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The Socially Engaged Enterprise

An Introduction
March 1, 2012

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

Becoming a Socially Engaged Enterprise


Bob Feldman, Michael Gale, Jeff Hunt, Paul Walker

This paper is the first in a series. It explains the core tenets of becoming a socially engaged enterprise. The next paper will present research weve developed in conjunction with The Economist on how social engagement brings economic gains, as well as what the obstacles to engagement are and the best practices for overcoming them.

The Top Line


Socially engaged enterprises actively engage customers in meaningful conversations so both parties benefit. This mutual exchange of value is not just about goods or services, but valuable information that builds commonality of interests and a sense of trust. As a result, socially engaged enterprises have a significant advantage in improving marketing and sales effectiveness, sales and market share, and brand value. They communicate with their customers and other constituencies through elaborate, multi-layered, and ever-changing webs of relationships and influencers that we call digital ecosystems. But they understand that technology is no replacement for creativity and Big Ideas to drive brands forward. Becoming a socially engaged enterprise is hard work. It requires resources, processes, technology and thoughtful planning. It cant be totally outsourced or purchased like advertising. While there are some great examples available to study like Ford, P&G, Dell, IBM, Delta and others -- no single company has figured it all out.

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

Once Upon A Time


On a day of no particular importance, a man test drove a Ford. He Tweeted that it wasnt the greatest experience. Have your CEO call me, he wrote on Twitter. Scott Monty, head of Fords social media, had been monitoring comments about his company online. He arranged for the CEO to make the call. The CEO called. The customer and the CEO talked. The customer bought the car and blogged extensively about A lesson in leadership from Ford. The CEO sent a powerful message to Ford employees. Ford is a leader among socially engaged enterprises and moments like this are the reason why. This is how business happens now. Yes, it happens fast, and yes companies have to be fast, but more importantly, companies have to be socially engaged enterprises. They have to be ready to engage in every single facet of the company. Doing so engaging across departments and truly integrating social and digital media throughout the enterprise requires a new way of thinking and new processes. It blurs the lines between home and work, and demands honesty and letting go of control that can be frightening to senior executives. It requires resources and technology upgrades and education. It is a change, and change is hard. But becoming a socially engaged enterprise is not an option. Its a necessity. Facebook is projected to soon hit its billionth user roughly one-seventh of the worlds total population.i People are engaging with each other through digital media more deeply every day.
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Customers and employees have begun to expect full engagement from companies. Engagement is not an option. Its necessary to long-term survival. And its also an opportunity.

1.

Engagement Is The New Currency


A socially engaged enterprise actively participates online, listens to all its key constituents (customers, employees, influencers, etc.), and

Both parties benefit from engagement: the company and the person with whom its engaging.

then actively engages those constituents in meaningful conversations to help shape the future of the enterprise. Both parties benefit from engagement: the company and the person with whom its engaging.

Consider the Ford customer. He had a complaint. He got a call from the CEO. He was listened to, at the highest possible level. He bought the car, which was good for both him and Ford. Not to mention, Ford got great press. The customer blogged extensively about Fords leadership the customer became more than just a fan of Ford; he became a brand evangelist. The Engagement Threshold The engagement threshold is the magical line when a customer goes from being loyal to being so excited about your brand that hell help you make it better. Companies spend a lot of time trying to improve customer loyalty by measuring satisfaction and Net Promoter Scores. But the dirty little secret of loyalty is that it does not always correlate with sales. Engagement, on the other hand, can position your brand as #1 in a customers mind (vis--vis other choices), and that does translate into sales.

