Thanks’ giving is a sacred Indian culture. So, first of all, I would like to thank our subject teacher, Miss NEETI WALIA for her humble support and encouragement which enhanced me through the project. Her likeness towards my topic uplifted my spirit which in turn helped me throughout.

Secondly, I express my gratitude to my Parents for being a continuous source of encouragement and the financial aid given to me.

Thirdly, I would love to thank my beloved friends who helped me in their little ways. They were of great help and support as they helped me a lot with their innovative ideas. They helped me a lot in completing my work in time.

Finally, I would like to thank God for showering his blessings upon me.



only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered. and recedes from an observer. such as sound waves.INTRODUCTION The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift). For waves that propagate in a medium. named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842. motion of the observer. As the source of frequency emission (train for eg. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches. The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach. such as light or gravity in general relativity. passes. and it is lower during the recession. it is identical at the instant of passing by. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. there forms a compression for the frequency between the source and the observer reducing the length of the waves which in effect increase the frequency and in turn the pitch. or motion of the medium.) moves toward the observer. The relative increase in frequency can be explained as follows. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source. the velocity of the observer and of the source is relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. 1 . For waves which do not require a medium. is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave.

THE DOPPLER’S EFFECT Doppler first proposed the effect in 1842 in his treatise "Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels" (On the coloured light of the binary stars and some other stars of the heavens). 2 . and lower than the emitted frequency when the sound source receded from him. the effect is sometimes called "effect Doppler-Fizeau"). The hypothesis was tested for sound waves by Buys Ballot in 1845. An English translation of Doppler's 1842 treatise can be found in the book The Search for Christian Doppler by Alec Eden. John Scott Russell made an experimental study of the Doppler effect (1848). In Britain. Hippolyte Fizeau discovered independently the same phenomenon on electromagnetic waves in 1848 (in France. He confirmed that the sound's pitch was higher than the emitted frequency when the sound source approached him.

the observed frequency that is first heard is higher than the object's emitted frequency. The above formula assumes that the source is either directly approaching or receding from the observer. e. Thereafter. The frequency is decreased if either is moving away from the other. and a continued monotonic decrease as it recedes from the observer. positive if the receiver is moving towards the source. In the limit where the speed of the wave is much greater than the relative speed of the source and observer (this is often the case with electromagnetic waves. the transition from high to low frequency is gradual. light). is the velocity of the source relative to the medium. the relationship between observed frequency f and emitted frequency f0 is given by: where is the velocity of waves in the medium is the velocity of the receiver relative to the medium. positive if the source is moving away from the receiver. where the speeds of source and the receiver relative to the medium are lower than the velocity of waves in the medium. When the observer is very close to the path of the object. The above formula works for sound wave if and only if the speeds of the source and receiver relative to the medium are slower than the speed of sound. See also Sonic boom. When the observer is far from the path of the object. If the source approaches the observer at an angle (but still with a constant velocity). through equality when it is closest to the observer. the relationship between observed frequency f and emitted frequency f0 is given by: 3 . there is a monotonic decrease in the observed frequency as it gets closer to the observer.g.General In classical physics. the transition from high to low frequency is very abrupt.

Analysis The frequency of the sounds that the source emits does not actually change. If the source moving away from the observer is emitting waves through a medium with an actual frequency f0. as a consequence. he will receive balls more frequently because the balls will be less spaced out. the formulae are no longer accurate. they work reasonably well when the speed between the source and receiver is slow relative to the speed of the waves involved and the distance between the source and receiver is large relative to the wavelength of the waves. consider the following analogy. It may also be said that the velocity of the wave remains constant whereas wavelength changes. if the thrower is moving towards the man. If either of these two approximations are violated. the received frequency is also affected. To understand what happens.Observed frequency Change in frequency Where is the velocity of the source relative to the receiver: it is positive when the source and the receiver are moving away from each other. The inverse is true if the thrower is moving away from the man. is the speed of wave (e. However. Someone throws one ball every second in a man's direction.g. So it is actually the wavelength which is affected. the man will receive one ball every second. However. Assume that balls travel with constant velocity. hence frequency also changes. then an observer stationary relative to the medium detects waves with a frequency f given by 4 . 3×108 m/s for electromagnetic waves travelling in a vacuum) is the wavelength of the transmitted wave in the reference frame of the source. If the thrower is stationary. These two equations are only accurate to a first order approximation.

