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CASE STUDIES FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nikki Skuce, ForestEthics
ForestEthics contracted the Pembina Institute to provide research on five sustainable transportation options that could be implemented by northern British Columbia communities. Pembina provided background and an on-the-ground example for each option, based on research and interviews. This report is expanded from a technical report commissioned by ForestEthics by the Pembina Institute. “Sustainable Transportation Options in Northern British Columbia” was written by Alison Bailie, Matt Horne and Oliver Hendrickson. Nikki Skuce is the Senior Energy Campaigner for ForestEthics based out of Smithers, B.C. Thank you to all those from Prince George to Haida Gwaii who provided input into this report.
Enbridge and CN Rail are proposing to transport tar sands fuel across northwest British Columbia to ports in Kitimat and Prince Rupert. Some proponents, including the CEO of Enbridge, have argued that those opposing these projects are hypocrites. How can we object to a fossil-fuel project when we ourselves use fossil fuels? It is true that without government incentives and disincentives driving innovation and the transition to a green energy future, our sustainable transportation options will continue to be limited. However, the good news is that options do exist today that can be implemented at the individual, municipal or regional levels. These solutions require political will and leadership, as well as cultural shifts in some of our current lifestyle choices. This report highlights a handful of practical options that could – and are – working in northwest British Columbia. It also provides innovative ideas to help communities think “outside the box” when it comes to transportation. In taking a stand against projects like Enbridge’s Northern Gateway pipeline, we are standing up for a better future. One that can not only sustain us today, but for future generations. While many people are standing up for their rights, for wild salmon, for rivers, for the coast and for their children, there is recognition that broader change is necessary. Canada has no national energy strategy. We have very little in the way of climate change policies. Some provinces are ahead of others in stimulating a green energy economy. Yet, as a country we have no integrated transportation plan.
“Those who say ‘no’ to energy infrastructure development – whether it’s oil sands, pipelines, refineries, power stations or transmission lines – are the same ones who say ‘yes’ to light switches, cooked food, school buses and gas pedals. But they can’t have it both ways.” - Enbridge CEO Pat Daniel, 2011 Enbridge AGM
Instead of rushing to export tar sands oil to Asia, we need to take stock and plan our energy future together. We need to create a strategy that allows us to reduce our reliance on costly fossil fuels and decide together how best to use our non-renewable resources while making the transition. While calling for broader change, we can act today and encourage others to do the same.
Enbridge’s controversial proposal would have pipelines running from the tar sands to the Port of Kitimat (Neil Ever Osborne photo).
The following options were selected to indicate a range of choices for individuals and governments in northern British Columbia; the best set of options will depend on the circumstances of each community.
Case study #1: Active transportation in Whistler
Active transportation modes – such as cycling, walking, roller-blading, skateboarding, paddling and horseback riding – use less oil, produce less pollution and contribute to healthier lifestyles compared to motorized options. Many communities in B.C. have developed some safe paths and trails that encourage active transportation; Whistler has pushed further with an extensive, interconnected trail, an information campaign and a well-supported commuter challenge. Whistler’s Valley Trail is a paved multi-use trail system running 35 kilometres from north to south through the outlying Whistler townships, with extensions connecting to the Cheakamus Valley and the industrial community of Function Junction. It serves as both a local commuter trail and a top visitor attraction. The Whistler Way is an information campaign aimed to promote active and healthy modes of transportation within Whistler by building awareness and support of programs, infrastructure, events, services and policies that lead to positive and lasting behaviour change. By promoting active transportation for both leisure and commuting, and providing the infrastructure that intertwines the two functions, Whistler maintains the “cool” factor of biking and walking for everyday transportation. More than 900 commuters participated in Whistler’s Commuter Challenge in 2010, with support from over 100 local businesses. Whistler estimated that four tonnes of greenhouse-gas emissions were saved during the two-week challenge.