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

In fact, early returns from our study on the Socially Engaged Enterprise show that more than 60% of executives believe Socially Engaged Enterprises have an advantage in improving marketing and sales effectiveness, sales and market share, brand value and speed to market with new innovations (Exhibit 1).
Exhibit 1
39 23 24 21 30 19 11 29
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

The Advantages of Social Engagement


Improved Marketing/Sales Effectiveness Improved Brand or Stock Value Improved Callobration with Partners Improved Product/Service Quality Improved Speed to Market/Innovation Improved Talent Retention Decreased Costs Increased Sales/Market Share 46 46 44 46 34 44 29 53
60% 70% 80%

14 29 28 31 32 34 53 17
90%

1 0 3 0 5 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 6 0 10
100%

Significant Advantage

Advantage

No Advantage

Disadvantage

Significant Disadvantage

Engaged customers evangelize. They go out into the world, real and online, and tell people they know, and even people they dont know, 1 how great your product or business is. They volunteer ideas that help you make your product better or that help you reach more people. They create buzz. They bring in new customers. On their own time and with their own energy, they burnish a brand until its sterling. Engaged customers are astoundingly good for business.

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

But building engagement takes time. Its about developing relationships. In some ways, engagement is a throwback to an earlier era: one of picturesque small towns, when business was done with a handshake and a chat, when the butcher asked after your mother, and the hardware store owner said hello. Those particular days are gone, of course, but the core desire for authentic and genuine connection remains, the desire for the days when the store owner spoke frankly and the customer trusted him as a result.

2.

Creating Engagement
Engagement is about creating precisely this level of trust, about advocating for your customer who in turn advocates for you. It is about the mutual exchange of exceptional value. Lots of companies have years of experience in customer service. The difference is that now the interactions happen online. Thats an important distinction and one that provides huge opportunity. Where once a CEO could shake one customers hand, now she can

A COO can respond to a customers question in a public forum, effectively creating a town hall meeting that anyone in any part of the world can attend.

Tweet a message to hundreds of thousands instantly. A COO can respond to a customers question in a public forum, effectively creating a town hall meeting that anyone in any part of the world can attend Facebook currently has more than 800 million users, and more than 75% of them are outside the US.ii Employees can chat

in forums that spark creative solutions. Conversations about products are held publicly and data are ripe for the taking.

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3.

Ear to the Ground: Socially Engaged Listening and Research


Some people assume that its hard to have conversations with every person who tweets, blogs, lurks, or posts. Theyre right its actually impossible. However, a company doesnt need to have an interaction with every single social media consumer. Rather, companies simply need to engage relevant people, while keeping up with the conversations and data that are readily available. And, they need to take action on what they learn. Gatorade, for example, is taking full advantage of the data that social media offers. It built a social media command center, where employees track online conversations about Gatorades products, as well as its competitors products. This way, the company knows whats being said about it, what its doing right, and what it needs to improve. It also knows the same about its competition. Gatorade took what it heard and used the data to modify its website, so that it better suits its customers needs. It saw significant results: in 2010, Gatorade reported reducing its website exit rate by 14% and having people 250% more engaged with its product education.iii Companies like Dell, Delta and Nokia have taken similar approaches. Super Bowl XLVI used a social media command center to engage fans in Indianapolis and around the world. Smart-targeted Suggestions Dells IdeaStorm website pushed engagement even farther by asking people to tell the company exactly what they wanted. The site effectively became a virtual suggestion box, albeit a very smart-targeted one.
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Because IdeaStorm was on Dells website, arguably the majority of people who went to the site already had an interest in Dell, and could therefore offer relevant suggestions. Over roughly five years, Dell gleaned and implemented more than 450 great ideas, including the very popular decision to offer computer systems with the Ubuntu software their customers wanted preinstalled.iv Its not hard to preinstall software on a computer system. And in fact, its not that hard to figure out which software customers want installed. You just have to create a space for listening to customers which both Dell and Gatorade did.

4.

Oh, The Things You Can Do: Engaged Customer Service


Listening isnt enough. Digital customers expect to be heard and responded to. This creates an excellent opportunity to solve problems quickly and efficiently and create happy customers. @DeltaAssist, Delta Airlines Twitter 24/7 customer service, does this masterfully. Employees listen to conversations, then jump in to help customers. If someones flight is canceled, for example, instead of waiting in line at a desk or navigating a phone tree, she can simply post to Twitter about her problem and get a quick response from a social assist agent.