In addition there are more possibilities than just the receiver approaching the signal and the receiver receding from the signal. For example. or no signal at all. All these additional complications are derived for the classical. However the limitations mentioned above still apply. as Lord Rayleigh noted in his classic book on sound. by properly moving it would be possible to hear a symphony being played backwards. This is the so-called "time reversal effect" of the Doppler Effect. but hold for the relativistic Doppler effect as well.r is small in comparison to v and the equation approximates to Where . and in some circumstances it is possible to receive two signals or waves from a source. vs. and wave or signal are moving linearly relatively to each other) several interesting and perhaps surprising results are found.where vs is positive if the source is moving away from the observer. nonrelativistic. A similar analysis for a moving observer and a stationary source yields the observed frequency (the receiver's velocity being represented as vr): Where the similar convention applies: vr is positive if the observer is moving towards the source. When the more complicated exact equation is derived without using any approximations (just assuming that source. receiver. 5 . and negative if the observer is moving away from the source.e. but also their positions at a given time). i. Doppler effect. and negative if the source is moving towards the observer. These can be generalized into a single equation with both the source and receiver moving. With a relatively slow moving source.. Other interesting conclusions are that the Doppler effect is time-dependent in general (thus we need to know not only the source and receivers' velocities.

WHAT CAUSES DOPPLER’S EFFECT? It is the sound. through a value equal to the emitted frequency when the object is closest to the observer. In most cases. It happens because the air in front of any moving object is compressed and so the sound waves are closer together and have a higher sound. the observed frequency of an approaching object declines monotonically from a value above the emitted frequency. of a car going past you. and to values increasingly below the emitted frequency as the object recedes from the observer. for example. the louder and higher you will hear it as it gets nearer to you. to describe the sound. I would say something like neeeyoohhm. Higher sound pressure levels make for a small decrease in perceived pitch in low frequency sounds. The faster the object is travelling. and for a small increase in perceived pitch for high frequency sounds. and the more noise it is making. Bohren proposed that this common misconception might occur because the intensity of the sound increases as an object approaches an observer and decreases once it passes and recedes from the observer and that this change in intensity is misperceived as a change in frequency.A common misconception Craig Bohren pointed out in 1991 that some physics textbooks erroneously state that the observed frequency increases as the object approaches an observer and then decreases only as the object passes the observer. As it gets nearer to you the sound seems to get higher pitched and then as it goes away from you the sound fades. 6 . If I were explaining to you face to face.

the frequency of waves received by the listener becomes less than the frequency of waves emitted by the source. the distance between them decrease with time.SITUATIONS OF DOPPLER’S EFFECT Due to the relative motion between the source and the listener.  Source is at rest while the listener is in motion. The different situations in which Doppler’s Effect plays a major role are:  Listener is at rest while the source is in motion. the frequency of the waves heard by the observer becomes larger than the frequency of waves emitted by the source. if the distance between them increases due to their relative motion.  The source and listener both are in motion. On the other hand. 7 . We shall deduce expressions for change of received frequencies due to the relative motion of the source and the listener for different situations.

n’ = n /( +vs). therefore. 8 . =n = n’ ’ i. The second will be emitted by the source at a later instant from a position ahead of S. Suppose the velocity of the wave is and the initial distance between the source and the listener is also equal to i. i. the average wavelength of these waves is = /n.EXPRESSIONS FOR DIFFERENT SITUATIONS 1. equal to the distance moved in one second. If the source were at rest.e. Since the velocity of the waves does not change due to the motion of the source therefore. the last wave emitted at the end of the second remains at S’ at a distance -vs from the listener. Therefore when the first wave emitted by the source at the beginning of the second reaches the listener L at the end of the second. since all the n waves remain in the distance between the source and the listener.e. The first wave emitted by the source at the beginning of the second will be emitted from the position S. n’ = n / ’ = n /( -vs) If the source moves away from the listener then we replace vs by –vs. the average wavelength of the wave now becomes ’=( -vs)/n. The wave emitted by the source at the beginning of the second will reach the listener L at the end of the second and the wave emitted by the source at the end of the second will be at the source S. the third wave will be emitted further ahead of S at a still later instant and the last wave will be emitted by the source from S’ at a distance s from S. all the n waves emitted by the source in the second would have remained within the distance between the source and the listener. due to the motion of the source the observed frequency will be changed. If n’ be the frequency of waves received by the listener then we have. If the velocity of the wave is assumed to be larger than the velocity of the source then all waves emitted during the second will remain within the distance -vs. which moving with a velocity will reach the listener L at the end of the second. as the source is moving towards the listener all the waves will not be emitted by it from the same position.e. LISTENER IS AT REST WHILE THE SOURCE IS IN MOTION: Suppose a listener is at rest and the source of wave emitting n waves per second is moving towards a listener with velocity vs.

