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**Measurements in Electric Circuits
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Description: Several questions related to a single-loop circuit with one resistor, an ammeter, and a voltmeter. These devices are not necessarily considered ideal. The students are not assumed to know the rules for series and parallel circuits; however, they can make qualitative determinations. Learning Goal: To understand the role of the internal resistance of various devices and the use of the ammeter and the voltmeter. Consider the circuit shown. All wires are considered ideal; that is, they have zero resistance. We will assume for now that all other elements of the circuit are ideal, too: The value of resistance is a constant, the internal resistances of the battery ( ) and the ammeter ( ) are zero, and the internal resistance of the voltmeter ( ) is infinitely large.

Part A What is the reading of the voltmeter?

Express your answer in terms of the EMF . ANSWER: Part B The voltmeter, as can be seen in the figure, is connected to points 1 and 3. What are the respective voltages between points 1 and 2 and between points 2 and 3? ANSWER: = EMF

Part D What is the reading of the ammeter now? Express your answer in terms of . and . . ANSWER: Part E What is the reading of the voltmeter now? Hint E.1 Hint not displayed = EMF/(R+R_int) . To make things more interesting.Part C What is the reading of the ammeter? Express your answer in terms of and ANSWER: = EMF/R . we now assume that the battery has a nonzero internal resistance (the voltmeter and the ammeter remain ideal).

Part F Compared to their values when . The battery still has nonzero internal resistance. and . the voltmeter reading would stay the same. and . the voltmeter reading would increase. the voltmeter reading would increase. ANSWER: .Express your answer in terms of . but the resistance of the voltmeter is less than infinity. the voltmeter reading would stay the same.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed ANSWER: The ammeter reading would increase. The ammeter reading would decrease. = EMF*R/(R+R_int) Now assume that the ammeter has nonzero resistance internal resistance. how would the readings of the ammeter and the voltmeter change when ? Hint F. The ammeter reading would increase. The ammeter reading would decrease. . Part H . The battery still has nonzero . = EMF/(R+R_A+R_int) Now assume that the ammeter again has zero resistance. Part G What is the new reading of the ammeter? Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: .

Compared to their values when . The ammeter reading would decrease.1 Consider the voltmeter first Observe that . the ammeter reading would increase. where is the voltage between points 1 and 3. the ammeter reading would increase. Suppose now that the piece of ideal wire between points 1 and 2 is removed and replaced by a nonideal wire with a nonzero resistance. how would the readings of the ammeter and the voltmeter change when is some large but finite value? Hint H. the ammeter reading would decrease. The ammeter reading would decrease. ANSWER: The voltmeter reading would stay the same. where is the current flowing through the battery.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: The ammeter reading would stay the same. which is exactly the voltage that the voltmeter reads. it becomes possible for current to flow both through the voltmeter and through the resistor. the voltmeter reading would decrease. The overall resistance of the circuit therefore drops. The current through the ammeter is given by . Part I How would this change affect the readings of the ammeter and the voltmeter? Hint I. and the current through the battery increases. The voltmeter reading would increase. How would that affect the reading of the voltmeter? Hint H. The voltmeter reading would decrease.2 The change in the battery current When the resistance of the voltmeter drops below infinity. the voltmeter reading would decrease. The voltmeter reading would stay the same.3 The reading of the ammeter The ammeter reading is related simply to the voltmeter reading. What happens to the current when the resistance of the voltmeter drops? Hint H. The ammeter reading would increase. the voltmeter reading would . the ammeter reading would decrease. the voltmeter reading would stay the same.

increase. The ammeter reading would increase. Consider a circuit containing five identical lightbulbs and an ideal battery. the voltmeter reading would increase.2 Comparing bulb D to bulb E Hint not displayed Hint A. Part A Rank the brightness of the five bulbs (A through E) from brightest to dimmest.) Hint A.1270 3: [ Problem View ] Brightness of Light Bulbs Description: Asks students to rank brightness of light bulbs in amixed series and parallel circuit. (The more current flowing through a bulb. the voltmeter reading would increase. [ Print ] 2: 0.1 Comparing bulb A to bulb B Hint not displayed Hint A. the brighter it will be. The ammeter reading would stay the same.3 Comparing bulb C to bulb D or E Hint not displayed .

