come to the consciousness of the sender only incidentally or perhaps not at all. Messages received by the subconsciousnessarisetotheconsciousnessofthereceiverwhilehis mindisinaconditionwhichplacestheordinarysensorythoughtsin thebackground,andastheresultofthetransmittedvibrationscausing amovementorconditioninthereceiversmindsimilartothatwhich inthesendersmindproducedconsciousness.Telepathicmessagesare neithersentnorreceiveddirectlyinconsciousness,whethervoluntary orinvoluntary.However,sinceallofthethinkingfaculties,thosewhich normallyproduceconsciousnessandthosewhichdonot,areunder controloftheconsciousnessproducingorconsciousmind,controlled bytheconsciouswill,itispossibletosotrainthesubconscioussending faculty that one can determine the messages sent, by the thoughts

40

TheWeltmerExperiment
whicharisetoconsciousness.Hecanalsolearntoraisetoconsciousness all desirable messages received by the conscious receiving faculty. This is a matter of education and practice and the first step toward proficiencyintheartofsendingandreceivingmessagesistolearnto receivethem.Toteachthisistheobjectoftheselessons. About the only thing that is fully proven about telepathy is that thereissuchameansofcommunication;thatmindscancommunicate withoutanyoftheordinaryphysicalaids.Thisisproven,butnoone understandsfullyhowthisisaccomplished.Todiscoverthisisoneof the aims of this Telepathy Experiment. The other end for which we areworkingistoteachmentousethismeansofcommunicationso thatitmaybeappliedineverydaylife,assistinguswiththework:we aredoingwithourheadandhands.Ourprincipalobjectatpresent, however,isexperimentation.Inordertogetthebestresultswemust layaplanuponwhichtowork.Thisplanmustpointtheroadtosuccess, thewaytoreachtheendofthejourneyweareundertaking.Itmustbe formulatedfromaknowledgeofthegroundoverwhichweshalltravel. Wehavethesameuseforitthatthearcticexplorerhasfortheplanof theroadheshalltraveltofindthePole,andwemustbe,asheis,always readytoabandonitatanytimewhenitprovesinadequateorseems liabletoleadusastray.Hetakeshismapsandalltheaccountshecan findofarctictravelsandfromthemeagerinformationtheygivehim hesketchesouttheprobablecourseheshallhavetofollowandforms someideaofthenatureofthecountryoverwhichheshallpassand thedifficultiesheislikelytomeet. So we take our knowledge of telepathy gleaned from our own experiences and all the trustworthy accounts of the experiences of otherswecanget,andstudyingthese,weevolveanexplanation,sofar asweareable,ofthisphenomenon,andfromthisexplanationwelay aplanforfuturework.Thisexplanationandplanwecallahypothesis, whichisproposedtoaccountforsomethingnotunderstood,aplan throughwhichweexpecttogetanunderstandingofthephenomenon, andafullknowledgeofthetruth.Therearemanyhypothesesproposed toaccountfortelepathy,butnoneoftheseseemstoustobefounded onthefactsastheyoccur,appearingrathertobestatementsofthe

41

Telepathy
preferences of their makers, expressions of their hopes rather than foreshadowingsofthetruth;thereforewehavediscardedallofthem for the one which we shall give here, believing that this is the most comprehensible, the sanest and most logical conclusion, from the natureofthefactsforwhichwearetoaccount.

OurHypothesis
1. Mind acting in the normal capacity of thinking, produces vibrationsinether. (So far as we know, every expression of intelligence and force is throughsomeformofsubstancebysomemodeofmotion.Conscious thought is an expression of an intelligence and force and requires substance for its expression. What this substance may be, whether brain or mind, or both, (if we may speak of mind as substance,) we do not know, but we find we cannot think of motion apart from something to move. We conceive that there must be motion associated with thought, not only because we find motion back of everyexpression,butaswellbecausewecannotreallythinkofitas apart from substance. The motion of mind is not, strictly speaking, in brain substance, but it is in ether and expressed through brain substance,justasheatisnotintherodbutisamovementoftheether expressingitselfthroughtheglowing,redhotiron.Thewholethinking process,assuch,issubconscious,andproducesconsciousnessonlyas aresultofcertainlittleunderstoodconditions.Beloweveryconscious thoughtthereisaverycomplexprocessofmentalactivityandabasis ofethericmovement.) 2.Ether,capableofbeingsetintovibrationsbymentalactivities,fills allspace. (We do not mean to be definite in this statement but rather to expresstheideathatwecanplacenolimitstotheextentofetherand donotknowofanythingwhichitdoesnotpermeate,inwhichitdoes not exist. We cannot know whether it fills all space, because we do notknowallspace.Wedoknow,however,thattelepathicmessages have been received from the farthest corners of the earth and that

42

TheWeltmerExperiment
therefore, so far as we are concerned as human beings, it fills all of extendedspace;thatitatleastfillsallthespaceweoccupy.) 3.Ethertransmitsthoughtvibrationstoeverypartofitsmass. (Thisisanotherstatementwhichisdescriptiveratherthandefinite. Wecouldnot,ofcourse,saythatthewholemassofetherisdisturbed bythoughtvibrationsinanyonepartofit,butthisideaisnecessaryin ourconceptionoftheethericbodywhichisofaninfinitelyextended andexceedinglyattenuatedbutatthesametimemoreorlesssolid substance.Hereagainwefindthatitmatterslittlewhetherornotour statement is exact, since vibrations have been transmitted from the antipodes, which means that so far as we are practically concerned ourstatementistrue.Thatvibrationsaretransmittedthroughetheris provenbythefactthatmessagesaretransmitted,anditisanecessary conceptioninourhypothesisthatthoughtsproducevibrationsinether. Intheabsenceofanyphysicalmediumoftransmissionintelepathywe conceivethatetherservesthispurposejustasthewirelesstelegrapher conceivesthatwavesofelectricityarecarriedbyetherwhenhesends messages from one machine to another without using wires or any othervisiblemeansofcommunication.) 4.Theetherictransmissionofthoughtvibrationsisindependentof theconsciousvolitionoftheproducer. (Many instances come in the experience of every one in which messageshavebeensentandreceivedwithoutanyeffortonthepart ofeithersenderorreceiver.) 5. The transmission of thought vibrations can be directed and intensifiedbytheconsciousvolitionofthesender. (Forinstance,Imayconsciouslywillthatmytelepathicsuggestions shall reach and affect a certain person in a definite manner, and experience proves that the effect produced is proportional in some degreetotheintensityofmyvolition.Thisispossible,notbecausethe consciousthinkingofthesenderproducesastrongereffectthrough strongerconscious activities. This is so because Will is, po-1which,under the influence of the consciously directed will, produces a stronger conscious effect, produces also a stronger etheric wave through
1 Typesettingerrorinoriginal:Correcttextreplacedwithduplicate.SeeBelow.

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Telepathy
subconsciousactivities.ThisissobecauseWillis,potentially1atleast, masterofallthefacultiesandpowersofman.) 6.Mindcanreceiveandtranslatethoughtvibrations. (Every instance of telepathy proves that mind receives thoughts in some manner from distant minds. Our hypothesis assumes that the manner of transmission is in the form of vibrations. Hence, it is necessary that we conceive that mind can receive these thought vibrationsandtranslatethemintoconsciousthoughts.) 7. Mind receives only those thought vibrations which find a harmoniousresponseinthereceivingmind. (Thoughtvibrationsarereceivedbytheirproducinginthereceiving mindanewmodeofmotioncorrespondingwiththemotionofthe mindwhichproducedthem.Whenthereceivingmindisatacertain tension, which it is when thinking, or im- string on a violin is tuned to a certain tension2, only vibrations which would be produced by a mind at the same tension can affect it. To illustrate: if a string on a violinistunedtoacertaintension3onlysoundvibrationswhichcome fromanotherstringtunedtoliketensionwillsetitintovibration.So itiswiththemindandtelepathicsensitiveness.Thoughtsofhope,for instance, have a pitch peculiar to themselves and require the mind producingthemtohaveacertaintension.Whenthemindistuned tothetensionwhichproducesthoughtsofhopeitcanonlyanswer tovibrationswhichhavestartedfromothermindshavingthesame tension. For this reason the thoughts he thinks determines to what thoughtsthereceiverwillbesensitive.Thisappliesineveryhourand minuteofyourlife.) 8.Thoughtsoflikenatureproducemutuallyharmoniousvibrations. (Thisisnecessarilysosincemindcanreceivethoughtvibrationsat onetimeandtranslatethematalatertime.Itisobviouslynecessary thattheybestoredbelowtheconsciousnessinsomemanner.)4

1 2 3 4

Duplicatedtext. Typesettingerrorinoriginal:Correcttextreplacedwithduplicate.SeeBelow. Duplicatedtext. Missingtext810.Error?