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

Delta is doing a number of things right. First, its empowering agents to solve problems. Second, its using Twitter and other technology creatively to talk to customers and solve problems (so many companies simply use Twitter to push their messages). Third, the transactions are personal and genuine because the agents have the power to speak and act. If you read through the posts, youll see all kinds of personable, helpful messages from Delta employees, oftentimes following up on earlier questions or problems. Heres one example: @bechego Oh no! I hate to see this. Did you get an update on board? Please let us know if you need assistance. Thanks. ^KT.v Customers love the prompt and helpful responses and say so: @DeltaAssist one of the best customer service experience ever #delta @Delta, one customer writes. Delta achieved the highest share of voice among its competitors in 2010 and garnered 22,964 followers in one year alone. Customers are having conversations about companies in real time. If you join in to solve problems or thank people who are saying nice things, you can generate profound goodwill in a public space where anyone can see how happy youve made a customer. But whats most remarkable about @DeltaAssist is how smartly it uses digital media. Delta, overall, is a better company because it understands and uses real engagement.

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Power Through the People: The Engaged Workforce


One of the best things that Dell did is recognize that good ideas can come from anywhere. In the past, its been tough for someone from the C-suite to hear about and harness the new ground-level ideas that can grow a companys business exponentially. Social engagement, however, makes this possible again.

The Socially Engaged Enterprise

Best Buys Blue Shirt Nation is an active online forum where employees discuss everything from video games to work-related troubleshooting. This has obvious advantages in terms of being able to identify and solve problems one employee was having trouble with a display; as soon as he posted about it, others echoed him, and management was able to offer a solution.vi Beyond that, however, were benefits that evolved organically, many of which Best Buy couldnt have predicted. One employee wrote and posted a 108-page discussion of how the company could better sell video games, a document that earned him a few round trip flights to meet with the companys COO and participation in a new sales strategy.vii Straitjackets Dont Work Anymore Engaged employees add myriad sources of value to a company. At Best Buy, for example, employees who used the Blue Shirt Nation forum had a turnover rate of 10%. Employees who didnt had a turnover rate of 50%, saving huge training and replacement costs.viii Accenture recruits directly through LinkedIn,ix saving money on headhunting fees. IBMs SocialBlue allows employees to post photos, enhancing a sense of community and team. Some executives are afraid to allow employees any autonomy. They are afraid to let employees blog in their own voices or post photos. Some executives are uncomfortable with social media because they havent used it themselves and its unfamiliar.x And of course, speaking openly is a strange and abrupt reversal of corporate values, as journalist Clive Thompson wrote in Wired.xi He made the comment in 2007 and today people are still getting used to the change.

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But straitjackets prevent growth. Blue Shirt Nation started as a tool that executives wanted to use to get employee input on advertisements. xii The employees, however, took the conversation in directions executives could never have foreseen. Had employees been limited to talking about advertising only, the forum would surely have died and the creative solutions with it. Empower the People Companies need to use digital media tools that empower employees. In this era that values authenticity so highly, growth will come when individual

Even some of the biggest and most straight-laced companies are recognizing how important it is to provide employees with tools for engagement.

voices can speak genuinely. Even some of the biggest and most straight-laced companies are recognizing how important it is to provide employees with tools for engagement. A senior Deloitte employee writes that engagement increases productivity. Yet he recognized

that, effectiveness and empowerment are even more important.xiii

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Reach the Right People: Socially Engaged Marketing


Our purpose at P&G is to touch and improve lives; everything we do is in that context, says Robert McDonald, Proctor & Gambles CEO. Digital technology, he says, makes engaged relationships with consumers possible, and the more intimate the relationship, the more indispensable it becomes.xiv McDonald put his money where his mouth is, and reinvigorated one of P&Gs oldest and stodgiest brands: Old Spice.

