Strategic Directions for Gender-inclusive Urban Sector Development in South Asia

Francesco Tornieri Senior Social Development Specialist (GAD) South Asia Region Department (SARD)
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.



SARD Operations Some definitions

Lending operations: (a) Ordinary operations  OCR (Ordinary Capital Resources); and (b) Special operations  ADF (Asian Development Fund), special fund to carry out concessional lending and grant operations. Financial instruments: (a) Projects; (b) Sector Loans; (c) Sector Development Programs; (d) Program (policy-based) Loans; and (e) Multi-tranche Facilities [ support the client’s medium- to longterm investment program or investment plan]. Technical Assistance: Project preparatory technical assistance (PPTA); Policy and advisory (PATA); Capacity development (CD-TA) and Research and development (RD-TA). Grant resources: ADB ’ s TA Special Fund Resources (TASF) + additional ( Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR); Australia-ADB South Asia Development Partnership Facility; Gender and Development Cooperation Fund .

Classification of South Asia Classification of DMCs Member Countries

Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka

Blend (OCR & ADF) ADF-only Blend * ADF-only ADF-only Blend

* Currently with no access to ADF

Member Country

Strategic Directions: Country Partnership Strategies (CPS)
Status Entry-points
• Urban Infrastructure, Access to Urban Services and Urban Governance: key priority sectors • Gender Equity: Thematic Priority • Gender Analysis (Summary) included, based on Country Gender Sector Diagnostics • Gender considerations included in priority sector assessments attached to CPS • Gender targets in CPS Results Framework and related sector roadmaps

Bangladesh (2011-15) Bhutan (2006-10) India (2009-12) Maldives (2012-13) Nepal (2010-12) Interim CPS finalized New CPS upcoming Interim CPS finalized New CPS upcoming Sri Lanka (2012-16)

+ Strategic Directions for Gender-inclusive
Urban Sector Development in South Asia

Engage in Gender and Social Inclusion (GESI) -related policy and legal/regulatory aspects of Urban Development

Expand access to a broader range of urban services by urban poor
Deepen GESI support at all tiers of Urban Governance Promote pro-poor, gender-sensitive PPP models

 

+ StrategicinDirection: policy and legal/regulatory aspects of Engage GESI-related
Urban Development
CPS Focus Area

GESI Entry Points

Support to policy and legal/regulatory frameworks for (urban planning), incl. good practices for involuntary resettlement and environmental management Promoting (urban) sector reforms, esp. regulatory and cost recovery mechanisms (reducing nonrevenue water supply) Supporting municipal reforms (incl. reforms of municipal WS providers)

Support gender mainstreaming in urban spatial planning (land use planning, urban planning, regional planning, transport planning and environmental planning) Incorporate gender considerations in all tools for urban planning (master plans, municipal plans and historical preservation plans) Promote participatory urban planning (women participation) [not a panacea] and effective reflection of women’s views in urban planning and infrastructure Address capacity gaps to generate sexdisaggregated data for policy and program analysis/targeting

CPS Focus Area

Strategic Direction: Expand access to a broader range of urban services
GESI Entry Points

Building urban infrastructure and services (WSS, Waste Management and Waste Water Treatment) –with emphasis onurban transport services [corridors for bus rapid transit (BRT)], and low cost housing; Improving urban infrastructure facilities (► expansion of (market) sites and services provided to M/SMEs and other sources of employment targeting the urban poor [BHU]

Assess gendered aspects of urban poverty (► property rights, insecure land tenure) in slums and informal settlements and how this affects the urban poor access to public/private urban services Understand the gendered aspects of tariff setting (incl. lifeline), pro-poor subsidized schemes, the distributional impacts of water/energy pricing reforms on urban poor (► BPL and FHHs) Assess gendered impacts of slum upgrading (► increased land values and rents) on BPL and FHHs Access to financial and legal services by the poor should be considered (► Legal Empowerment)

+ Strategic Direction:

Deepen GESI support at all tiers of Urban Governance
CPS Focus Area GESI Entry Points

Expanded focus to sustainable urban development in ecologically fragile areas (coastal towns), satellite towns Municipal Finance. Assist selected States and urban-local bodies in tapping debt financing (sub sovereign borrowing, institutional financing, and raising funds from capital markets) to meet the acute funding gap and offset low-revenue base of local authorities Urban Financial Intermediaries  Supporting urban financial intermediaries [i.e. IND National Capital Region Planning Board]  Develop effective State-level urban infrastructure financial intermediaries with capacity to originate and enable PPPs