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TheWeltmerExperiment
11.Acertainconditionofmindcalledtelepathicsensitivenessmakes possible the conscious perception and interpretation of the stored thoughts. (Experienceprovesthatthemindmustbeconsciouslywithdrawn fromsensorythoughtsandmadesensitivetotheinnermindinorder toraisetelepathicmessagestoconsciousness.) 12. Telepathic sensitiveness changes the relation of the conscious andsubconsciousminds. (That telepathic sensitiveness affects only the relation of the conscious and subconscious minds is illustrated by the fact that messagesreceivedatonetimecanbeinterpretedatanother;alsoby thefactthattelepathyisnotaconsciousfaculty.Itisimpliedbyour assumptionofsubconsciousreceptivitytovibrations.) 13.Telepathicsensitivenessdoesnotaffectthemindinitsexternal relations with the objects and influences of its environment except thattheattentioniswithdrawnfromthem. (Thisisreallyanegativestatementofthetwelfth.Sincetelepathic sensitivenessconsistsinopeningtheconsciousmindtosubconscious activities, it could not, of course, affect its relations with the outer world,exceptasitwithdrewallattentionfromit.) 14. Thought vibrations will produce the same conscious effect uponthemindofthereceiverthattheyproduceuponthemindof theproducer,exceptastheirinterpretationiswarpedbyanimperfect conditionoftelepathicsensitiveness. (Conscious thought is the result of motion in ether, producing consciousnessthroughthebrain,dependingforitsnatureuponthe rate and intensity of this motion. Whenever the brain, through the ethericmotions,isgivenanysortofmotion,therewillbeproduced a corresponding effect of consciousness. Therefore, when thought vibrationsofacertainnaturecommunicatetheirmotiontothebrain of the receiver, the resultant condition of consciousness will be the sametothereceiverasthesamemotionoriginallycausedinthemind oftheproducer.Afaultyconditionoftelepathicsensitivenessmight introducecertainelementsofdiscordintothethoughtmotion,tingeing the message received with the receivers own thought. This applies

45

Telepathy
onlytotheraisingofthethoughttoconsciousness.Weconceivethat themessageisreallyreceivedinthesubconsciousreceiverperfectand iswarpedonlywhenitisinprocessofbeingraisedtoconsciousness, althoughtheremightbesomedistortionbelowthis.) 15. An imperfect condition of telepathic sensitiveness will tend to mix the thought of the receiver with the thought of the sender, distortingtheinterpretationofthereceivedthought. (Thisisobviousfromtheforegoingexplanation.) 16.Animperfectconditionoftelepathicsensitivenessmaycausea receivedthoughttobeinterpretedinsensations,feelingsorideas. (Nothing is more common than for our thoughts of things to arousetheiraccompanyingsensations.Thus,whenyousitinatrain, looking out at another train which is just beginning to move on a parallel track, you appear to be moving and can feel the motion of thetrain,althoughyouarestandingstillallthetime.Thereisthesame reactiontoathoughtreceivedtelepathicallythatthereistotheidea createdbyfalseinterpretationofsensorystimulation.) 17.Telepathicsensitivenessissometimesnatural. (This is proven by the fact that telepathic messages are often receivedwithoutanyunusualconditionsorvoluntaryeffort.) 18.Telepathicsensitivenesscanbecultivatedwhereitisnotnatural. (Commonexperienceinteachingtheartofsendingandreceiving telepathic messages proves this statement, making any explanations unnecessary.) 19. Telepathic sensitiveness is best cultivated by exercises which tend to abstract one from conscious relation with his environment andproduceastateofphysicalandmentalrelaxation. (Since telepathic sensitiveness consists in withdrawing ones consciousattentionfromsurroundingswhichwillproducesensation, it naturally follows that exercises which promote this state are best adaptedtoitscultivation.Experienceprovesthetheory.) 20.While artificial telepathic sensitiveness is at first a slow and difficult process, training will enable one to produce it instantaneously at will.

46

TheWeltmerExperiment
(Thislaststatementofourhypothesisis not hypothetical at all,but isa statement of actual results obtained by us in the work of teaching telepathy. Following the above statement of The Weltmer Hypothesis, Mr. ErnestWeltmermakesthefollowingstatement,andgivesthefollowing directionsforTheWeltmerExperiment: For the purposes of our experiment you need to learn to receive messages;itisalsobetterforyoutohavethisdevelopmentbeforeyou trytotakeuptheworknecessarytothesuccessfulsendingofthem; therefore,Ishallgiveyouinstructionsatpresentonlyinthecultivation of telepathic sensitiveness which is necessary to the conscious interpretation of telepathic messages received by the subconscious mind.Asstatedinourhypothesis,weassumethatthereceivingfaculty orpowerdoesnotbelongtotheconsciousnessproducingfacultiesof mind, but that it is a part of those faculties which do not normally produce consciousness, and that it needs no special cultivation of itself to exercise its functions. We further assume that when the consciousnessproducing faculties are withdrawn from the senses andsensorythoughtsandtheattentionisturnedinwardtowardthe deeperself,thatthemessagesreceivedbythesubconsciousreceiving powerscanarisetoconsciousnessandbeconsciouslyknownbythe receiver.Thisconditionofthemindturnedinwardfortheperception oftelepathicmessagesiscalledtelepathic sensitiveness,andabilityto producethisconditionatwilliswhatwemustnowtrytocultivate. The first necessity for the production of voluntary telepathic sensitiveness is that the attention shall be fully withdrawn from the body, and that the body shall be placed in such a condition that its senses shall not intrude upon the mind for the time being. The physical condition that most fully insures these results is that of perfectrelaxation,ofthebodyandanequalrelaxationofthemindin itsrelationtothebodyandthingsconcerningit.Inordertoproduce themostperfectrelaxationwehaverecoursetooneofthebestknown lawsofpsychology,towit:Themindseesbycontrasts,andwhena verystrongshadowisplacedbyacomparativelystronglight,themind magnifiesthestrengthofthelight,etc.,thisweapplytoourproblem,

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Telepathy
and experience bears us out in the statement that when a period of intense activity is quickly followed by a period of comparative relaxation,themindmagnifiesthedegreeofrelaxationandmakesone feelmorerelaxedthanhereallyis.Hereanotherlawofpsychologyis broughtintoplay,towit:Thebodyreactstothementalconditions andexpressesasfullyaspossiblethethoughtsinthemind;therefore, whenweproduceafeelingofrelaxationthebodyquicklyfollowsthe feelingwiththeactualcondition.Weapplytheseprincipleswiththe samebeneficialresults.Thefollowingisthemannerofapplication: Application.Afterhavingreadtheforegoingcarefully,gointoyour roomalone,ifpossible,andhavingpreparedyourbedoreasychairso thatyoumaylieorsitateaseandcomfort,takethisexercise,either sittinguporlyingdown,orevenstanding.Itisbettertotakeitinthe positionyouwillmaintainduringyourrelaxationperiod,butifthisis inconvenientandyouhavetotaketheexerciseinonepositionand thenrestinanother,placeyourselfinthepositionyouwishtokeep, before you are ready to relax. I shall describe the exercise as if you weretakingitsittinginyoureasychair,andyoucanadaptitfromthis descriptiontomeetyourownrequirements.Extendyourarmsinfront andkeepingyourattentionfirmlyfixeduponwhatyouaredoing,half closethehandsandthentrytoopenandclosethematthesametime, pullingthemusclesthatwouldopenthemagainstthosewhichwould close them; half bend the wrists and then make the muscles which wouldbendthemfartherpullagainstthosewhichwouldstraighten them;bendtheelbowsinthesamemanner,andliftthearmsalsoat thesametimethatothermusclesaretryingtoholdthemdown;when allthehand,wrist,elbowandshouldermusclesarethuspullingagainst eachother,suddenlyrelaxthemandletthearmsfall,whenyouwill feelasenseofbodilyeaseandrelaxationrunupyourarmsandspread overyourshoulders.Dothisseveraltimes;ifyoudoitproperly,three orfourtimesaresufficientunlessyouareaccustomedtothisparticular formofexercise.Thenmentallyapplythesameexercisetoallpartsof yourbody,yourneck,trunk,legs,etc.Ifyouhavedoneitrightwith yourarms,youcanbythementalapplicationtoallotherpartsofyour bodyproducethesamerelaxationineverypart.Whenexercisingthe

