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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CENTRIFUGAL PUMP The hydraulic machines which convert mechanical into hydraulic energy are called pumps. If the mechanical energy is converted into the pressure energy by means of centrifugal force on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called Centrifugal Pump. 1.1.1. PARTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Fig.1. Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
The following are the parts of centrifugal pump: Impeller: The rotating part of the centrifugal pump is called an “impeller”. It consists of certain backward curved vanes. The impeller is mounted on a shaft which is connected to the shaft of an electric motor. Casing: The casing of centrifugal pump is similar to the casing of a reaction turbine. It is an air tight passage surrounding the impeller and is designed in such a way that the kinetic energy of the water discharged at the outlet of the impeller is converted into pressure energy before the water leaves the casing and enters the delivery pipe. The following are three types of casings commonly adopted: i. Volute Casing. ii. Vortex Casing. iii. Casing with guide blades.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP
Fig.2. Casings of Centrifugal Pump
Suction Pipe with a Foot valve and Strainer: A pipe whose one end is connected to the inlet of the pump and other end dips into water in a sump is known as suction pipe.A foot valve which is a non-return valve or oneway type of valve is fitted at the lower end of the suction pipe.The foot valve opens only in the upward direction. A strainer is fitted at the lower end of the suction pipe. Delivery Pipe: A pipe whose end is connected to the outlet of the pump and the other end delivers the water at the require height is known as delivery pipe.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP
In case of a centrifugal pump, the work is done by the impeller on the water. The expression for the work done by the impeller on the water is obtained by drawing the velocity triangles at the inlet and outlet of the impeller as in case of a turbine. 1.1.2. DEFINITIONS OF HEADS AND EFFICIENCIES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Fig3: Different Heads Of Centrifugal Pump
1. Suction Head(hs): It is the vertical height of the centre line of the centrifugal pump above the water surface in the tank or pump from which water is to be lifted.
2. Delivery Head(hd):The vertical distance between the center line of the pump and water surface in the tank to which water is delivered.
3. Static Head(Hs):The sum of suction head and delivery head is known as Static Head. It is written as Hs=hs+hd
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP
4. Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pump: In case of centrifugal pump, the power is transmitted from the shaft of the electric motor to the shaft of the pump and then to the impeller, the power is given to the water. The following are the important efficiencies of a centrifugal pump:
i. ii. iii.
Manometric Efficiency. Mechanical Efficiency. Overall Efficiency
1.2 WORKING OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Centrifugal Pumps are the most common type of kinetic pump and are used most often in applications with moderate-to-high flow low head. As the workhorse of many industries it is the most economical to own, operate and maintain.
Fig.4. Simplified Pump Hydraulic Circuit
The centrifugal pump acts as a reverse of an inward radial flow reaction turbine. This means that the flow in centrifugal pumps is in the radial outward direction.
It works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rise in the pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP
Thus, at outlet of the impeller, where radius is more, the rise in pressure head will be more and the liquid will be discharged at the outlet with a high pressure head. Due to this pressure head the liquid can be lifted to a high level.
1.2.1 Parameters Needed in Specifying The process engineer is responsible for specifying the process requirements of a pump, including the properties and physical conditions of a pump and mostly the flow rate, pressure, density and viscosity. The flow rate determines the capacity of the pump and the head depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid. 1.2.2 Ensuring adequate available NPSH Pump suppliers set the NPSH required (NPSHR) for any pump. The NPSHR takes into account any potential head losses that might occur between pump’s suction nozzle and impeller, thus ensuring the fluid does not drop below the vapor pressure. There are two possible ways by which we can increase the NPSH: 1. Static Head. 2. Friction Losses. Static Head can be raised by three methods: i. ii. iii. Raise the elevation of source point. Lower the elevation of pump inlet. Raise the level of fluid in suction vessel.
Friction Losses can be reduced by: i. ii. Increasing the diameter of pump suction-piping. Reducing the equivalent length of suction pipe.
brass. steel. An impeller is a rotating component of a centrifugal pump.7: Impeller with its Flow Components 6 . 1. aluminum or plastic. and a splined. keyed or threaded bore to accept a drive-shaft. bronze.a larger inlet area and an inducer. a double section impeller . slower speed pump. vanes to push the fluid radially. The velocity achieved by the impeller transfers into pressure when the outward movement of the fluid is confined by the pump casing. usually made of iron. Impellers are usually short cylinders with an open inlet (called an eye) to accept incoming fluid.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP There also few other ways by which we can reduce the NPSHR of the pump. Fig.3 IMPELLERS An impeller (or impellar) is a rotor inside a tube or conduit used to increase (or decrease in case of turbines) the pressure and flow of a fluid. which include using a larger. which transfers energy from the motor that drives the pump to the fluid being pumped by accelerating the fluid outwards from the center of rotation.
The pump with the highest specific speed impeller. 7 . The impeller specific speed number describes the shape of the impeller. but the designer has some control of the head and capacity through the selection of the vane angle and the number of vanes.1 Types of Impellers The open impeller is nothing more than a series of vanes attached to a central hub for mounting on the shaft without any form of side wall or shroud. oil refinery applications and the design you see on double ended pumps. and pump loss of efficiency with resultant vibration becomes the rule. and are used. Another application of radial flow impellers are the mixing of very viscous fluids.2 Radial Flow Impeller (Low Specific Speed Number) Radial flow impellers impose essentially shear stress to the fluid. 1. This is the most common design found with ISO standard pumps. for example. and then you have to take the pump apart to replace them. To maintain impeller efficiency you are required to replace the wear rings after the original clearance has doubled. The result is that timely replacement is seldom done. The semi-open impeller incorporates a single shroud at the back of the impeller. The first problem is to determine when it has doubled. The bad news is that it will run at the highest speed and be subject to maximum wear and damage from cavitations. The shape of the head/ capacity curve is a function of specific speed. The closed impeller has a shroud on either side of the vanes. This design is much more sensitive to vane wear than the semi or closed impeller.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 1. to mix immiscible liquids or in general when there is a deformable interface to break. This is the most common design used in the United States and the one you find on most ANSI standard pumps. probably will be the smallest and the least expensive. that will meet the requirements of the system.3.3.