"B=C=E>A>D" means that bulbs B.1 How to approach this part How does the resistance of bulb C alone compare with the resistance of bulb C in parallel with bulbs D and E? How does this affect the resistance and current in the circuit as a whole (as compared to before)? ANSWER: It gets dimmer. For example. It gets brighter.Hint A. or = to indicate that the bulbs have the same brightness. ANSWER: C>A=B>D=E C>A=B>E=D C>B=A>D=E C>B=A>E=D Now consider what happens when a switch in the circuit is opened. . Between each pair of bulbs. C. Its brightness stays the same. and that they are brighter than bulb A. which in turn is brighter than bulb D. and E all have the same brightness. Part B What happens to bulb A? Hint B.4 Comparing bulb C to bulb A or B Hint not displayed List the bulbs in order from brightest to dimmest. use the symbol > to indicate that the left-hand bulb is brighter than the right-hand bulb.

. Note that the symbol should be entered in your answers as EMF. and circuit B . [ Print ] 4. . the resistance of a single Express your answer in terms of the applied voltage and bulb. ANSWER: Part D What happens to bulb C? Part D. which could damage them (typically in the case of an overload) or prevent them from functioning (if the current is too low). [ Problem View ] Batteries in Series or Parallel Description: Computation of current through a resistor for parallel and series connected batteries. each. where = (2*EMF)/(3*R) is the resistance of one bulb. Otherwise. It gets brighter. turning some on or off would cause the current in others to change. You are given two circuits with two batteries of emf and internal resistance Circuit A has the batteries connected in series with a resistor of resistance has the batteries connected in parallel to an equivalent resistor. Express your answer in terms of and ANSWER: Answer not displayed ANSWER: It gets dimmer. Its brightness stays the same. This is why appliances in your home are connected only in parallel.1 Current in bulb C earlier The total resistance of the earlier circuit was What is the current flowing in bulb C? .Part C What is the current now flowing in bulb C? .

Part A In which direction does the current in circuit A flow? Hint A. ANSWER: Part B What is the current through the resistor of resistance Hint B.1 Hint not displayed Hint B.1 Conventions Remember that the conventional current flows from a positive to a negative terminal.2 Hint not displayed Express the current in terms of . in circuit A? clockwisecounterclockwise 2*EMF/(2*R_1+R_2) = 2*E/(2*R_1+R_2) . ANSWER: Part C . and .

. Recall that Kirchhoff's junction rule states that the algebraic sum of all the currents into a junction is zero: . The diagram shows the circuit divided into two loops: branch.3 What is the emf for loop 2? Part not displayed Part C. .1 Which rule to use Hint not displayed Part C. = I_3*R_2+I_1*R_1 Part C.4 Application of Kirchhoff's junction rule (current rule) You should now have two equations involving all the variables in the circuit diagram.2 What is the emf for loop 1? for circuit B. you need a relationship between and . Choose the correct relation by applying Kirchhoff's junction rule to one of the junctions.Calculate the current through the resistor of resistance Hint C. while is the current in the topmost is the current in the lowest branch. To solve for . is the current in the branch below it. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: . and . Find an expression for the emf using the voltage drops across the two resistors in loop 1. which contains . .

1 How to think about the problem in = 1.ANSWER: Now solve the three equations you have obtained for the currents in each branch to obtain an expression for ( ).2 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part F Under which of the following conditions would power dissipated by the resistance circuit A be bigger than that of circuit B? Hint F. ANSWER: Part E For what ratio of and would power dissipated by the resistor of resistance same for circuit A and circuit B? Hint E. . you could either add the two and from the other equations equations other than the one above. To do this. ANSWER: Part D What is the power dissipated by the resistor of resistance .00 be the -2 = 6. and . given that W .1 What formula to use ? Hint not displayed Calculate the power to two significant figures.1 Hint not displayed Hint E. Express your answer in terms of .40×10 . and Hint D. 2*EMF/(2*R_2+R_1) = 2*E/(2*R_2+R_1) for circuit A. or substitute for into this one.

ANSWER: [ Print ] 5. zero emf clockwise top plate zero =C*EMF =EMF^2*C =C*EMF*(1-exp(-t/(R*C))) =EMF/R*exp(-t/(R*C)) =9. choose the most restrictive answer.530×10-2 =q_0*exp(-t/(R*C)) =-q_0/(R*C)*exp(-t/(R*C)) 6.Hint not displayed Some answer choices overlap.21*tau =5. =(epsilon_0*r^2/d*(K-1)*V)/DeltaT .

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