Case study #2: Kootenay Rideshare
The Kootenay Rideshare is a service that matches two or more people who want to share a ride in a car to travel to a common destination. Rideshares may involve one person who does all the driving, with riders paying for a share of fuel and maintenance costs. Drivers can also rotate equally, in which case there may be no need for money to change hands. Ridesharing reduces gasoline consumption, costs and associated pollution since a car with one or more passengers will use less gasoline than each person driving alone. Instead of two or three people driving from Nelson to Vancouver on their own, the service connects them with each other and allows them to share just one vehicle. The Kootenay Rideshare program has been operating since 2003, and is well used with approximately 200 active ride offers or requests at any given time. The success of the program was powered by a belief that residents of the Kootenays wanted to make more sustainable transportation choices and would do so if they were available.
The Kootenay’s program is just one of many ridesharing services in North America, which exist in communities of various sizes. Other examples include Vertigogogo, which supports cycle touring in Quebec; RideshareOnline.com, which offers rideshares, vanpools, and ride-matching in Washington and Oregon; and Carpool.ca, which offers ridesharing and employer commuting services across Canada.
Case study #3: Public Transit in Menominee, Wisconsin
This small transit system provides reliable, frequent service connecting 3,200 riders to destinations both within Wisconsin’s Menominee reservation and throughout the state. Public transit can reduce oil consumption by replacing several cars carrying one or two people with one larger vehicle carrying 6 to 28 passengers. Public transit will only reduce oil consumption if sufficient numbers of trips occur and the vehicles are the correct size for the typical number of passengers. One example of how the Menominee Regional Public Transit service has reduced oil consumption lies in its partnership with the College of Menominee Nation (CMN) in Keshena, WI. CMN has a campus on the Menominee reservation and an urban campus in Green Bay, 72 kilometres away. The college was concerned about both the cost of travel for students and the increased carbon footprint resulting from the many trips required between campuses. CMN partnered with Menominee Regional Public Transit to provide free, door-to-door bus services for students and employees. This service is provided on a dispatch basis – passengers call dispatch a half hour before they want to depart. This service provides access to students without cars and helps reduce oil consumption from passengers who would otherwise drive alone. Strong partnerships with other organizations, such as the health clinic, are key for the public transit system’s success. Since 2000 the transit system’s ridership has doubled. Routes now extend up to 240 kilometres, linking riders to family, health services, shopping and other needs.
Case study #4: Electric vehicles in Terrace
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle in British Columbia is expected to reduce gasoline consumption by over 60% compared to a conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle. The City of Terrace and other municipalities are testing plug-in electric vehicles in their fleets to better understand the potential role of this technology in northern British Columbia. The City of Terrace‘s plug-in electric vehicle is part of a demonstration in partnership with BC Hydro. In June 2010 the City received delivery of a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid, which has both an electric motor and a gasoline engine onboard. The City also installed solar panels at city hall to help offset a portion of the electricity used by the new car. City staff and council members were happy with the performance of the test vehicle: it was enjoyable to drive and they reported no mechanical issues over the course of the one-year trial. Fuel costs for the vehicle totalled $300 for the entire year.
Case study #5: Potential for enhanced passenger rail service between Edmonton and Prince Rupert
The communities along Highway 16 are already linked by VIA Rail’s passenger service, which runs between Edmonton and Prince Rupert. This service is predominantly aimed at tourists and for most residents is not currently a viable option due to infrequent scheduling, lack of integration with other transportation options such as ferry and bus, and frequent delays. However, VIA’s passenger service holds potential that could be built upon in the future. For example, the fact that it already stops at communities of all sizes along the corridor is a particular asset. Rail services in other jurisdictions provide some insights into how VIA’s service could be enhanced: • Community rail partnerships in the U.K. • Amtrak’s increased service frequency between Vancouver and Seattle • U.K.’s efforts to link cycling infrastructure and services with rail systems • Integrated fares and schedules across transportation modes in Lille, France
Today, these case studies stand out because they depart from current transportation norms. Northern British Columbia residents alone won’t solve the environmental and social harms of oil development and use, but as these examples show, sustainable transportation solutions are possible in a rural context and can lead to reduced oil consumption and more resilient communities. And as more communities undertake sustainable transportation actions, we can envision society eventually decreasing our need for oil and in turn reducing the need for expanded oil production. Communities, businesses and individuals in northern British Columbia can be leaders by taking these actions now.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Rationale/Purpose Executive summary Case study #1: Active transportation Case Study #2: Rideshare Case study #3: Public transit Case study #4: Electric vehicles Case study #5: Passenger rail Conclusion Appendix A
2 3 12 18 23 32 36 40 41
Pauline Mahoney’s brother in-law designed this commuter bike for her and her kids. They commute 12 km roundtrip to school and back in Smithers, BC. Nikki Skuce photo.