Therefore the number of waves received by the listener per second will be equal to n` = (V + VL)/ . the expressions are derived based upon the above discussed two situations. ( + L)/ if the listener moves away with a velocity L. i) IF BOTH SOURCE AND LISTENER MOVES TOWARDS EACH OTHER:n`` = n. 3. As before we assumed that the frequency of the wave emitted by the source is n and the velocity of the waves is equal to . n’=n. Here. we find that when the listener was at rest the number of waves received by him per second was n.L). 9 . but. therefore. SOURCE IS AT REST WHILE THE LISTENER IS IN MOTION. ( . when the listener moves towards the source.L)/ . But. in this case the velocity of the waves with respect to the listener is -(.0= . Therefore. ( + L)/ ( - S) ii) IF THE SOURCE MOVES TOWARDS LISTENER AND LISTENER MOVES AWAY FROM THE SOURCE. When the listener was at rest the velocity of the waves with respect to the listener was . THE SOURCE AND THE LISTENER BOTH ARE IN MOTION. the distance between two consecutive waves will not change with time and the wavelength of the wave will remain unchanged. the number of waves received by him per second becomes equal to n`. the relative velocity of waves with respect to the listener will become equal to .2. Therefore. we can write = /n n`=n. the number of waves received by the listener per second was equal to n= / . Thus. Since in this case the source is at rest and it emits waves at regular interval.L. Now suppose the source of wave is at rest and the listener is in motion towards the source with a velocity VL. And in both cases the wavelength remains constant.


10. Audio. Astronomy. Medical Imaging and Blood Flow Measurement. Radar. 9. 11 . Some of the common applications that are evident in our practical life are: 1. 2. Velocity Profile Measurement. Temperature Measurement. 5. 8. 6. Under-water Acoustics. 7. There are several applications in which Doppler’s effect is noticed. Flow Measurement. Vibration Measurement.APPLICATIONS OF DOPPLER’S EFFECT Doppler’s effect has great importance in sound waves and other kind of waves. 4. 3. Siren.

but instead varies as a function of the angle between his line of sight and the siren's velocity: where vs is the velocity of the object (source of waves) with respect to the medium. and θ is the angle between the object's forward velocity and the line of sight from the object to the observer. and then immediately jump to a new lower pitch. the radial velocity. ASTRONOMY: The Doppler Effect for electromagnetic waves such as light is of great use in astronomy and results in either a so-called red shift or blue shift. slide down as it passes. Astronomer John Dobson explained the effect thus: "The reason the siren slides is because it doesn't hit you. APPLICATIONS IN DETAILS:- 1. This is used to detect if an apparently single star is. and continue lower than its stationary pitch as it recedes from the observer. It has been used to measure the speed at which stars and galaxies are approaching or receding from us. The Doppler Effect is recognizable in the fact that the absorption lines are not always at the frequencies that are obtained from the spectrum of a stationary light source. the pitch would remain constant (as vs. SIRENS: The siren on a passing emergency vehicle will start out higher than its stationary pitch. that is. if the siren approached the observer directly. in reality. r is only the radial component) until the vehicle hit him. 12 . the spectral lines of an approaching astronomical light source exhibit a blue shift and those of a receding astronomical light source exhibit a red-shift. Since blue light has a higher frequency than red light. the radial velocity does not remain constant." In other words. Because the vehicle passes by the observer. 2. a close binary and even to measure the rotational speed of stars and galaxies. They exhibit absorption lines at well defined frequencies that are correlated with the energies required to excite electrons in various elements from one level to another. The use of the Doppler Effect for light in astronomy depends on our knowledge that the spectra of stars are not continuous.

the gap between each wave increases. 4. as police use radar to detect speeding motorists — as it approaches or recedes from the radar source. distance. height. Due to the thermal motion of the emitters. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using gas-filled micro bubble contrast media can be used to improve velocity or other flow-related medical measurements. Each successive radar wave has to travel farther to reach the car. Velocity measurements allow assessment of cardiac valve areas and function. in which case each successive wave travels a lesser distance. In either situation. etc. before being reflected and re-detected near the source. This line shape is called a Doppler profile and the width of the line is proportional to the square root of the temperature of the emitting species. within certain limits. developed during World War II. to measure the velocity of detected objects. Medical imaging and blood flow measurement: An echocardiogram can. One of the limitations is that the ultrasound beam should be as parallel to the blood flow as possible. As each wave has to move farther. allowing a spectral line (with the width dominated by the Doppler broadening) to be used to infer the temperature. any abnormal communications between the left and right side of the heart. In some situations. the radar beam is fired at the moving car as it approaches. a motor car.g. decreasing the wavelength. A radar beam is fired at a moving target — e. and the net effect is a broadening of the line. Moreover. is the estimation of the temperature of a gas (or ion temperature in plasma which is emitting a spectral line. calculations from the Doppler Effect accurately determine the car's velocity. RADAR: The Doppler Effect is used in some types of radar. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT: Another use of the Doppler Effect. increasing the wavelength. any leaking of blood through the valves (valvular regurgitation). 5.3. 13 . and calculation of the cardiac output. the proximity fuze. relies upon Doppler radar to explode at the correct time. which is found mostly in plasma physics and astronomy. produce accurate assessment of the direction of blood flow and the velocity of blood and cardiac tissue at any arbitrary point using the Doppler Effect.or blue-shifted. the light emitted by each particle can be slightly red.