They seldom exceed 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter and run at the higher motor speeds The casing is normally concentric with the impeller as opposed to the volute type casings normally found in the industry.3 Axial Flow Impeller (High Specific Speed Number) Axial flow impellers impose essentially bulk motion. Radial flow impellers are normally started with a discharge valve shut to save start up power. and are used on homogenization processes. in which is important to increase fluid volumetric flow rate.8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP They should be specified for high head and low flow conditions. They require the highest power requirement at shut off. so they are normally started with the discharge valve open. They run at the highest efficiency They have the lowest NPSH requirement. Fig. Axial and Radial Flow Impeller 8 . These impellers exhibit a flat head/capacity curve from shut off to about 75% of their best efficiency and then the curve falls off sharply..3. 1.
Vortex pump designs have recessed impellers that pump the solids by creating a vortex (whirl pool effect) in the volute and the solids move without ever coming into contact with the impeller. head and speed.4 CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Characteristic curves of centrifugal pump are defined as those curves which are plotted from the results of a number of tests on the centrifugal pump. 9 .4 Applications of an Inducer: The ideal impeller would have an infinite number of vanes of an infinitesimal size. brake horsepower.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 1. Paper pulp impellers are fully open and non-clogging.3. to increase the suction pressure and lessen the chance of cavitations. These curves are necessary to predict the behavior and performance of the pump when the pump is working under different flow rate. on the same shaft. stringy materials and solids like sewage because it will clog. The screw conveyer end projects far into the suction nozzle permitting the pump to handle high consistency paper pulp stock. The total reduction in NPSH required can be as much as 50%. An axial flow impeller called an Inducer (it works like a booster pump) can be placed ahead of the regular pump impeller. The conventional impeller design with sharp vane edges and restricted areas is not suitable for handling liquids that contain rags. The performance of a centrifugal pump can be shown graphically on a characteristic curve. efficiency. 1. A typical characteristic curve shows the total dynamic head. and net positive Suction head all plotted over the capacity range of the pump.
For plotting curves of discharge versus speed. manometric head is kept constant.power and discharge with respect to speed(N). For plotting curves of manometric head versus speed. the manometric head and discharge are kept constant. discharge is kept constant. For plotting curves of power versus speed.Performance Curves of Centrifugal Pump 10 .9.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP The following are the three important characteristic curves of the pumps: Main Characteristic Curve Operating Characteristic Curve Constant Efficiency or Muschel Curve. Main Characteristic Curves: It consist variation of head. Fig.
Efficiency versus Discharge. Constant Efficiency curves are obtained.1 Performance Data The performance data of a centrifugal pump are described by: The flow rate Q which is normally defined as the useful volume flow through the discharge nozzle. the variation of manometric head. Fig. By combining the curves a.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Operating Characteristic Curves: If the speed is kept constant. power and efficiency with respect to discharge gives the operating characteristic of the pump.Composite Performance Curve 1. Head versus Discharge. The specific work Y or the head H = Y/g 11 . Constant Efficiency Curves: For obtaining constant efficiency curves of a pump. the head versus discharge and efficiency versus discharge curves for different speed are used.4. and b.10.
12 .HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP The power consumption P at the pump coupling (“brake horsepower”) The efficiency η at the pump coupling The net positive suction head NPSH at the pump inlet. or the net positive suction energy NPSE = g×NPSH.
the occurrence of local zones with two-phase flow – and “cavitation erosion” or cavitation damage must be well distinguished.e. A cavity filled with vapor is created when the static pressure in a flow locally drops to the vapor pressure of the liquid due to excess velocities. Fig: Impellar Effected Bt Cavitation The vapor condenses suddenly (“implodes”) as soon as it is trans-ported downstream into zones where the static pressure again exceeds the vapor pressure.1 CAVITATIONS “Cavitation” means the partial evaporation of liquid in a flow system. With increasing extension of the cavitating zone with two-phase flow. When using the term “cavitation” the “cavitating flow” – i. noise and vibrations excited and components damaged through cavitation erosion under certain conditions. If this exceeds the “cavitation resistance”.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP CHAPTER 2 2. the head and efficiency of the pump may be impaired. so that some fluid evaporates and a twophase flow is created in a small domain of the flow field. The term “hydrodynamic cavitation intensity” is used for the totality of the implosion energy of all bubbles. the material will be damaged by “cavitations erosion” if it is exposed sufficiently long 13 .
The transition from one phase to another (e. Thus.e. Accordingly. if it is heated at constant pressure to the saturation temperature Tv(p1) (point V).g. It is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure and the sudden collapsing of these vapor bubbles in a region of higher pressure. i. “formation of ice” or “evaporation”) is described through phase equilibriums in a p-T-diagram. When the vapor bubbles collapse. cavities are formed on the metallic surface and also considerable noise and vibrations are produced. In the reverse process. Fig.11. During phase conversion from liquid to vapor the evaporation enthalpy must be added. liquid and gaseous.Phase Equilibrium of Water 14 . or expanded to the vapor pressure pv(T1) at constant temperature. which cause pitting action on the surface. the vapor pressure curve pv(T) characterizes the equilibrium (the “saturation status”) between liquid and vapor from the triple point to the critical point A liquid in condition p1.1 Cavitations Physics Any substance can exist in the phases solid. a very high pressure is created. 1. T1 with p1 > pv(T1) can be evaporated. condensation. above which these vapor bubbles collapse is subjected to these high pressures. The cavitation resistance is a material property which is independent of the flow system. the evaporation enthalpy is liberated.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP to the attack. The metallic surfaces.5.