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In 2010, Digg founder and tech leader Kevin Rose Tweeted that he was sick. P&G responded by swiftly creating and posting a short tongue-incheek video with its Old Spice spokesman telling Rose to get well. Rose, who has currently more than 1.3 million Twitter followers, was surprised and thrilled. He immediately posted the link to P&Gs Old Spice Kevin, get well video for all of his followers to click on.xv The video went viral. That get well video was more than a oneoff party trick. In the space of a week, P&G created 180 Old Spice Guy videos, each in response to a single Tweet. Some of the Tweets came from celebrities and some from regular consumers. It was a deft display of social engagement and the return on it was impressive. The Old Spice videos reaped 40 million views in one week. The social engagement campaign is one of the best it generated more than 1 billion in media impressions, surpassing the reach of traditional broadcast. It also significantly increased sales and made Old Spice the #1 body wash for men.xvi Planned Agility + Key Influencers = Big Success It surely took countless hours of planning to make the Old Spice videos happen teams had to hire the actor, get the studio ready, hire writers, cameramen, production assistants, and then, once everyone was in place, start searching Twitter for comments to respond to. Whats so smart is how adroitly P&G used its resources to prepare to move swiftly.

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Another reason the Old Spice campaign was so successful was that it targeted key influencers, as well as regular consumers. Kevin Rose had

Creating videos that responded to regular people also showed influencers that P&G was listening not just to big names, but also to its consumers.

a lot of followers, many of whom are interested in technology. In targeting Rose, P&G not only reached a tech leader but also his followers who are people who impact whether or not a video goes viral. Creating videos that responded to regular people

also showed influencers that P&G was listening not just to big names, but to its consumers, too. The result was unmitigated success. Technology Cant Replace Creativity Twitter is one way to find and reach influencers. But new ways are being developed all the time. Adobe recently used new tools to find 463 relevant bloggers, to assess the bloggers influence, and monitor between 200 and 600 relevant conversations daily.xvii P&G showed obvious speed and agility when it responded to Tweets with videos. But Adobe also showed agility in a more subtle way. It searched out and adopted new tools to find influencers. Because social engagement is evolving, Adobes willingness to research and choose new tools, and to educate itself, shows the kind of agility needed to succeed. Most importantly, P&Gs Old Spice project was incredibly creative. Its been said a thousand times, but it bears repeating here: technology is a tool. It enables creativity but cant replace it. The companies who use technology creatively, who set themselves up to take full advantage of the new tools, are the ones who will gain market share. Some companies think setting up a Facebook page or opening a Twitter account is all they need to do to be socially engaged. And in fact, setting up those accounts is important. But they should be only one very small step in a larger creative social engagement plan.
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As we were completing this paper, P&G announced their plans to eliminate about 1,600 jobs, including some in marketing. Their future plan is to invest more in digital and social engagement and to create more successes like Old Spice.

7.

If You Build It: Socially Engaged Brand Building


Letting go - even just a little - of content control and allowing customers to post about the good, the bad, and the ugly presents unrivaled opportunity to learn about what consumers value, whats working, and whats not. Creating a space for engaged conversation leads to the frank discussion consumers want and the kind of brand-building money cant buy. For example, customers post photos to Fords website, including photos of crashed Ford cars. While a car flipped upside down and destroyed

Creating a space for engaged conversation leads to the frank discussion consumers want and the kind of brandbuilding money cant buy.

may not seem like a great idea (and surely would have been killed internally by a bunch of suits had the idea come up at a formal business meeting), it turns out to be incredibly powerful. The story accompanying the photo is invaluable. I believe

my Fusion saved my life. Thanks Ford. When my case is settled Im [sic] buying another one. Sincerely, Tammy Bledsoe.xviii Six months later, this story was still one of the most popular on the site.

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It can be a hard thing to remember, but authenticity and transparency are about more than simply telling stakeholders how you earn your money or coming clean about a mistake. Transparency is also about letting other people tell their stories, even ones you dont want to hear. This is part of having a relationship with stakeholders. Fords brand gained credibility when it gave Tammy Bledsoe a chance to publish the photo of her wreck.

8.

Walking in Others Shoes: The Digital Ecosystem


Companies have to think about their constituents their customers and employees - journeys through engagement. Imagine youve just come out with a new cancer treatment. In order to connect with the people who will most care about a new cancer treatment, you need to think like the person you are trying to reach. Who will be most influential to the person? Which forums would that person visit? Which blogs would that person be able to find quickly? Which blogs would she read? What kind of content would be most valuable to them? In what format? In what sequence? An Easy Fix On some levels, thinking about the constituents journey from their perspective seems like common sense. And yet, this step gets skipped too often. People, C-suite included, are accustomed to thinking about things from their own perspective or from their own experiences. Many dont think enough about what the world looks like from the perspective of the person they are trying to reach.

