# SQC / SPC X Bar and R Bar Charts (a) When standards are given (i) Control Chart for Mean, X bar

– chart Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit CL = UCL = LCL = μ μ + 3(σ/√n) μ - 3(σ/√n)

Example 16.1 In the production of an item, the process is said to be under control if the diameters have a mean of 3.5 inches and a standard deviation of 0.05 inches. Construct a control chart for the mean and the range of random samples of size (a) 10, and (b) 20, showing the warning and the control limits on the graph paper. (ii) The R-chart: The construction of R-chart, when the population, standard deviation σ is known, follows: Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit CL = UCL = LCL = d2σ d2σ + 3 d3σ d2σ - 3 d3σ

(b) When standards are not given (i) Control Chart for Mean, X bar -chart: ═ X ‗ R ‗ =ΣX/k =ΣR/k CL = UCL = LCL = ═ X ═ ‗ X + A2R ═ ‗ X - A2R

Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit (ii)

Control Chart for Range, R-chart: When the population standard deviation σ is not known, we estimate it using the sample data on ranges, as has been mentioned earlier. The range chart is prepared as follows.

02 1.97 10 0.97 1.5 A manufacturer finds from his experience that on an average 1 in 10 of the items produced by a machine is defective.99 1.02 1.04 0.05 1.02 1.04 1.95 9 0.00 1.99 p bar Chart and np bar chart when specifications are known (b) np bar – chart Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit (c) p bar – chart Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit CL = UCL = LCL = ‗ p ‗ ‗ ‗ p + 3√ {p(1-p)}/n ‗ ‗ ‗ p .99 1.3√ {p(1-p)}/n CL = UCL = LCL = ‗ np ‗ ‗ ‗ np + 3√ np(1-p) ‗ ‗ ‗ np .03 1.95 1.00 1.98 0. Also plot the values on them.99 0.01 8 1.03 1. On a particular day he selects a lot of 100 items randomly and finds that 20 of them are defective.04 0.03 1.02 1.01 0.99 1.98 0.01 1.97 0.97 1.3√ np(1-p) Example 16.99 0.98 0.02 1.Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit CL = UCL = LCL = ‗ R ‗ D4R ‗ D3R Example 16.01 1.02 0.00 0.02 0.98 0.98 1.99 1.01 0.01 1.01 2 0.01 0.04 1.01 1 1. calculate the control limits for the mean and the range charts.98 0.99 1. Is the process in control? .01 11 0.05 0.97 1.00 0.96 0.04 12 1.3 Using the following data relating to 12 samples of 5 items each.98 1.93 0. Dimensions (in cms) of Items 3 4 5 6 7 1.98 0.03 1.01 0.95 1.00 1.

Which points fall outside the control limits? Production Days No.6 In the following table are given the number of defectives found on 24 consecutive Production days of daily samples of 200 items.Of Defectives Production Days No.p bar Chart and np bar chart when specifications are not known Example 16. and (b) a p-chart. Draw (a) an np-chart.Of Defectives 1 1 0 1 3 1 2 2 5 1 4 1 5 3 10 4 1 2 5 11 17 10 6 9 18 4 7 19 19 11 8 4 20 11 9 12 21 26 10 27 22 3 11 25 23 10 12 9 24 11 15 16 1 8 4 .

a)Find the 3-sigma control limits for the c-chart.to be 2.3√ c Example 16. .b) find warning limits c) find one sigma limits d) find 95%.1 The results of inspection of 40 pieces of an article give the mean number of defects.25.(d) c-chart when specifications are known Central Line Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit CL = UCL = LCL = ‗ c ‗ ‗ c + 3√ c ‗ ‗ c . 80% confidence limits.

Using these values. Defects Tube No.8 The following table gives the inspection result of 25 similar glass tubes for the number of defects in them. Defects 1 2 14 7 2 1 15 4 3 2 16 5 4 6 17 2 5 8 18 4 6 2 19 3 7 4 20 7 8 9 21 2 9 3 22 4 10 4 23 5 11 5 24 3 12 3 25 2 13 3 .(d) c-chart when specifications are not known Example 16. draw a c-chart. Tube No.