The interior of a nucleus contains gas and vapor. 1.p = pg + pv . Downstream of the low-pressure zone. Free gas bubbles in a nonsaturated fluid would gradually dissolve in the fluid through diffusion.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP During cavitation a small portion of the liquid is expanded at constant temperature (in Fig. The pressure PB in the nucleus corresponds to the sum of the partial pressures of the gas Pg and the liquid Pv. A given nucleus contains a certain mass of gas.5.1 Cavitations Nuclei Cavitations bubbles are generated only when the fluid contains “nuclei”. If a nucleus enters a zone of low pressure – for in-stance in the throat area of a nozzle its radius grows 15 .p = 2×ST/R (R = radius of the nucleus). The nature of cavitating flows therefore implies that: The static pressure in a system initially drops locally to the vapor pressure as a result of flow acceleration. the bubble volume follows the law of a perfect gas p×V = m×R×T. From this and the equilibrium of the forces on the bubble it follows that the radius of the nucleus varies with the surrounding pressure. The flow is decelerated so that the pressure increases and the vapor bubbles implode. to the extent that some liquid evaporates. 11 from p1 to K). Because of the surface tension ST it is greater than the pressure p of the surrounding liquid: pB . If the pressure in the bubble changes.2. the pressure rises again so that the saturation pressure is exceeded and the vapor condenses. This distinguishes cavitation from evaporation by “flashing”.5. These are accumulations of gas or vapor molecules which are present as microscopically small bubbles with diameters in the range of 10-3 to 10-1 mm.2 Bubble Dynamics 1.
The longer the low pressure zone and the lower the local pressure drops. The number of nuclei that can be activated therefore grows with the square of the flow velocity.Bubble Implosion At the start of the implosion typical bubble diameters in flow systems are in the range of 1 to 5 mm. some liquid evaporates. the bubble wall is radialconcentrically accelerated inwards by the higher surrounding pressure.12.2. Fig. the more cavitations bubbles are generated. the more nuclei are activated. 1. The lower the local pressure drops. towards the end of the implosion they are in the order of tenths of millimeters. The diameter of the micro-jet is consequently similar in size. the phase equilibrium according to is disturbed and the vapor contained in the bubble condenses suddenly.5.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Since vapor pressure and vapor density are given by the liquid temperature (which re-mains constant). Imagine a sphere-shaped bubble whose vapor content suddenly condenses: since the pressure within the bubble collapses in the process.2 Bubble Implosion When a vapor bubble is transported by the flow into zones where the local pressure exceeds the vapor pressure. 16 . In the process. only nuclei over a certain size are stimulated into growth.
1.3. Liquid imploding into the cavity during the implosion acts like a piston on the content of the bubble so that non-condensable gases are compressed adiabatically. Influence of Fluid Properties Development and disappearance of cavitations bubbles depend on the gas content and the physical properties of the fluid.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP High pressure peaks must be expected only in the immediate vicinity of the bubble at the final stage of the implosion.5. The nuclei content. The shock waves associated with compressible flows contribute to the possible destruction of the material in addition to the micro-jet. The bubbles must therefore implode very close to the solid surface to be able to attack the material. In the following we distinguish between: Thermodynamic parameters which determine the energy transport during evaporation and condensation of the bubbles. various mechanisms are responsible for this: The implosion (of small) individual bubbles creates high-frequency fluid-borne noise in the kilohertz range that can be utilized to diagnose cavitations. The bubble content is heated accordingly so that a residual vapor component is also compressed in the final stage of the implosion. 1. The influence of dissolved and free gases.5. 17 . As a result of the energy stored in the compressed gas and vapor a bubble is formed again after the implosion (“rebound phase”). These include the surface tension between vapor/gas and liquid as well as the diffusion processes during the dissolution of the gases.4 Cavitations-Induced Noise and Vibrations The implosion of vapor-filled zones (bubbles) generates pressure pulsations which excite vibrations and noise. This process is repeated until the energy is dissipated. At the final stage of the bubble collapse the compressibility of the surrounding liquid also plays a role.
Thus the blockage in the suction pipe center disappears. generating a roughly parabolic pressure distribution upstream of the impeller. This causes the recirculation to collapse and the vapor core to implode. Problems with rotating cavitations in industrial pump applications have not yet been reported. 18 . Intense pressure pulsations with frequencies below 10 Hz can occur on suction impellers or inducers with strong part load recirculation at low NSPHA. the approach flow angle diminishes and the cycle is repeated. a vapor core forms in the center of the suction pipe. The mechanism of their creation can be explained in simplified manner as follows: Intense recirculation induces a pre-rotation. Measurements for rotating cavitations in a radial impeller (a design with rear and front shrouds. turbulence.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fluctuations of the cavity are generated by unsteady impeller approach flows caused by circumferentially non-uniform velocities in radial pump inlets. the axial velocity in the outer domain of the inlet pipe increases. The compressibility of the cavities may result in cavitation surges. If the pressure drops below the vapor pressure. Low-frequency pulsations of large amplitudes are created through large fluctuations of the cavitations zones. As a consequence the approach flow angle increases. unfavorable approach flow conditions and vortex shedding on ribs. These are not related to instabilities of the Q-H-curve and can thus occur even with steadily falling Q-H-characteristics. Various forms of pulsating cavitations in inducers were discussed in Even rotating cavitations zones with super-synchronous frequency were ob-served near the best efficiency point. Because of the blockage. which blocks a part of the approach flow cross section.
photo. considerable noise and vibrations are generated. cavitations occurs.6 Cavitations in centrifugal pump In centrifugal pumps. 19 . Hence.7 Effects of Cavitations The following are the effects of cavitations: The metallic surfaces are damaged and cavities are formed on the surface. H.5. if the pressure at the suction side of the pump drops below vapor pressure of the liquid then.5. collector.5. Due to sudden collapse of vapor bubbles. material designation 1. a careful analysis of the operating conditions is indicated. Pump design data: Qopt. characteristics and NPSHcurves (acceptance test). Operating parameters: Q.5. Lstart. Hopt with applicable speed. n. NPSHA = f(Q).5 Cavitations Damage: Analysis and Remedies 1.1 Record Damage and Operations To define suitable measures for solving cavitations problems. The efficiency of the turbine decreases due to cavitations. 1. pressure surface. suction surface. Does NPSH3 increase at part load Material of component: tensile strength. Intensity of the attack: maximum depth ΔEMax. System characteristic and maximum flow rate. cavitations occur at the inlet of the impeller of the pump or at suction side of the pumps. LDamage measured from leading edge. inlet.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 1.5. It comprises the following elements: Record damage pattern and location: impeller inlet. The cavitations in the pump can be noted by as sudden drop in the efficiency and head. sketch. where pressure is considerably reduced. Operation time at various operating conditions (histogram if required).