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A decision maker should regularly log into forums and read blogs to see what people are saying about their company. Every executive should imagine, and gather data about, their constituents experiences. Its an easy thing to do, and can have far-reaching impact on a companys success.

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The Future is Now: Socially Engaged Innovation


Its axiomatic: businesses have to innovate. No one needs to be told that, but what some of the most innovative businesses are doing is putting digital media to work as a kind of innovation incubator, a place to grow new ideas. Cisco gets this, in spades. Ciscos I-Prize offers $250,000 to the team with the best idea. Ciscos execution of the I-Prize is incredibly smart. The company is frank about its interest in new ideas. In its announcement of the 2010 winner, Cisco says, The Cisco I-Prize judging panel felt that this winning idea represents a good market opportunity for Cisco and is well-positioned to become or contribute to a new Cisco Emerging Technology. Cisco is not positioning the prize as an act of charity or global good will, rather, Cisco openly admits its in search of new ideas that may become its next billion-dollar business. The Honest Bonus This works well on several levels. Cisco is being honest and open, qualities highly valued in digital media and by digital natives. Equally, by saying its actively in search of new business ideas in technology, Cisco reinforces

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the idea that it is committed to creating the best products, and is willing to search the world to find the best people creating the best products. According to Cisco, 2,900 people in more than 156 countries submitted 824 ideas to the competition. Thats 2,900 people working on ideas they hope Cisco will accept and Cisco only had to offer one prize of $250,000 and its venture talent. Thats a lot of good will, good publicity, and good brand building to come out of a commitment to innovation. Even more astutely, Cisco provided the teams with digital tools. The Cisco I-Prize platform helped our team craft and execute on our idea,

Its collaboration, at its best; its using digital media to create the space for innovation.

but also enabled us to present our winning concept in a state-of-the-art manner using video collaboration to better articulate our concept, said the captain of the winning team. Cisco gave them something useful, and similarly

they gave Cisco something useful. Its not quid-pro-quo. Its collaboration, at its best; its using digital media to create the space for innovation. Giffgaff doesnt even bother with a prize rather, the British mobile network company has changed how the basic structure of a mobile phone company works. Giffgaff gets customers directly involved. Our members get rewarded for running parts of our business like answering questions in the community, getting new members or helping make us famous, the company says.xxiii Its been a success, with the top ten users spending over 12 hours a day answering community questions and every question asked receiving roughly 11 answers.xxiv Giffgaff and Cisco couldnt be more different in terms of size and corporate structure, but they both understand the power of engaging with people to develop new ways of doing business.

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10. Engagement Leads to Market Share


Because social engagement is brand-new, new ways have to be developed to measure its impact and ROI. Fred Reichheld and Rob Markey have done exactly this with the Net Promoter Score, an elaborate system used to measure customer engagement. What Reichheld and Markey have found is that companies who take full advantage of social media see correlated growth.xxv McKinsey found much the same thing. In a recent report, they found statistically significant correlations between self-reported corporate performance metrics and certain business processes that networked enterprises use.xxvi According to McKinseys survey:
self-reported operating-margin improvements correlated positively with the reported percentage of employees whose use of social technologies was integrated into their day-to-day work. Among the companies of respondents who took the survey in previous years, these improvements also correlated positively with gains in the reported percentage of employees whose work is highly integrated with social media. Market share leadership in an industry, the final self-reported performance measure, correlated positively with the integration of social tools in employees dayto-day work, as well.

Its worth noting that McKinsey also found that market leaders were less likely to take full advantage of engagement. That makes sense. Challengers are more likely to innovate and exploit new technologies. Its how challengers become market leaders. And its how former market leaders fall to challengers.