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TheWeltmerExperiment
arms,besurethatthehandsdonotrelaxwhenyoubeginbendingthe wrists,andthatboththehandsandwristaretensewhenyoubend theelbows,etc.,sothatwhenyoucometorelax,everymuscleinthe armsandshouldersthatwouldbeinvolvedinsuchactionsasthose described,willbepullingashardaspossible. When you have relaxed your body in this manner then leave it alone;giveitnofurtherthought;forgetitifpossible,thengiveyour attention to some complex problem such as the following: Ponder themysteryoftheformationofachickenoutoftheyellowandwhite parts of an egg, or the phenomenon of frost forming patterns on thewindows,ortheeveningskybecomingred,oranythingelseyou cannotunderstandthatwillpermitofintensementalapplication,or ifyoudonotliketheseproblems,takeaprobleminmentalarithmetic andsolveit;anythingwilldothatrequiresconcentrationandasmuch mentalexertionaspossible.Whenyouhavebroughtyourmindtoa highdegreeofvoluntaryactivitysuddenlyletgoallcontrolofit,rest andrelaxyourmindasyouhavedoneyourbody,thenjustletyourself alone.Makenoeffortstocontrolyourthoughts;letcomewhatwill anddonotevenmakeanefforttohearorseeanything.Just relax.If yougotosleep,thatwillnotmatter;youwillawakeafteratime,and evenifyoudosleepallnightthatisallright;trytoraisethemessage toconsciousnessthefirstthingnextmorningbeforearising.Itwould bewellifyouwouldpracticethisexerciseeveryday,makingnoeffort to receive anything, however, except on the nights set for the tests. Youcaninthismannermakemorerapidprogressthanifyoupractice only once a week at the time when you wish to receive a message. Every time that you practice the exercise, read the hypothesis and instructions fully, thinking of their meaning as closely as if you had neverseenthembefore,andconcentratethewholeofyourattention ontheexercisesyouarepracticing.Becarefultoavoidanyperfunctory performanceofanypartoftheseinstructions.Thethoughtthatyou putintoitiswhatwillcountforyou. DirectionsforfheExperiment:EveryThursdaynight,aslongas the Experiment is continued, which will be during the whole of the coming winter, at any rate; from nine to ninethirty, Standard or

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Telepathy
RailroadTime,CentralTime,Prof.S.A.Weltmerwillsendamessage fromheretoallthereceiverswhoareenrolledintheExperiment.At thattimeyoushouldmakeyourselfreceptiveandtrytoreceivethe messagehesends.IfyouliveinEasternTime,youshouldtakethetime from ten to tenthirty for relaxation; if you live in Atlantic or Inter ColonialTime,fromeleventoeleventhirty,orifthishouristoolatefor you,relaxwhenyouarereadyforbedandthen,nextmorningbefore arising,trytoreceivethemessagewhichhasbeenstoredinyourdeeper mind.IfyoulivewestofNevada,(Missouri),andyourtimeisWestern orMountainTime,youshouldrelaxfromeighttoeightthirty;ifPacific Time,fromseventoseventhirty,inordertobewaitingatthetimethat themessageisbeingsent.RememberthatweareusingonlyStandard Time,whichisthesameasRailroadTimeandoftenverydifferentfrom SunTime.Receiverslivinginforeigncountriescanadaptthetimethey usetothis,usingmeanSunTime,whichwillbeapproximatelycorrect. Assoonasyoureceiveamessagewriteoutareportofit.Be sure to report,evenifyoudonotgetanything;butthereisnochancethat you will fail to get something if you will follow directions, and that somethingmaybethemessage.Youmustlearntodistinguishwhatis themessageandwhatisnotandthereportsyoumakewillhelpyouin this.Thisisoneofthemostdifficultthingsyouwillhavetolearnand youcannotbetoocarefulaboutreportingproperly.Manypeopleget themessagecorrectlyeverytimebutdonotknowhowtorecognizeit. Thisissomethingthatyouwillhavetolearnlargelythroughexperience, by comparing your experiences while relaxed with the reports you sendinandthemessagessenttoyou.Inthiswayyoucanseewhere youhavebeenmakingyourmistakesandlearntoknowwhatisfrom theoutsideandwhatisfromthesenderofthemessage. While, as I have said, experience will have to be your teacher in this, there are several ways in which you can identify telepathic messageswithafairchanceofsuccess.Forinstance,theywillnotbe associatedwithanyoftheotherthoughtswhichhavepreviouslybeen inyourmind;theywillimpressyouasunfamiliar;willbemoreorless persistent;willbringafeelingofassociationwiththesender,making you,ifyouareverysensitive,feelthesenderspresence;whenyouhave

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TheWeltmerExperiment
athoughtthatbringsafeelingofthesenderspresence,that will be the message.Or,ifyoucanlearntoknowjustwhenyouhavebecome thoroughlysensitive,whenthewarmglowofawakeninghealthgoes alloveryourbody,andwillthenpickoutyourfirstimpression,itwill oftenbetherightone.Besuretoreporteverythoughtthatbringswith itanyfeelingthatthesenderiswithyouorthatyouhavecometohim, orevenifthereisnomorethanastrongfeelingofassociationwhich doesnotreachtheextremeofmakingyoufeelhispresence.Donottry togovernthethoughtswhichcomeintoyourmindunlesstheyshould beunpleasantorundesirable.Takeanythingthatcomes,solongasit isnotunpleasant.But,do not under any circumstances accept anything that is in any sense unpleasant, for we shall send nothing of the kind, and you must learn to protect yourself against the reception of anything of this kind that you may receive from any other source.Youwillnotget intoanyconditionwhereyouwillbeunabletorefuseanythoughts youdonotwant.

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52

Chapter VII

Results of the Weltmer Experiment


In the November, 1907, issue of Weltmers Magazine, Mr. Ernest Weltmer makes his first report of the Weltmer Experiment.Hesays:OurgreatTelepathyExperimenthasbeen makingweeklytestssinceSeptember12th.Uptodatewehave beenconcernedwithtestingthehypothesisthatany number of people can receive the same message at the same time from one sender, irrespective of distance or location,iftheycaneach onebecomeproperlysensitive.Ipresent,asfollows,theresults of the first four tests. He then calls attention to a facsimile reproductionofthestatementofthecommitteeselectedfor thefirsttest,whichreadsasfollows:
Sept.12,1907. We.asCommittee.haveselectedthismessageforProf.S.A.Weltmer tosendtonighttothereceiversintheTelepathyExperiment,andwe herebytestifythathehasnotseenorbeentoldthismessageuntilwe have given it to him at 9 P. M. this date. The message is as follows: Telepathy is a fact. (Signed)John Wilson,Wm. Weinrich,Emma T. Metz.

53

Telepathy Mr. Ernest Weltmer adds the following footnote to the reproductionoftheabovereport:Theaboveisaphotographic facsimileofthedocumentpreparedbythecommitteewhich selectedthisfirstmessage.Eachtestiscarriedonwiththesame precautions,andallthesepapersarekepttocomparewiththe reported results. The dated reports, taken with the papers prepared by the various committees, give the evidence we gatherapositivescientificvalue,andexclude,oneverycount, allchanceoffraud. Theresultsofthisfirsttest,asstatedbyMr.Weltmer,show that 310 persons reported according to the requirements. Of the messages reported, the following have more or less resemblancetothemessageactuallysentout:
Telepathyisagrandscience. Telepathyisafact;itisproven. LearnTelepathy. Telepathyisagrandscience. Thoughttransference. MentalHealingisafact. MentalHealingisasuccess. Fellasleepimmediatelyafterrelaxing;didnotawakenuntil6a.m. MyfirstconsciousnesswasthesinglewordTelepathyringingthrough mybrain.