20 .closed systems. Shortening the suction line to reduce the friction loss. The special materials or coatings such as aluminum-bronze and stainless steel which are cavitations are resistant materials should be used. Lowering fluid temperature to reduce vapour pressure.open systems. Increasing the system pressure . Avoiding pressure drops coming from bends and other obstacles in the suction line.8 Precaution against Cavitations The following are the precautions that should be taken against cavitations: The pressure of the following liquid in any part of the hydraulic system should not be allowed to fall below its vapor pressure.5. Increasing the suction line’s cross-section area to reduce the fluid velocity and thereby reduce friction. Lowering the pump compared to the water level .HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 1.
and not pressure. Enclosed Fig-8 will illustrate the matter further. the system pressure-temperature conditions. For any pump the NPSH required for a design performance is a function of the type of pump. acceleration. For the computation of (NPSH)a the points to be considered are: Datam Elevation Liquid head Operating conditions Type of pump 21 . the capacity and the operating speed. Above the vapour pressure of the liquid at the pump inlet conditions.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH) WHAT IS NPSH? The NPSH required by a pump is the head of the liquid pumped. The NPSH required is thus the head of the liquid required at the pump suction nozzle above the vapour pressure of the liquid at that point. heating effect of internally circulated liquid etc. This means that for a pump which requires 5 meters head of water when pumping water requires 5 meter of head when pumping other liquid too at the same capacity and speed. the liquid characteristics. Of course the effect of internal re circulation effect is neglected At any fixed speed. the NPSH required by a centrifugal pump will increase with increase in flow from rated flow. At substantially increased flow from design flow the increase in (NPSH)R is very rapid. necessary to overcome all energy requirements at the inlet of the pump (these included friction losses. NPSH REQUIRED (NPSH)R The NPSH required is expressed in terms of head of liquid pumped. NPSH AVAILABLE (NPSH)a (NPSH)a is the net head of liquid after all losses are considered at the pump suction nozzle. measured at the suction nozzle of the pump. Δ P to lift values.) and thereby avoid any vaporization of liquid in the pump suction. (NPSH)a must always be above NPSH (R) of the pump for satisfactory performance of the pump.
There are three methods available and they are: i) Taking suction from an elevated tank with either the suction is throttled or the water is heated to vary the vapour pressure. UNDERSTANDING OF(NPSH)a AND (NPSH)R: NPSH TESTS Pump NPSH requirement is established by tests with water. see the figure shown below. Hence. NPSH is stated in meter [m] like the head. whereas (NPSH)R is a function of the pump and must be provided by the pump manufacturer(NPSH)a must be greater than (NPSH)R for the pump system to operate without cavitating. ii) For very large pumps the suction is taken from a suction sump with a suction lift such that the suction is throttled or the lift is increased to vary the vapour pressure. in the suction pipe is to vapourisation. NPSHA is defined as 22 . iii) The third method is by creating a vacuum in the suction vessel and this method of suppression test is widely used for testing process pumps since pumps in process can also be used for vacuum services. Distinction is made between two different NPSH values: (NPSH)R and (NPSH)a. it is not necessary to take the density of different fluids into account because NPSH is stated in meters [m].HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP (NPSH)a is a function of your system and must be calculated. The NPSH value is absolute and always positive.
If the NPSHr is lower than the NPSHr then gas bubbles will form in the fluid and caviation will occur. If the NPSHa is greater than the NPSHr cavitation should not occur. but ensure that the pressure in the container is 23 . Raise the height of the fluid container.HF + HF – HVP TERM HA DEFINATION The absolute pressure on the surface of the liquid in the supply tank The vertical distance between the surface of the liquid in the supply tank and the centerline of the pump Friction losses in the suction piping Velocity head at the pump suction port Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the pumping temperature HZ HF HF HVP COMPARISON OF (NPSH)A AND (NPSH)R All calculated values must be in the same units in m hd.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP The formula for calculating NPSHA: NPSHA = HA ± HZ . To increase the (NPSH)a consider the following: Increase the suction pipe work size to give a fluid velocity of about 1 m/sec. INCREASING THE NPSH AVAILABLE Many systems suffer from initial poor design considerations. valves and fittings where possible. Redesign the suction pipe work to eliminate bends. Pressurise the fluid container.
1. so does the risk of a large number of operational disturbances that would otherwise result-such as excessive noise. When the risk of cavitations disappears. DEFINITION An Inducer is an axial flow impeller with blades that wrap in a helix around a central hub. The inducer rotates in a close-fitting housing to provide a “booster” effect in front of the main impeller.2. although there may be more. DESCRIPTION The inducer pump is the alternative to changing the process design when NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) availability is low. So it cannot be used in other pumps. INDUCER 2. energy loss. product damage and unnecessary wear on pump. An inducer invariably has a higher suction specific speed(S) than the adjacent impeller. The inducer is engineered to match the impeller with which it is teamed.13 Inducer 2. 24 . The inducers usually have between 2 and 4 vanes. The inducer boosts the inlet pressure and the risk of cavitations is correspondingly reduced. Fig.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 2.
The inducer is an important part of many industrial pumps for which low inlet pressure is available. The inducer like the impeller with which it teams is designed to best function over a specific capacity range. High performance inducers for commercial low suction pressure pumps have been designed frequently in the past century. The inducer is available on the most popular sizes of Pearless end-suction centrifugal process pumps. In these situation cavitations occurs in different modes. there is a situation of pump breakdown and pump does not perform its required job. Design methods have been given to guide inducer design. This regime increases and at the exit. Both plant and field tests have shown the addition of the inducer causes less than 1% change in pump efficiency and capacity. As the pressure is reduced. 25 . In these pumping applications it is necessary to draw fluid into the pump with little ambient pressure and greatly increasing the probability of reduction below the vapor pressure. The inducer is a precision instrument and the clearance tolerances are generally similar to those of an impeller. zone of cavitations increases and blocks the flow in the inducer.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Usually the inducer is produced in type 316 stainless steel and for most operating conditions this metal is recommended. This is the point which has been the main concern for the past few decades.