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11. The C-Suite and the Cultural Leap


At heart, digital media is a democratizing tool. It provides information to anyone anywhere. It creates communities aligned by interest filled with people who might never have found each other otherwise. It shapes actual revolutions in the physical world. People now have the power to speak in a way they didnt before, and they expect to be heard. Companies cant just broadcast messages anymore; people expect engagement. Because engagement requires a cultural shift from centralized control to decentralized empowerment, the C-suite has got to be on board

To get the benefits from social engagement, leaders both have to see the power of digital media and believe in it.

in order for a company to become socially engaged. If employees are engaging but senior leadership isnt, theres a core clash of values and inevitable conflict. To get the benefits from social engagement, leaders both have to see the power of digital media and believe in it.

Real engagement has to be built rather than bought. It takes time, planning, and creative use of technology. But its worth it. Companies who fundamentally shift how they operate, who engage internally and externally, who have conversations and empower others, who use digital media to build brands, market, and innovate through partnerships and conversations these companies are going to reap the benefits of engagement.

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12. Change the Way Business Is Done: The Next Steps


New Yorker writer Malcolm Gladwell has characterized Steve Jobs as more of a tweaker than an inventor: [Jobs] borrowed the characteristic features of the Macintosh the mouse and the icons on the screen from the engineers at Xerox PARC, after his famous visit there, in 1979.xxvii Gladwell goes on, making a reasonable case that Jobs took what existed and adapted and improved it. Whats interesting about this is the how incredibly powerful a thing it is to take new ideas, inventions, and technology, and build on it. For Jobs, this meant redesigning or tweaking ideas relentlessly until they were perfect. Every business doesnt need to do that. And certainly, every company doesnt need to perfect social engagement technology the way that

You have to have the vision to see how a new technology can be used, how a new technology can utterly change the way business is done.

Jobs perfected the digital music player. However Gladwells point is an almost breathtaking reminder that you dont have to invent something new in order to move to the leading edge. Rather, you have to have the vision to see how a new technology can be used,

and how a new technology can utterly change the way business is done.

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Step 1: Plan It

Step 2: Build It

Step 3: Run With It

Get the Executives on Board

SWAT Listening Command Center Integration Platforms

Upgrade Technology and Education Celebration and Loss Learning Assess and Adjust

Develop a Strategy

How To: Journey to the Socially Engaged Enterprise


Step 1: Plan It Get the executives on board. The single most important factor in the journeys success is getting the executives on board. Before a company can take any serious steps into engagement, the C-suite has to commit to the time, energy, and resources. Becoming fully engaged is a process and it takes resources to make it happen. Develop a strategy. Becoming engaged is a multi-step journey. At each step, you want to be sure that the processes you are building support your overall business goals. Its critical to know whom, how and when you are going to engage.

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Step 2: Build It SWAT Once youve developed a strategy, its time to create a Social Engagement SWAT team. These core team members evangelize, teach, train, run programs, choose the technology, and literally fly in when a problem needs to be solved. Listening Command Center Youll need to set up processes to listen to and participate in conversations relevant to your company. Ideally, youll have access to real time information so that at any point in a day you know what your key constituents are saying about your brand and company. Integration Incorporate engagement into every process and practice. Use it in product development, marketing, employee collaboration, and customer service, as well as other systems. Platforms Plan your blogs, Wikis, Facebook pages, and other platforms. Determine which collaborative tools your employees will best use. Figure out whos going to Tweet, how often the company blog should be updated. Create a conversation calendar and leave room to respond to new ideas and topics that people are talking about. Step 3: Run with It Upgrade Technology and Education Engagement is relatively new. The technology for it from Facebook to collaborative Wikis evolves and is updated on a regular basis. One workshop at the beginning of every year isnt going to be enough to keep employees up to speed. Education must be ongoing and continuous have a year dedicated to a skill set, like using mobile applications. As social media, technology and your own journey through engagement evolves, you may also find that you need to upgrade intranet, website, social media and analytics technology.