Manyreportswerereceivedhavingnoapparentconnection withthemessagesentout. ThemessagesentoutonSeptember19,1907.wasasfollows: Health is wealth.Thereportshavingsomeapparentconnection withtheactualmessage,areasfollows:


Impression.PerfectHealth.Ifeltthevibrationsallthroughmyright side,neckandthroatwheremytroubleis. Healthwentallovermeandmymindwasclear.Isawhowtohold mymindforhealth.

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ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment
A bounding circulation. Seemed to rise and float away, Heard beautifulmusic;hadperfectrest.Afterward,restfulsleep,thenperfect health.

The message sent out September 26, 1907, was as follows: God is Love. The reports having some apparent connection withthemessagesentout,areasfollows:
Godisomnipresent. Godislife,all. TheLordismyshepherd. ThewordLoveseemedtobemoreprominentthananythingelse, exceptbeautifulflowers.Loverules.

ThemessagesentoutOctober3,1907,wasasfollows:I smell a rose.Thefollowingreportsseemtohavesomeconnection withthemessage:


Nomessage,butanodor. Smelledtheodoroffeverbush. IclearlysawMr.ErnestWeltmerathisdeskwithhisfaceburiedin some beautiful pink roses; his whole attention seemed given to the actofsmellingthelargestoneinthevase.Ihadtheimpressionofthe odorwhileIwaslookingatthemandMr.Weltmer.Thiswasfollowed byadistinctimpressionofseeingyouatyourofficesniffingtheodorof somefluidsubstanceinthetinybottlewhichyouheldinyourhands.

Referringtothislastmentionedreport,Mr.ErnestWeltmer statesthat:Shedescribesverywellbothmyfatherandmyself aswesentthemessage;hewithtwovialsofroseperfumeandI withavaseoflargepinkroses. TheDecember,1907;issueofWeltmersMagazine,continues thereportoftheexperiment. 55

Telepathy ThemessagesentoutOctober10,1907,wasasfollows:A wise head carries a still tongue.Thereportshavingsomeapparent connectionwiththemessagesentoutareabsentinthistest. The message sent out October 17, 1907, was as follows: I am hopeful, I am growing strong.Thistestalso,failedtobring satisfactoryreports. The message sent out October 24, 1907, was as follows: I have cast fear out of my life and now trust the law of my being. Thistestalsofailedtobringsatisfactoryreports. ThemessagesentoutOctober31,1907,wasasfollows:I dwell in love.Abouttheonlyreportseemingtohaveanyconnection withthemessagewasoneasfollows:
Idonotknowhowtodescribeitexceptasafeelingofgloryfilled mybeing,fillingmewithstrengthandpower,andloveforeverybody.

TheJanuary,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontinuesthe reportoftheexperiment. The message sent out November 21, 1907, was as follows: Love and Hope.Thereportshavingapparentconnectionwith themessagewereasfollows:
GodisLove. HopeisthekeytoHeaven. GodisLove. GodisLove. LearntoLove. Lovethyneighborasthyself.

ThemessagesentoutNovember28,1907,wasasfollows:Joy. Mr.ErnestWeltmerstatesinconnectionwiththisparticulartest that:Thereseemedtobeatotallackofreceptivityallaround. There were very few who reported receiving any message at all, perhaps because they did not try. This was probably due to the fact that it was Thanksgiving and those who did not 56

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment forget entirely had their minds so occupied with thoughts oftheoccasionthattheywereunabletoconcentrateonthe experiment. ThemessagesentoutDecember5,1907,wasasfollows:Relax, the country is safe.Thereportshavinganapparentconnection withthemessageareasfollows:
Isawalargecrowd. Ifeltthepresenceofmanypersons. Wearethehappiestpeopleonearth. Learntorelaxandgoodwillfollow.

ThemessagesentoutDecember12,1907,wasasfollows:Fear not; all is well.Thereportshavingsomeapparentconnection withthemessageareasfollows:


Fearnot;alliswell. Fearnot;alliswell. Fearnot;alliswell. Fearnot,littleflock. Ineedfearnoevil. IthoughtIwasinacrowdofpeopleandtherewassometrouble andIsaidtoonefellow,Dontbeafraid;itwillbeallrightsoon,butwe tooknopart.

The February, 1908, issue of Weltmers Magazine continues thereportoftheexperiment. The message sent out December 19, 1907, was as follows: Peace be unto all.Thereportedresultsareasfollows:
Peacebeuntoall. Peacebetoall. Peacetoall. Peacebeuntothee. Health,happiness,healthtothee.

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Telepathy
Peacebeuntoyou. Peaceandgooduntoallmen.

Inaddition,19reportedsomevariationofPeaceonearth, goodwilltomen;6reportedsomevariationofPeace,bestill; and25reportedsomeotherformofPeacemessage.Mr.Ernest Weltmerreportedofthisparticulartestthat:Altogetherthere waselevenpercentofthereportswhichgavesomepart,orall, ofthemessage. ThemessagesentoutDecember26,1907,wasasfollows:A happy New Year to all.Thereportedresultsareasfollows:
AhappyNewYeartoall. AhappyNewYeartoall. AhappyNewYeartoall. HappyNewYeartoall. CheerandahappyNewYearuntoall. IwishyouallahappyNewYear. AhappyNewYear.

Inadditiontherewere15otherreportsinwhichsomeformof NewYearmessagewasmentioned,althoughmanyattributed thisthoughttotheassociationsoftheseason. ThemessageforJanuary2,1908,wasasfollows:Prosperity awaits you.Thereportedresultsareasfollows:


Happinessandprosperitytoall. Successandpleasuretoall,andabrightertimecomingtoall. Successinmyeffortsasamagnetichealer. Healthandprosperitytoallthrough1908. Successtoall. Athoughtofpeaceandhealthtoall,andthenaprosperousNew Year. Successtoall. Thiswillbeaprosperousyear.

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ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment
Successforall. Successuntoall.

Inadditiontherewere14whoseemedtogettheideapretty well, but did not express it in the proper words. The March, 1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontinuesthereportofthe experiment. The message sent out January 9, 1908, was divided into threeparts,regardingwhichchangeMr.ErnestWeltmerstates: BeginningwithJanuaryninththemessagewassentoutatthree differenthours.Itwassentfirstatseven,thenateight,andlater atnineoclock.Onthiseveningadifferentmessagewassentat eachhourforthepurposeofdetermining,ifpossible,whether timeanddistancehadanythingtodowithtransmission.The message sent at seven oclock was Wisdom is Mine. At eight oclock the message Health is Wealth was sent, and Right is Mightisthemessagewhichwassentatnineoclock.Thebest reportswereasfollows:
Wisdomismine. WisdomandHealth.Youmadeachangeintelepathy,didntyou? Seemedtomelikeyoudid. YoursforTruth.ThenseemedtocomeKnowledgeisyours. InfiniteWisdomisMine. HealthandSuccess. HealthandSuccess. Health,Success. Healthisworthmorethanallelse. Health,WealthandSuccess. Health,StrengthandProsperityareyours.

The messages for January 16, 1908, were as follows: All is Right;You are growing stonger;andLove one another.The followingareafewofthebestreportsfollowingthistest:
AllisRight,andYouareGrowingStronger,alsoLoveOneAnother.

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Telepathy
AllisWell.TheKingdomisWithin.TheRecognitionofthatPower givesmegreatPeace. AllisWell(Thisreportwassentinby6persons.) AllisGood.(Thisreportsentinby4persons.) EverythingisO.K. Iamallrightandgrowingstronger.

ThemessagessentoutonJanuary23.1908,wereasfollows: We are Encouraged:I Will Succeed;andTelepathy will Win. The reports regarding the first message were very vague, but theserelatingtothesecondandthirdaremuchclearer,aswill beseenbelow:
IwillSucceed. SuccesswillCrownYou. YouwillRiseorSucceed. YoushallreceivethatwhichyouareStrivingfor. SuccessisYours. Success.Sure. TelepathywillhaveSuccess. TelepathyisProven. TelepathyisBeneficial. TelepathyisaSuccess.