055 typical of certain turbo pumps was utilized.3. He developed a model to establish optimum design criteria to represent blockage at the point of head breakdow Fig. Stripling presented calculations related to suction specific speed of an inducer pump versus optimum inlet flow coefficient at various blade angles. In 1962. 26 . When the relations were employed the following was observed. blade number as well as the blade turning angle. design point incidence value.2 was employed and design coefficient of 0.Their work presented a relationship for suction specific speed of inducer pump employing a mathematical coefficient. These include optimum inlet eye diameter. In this case empirical coefficient of 1.Stripling Conceptual Model: Suction Specific Speed versus Optimum flow Coefficient The next step was taken by Furst and Desclaux in 1989. leading edge shape.14. inlet blade angle.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 2. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF DESIGN PROCEDURES A wide variety of parameters must be considered for designing an turbo pump inducer.
15. The criterion was introduced by Dixon in 1978 and expanded by Japikse in 1997.Furst and Desclaux Model: Evaluation of suction specific speed as a function of inlet blade angle and impeller flow coefficient The flow models designed by Stripling.When their relationships was established the curve was much similar to that of Furst and Desclaux one. The third approach was a simple one based on old industrial criterion.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fig. Furst and Desclaux assumed a smooth two dimensional flow along simplified flow lines or pseudo-streamlines parallel to the hub. In this a cavitations region was presumed to be developed and form a thick region. 27 .
Japikse Model: Evaluation of suction specific speed versus flow coefficient at different values of inlet blade cavitations coefficient 28 .HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fig.16.
DESIGN PROCEDURE OF INDUCER To reduce the required NPSHR of a pump it is possible to install an essentially ax-ial inducer upstream of the actual impeller. The hub diameter at the inducer inlet is designed as small as possible so that the hub contour is generally conical with the hub radius growing towards the impeller inlet. An inducer typically allows a reduction in the value of the required NPSHR of a pump to half of the value with-out inducer. As with axial impellers. Inducers with far higher suction specific speeds are employed in the aerospace technology where even two-stage inducers are used at times. Cavitations bubble development on the impeller blades is reduced or suppressed accordingly. As is evident from the example in Fig. These high suction specific speeds are achieved by small approach flow angles β1 .. the static pressure in the inducer is increased in that the relative velocity is decelerated This must be considered when deciding on one of two possible balding concepts: 29 . provided that the inducer does require significantly less NPSHR than the impeller. the pump can be operated at a higher speed or a lower NPSHA than without an inducer. The inducer increases the static pressure upstream of the impeller. the flow in the inducer is essentially axial. This is achieved by reducing the hub ratio and by enlarging the inlet diameter. Often the inlet diameter is slightly larger than that of the downstream impeller. Inducers for industrial application typically reach suction specific speeds of nss = 400 to 700.4. The low approach flow angle and the small flow coefficient .at the inducer inlet require a considerably enlarged inlet area compared with the impeller. thin leading edge profiles with low blade blockage and long channels in which the cavitation bubbles generated in the inducer implode at least partially before the fluid enters the actual impeller. As a consequence. The design methods discussed in the following do not fundamentally differ from those of the highperformance inducers.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 2.
the suction specific speed to be achieved by the inducer or its NPSHR is specified. its speed n.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Blades with constant pitch designed as screw surfaces with blade angles β1B = β(L) = β2B = constant on cylindrical sections. Inducer inlet diameter d1: The inlet is designed for the selected suction specific speed. The appropriate inlet diameter can then be determined. Alternatively.1 Calculation of Inducer Parameters Determination of main dimensions and inlet conditions: 1. the optimum inlet diameter can be calculated for selected coefficients λw and λc . The optimum flow coefficient for the required suction specific speed is selected. the maximum required flow rate of the pump must be taken into account when determining the design flow rate of the inducer by selecting Qind = (1. For this reason.15)×Qopt . Blade number zVLa: Inducers usually have 2 to 4 blades. Blades with variable pitch where the angle on cylinder sections grows from the inlet to the outlet as with a propeller pump: β2B > β(L) > β1B. In addition. Design flow rate: Like axial impellers. inducers have a steep Q-H-curve.4. NPSHR curve and the dimensions of the impeller. These blades only generate pressure when the incidence i1 = β1B . 3. The advantage of this blading is its simple manufacture. the boundary conditions for the mechanical design must be ascertained.β1 is greater than zero or for as long as the flow in the blade channel is decelerated according to w1q < w1. 4. Basis: Known parameters are the pump selected for the relevant application. Furthermore. 2. The pressure rise therefore drops rapidly to zero above the shock less entry (depending on the type). which can imply considerable restrictions on the design options in case of standard pumps. The inlet diameter must also be matched to the inlet nozzle and the downstream impeller. flow rate Qopt. Usually the approach flow angle is α1 = 90° and the axial velocity is assumed as constant over the inlet cross section. 30 .1 to 1. 2.