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Celebrations and Loss Learning Properly integrating engagement into all your business processes is challenging. To keep morale up, and to keep employees actively engaged, celebrate the wins. Michael Dell sent employees a digital smiley face when things went well, prompting employees to print and hang them in their cubicles. Because the technology is new, there is a learning curve. Losses are inevitable. To take full advantage of engagement, examine missteps, learn, and adjust your engagement strategies. Assess and Adjust Its not enough, however, to simply adjust when there is a misstep. Develop a performance management process. Assess weekly (not yearly, not quarterly) so you can build on your successes and continue to improve.

Bob Feldman, Michael Gale, Jeff Hunt, Paul Walker are Partners at PulsePoint Group. Copyright @ 2012 PulsePoint Group. All rights reserved.

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Footnotes
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Atagana, Michelle. Facebook to reach one billion users thanks to emerging markets. Memeburn. 12 Jan. 2012. Accessed 13 Jan. 2012 Facebook statistics, Facebook. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. Ostrow, Adam. Inside Gatorades Social Media Command Center. Mashable. 15 Jun. 2010. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. IdeaStorm home page. Dell. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. @DeltaAssist. Web log post. Twitter.com, 1 Feb. 2012. Accessed 1 Feb. 2012. Haugen, Dan. Welcome to Blue Shirt Nation. Twin Cities Business. Apr. 2009. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. Ibid. Ibid. Accenture to Recruit Thousands of IT Staff Through Twitter and LinkedIn. ComputerWeekly.com. 24 Jun. 2010. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. Gupta, Sunil, Kristen Amalie Bozzone Armstrong, and Zachary Scott Clayton. Social Media. Harvard Business School Note 510095. 4 Oct. 2011. Thompson, Clive. The See-Through CEO. Wired. 15:4. Mar. 2007. Online. Accessed 1 Feb. 2012. Haugen, Dan. Welcome to Blue Shirt Nation. Twin Cities Business. Apr. 2009. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. User Engagement. Excerpt from Tech Trends 2011 the natural convergence of business and IT. Report published by Deloitte. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. MacDonald, Robert. Interview. Inside P&Gs Digital Revolution. McKinsey Quarterly. Nov. 2011. Schonfeld, Erick. Old Spice Man Answers Tweets on YouTube Ropes In Kevin Rose, Alyssa Milano,and Justine Bateman. Tech Crunch. 13 Jul. 2010. Accessed 4 Jan. 2012. Adweek. W+K Old Spice Case Study. Video. Online. 4 Aug. 2010. Accessed 6 Feb. 2012. Bernoff, Josh and Ted Schadler. Winners of the 2010 Forrester Groundswell Awards (B2B). Forrester Research blog empowered. 29 Oct. 2010. Accessed 4 Jan 2012.

xi. xii. xiii.

xiv. xv.

xvi. xvii.

xviii. Bledsoe, Tammy. Wreck in My Fusion. FordSocial. 27 Jul. year unknown. Accessed 12 Jan. 2012. xix. xx. xxi. xxii. Tucker, Ken. Undercover Boss review: Literally crappy reality TV. EW.com. 2 Feb. 2010. Accessed 13 Jan. 2012. And the Cisco I-Prize winner is Rhinnovation! Cisco I-Prize home page. Cisco. Accessed 12 Jan. 2012. Ibid. Cisco Announces Winner of Global I-Prize Innovation Competition. Cisco press release. Online. 21 Jun., 2010. Accessed 12 Jan. 2012.

xxiii. Whats giffgaff? Giffgaff newsroom home page. Accessed 12 Jan. 2012. xxiv. Giffgaff Named the #1 Online Community Worldwide. Giffgaff Buzz blog post. 25 Nov. 2011. Accessed 12 Jan. 2012. xxv. Markey, Rob and Fred Reichheld. How NPS Drives Profitable Growth. The Ultimate Question 2.0: How Net Promoter Companies Thrive in a CustomerDriven World. Harvard Business Review. Boston: 2011.

xxvi. Bughin, Jacques, Angela Hung Byers, and Michael Chui. How Social Technologies Are Extending the Organization. McKinsey Quarterly. Nov. 2011. Accessed 8 Dec. 2011. xxvii. Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tweaker: The Real Genius of Steve Jobs. The New Yorker. Online. 14 Nov. 2011. Accessed 13 Jan. 2012.

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