ThemessagessentoutonJanuary30,1908,wereasfollows: Mental Healing has come to Stay;Rejoice with Me;andAll is Yours. No strictly correct answers were received, although manywerereceivedgivingthethoughtofoneofthemessages, the form of expression being different; for instance: Joy and Gladness. Inthisnumberofthemagazine,Mr.ErnestWeltmermakes thefollowinginterestingstatement:
Ihavenoticedthatonthesucceedingnightthereareusuallyalmost as many who receive the message sent on the preceding night as

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ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment
receiveditthenightthatitwassentout.Ifthishadhappenedinonly one or two cases I should think nothing of it, but since it happens nearlyeverytimeIamledtobelievethattheremaybesomeverygood reasonforit.Itmayhavesomethingtodowiththeretentionofthe messagebelowconsciousnessandtimeconsumedintransmission.I amnotpreparedtoventureanexplanationnow.

The April, 1908, issue of Weltmers Magazine contains the account of the tests of February 6, 13, 20, and 27, 1908, respectively.ThemessagessentoutonFebruary6,1908,were asfollows:We are growing stronger and better every day;I am well;andBe of good cheer.Thefollowingresultsarereported:
Youaregrowingstrong. Healthisyours. Beofgoodcheer.

Besidestheabove,27arereportedasapproximatelycorrect both in the sense and the wording of their reports; and 84 reportedthesenseofthemessagesbutnotthewords. The message sent out on February 13, 1910, was as follows: God is Love, Life, Health and Peace.Thefollowingwerethebest reports:
GodisLove,Life,HealthandPeace. Becomforted,forGodisLoveandHealthandPeace. GodisLife,HealthandPeace.

Mr.ErnestWeltmerstatesregardingthereportsofthistest: Besidesthesethree,whichareperhapsthebest,althoughthere aremanyothersalmostifnotquiteasgood,25othersreported the sense and words of the message in whole or in part and maybeconsideredapproximatelycorrect,and70reportedthe senseofthemessagebutdidnotgetthewordingcorrect. 61

Telepathy ThemessagessentoutonFebruary20,1908,wereasfollows: All possibilities are mine;All power is mine;andTruth leads me.Thereportsareasfollows:
Allismine.Powerismine.Healthismine.Successismine.BeHappy. Letthewordsoftruthandloveleadthee. Truthismighty.

Mr.ErnestWeltmersaysofthereports:Thesethreearethe only ones who reported the words in anything like the right combination,althoughmanyhadthesenseverycorrectlyand gotpartofthewordsright,and66reportedthemeaningbut notthewordsofthemessage. ThemessageofFebruary27,1908,wasasfollows:Youcan dowhatIdowhenyouknowwhatIknow.Mr.ErnestWeltmer saysregardingthistest:Thistestwasalmostatotalfailure.No onereceivedthemessagecorrectly,andonlyfourandonehalf percentseemedtohaveanyideaofthemeaningofit.

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Chapter VIII

he May, 1908, issue of Weltmers Magazine gives the results of the tests of March 5, 12, 19, and 26, 1908, respectively. Mr. Ernest Weltmer made the following statement: For some unknown reason this month has been theleastsuccessfulofanysincetheexperimentwasstarted.I havethoughtoverthequestionfromeverysideandIcannot discover the reason for this. I cannot see what makes the difference, but, whatever it is, I hope that it will soon pass and that we shall begin to make progress again. Every one ofthefourmessagessentduringthismonthwouldhavebeen an easy one to receive if its reception had depended upon the suggestions of association, guessing or coincidence, for theyareallofthenaturethatwewouldbeexpectedtosend. The first one, especially, is one which would have a strong backing of suggestion from the environment of the receivers andtheseasonoftheyear,andtheotherthree,beingfamiliar quotations, would be as likely to come into the mind of the receiversasanyoftheotherquotationsofthischaracter,except two or three which have been sent several times and which 63

Results of the Weltmer Experiment (Continued)

Telepathy arereportedcontinually.(Iwishtosay,inpassing,thatweshall in future endeavor to prevent any committee from selecting either of the following messages:God is Love; Peace on earth; good will to men; Love one another; and if anyone receives any one or all of these messages, as so many are in thehabitofdoing,theymaybesurethattheyaresuggested by their own expectations and suggestions of associations of ideas and are not true telepathic messages. We endeavor to have messages chosen which have not been sent before, in ordertoavoidtheelementofassociationthatwouldexistin therepeatedmessages.Iinterjectthisnoteinthisplaceforthe benefitofthosereceiverswhocontinuetoreportthemessages mentionedThatweshallshortlydiscoverthecauseforour late failures and achieve a much greater success than ever before,Iamconfident.Iamingreaterhopesthaneverbefore, as I have said, because I am more certain that our successes havebeenduetotelepathyandnothingelse;Iamingreater hopesthaneverthatweshallproveourhypothesisthatone receivercansendthesamemessagetoanynumberofpeople atthesametime. ThemessagesentoutMarch5,1908,wasasfollows:Awake with Spring to New Life.Notonereportedthecorrectanswer, andonlythreereportsevenfaintlyhintedatthemeaningof themessage. ThemessagesentoutMarch12,1905,wasasfollows:Know Thyself.Theresultswerebutashadebetterthanthoseofthe previousweek. The message sent out March 19, 1908, was as follows: Life is real; life is earnest. None seemed to receive it correctly, althoughalmostoneandonehalfpercentofthosereporting seemedtohavesomeideaofwhatwassent. ThemessagesentoutMarch26,1908,wasasfollows:Truth is mighty and will prevail. One person, living in the state of Washington, reported the message correctly, and five others seemedtocatchitsmeaning. 64

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) TheJune,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontainedthe resultsofthetestsofApril2,9,16and23,1908,respectively. The message of April 2, 1908, was Have courage; you can win.Therecordshowsthat35reportswerereceivedindicating thatthemeaninghadbeenreceived,althoughnotintheexact wordsofthemessage.Someofthebestreportsaregivenbelow:
Successiscertain;youcannotfail. Beofgoodcourage;youwillsucceed.

ThemessagesentoutApril9,1908,wasasfollows:Be cheerful, hopeful and happy.Onereportwasreceivedintheexactwords ofthemessage;one,givingthewordscheerfulandhappy,and 15givingtheideainwholeorinpart,butnotinthesamewords inwhichitwassent. ThemessagesentoutApril16,1908,wasasfollows:Kindness is Godliness.Oneandonehalfpercentofthereportsreceived were in some degree correct, although no absolutely correct reportwasreceived.Thefollowingindicatetheinsomedegree correctanswers:
Bekindtoeverylivingthing. Bemerciful,kindandtruehearted.

The message sent out April 23, 1908, was as follows: In our own unfettered hands lies our eternal destiny. A number seemed to catch the general spirit of the message, but none reporteditwithasufficientdegreeofcorrectnesstojustifya correctmark. IntheJuly,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazine,thefollowing statementofMr.ErnestWeltmerappeared:Itwasdecided,on the30thofApril,tomakeachangeintheTelepathyExperiment forthepurposeofdeterminingwhetherourlackofsuccesswas notdue,inpart,atleast,tothenatureofthemessageswewere tryingtosend.Thecommitteewasinstructedtochooseinthe 65

Telepathy place of the usual sentence, some simple geometrical design, theideaofwhichthesenderwastotransmittothereceivers withouttheirknowingthatanychangehadbeenmade.The designselectedwasadrawingofasmallflagandwhenthiswas giventoProf.Weltmer,thesender,headdedtoitasmallcross. Thefollowingreportsrelatingtothistestwerereceived:
Isawashippassingnearshore.Itwasinadisabledcondition.Onthe sidetotheshorewasanenclosurepaintedwhite,withakey,pointup. (Thedrawingofthekeyaccompaniedthisreportbearsaverystrong resemblance to the small flag with swallowtail ends which was the designselectedbythecommittee.) IthinkImusthavehadaforetasteoftheFourthofJuly,asallIcould makeofthemessagethistimewasflags,boxesandthelike. ClingtotheCrossisasymbolofChrist,theflagmeanspeace.