Inlet throat area A1q: As with impellers the deceleration of the relative velocity vector w1 to the mean flow velocity w1q in the throat area must be limited in order to avoid premature inlet recirculation. Inlet diameter at the inner streamline d1i: The lower limit for d1i is obtained from a minimum hub ratio of ν1.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 5. 8.i: The diameters on the outer streamline and on the hub are obtained from the dimensions of the downstream impeller. Curve 3 passes through zero at QB.a < d1.a and d2. Smaller values of d1i are unfavorable since excessive blade inlet angles would result at the inner streamline. the first cylindrical part must be designed sufficiently long as to cover at least the throat area of the inducer. Inducer outlet diameter d2.6 to 0. mean and inner streamline. When determining the inlet angles. it must be observed that the steep rise of the NPSHR-curve (depending on the blade configuration) occurs near the flow rate of shock less entry. 6.If the static pressure rise in the inducer (curve 3) is subtracted from the 31 .min ≈ 0. the flow and blade angles are calculated for outer. but as a brake at Q > QB. the fluid must not be accelerated at the maximum flow rate with respect to overload cavitations.15. In addition to the design point it is therefore necessary to consider the maximum required flow rate at which the incidence should not drop below one degree to avoid cavitations on the pressure surface of the blades. A conical hub of the inducer with d2i > d1i is favorable since the head is increased through centrifugal forces and since the flow on the hub requires less severe deflection with increasing d2i (lower tendency to stall).PS which is obtained from the flow angle plus an incidence of i1 = 2 to 4° from In this way. The throat area at the inducer inlet must therefore be selected so that the ratio w1q/w1 in the design point is in the range of 0.75 but does not exceed the value w1q/w1 =1 at the intended maximum flow rate. Conversely. The first section of the inducer blades is designed ac-cording to. Blade inlet angle β1B: When the inducer inlet diameter has been determined according to step (4). The calculation is based on the angle on the pressure surface of the blade β 1B = β1B. all quantities of the inlet velocity triangle according to can be calculated. d2. The static pressure rise Hp in the inducer is plotted as curve 3. If the inducer diameter at the outlet is smaller than at the inlet. 7. The inducer operates as a pump at Q < QB.
curve 5 is obtained which passes through zero at Qu. Here the pump cannot be operated under any circumstances because the impeller receives less inlet pressure than without an inducer. However. The operating limit is located to the left of curve 5 and left of the point in which curves 1 and 2 intersect. it is not easy to accurately predict the steep rise of curves 2 and 5. (that is at Hp > NPSH3. In the domain with Q < Qu. 32 .imp of the impeller (curve 1: without inducer). In this domain the NPSHR of the system inducer/impeller is largely determined by the NPSH3.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP NPSH3. In the region Qu < Q < QB the control of the NPSHR of the pump passes from the inducer to the impeller which now obtains insufficient pressure. In brake operation Q > QB. The calculated NPSH requirement NPSH3. inducer of the inducer.imp) curve 5 is situated below the flow rate axis. curve 5 is located above curve 1. inducer of the inducer is plotted as curve 2 while curve 4 constitutes the measured NPSH3 of the system inducer plus impeller..
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Table 1: Inducer Design.α 1=900 33 .
This is done which can be derived from Table. The curve of the required NPSH3.imp of the impeller alone. The head coefficient is calculated on the mean streamline. A blade outlet angle β2B on the outer streamline is selected and the static pres-sure rise in the inducer calculated.inducer = f(Q) of the inducer is estimated. Compared with other correlations this relationship has the advantage that it produces a steep rise of the curve with increasing flow rate when the incidence tends to zero (the nominator of the term on the right side of this equation then tends to zero). The difference between NPSH3. 10.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fig. The measured or calculated NPSH3.16.imp of the impeller (without inducer) is plotted as a function of the flow rate. 11. La (curve 1) and the static pressure rise HP (curve 3) gives an indication of the maximum flow rate which is definitely to the left of the resulting curve 5. curve 1.Inducer Characteristics These relationships determine the procedure for calculating the inducer outlet as follows: 9. 12. 13. 34 . The rise in the static pressure caused by the inducer must be calculated for the flow rate range between shock less entry or Hp = 0 and the flow rate Qu where Hp is greater than NPSH3.
If the maximum flow rate does not meet the requirements. Blade profile at inlet: The first section of the blade is usually designed wedge shaped with a leading edge as thin as possible. over-sizing should be avoided. However.inducer = f(Q) of the inducer (curve 2) is also taken into account.3 to 0.3) in shockless approach flow. The wedge angle . The blade angles on the mean and inner streamlines are selected according to u×cu = constant while a compromise is made on the hub (if required) to avoid excessive blade angles.a = 0. the calculation ac-cording to steps (10) to (13) must repeated with another outlet angle.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 14. The minimum required blade thickness is given by blade stresses and natural frequencies. Design and shaping of an inducer After determining the inlet and outlet diameters as well as the blade angles. all parameters of the outlet velocity triangle according to can be determined.5)×β1B. the inducer can be designed. which makes up the profiling on the suction surface. 17. 16. the curve NPSH3. The lift coefficient according to should not exceed the value ζa.PS. 15. It also means low cavitation inception coefficients (σi . The thin inlet profile is important to obtain good suction capability. The length of the wedge-shaped portion is between 50 and 80% of the pitch. When the outlet angle has been established. as shown in Fig2 35 . 0. is selected as υk = (0.7 (“de Haller criterion”). To verify the configuration.a. To avoid premature flow separation and efficiency loss. w2/w1a should be calculated too. σi increases rapidly even with a minor incidence.υk. the deceleration ratio w2/w1a should not fall below the value of 0.2 to 0.5 on the outer streamline. With respect to part load operation. To facilitate assessing this limit.
the suction capability suffers and there is a growing tendency for pressure pulsations at partload. A conical hub fosters the pressure build-up in the inducer due to centrifugal forces.2. values in the range of 1. 36 . approximately up to x/L = 0.. This design also reduces the pulsations at low partload and low NPSHA. At the same time the tendency towards flow separation decreases with the amount of hub taper that can be designed. If the overhung of the inducer permits.8 should be the target.4 to 1. in order to produce less deflection of the flow and consequently reduce the low-pressure peak and the generation of cavitation bubbles. If the blades are made too short.5.5 do not seem to bring about any advantages.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fig:2 The blade angle β1B is best kept constant over the first part of the blade length. the pressure rise in the inducer is impaired since the deviation angle increases. At the inducer inlet there is therefore a large gap between the blades and the casing. The blade lengths are selected in a relatively large range L/t = 1 to 2. The blade outlet angles on the outer streamline generally are below 20°. but this depends on the inducer and impeller inlet diameters. Fig2. The blades are slightly tapered towards the outlet. The outer contour of the inducer is often tapered at the inlet. Blades with L/t > 2. Moreover.25.