The LDV emits a light beam and the ADV emits an ultrasonic acoustic burst. and measure the Doppler shift in wavelengths of reflections from particles moving with the flow. This technique is fully non-invasive. If the sonar system is mounted on a moving ship or another submarine. Velocity measurements of blood flow are also used in other fields of medical ultra sonography. stationary or transient. but the phase shift (when the received signal arrives). such as obstetric ultra sonography and neurology. 7. and acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) have been developed to measure velocities in a fluid flow. 14 . at high precision and high frequency. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) can measure in real time complete velocity profile in almost any liquids containing particles in suspension such as dust. Velocity measurement of blood flow in arteries and veins based on Doppler Effect is an effective tool for diagnosis of vascular problems like stenosis. and the speed and range from the sonobuoy can be calculated.Although "Doppler" has become synonymous with "velocity measurement" in medical imaging. in many cases it is not the frequency shift (Doppler shift) of the received signal that is measured. As a submarine passes by a passive sonobuoy. laminar or turbulent. Velocity profile measurement Developed originally for velocity measurements in medical applications (blood flows). Flows can be pulsating. oscillating. then the relative velocity can be calculated. the stable frequencies undergo a Doppler shift. 8. gas bubbles. This technique allows non-intrusive flow measurements. Flow measurement: Instruments such as the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The actual flow is computed as a function of the water velocity and face. Underwater acoustics: In military applications the Doppler shift of a target is used to ascertain the speed of a submarine using both passive and active sonar systems. emulsions. 6.

And lets not forget NASA who uses radars to map the planets and track satellites in the universe. takes advantage of the Doppler Effect by using an electric motor to rotate an acoustic horn around a loudspeaker. sending its sound in a circle. Doppler radars are considered to be the best tool for detection of rainfall in an area. The Police force also uses radars to gauge the speed of motorists. This signal is picked up and interpreted with greater accuracy those other radars. The Military uses radars for enemy and weapon detection. Most weather radars use the Doppler Effect while there are still a few using microwave signals. Vibration measurement: A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a non-contact method for measuring vibration. The way they work is by sending out beams in a circular pattern around the radar. When any of these beams strikes a raindrop.  How Doppler radar works? Radar is a device that is used in every aspect of life. The radar then receives the reflected 15 . Doppler radars are much more accurate than the older style radars. though in most cases it will be invisible to us. and the vibration amplitude and frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the laser beam frequency due to the motion of the surface. The amount of the signal shift depends up on the speed of the target.9. The laser beam from the LDV is directed at the surface of interest. This signal is then shifted according to the Doppler Effect as it returns. associated with and predominantly used with the Hammond B-3 organ. part of this particular beam will be reflected back to the radar. It is also used to guide planes for smooth and safe landings. Audio: The Leslie speaker. 10. In Doppler radars the signal is sent out a constant rate. This results at the listener's ear in rapidly fluctuating frequencies of a keyboard note. What information we hear on the use has an actual scientific process behind it. The Air Traffic control uses radars to trace places on ground and in the air. Radars are most commonly used in detecting and predicting weather conditions.

16 . The radar then translates the distance and intensity on to a graphical map that is displayed on TV (the kind you see on TV).beam and calculates the distance away and its intensity and from the direction it is moving and the wind velocity. The use of Doppler radar applications and live Doppler radars is possible in every possible activity in life. but in most cases we won’t even be aware of the close contact we have with Doppler radars or Doppler Effect.

equations are available that allow us to calculate the new frequency. The angle between the source and the line-of-sight adds another factor to the equations. The Doppler Effect can be observed in any type of wave whether water wave. the velocity of the source and the speed of sound. depending on the direction the source is moving. The general rule of the Doppler Effect is that the wave frequencies of moving bodies rise as they travel toward an observer and fall as they recede from the point of observation. We need to know that this shift in effect doesn’t occur because of the real change in frequency of the source. Knowing the initial frequency. This is called the Doppler Effect.CONCLUSION: The Doppler Effect is the effect that is produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an obvious shift upward in the frequency for people or observers towards whom the source is approaching and an obvious shift downwards in the frequency for people from whom the source is moving away. The effect only changes because of the change in distance. The pitch of the sound we hear from a moving source will be either higher or lower than the emitted frequency. sound wave or light wave. 17 .


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