Severalothersreportedthattheyhadreceivedgeometrical figures. On May 7, 1908, the committee selected a design of twocirclesconnectedbyastraightline,thefigureresembling thefamiliardumbbell.Thefollowingweretheonlyreports received having any apparent resemblance to the selected design:
Tadpole. Twomenfacingeachotherwithsomethingbetweenthem. Pairofbalances. Apinkoblongbreastpin.

On May 14, 1908, the committee selected the figure of a crescent. The following reports were considered to have an apparentrelationtothedesignselected:
Amarkintheshapeofarainbow. Asquare,andyellowcrescent.

66

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) On May 21, 1908, the committee selected the figure of an anchor. The following reports have a close relation to the selecteddesign:
Ananchor. AnanchorwithmottoHealthandHappiness. Hopeasananchorofthesoul.Isawasailorcastingananchorwhich seemedlikeflame.

TheAugustissueofWeltmersMagazine,1908,containsthe reportofthetestsofMay28,June4,11,and18,1908,respectively. The design selected May 28, 1908, was a triangular shaped geometricalform,whichmightalsobedescribedasatripod or an arrow-shaped figure. The following reports indicate a relationtotheselecteddesign:
Atriangleaboutfiveinchesfromcornertocorner. Trianglewithcirclethroughit. Aplowshare. Anarrow.

OnJune4,1908thedesignselectedwasadouble triangle arrangedintheformofasix-pointed star.Thefollowingreports indicatearelationtotheselecteddesign:


Lookingthroughaninstrumentatthestars. Starandring. Theskywasfullofstarsandtheneverythingwassobright. Abigbrightstar. Abeautifulforest.Theskywasapparentlyaflame.Starsappearedin theflameandseemedneartheearth.

OnJune11,1908,thedesignselectedwasa carpenters square. Thefollowingreportsindicatearelationtotheselecteddesign: 67

Telepathy
AlargesteelsquareanditseemedthatIwasholdingitinmyhand. It seems the figure must have been an angle of some kind. The diamondorsquareseemedtogivethedeepestimpression. TheletterL.

On June 18, 1908, the design selected was a circle. The followingreportsindicatearelationtotheselecteddesign:
Circlewithadotatitscenter. Thecircle. Circle. Acircleofbrightspots. Awhirlingcircleofvibratoryforcewhichtooktheformofafunnel, focusawayfromme. Whirlingdiscwithaholeinthecenter.

Anumberofothersreportedaballorsimilarobject. TheSeptember,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontains the report of the tests of June 25, July 2, 9, 16 and 23, 1908, respectively. OfthetestofJune25,1908,Mr.ErnestWeltmerstates:On thenightofJune25th,Prof.Weltmerwasattendingameetingof theOhioAssociationofSuggestiveTherapeuticsinColumbus, Ohio. When the time came to send the message he was speakingtotheconvention.Hehaddecidedbeforegoingonto the platform that he would impress upon the minds of the receiversthe sight of his hand,withallthefingersclosedexcept the index finger, which would be pointing. This thought was keptinmindmoreorlessduringtheprogressofhisspeech,and whenhehadfinishedhefeltthatmanyshouldhavereceived the message. The following reports indicate a relation to the selectedimage:
Severalhandspointing. Ayoungmanpointingfingertoforehead.

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ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued)
Twohandsholdingavase.

Severalothersreportedthattheyhadreceivedanimpression of Prof. Weltmer addressing a number of persons. On July 2, 1908,thedesignselectedwasthe capital letter A.Thereported resultsofthistestareasfollows:
SawtheletterAstandoutinboldrelief,andaBafter.

Mr.ErnestWeltmer,adds:Thisistheonlyonewhoreported theletterAbutthereweremanywhosentdrawingsoftriangles whichweresolikeitinformastobealmostsuccesses. On July 9, 1908, the design selected was somewhat complicated, beinga large circle in the centre of which was a square, a cross being drawn over the square and extending to the circumference of the circle.Thereportedresultswereasfollows:
Astrongimpressionofasquareandtwocircles. A circle the size of a silver dollar, the inside filled with designs of somethingIhadneverseen. Several times this design (a circle enclosing a cross) came to my mind. ReceivedthepictureinwhiteofaMalteseCrossanddreamedofa ring. Fellasleepanddreamedofacirclewithdotsinthering.

OneJuly16,1908,thedesignselectedwasA wheel within a wheel.Thereportedresultsareasfollows:


IsawacircleandtheletterX. Acircleinsideofacircle,connectedatfouroppositepoints. A series of circles something like that (accompanied by a sketch showingfourcircles,eachenclosedwithintheonelarger,andwitha dotinthecentreofthegroup).

69

Telepathy On July 23, 1908, the committee again resumed the word message, and the following message was sent out: Determination conquers difficulties.Thereportedresultsfollow:
Therewassuchaquietandpeacefulwave,anddeterminationon myparttoconquer.

Othersreportedthegeneralmeaningofthemessage,butin differentwordsandformsofexpression. The October, 1908, issue of Weltmers Magazine contains thereportofthetestsofJuly30,August6,13,20,and27,1908, respectively. ThefollowingmessagewassentoutJuly30,1908:When in doubt, say I Can. One report gave the exact words, but Mr. Ernest Weltmer hesitated to admit the report owing to the factthatthepostmarkonthereportwasblurred.Anumberof othersreportedthegeneralsenseofthemessage,butinother words. The message for August 6, 1908, was as follows: Courage. Theresultsareasfollows:
Courage,fearnot. Courage. Nevergiveup,orCourage. IheardthewordCourage,butcoulddistinguishnothingmore. Courage. Benotdiscouraged.

ThemessageforAugust13,1908,wasasfollows:Every act is an act of faith.Thefollowingresultswerereported:


Faithisthebasisofallactions. Faithisdynamic.

70

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) ThemessageforAugust20,1908,wasasfollows:Faith brings knowledge.Mr.ErnestWeltmerconsideredthistestacomplete failure,asoutof363reportsreceived,onlytwocouldbejudged toshowanyparticularsensitiveness. ThemessageofAugust27,1908,wasasfollows:Faith is belief in action.Thistestwasalsoafailure,asonlythreeshowedany greatdegreeofsensitivenessandnonereportedthemessage correctly. TheNovember,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontained a report of the tests of September 3, 10, 17, and 24, 1908, respectively. ThemessageofSeptember3,1908,wasasfollows:I can and I will do it now.Theresultswereasfollows:
IcanandIwilldoit. IcandowhatIwill. Whatyouwilltodoyoucando.

ThemessageofSeptember10,1908,wasasfollows:I will find a way or make one.Twopersonsreportedthemessageinthe exact words. Manyothersreportedthemeaning,expressedin otherwords. The message for September 17, 1908, was as follows: I will succeed.Theresultswereasfollows:
Iwillsucceed.(2personsreportedthis). Iwillwinout. Icansucceed.

The message of September 24, 1908, was as follows: All is well. The reports show that six persons reported in the exact wordsofthemessage. TheDecember,1908,issueofWeltmersMagazinecontainsthe reportofthetestsofOctober1,8,15,and22,1908,respectively. 71

Telepathy ThemessageofOctober1,1908,wasasfollows:Truth is light. Theresultwasasfollows:


Godislight. Ideaoflight.Seekthelightoftruth. Allislight. Thethoughtthattruthwillbeandisalighttome.

ThemessageforOctober8,1908,wasasfollows:My strength is all-sufficient.Theresultswereasfollows:


Mystrengthisallsufficient. Strengthisgiventoalltobearourburden.

ThemessageofOctober15,1910,wasasfollows:The power of the Infinite is mind.Thistestwasafailurenoreportsbeing correctornearlyso. The message of October 22, 1908, was as follows: I seek perfect health.Theresultswereasfollows:
Iwantperfecthealth. HealthismineandIshallattainit. Iwantperfecthealth. Healthiswhatweseek. Iseekperfecthealth. Iwantperfecthealth.