there is.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Fig2. no guarantee that the expected reduction of the NPSHR will actually be achieved. To check this. If an impeller of moderate suction capability is combined with an inducer of high suction specific speed.2 Matching the inducer to the impeller Frequently the inducer is mounted upstream of the impeller of a standard pump whose NPSHR is unable to satisfy the specific requirements of the application. the blade leading edges of the latter can be adjusted to a certain extent by cutting back the blades and profiling them on the pressure surface. 37 . the pressure increase in the inducer should not be chosen unnecessarily large. however.δ2 with δ2 If β2 is larger than the blade inlet angle β1B of the downstream impeller. To keep the discharge angle as low as possible. Especially the maximum flow rate can be limited through excessive incidence of the downstream impeller if cavitation occurs on the blade pressure surfaces. the flow angle β2 at the inducer outlet is calculated from β2 = β2B .
At low flow rates recirculation then becomes very intense inducing a strong swirl in the inlet pipes of end-suction pumps. These three dimensional effects are already pronounced in the design point and are reinforced at part load The deficit in the meridional velocity near the outer streamline is also caused by the tip clearance flow and the boundary layer thickness.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Figure shows measured flow velocities and angles at the outlet of an inducer. Recommendations for inducer application The large diameter ratio d1/d1i causes part load recirculation to start near the design point. such vortexes can cause severe pulsations. As a consequence of the rotation a parabolic distribution of the static pressure p(r) builds up at the inducer inlet. With growing tip clearance the deviation angle or the difference between blade and flow angles increases. Consequently. At low suction pressures a vapor-filled vortex can be generated in the center of the suction pipe. Characteristically the meridional velocity near the outer streamline is far below the mean value while the circumferential velocity is above average. 38 . Owing to the distorted flow conditions the calculation of the flow angles at the inducer outlet becomes quite uncertain. the discharge angles are considerably smaller on the outer streamline and far greater near the hub than would be expected from the calculation.
the NPSH3 at part load increases so that the inducer may no longer satisfy its actual purpose of lowering NPSH3 throughout the operating range. sweep-back and a tapered outer contour of the inducer. the suction specific speeds of industrial inducers are limited to approximately nss = 500 to 700. variable pitch design. While hardly any cavitation damage is to be expected when pumping hydrocarbons. it is not yet possible to provide generally valid design criteria for mastering this highly three-dimensional two-phase flow. Favorable in this respect seem to be: long blades (high solidity L/t). If at all possible. To be able to satisfy this requirement without excessive recirculation. 39 . The limit for the circumferential velocity cannot be determined generally. Despite the low NPSHA – i. pumps for industrial application are required to operate also at low partload. low implosion pressure – the implosion energy can therefore be considerable. However. If this range is markedly exceeded. Initial cavitation bubbles (corresponding to NPSHi) are created in the gap between casing and inducer. To this end.e. the water in the test circuit has to be largely de-aerated since the pulsations are greatly attenuated in air-saturated water. the test should be done with the same circumferential velocity as in the planned operation. the circumferential velocities of the inducers when pumping water have to be limited in order to reduce the risk of cavitation damage For pumping water it is therefore advisable to use high-alloy steels with suitable cavitation resistance. For this reason it is necessary to prove by way of experiment that no impermissible pulsations and excitation forces occur in the demanded operating range. it may be within a range of 25 to 30 m/s when pumping water and 35 to 40 m/s with hydro carbons. Obviously the target should be to restrict the part load operation as far as possible and to entirely avoid operation at q* < 0. Major cavitation zones are created in the inducer in most applications.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP By a suitable design of the inducer it is possible to largely avoid such kinds of pulsations.3 (except during start-up). As a rule.
When the inducers are cast possible blade deformations must be monitored. The Q-H-curve and the efficiency virtually do not change near the best efficiency point when installing an inducer. Inducers combined with closed impellers are claimed to handle gas fractions of up to 25% of the flow rate at the inducer inlet. but this effect is sometimes hardly measurable. 40 . the necessary pressure increase is not attained and the steep rise of the NPSH occurs at too low a flow rate. In particular it should be checked that the desired blade outlet angles are achieved: if β2B is too small. The gas-handling capabilities depend on the geometry and should be confirmed by testing. The efficiency of the pump tends to fall since the hydraulic losses in the inducer are proportionally slightly higher than in the impeller. This has to be considered when evaluating the shaft deflection and the critical speed. an inducer increases the shut-off head by several percent due to the intense inlet recirculation and the associated rise of the centrifugal head component. the impeller overhung increases. In the overload range the head drops slightly compared with the pump without inducer but this is likely to become noticeable only when the inducer operates in the range Hp < 0 Inducers have relatively thin blades with a large blade height.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP Inducers are able to some extent to transport gas-laden liquids. but the downstream impeller has to perform correspondingly less work in accordance with the Euler equation. When installing an inducer in an end-suction pump. However. The thin blades also require a verification of the natural frequencies and stresses in order to prevent blade fractures. combined with semi-open impellers 35 % and with open impellers even 40%. Radial excitation forces can (for instance) be created by the tip clearance flow or through periodically variable flow conditions that might develop in the channels of the inducer as the result of varying cavity volumes. Due to the energy transfer in the inducer the circumferential component of the absolute velocity at the inducer outlet is increased. Also some additional excitation forces in radial direction must be expected.
2*10-4m2 C1m = Q/A = 1.9*10-3 m3/sec Optimum flow rate Ψ = 0.0452)/4 = 4.78m/sec A1 = π(d12-dh2)/4 = π(0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP DESIGNING SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Speed = 2880 RPM Flow rate= 114 LPM Head=23 m.12-0.2*10-4 == 4.15(400/600)0.15(nss Ref/nss)0.93 = 0.045*2880/60 = 6.9*10-3/4.15*114 LPM = 125LPM = 1. CALCULATION Qind = 1.4 m/sec 41 .15*Qopt = 1.93 Number of blades = Z e=2 INLET VELOCITY TRIANGLE: U1 = πdh n/60 = π*0.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP β1 = Tan-1(C1m / U1) = Tan-1(4.78) = 33.42-02)) = 8.782+(4.08m/sec 42 .4/Tan90 =0 W1 = √(C1m2+(U12-C1u2)) = √(6.4/6.550 C1u = C1m/Tanα = 4.