Ensure continuous leverage on existing Urban Governance provisions and mechanisms (► i.e. gender-related targets/quotas. Address capacity gaps of Central, State and municipal agencies to: (a) incorporate a GESI perspective in analysis and planning as well as service provision; and (b) build institutional capacity to strengthen the O&M skills of local governments and water user and sanitation committees (women’s participation). Ensure community effective participation in priority needs identification; management of community-infrastructure; access to Government schemes/programs and the effective implementation of GESIrelated PBA allocation

CPS Focus Area

Strategic Direction: Promote pro-poor, gender-sensitive PPP models

GESI Entry Points

Introducing innovative financing mechanisms for … private sector involvement … promoting cooperation between Governments, NGOs [service delivery NGOs] and CBOs in delivering urban services; and promoting private sector participation and PPPs to improve the efficiency of urban service delivery. Selective focus on supporting urban primary health-care project to ensure the sustainability of PPP-based service delivery model.[BAN]

Goal: Efficiency with Equity  Help citizens, incl. poor women, understand their rights ►build capacity, information, skills to demand  Inform citizens (M+W) on service options, costs, accessibility, and sustainability to make informed choices  Help build Accountability and Transparency of utility sector providers to consumers (esp. poor women)  Meaningful consultation ► lobby for inclusion of poor women (time, location, language etc.)

+ SARD Operations:
(a) Overview of Gender Portfolio 2009-2011
25 20


2009 2010 2011




2009 5 2 11 9

19% 7% 41% 33%
2010 6 8 20 3

2011 3 15 10 3

16% 22% 54% 8%

10% 48% 32% 10%

+ SARD Operations:
(b) Urban Development Portfolio 2009-2011
7 6 5
2009 2010
2011 2009-2011

4 3 2 1
BHU 2009 2010 2011 2009-2011 1 1 BAN 1 1 1 3

NEP 1 2 1 4 IND 1 2 4 7

SRI 1 1 2


(c) SARD Operations: GEN/EGM Projects (Urban Development) 2009-2011
2009 (3 out of 11 projects) or 43% of GEN/EGM projects 1. Bangladesh: Urban Public and Environmental Health Sector Development Program (EGM) 2. India: MFF: North Eastern Region Capital Cities Development Investment Program (Tranche 1) (EGM) 3. Nepal: Second Small Towns Water Supply & Sanitation Sector Project (GEN) 2010 (6 out of 14) or 43% of GEN/EGM projects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bangladesh: (a) City Region Development Project (EGM) India MFF: North Karnataka Urban Sector Investment Program (Tranche 2) (EGM) India: MFF: Infrastructure Development Investment Program for Tourism (Tranche 1) (EGM) Nepal: Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport (EGM) Nepal: Secondary Towns Integrated Urban Environmental Improvement (EGM) Sri Lanka: Jaffna and Kilinochchi Water Supply & Sanitation Project (GEN) 2011 (8 out of 18) or 44% of GEN/EGM projects

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bangladesh: Khulna Water Supply Project (EGM) Bhutan: Urban Improvement Project (EGM) India: MFF-North East Region Capital Cities Development Phase I (Tranche 2) (EGM); ( India: MFF-Infrastructure Development Investment Program for Tourism (Tranche 2) (EGM); India: MFF: Assam Urban Infrastructure Project (Tranche 1) (EGM) India: MFF: Uttarakhand Urban Sector Development Investment Program (Tranche 2) (EGM) Nepal: (a) Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Improvement Project) (EGM) Sri Lanka: Local Government Enhancement Project [EGM)

+ (d) SARD Operations:Portfolio 2012-2014 Urban Development
9 8

7 6 5
4 3
2012 2013 2014 2012-2014

2 1


BHU 2012 2013 2014 2012-2014 1 1 2

BAN 1 4 3 8 NEP 1 1 1 3

IND 3 3 3 9 SRI 1 1 1 3




(e) Our Strength: Increased Ownership of Gender Agenda by HQ Sector Divisions and RMs

+ (f) Our Strength:
SARD RM-based GESI Team


BHU: Staff consultant at the NCWC (Thimpu)



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