The March, 1909, issue of Weltmers Magazine gives the reportofthetestsfromOctober29,1908,toFebruary4,1909, inclusive.Thesereportsarestatedbrieflyasfollows: October29,1908.Message:Lifes music is health.Onereport wasintheexactwordsofthemessage,andoneothernearlyso (Life,musicandhealth). November5,1908.Message:All is well, be content.Fifteen reportswerecountedaspracticallycorrect. 72

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) November12,1908.Message:Love toward all things warms my heart.Thistestwasafailure,notonereportbeingcorrect. November 19, 1908. Message: I am one with all love and power.Tworeportswerereceivednearlycorrect,asfollows:I amonewithallpower;andIamlove,Iampower,Iamhealth, Iamstrength. November 26, 1908. Message: I am able to do anything I want to do. Two reports were correct, which was deemed remarkable,consideringthelengthofthemessage. December 3, 1908. Message: I am filled with good cheer. Nonereportedcorrectly. December17,1908.Message:I love my fellow men because I can.Onereportapproximatelycorrect. December24,1908.Message:I wish that every person in the world could know the Christ within themselves. One person reportedinalmosttheexactwords. December 31, 1908. Message: I will strive to see only the good, the beautiful, the true, in each person and thing that lies in my path this year.Mr.ErnestWeltmersays,regardingthis test,strangetosay,twoofthereceiversreportedthismessage correctlythatis,theygaveitssenseandthelargerpartofits wording. January7,1909.Message:I live and love because I can.One personreportedthemessageapproximatelycorrectly. January 14, 1909. Message: He who loves his fellow man is loving God the holiest way he can.Nonereportedcorrectly. January 21, 1909. Message: Mind is the only power, and thought the only force in the universe. One person reported correctly. January28,1909.Message:It rained to-day.Threepersons reportedcorrectly. February4,1909.Message:I will be strong, brave, and happy. Twopersonsreportedcorrectly. The March, 1909, issue of Weltmers Magazine was its last number, for that magazine was then consolidated with the 73

Telepathy New Thought magazine; the Telepathy Department being continued.Thereportsoftheexperimentcontinuedduringthe yearof1909,andinto1910,andisstillinoperationatthedateof thepresentwriting(July,1910).Butastheresultsarepractically thesameasthosereportedintheprecedingchapters,itseems uselesstorecountthetestsatfurtherlength. Whilethescientificinvestigatormayfeelconstrainedtohold thatanyexperimentconductedwithalargenumberofpeople inallpartsofthecountrymust,ofnecessity,lacksomeofthe rigidconditionsofthetestsofthepsychologicallaboratory,and beopentothedangerofdeceptiononthepartoftherecipients, nevertheless the results of the Weltmer Experiment must be seriouslyandthoughtfullyconsideredbyallinvestigatorsofthe subject. It is the first experiment along this particular phase of telepathy, and the particular advantages possessed by the experimenters(theestablishedcircleofreaders,students,and patients) must be taken into account. One, reading over the detailed reports issued from month to month by Mr. Ernest Weltmer, is struck by the spirit of frankness and fairness manifested by that gentleman. He refuses to accept reports when there is a possibility of doubt, and often decides cases againstthesuccessoftheExperimentwhenothersmighthave admitted the proof. He reports complete failures as readily as he does those of marked success, and in every way gives evidenceofthepossessionofthescientificspiritandthelove oftruth,ratherthanofthedesiretomakegoodatanycost. Intheopinionofthewriter,themessagesofthecommittee wereoftenpoorlyselected,inmanycasesbeingtooinvolvedor complicated,andoftenfartoolong.Thisisparticularlytrueof someofthelatermessages.Itwouldseemthatwordsindicating some particular and clear concept, such as Courage, Love, Strength,Health,orthoseindicatingsomeparticularcolor,or someparticularobject,suchasRed.Green,orHorse,Book,Hat, wouldbemuchbetterthansuchmessagesas:Iwillstriveto seeonlythegood,thebeautiful,thetrue,ineachpersonand 74

ResultsoftheWeltmerExperiment(Continued) thingthatliesinmypaththisyear;orIwishthateveryperson intheworldcouldknowtheChristwithinthemselves.Thislast mentionedclassofmessagesis,infact,decidedlyunfairtothe receivers,andtotheExperiment. TheWeltmerExperimentwillprobablybefollowedbyothers alongthesamegenerallines.Considerablespacehasbeengiven totheminthislittlebook,thatothersmayprofitbythestrong points and avoid the weak points indicated by the reports; andalsothatapermanentrecordofthetestsmaybehad.The Weltmer Experiment is the pioneer which is blazing a path throughthewoods,alongwhichpathothersmayfollowinthe future.Itistobehopedthatthosewhofollowwillremember togivefullcredittothepioneerworkperformedintheirbehalf.

75

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76

Chapter IX

The Theories
It has been well said that Theories are but mighty soap bubbles,withwhichthegrownupchildrenamusethemselves. Toomanythinkersdevotesomuchtimetothecreationand supportoftheoriesthattheylosesightoftherealfactslying aroundlooseoneverysideofthem.Atthebest,atheoryshould be regarded as but a working hypothesisa supposition orprincipleassumedortakenforgrantedinordertodrawa conclusion or inference of the point in questiona theory assumed to account for something not understood. As ThomasL.Harrishassaid:
Thesimplepeasantwhoobservesatruth, Andfromthefactdeducesprinciple, Addssolidtreasuretothepublicwealth. Thetheoristwhodreamsarainbowdream, Andcallsthehypothesisphilosophy, Atbestisbutapaperfinancier Whopalmshisspeciouspromisesforgold. Factsarethebasisofphilosophy; Philosophytheharmonyoffacts, Seenintheirrightrelation.

77

Telepathy And so it is in relation to the facts of telepathy. It is not necessarytoacceptanyparticulartheoryoftelepathyinorder to accept the facts. One may accept any one of the several theoriesadvancedtoaccountforthephenomenaoftelepathy onemayevenrefusetoacceptanyofthesetheoriesandstill believeintelepathy.Itispossibleandextremelyprobable that the several theories regarding telepathy may be found afteralltobebutmereguesses,andthattherealtheoryisyet tobeunfolded.So,toallstudentsandinvestigatorsoftelepathy, Iwouldsay:Useanytheoryasbutaworkinghypothesisand notasanestablishedlaworprinciplestickclosetothefacts, anddonotwastetimefightingabouttheories. Inorderthatthereadermayknowwhatworkinghypotheses havebeenadvancedtoaccountforthephenomenaoftelepathy, letustakeabriefglanceattheleadingtheoriesofthetheorists. In the first place we have the theory most commonly advancedthetheoryofthoughtwavesintheether.Youwill find this particular theory forcibly stated in the quotations fromeminentscientistswhichappearinthefirstfewchapters ofthislittlebook.Itisheldbythesethinkersthatjustasthe vibrations of light, heat, electricity and magnetism produce wavesintheetherofspacewhicharethencarriedtodistant pointswheretheyreproducetheoriginalvibrations,sodothe vibrations of thought create etherwaves which travel until theycomeincontactwiththebrainormindofanotherperson and are then transformed into thought vibrations. This idea has received support from the physiological fact that there is noticed a perceptible increase in the temperature of the brain during periods of thoughtactivity, and that there are knowntobechemicalchangesinthebrainsubstanceduring the process of thoughtwhich would seem to indicate the manifestation of power, energy or force of some kind. The idea has also been strengthened by the recent discoveries in wireless telegraphy many writers freey using the latter as an illustration of the manifestation of telepathy. Scientists freely 78