1) = 2.52+7.78*15.5 = 12.5 m/sec Out let Flow coefficient Ψ2 = C2m/U2 = 7.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP OUT LET VELOCITY TRIANGLE U2 = πd2n/60 = π*0.1-2.2*10-3/2.6 m/sec 43 .3/15.12/4 = 2.1 = 0.64*10-4 = 7.1m/sec A2 = π*d22/4 = π*0.1))+( 6.72 m/sec W2u = U2-C2u = 15.32) = 7.81*3/(0.3 m/sec C2u = (gH/ηh*U2)+(U1C1u/U2) = (9.64*10-4 m2 C2m = Q/A2 = 2.78*0/15.1*2880/60 = 15.48 C2 = √(C2u2+C2m2) = √(2.
03/12.3/12.32+12.62) = 14.6) = 23.6) = 22.10 α2 = Tan-1(C2m/C2u) = Tan-1(7.3*1.540 β21 = Tan-1(C2m*τ /w2u) = Tan-1(7.56 m/sec β2 = Tan-1(C2m/w2u) = Tan-1(7.5) = 710 44 .HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP W2 = √(C2m2 + w2u2) = √(7.3/2.
78m/sec A1 = π(d12-dn2)/4 = π(0.55) = 0.0452)/4 = 4.4 m/sec β1 = Tan-1(C1m / U1) = Tan-1(4.087 mm = 87mm 45 .045*2880/60 = 6.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP CALCULATION OF β .550 eh 1 = l Sin β1 = 0.9*10-3/4.e AT DIFFERENT PLANES AT HUB d1 U1 = 0. = πd 1n/60 = π*0.2*10-4 == 4.2*10-4m2 C1m = Q/A1 = 1.12-0.157*Sin(33.78) = 33.4/6.045 m.
3/12.2*10-3/2.6) β2 e2t = 30.1m/sec A2 = π*d22/4 = π*0.64*10-4 = 7.12/4 = 2.069 m = 69 mm 46 .3 m/sec β2 = Tan-1(C2m /U2) = Tan-1(7.1 m = πd2n/60 = π*0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP AT TIP d2 U2 = 0.21) = 0.64*10-4 m2 C2m = Q/A2 = 2.1*2880/60 = 15.80 = l Sin β2 = 0.157*Sin(26.
06m = πd1Pn/60 = π*0.06*2880/60 = 9.2*10-3/2.05 m/sec A1p = πd1P2/4 = π*0.70) = 0.1*10-4 m2 C1pm = Q/A1p = 2.78/9.05) = 40.157*Sin(40.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP AT FIRST PLANE d1P U1p = 0.085m = 85 mm 47 .1*10-4 = 7.78 m/sec β 1p = Tan-1(C1pm/ U1p) = Tan-1(7.062/4 = 2.70 et1P = l Sin β 1p = 0.
0752/4 = 2.4/11.075*2880/60 = 11.5) = 36.075 m = 75 mm 48 .170 et2P = l Sin β 2p = 0.26*10-4 = 8.2*10-3/2.075m = πd2Pn/60 = π*0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP AT SECOND PLANE d2P U2p = 0.26*10-4 m2 C2pm = Q/A2p = 2.17) = 0.4 m/sec β2 p= Tan-1(C2pm/ U2p) = Tan-1(8.157*Sin(36.5 m/sec A2 p= πd2P2/4 = π*0.
0/13.2*10-3/2.740 et3P = l Sin β 3p = 0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP AT THIRD PLANE d3P U3p = 0.37*10-4 m2 C3pm = Q/A3p = 2.57) = 30.0 m/sec β 3p = Tan-1(C3pm/ U3p) = Tan-1(8.092/4 = 2.74) = 0.57 m/sec A3 = πd3P2/4 = π*0.157*Sin(30.072 m = 72mm 49 .09m = πd3Pn/60 = π*0.09*2880/60 = 13.37*10-4 = 8.
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP DRAWING IN DETAIL 50 .
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 51 .
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP PROFILE DRAWINGS 52 .
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP 53 .
BERNADETTE PYZDROWSKI. At the rear end of the inducer we provided threading so that the inducer can be fitted with the impeller. SONNY ANDERSSON. in addition to that we have also drawn the velocity triangles and the blade profile of the inducer. JOHANN FRIEDRICH 54 .L. The inducer is designed in such a way that it matches with the eye of the impeller which is an important thing.E. SMITH 7) CAVITATION EROSION TESTING SONICS & MATERIALS. WISLICENUS (NASA REFERENCE PUBLICATION 1170) 5) OVERVIEW OF COMMERECIAL PUMP INDUCER DESIGN BY Dr. We have also determined the blade angle at both inlet and outlet. SCHILLER AND MICHAEL B. For drawing the blade profile and design we used PRO-E Software. REFERENCES 1) A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BY JOE EVANS. DAVID JAPIKSE 6) ROCKET ENGINES: TURBO MACHINERY BY HANS MARTENSSON . P. We studied the application of inducer for commercial purposes and based on the specifications of a centrifugal pump taken in the Fluid Machinery Laboratory we made a hydraulic design of an inducer for the pump. STEFAN TROLLHEDEN. 2) NPSH – A DISCUSSION BY P.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF AN INDUCER FOR CENTRIFUGFAL PUMP CONCLUSION The inducer is mainly used in aerospace applications and in rockets. STEFFAN BRODIN UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION BY KIMBERLY FERNANDEZ. WHITESIDES.NARAYANA PILLA 3) A TEXT BOOK ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BY GULICH 4) PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF TURBO PUMPS AND RELATEED MACHINERY BY GEORGE F. 8) UNDERSTANDING NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD BY RANDALL W.DREW W.
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