TheTheories admitthatthereisaplaceforthoughtvibrationsinthescale of vibrations, there being immense gaps in the scale which evidentlybelongtosomevibratoryforcesasyetunknownto us.Forinstance,Prof.ElishaGraysays:Thereismuchfoodfor speculationinthethoughtthatthereexistsoundwavesthat nohumanearcanhear,andcolorwavesoflightthatnoeye cansee.Thelong,dark,soundlessspacebetween40,000and 400,000,000,000,000 vibrations per second, and the infinity ofrangebeyond700,000,000,000,000vibrationspersecond, wherelightceases,intheuniverseofmotion,makesitpossible to indulge in speculation. And, Prof. M. M. Williams says: There is no gradation between the most rapid undulations ortremblingsthatproduceoursensationsofsound,andthe slowestofthosewhichgiverisetooursensationsofgentlest warmth. There isahugegapbetweenthem,wideenoughto includeanotherworldofmotion,alllyingbetweenourworld ofsoundandourworldofheatandlight,andthereisnogood reasonwhateverforsupposingthatmatterisincapableofsuch intermediateactivity,orthatsuchactivitymaynotgiveriseto intermediatesensations,providedthereareorgansfortaking upandsensifyingthesemovements. I shall not go into further detail regarding this particular theory,whichisthemostpopularone,fortheeminentscientists quotedelsewhereinthebookgiveaclearer,strongerandbetter presentationofitthanthepresentwritercouldhopetodo.The readerwillnoticethattheWeltmerHypothesisisbasedon thisideaofwavesintheether,thefollowingstatementthereof beingunmistakable:1.Mind,actinginthenormalcapacityof thinking,producesvibrationsinether.2.Ether,capableofbeing set into vibrations by mental activities, fills all space. 3. Ether transmitsthoughtvibrationstoeverypartofitsmass,etc. The second popular theory of telepathy is that of the Subjective,Subconscious,orSubliminalMind,whichhasfound favorwithagreatnumberofpersons,particularlywiththose interested in Psychic Research or the popular metaphysical 79

Telepathy movement. This theory is based upon the hypothesis that (1) there exists in each individual a mind or phase of mind belowthethresholdofconsciousness;and(2)thatthisbelow consciousness mind of each individual is in psychic touch and connection with the similar mind of each and every otherindividual;and(3)that,therefore,theremustbenatural communicationbetweenthebelowconsciousnessmindsof individuals, without necessity for thoughtwaves in the ether, themeansandprinciplesofsuchcommunicationbelongingto metaphysicsratherthantophysicsandthereforenotcoming underthephysicallawsgoverningmatterandforce. Therehasbeenmuchwrittenregardingthistheory,andabout this belowconsciousness mind, to which I must refer the reader.Itmustberemembered,though,thatonemayaccept the belowconsciousness mind or phase of mind, without alsoacceptingthesubconscioustheoryoftelepathy.Norisit necessarytoignorethesubconsciousevenwhileacceptingthe thoughtwavetheory.Asproofofthislast,Iaskyoutoconsider the statement of Mr. Ernest Weltmer, who, while advancing thewaveintheetherhypothesis,nevertheless,plainlystates: Telepathyisafunctionofthedeeper,subconsciousmind,both as to the sending and receiving of messages. Thoughts sent by the subconsciousness come to the consciousness of the senderonlyincidentallyornotatall.Messagesreceivedbythe subconsciousness arise to the consciousness of the receiver while his mind is in a condition which places the ordinary sensorythoughtsinthebackground,andastheresultofthe transmitted vibrations causing a movement or condition in thereceiversmindsimilartothatwhichinthesendersmind producedconsciousness. Thomson J. Hudson, in his wellknown work, The Law of PsychicPhenomena,didmuchtomakepopularthisparticular theory of telepathy. His views may be gathered from the following quotation from the said work: There is inherent in mankind the power to communicate thoughts to others 80

TheTheories independentlyofobjectivemeansofcommunication.Now telepathy is primarily the communion of subjective minds, or rather it is the normal means of communication between subjective minds. The reason of the apparent rarity of its manifestationisthatitrequiresexceptionalconditionstobring itsresultsabovethethresholdofconsciousness.Thereisevery reasontobelievethatthesouls,orsubjectiveminds,ofmen cananddohabituallyholdcommunicationwithoneanother whennottheremotestperceptionofthefactiscommunicated totheobjectiveintelligence.Itmaybethatsuchcommunion is not general among men; but it is certain that it is held betweenthosewho,fromanycause,areen rapport.Thefacts recorded by the Society for Psychical Research demonstrate thatproposition.Thusnearrelativesareoftenestfoundtobe incommunion,asisshownbythecomparativefrequencyof telepathiccommunicationsbetweenrelatives,givingwarning ofsicknessorofdeath.Nextinfrequencyarecommunications between intimate friends. Communications of this character betweencomparativestrangersareapparentlyrare.Ofcourse theonlymeanswehaveofjudgingthesethingsisbytherecord ofthecasesinwhichthecommunicationshavebeenbrought totheobjectiveconsciousnessofthepercipients.Fromthese casesitseemsfairtoinferthatthesubjectivemindsofthose who are deeply interested in one another are in habitual communion,especiallywhenthepersonalinterestorwelfareof eitheragentorpercipientisatstake.Bethisasitmay,itiscertain thattelepathiccommunicationcanbeestablishedatwillbythe consciouseffortofoneorbothoftheparties,evenbetween strangers.TheexperimentsoftheSocietyabovenamedhave demonstrated this fact. It will be assumed, therefore, for the purposesofthisargument,thattelepathiccommunioncanbe establishedbetweentwosubjectivemindsatthewillofeither. Thisfactmaynotbeperceivedbythesubject,foritmaynot riseabovethethresholdofhisobjectiveconsciousness.The second proposition is that a state of perfect passivity on the 81

Telepathy partofthepercipientisthemostfavorableconditionforthe reception of telepathic impressions or communications. It needsnoargumenttoestablishthetruthofthisproposition. It is universally known to be true, by all who have given the slightest attention to psychological science, that passivity on thepartofthesubjectistheprimaryconditionnecessaryfor theproductionofanypsychicphenomenon.Passivitymeans simplythesuspensionofthefunctionsoftheobjectivemind forthetimebeing,forthepurposeofallowingthesubjective mindtoreceiveimpressionsandtoactuponthem.Themore perfectlytheobjectiveintelligencecanbeheldinabeyance,the moreperfectlywillthesubjectivemindperformitsfunctions. Thethirdtheoryisheldbyanumberofthinkersalongthese lines, more particularly by those who hold the philosophical viewthatthereisagreatUniversalMindPrincipleinwhichthe universe and all its constituent parts appear as ideas, images, or appearances. Granted this fundamental premise, it would naturallyfollowthattherecouldbecommunicationbetween particular centres of consciousness, or being, within that Principlesome have called this the circulation of mind. Such communication could be had without the necessity of wavesintheether,oranyothermaterialforce,fortherewould benoneedofanymediumofcommunicationotherthanMind itself.OfthisUniversalMindPrinciple,thepresentwriterhas saidinanotherwork:InthedepthsoftheOceanofMindthere isquietandcalmandpeacetheembodimentoflatentpower and potential energy. On its surface are ripples, waves, great movements of energy, currents, whirlpools, eddiesphases of fierce tempest alternating with phases of calm and quiet. And from the depths of that Ocean of Mind, all mental and physical power emergesand to its bosom all must return. AndinthatOceanofMindthereisaninfinitestoreofenergy, from which may be drawn that which the human centres of consciousnessandpowerrequire,whentheylearnthesecret. Ishallnotattempttoenlargeuponthattheory,foritbelongs 82

TheTheories moreproperlytothefieldofphilosophyandmetaphysicsthan tothatofpsychology.Imerelymentionitherethatitmaybe taken into consideration by those studying and investigating thephenomenaoftelepathy. But,afterall,whydwellupontheories?Thereisagreatfield offactsawaitingtheinvestigatoroftelepathy.Thesurfacehas merelybeenscratchedasyet.Thepioneershaveblazedafew pathshavemadeafewsuccessesandafewfailures,allofwhich willbeofusetothosewhofollowthem.Perhapsthislittlebook willservetointerestsomeonewhomayinafteryearsbeoneof thosewhowillbringorderoutofchaosinthiswonderfulfield ofhumanthought.Thereisroomfortheearnestworkerand investigatorwe are as yet only in the kindergarten stage of telepathy.Thenexttwentyyearswillwitnessgreatadvances.In themeantime,letusthink,study,investigateandexperiment, ifwewishletusregardtheoriesasbuttemporarymakeshifts, untiltheyareproventobelawsorprinciplesletuswelcome truthwhereverfoundletuscarenaughtfornamesandhigh soundingclaims,butbeeveronthelookoutforfactsnomatter bywhomofferedorbywhatnamecalledand,aboveall,letus keeptheopenmindandthedispositiontograntafairfield,and nofavorinshort,asquaredealtoallhonestandsincere investigation. Finis.

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Bibliography
Atkinson,WilliamWalker.Telepathy: Its Theory, Facts and Proof.Chicago,IL: NewThoughtPublishingCompany,1910.

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