Transportation — how to safely move between key destinations [often quite far apart] — is a major concern for communities in northern British Columbia. For the last several decades there has been one dominant answer — drive your car. But we are finding that this answer is adding to the problems faced in the region. It is expensive to own and operate a car and, as gasoline prices are projected to continue increasing, these costs will continue to rise. Vehicles run on fuel that is produced in ways that are harmful to the environment. Oil is being produced from rapidly-growing tar sands projects in Alberta that have many negative environmental impacts including reducing water quality and quantity of the Athabasca River, creating toxic tailings dumps, and disrupting hundreds of square kilometres of the boreal forest. Both production and use of gasoline and diesel emit large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the resulting climate change. Given reductions in demand for high-carbon fuels in the United States, tar sands companies are looking to export to other markets, including Asia. This is where Northern B.C. fits in. Enbridge’s Northern Gateway Pipeline is being proposed to run from the tar sands, across major wild salmon watersheds such as the Fraser and Skeena, to Kitimat, B.C. From there, the tar sands fuel will be loaded on to over 225 tankers a year to Asian and U.S. markets and ply the waters through the Great Bear Rainforest. None of this fuel would be processed or used in British Columbia. Our fragile ecosystems would be put at risk for minimal economic promises. In a time when we should be looking toward solutions to reduce our oil dependency, we are being asked to sacrifice our salmon, rivers and coast for becoming a throughput to Asia. Solutions are urgently needed to avoid our increased reliance on oil and facilitate the transition to a clean energy economy. So how else can we answer the transportation question? What are solutions that are less costly and less harmful than a car transporting one person at a time? This report provides five examples of the exciting ways that people and communities are answering these questions. We provide case studies of options and suggestions for how such sustainable transportation options could work for communities in northern British Columbia, and profile people and projects already in action. Northern B.C. alone won’t solve the environmental and social harms of oil development or use, but as these examples show, sustainable transportation solutions are possible in a rural context and can lead to more resilient communities. As more communities undertake sustainable transportation actions, we can envision society eventually decreasing our need for oil and allowing further energy production to slow down. Communities, businesses and individuals in northern B.C. can be leaders by starting these actions now.
Alberta tar sands (PembinaInstitute.org)
Scope of report
This report provides examples of sustainable transportation options that could be adopted by communities in northern British Columbia, which is characterized by a relatively small and dispersed population and a cold climate. When providing indicative statistics on the current transportation systems, we looked at communities around Highway 16: Prince Rupert, Kitimat, Stewart, Terrace, Hazelton Village, New Hazelton, Smithers, Telkwa, Houston, Granisle, Burns Lake, Fraser Lake, Fort St. James, Vanderhoof, and Prince George. The examples focus on transportation, and mostly personal transportation. Sustainable solutions for all sectors of the economy are needed to address environmental damages through the region. However, transportation is a large issue and in the past, potential solutions have been discarded as not possible for northern British Columbia. This report seeks to challenge that attitude and focus directly on transportation in an attempt to reduce our reliance on oil.
Resilient communities and sustainable transportation: Threats and opportunities
The transportation system that has been typical in northern British Columbia communities threatens the viability of these communities in the long term. Although the sustainable transportation options in this report may seem challenging initially, they each provide opportunities to help communities become more resilient to economic, social and environmental challenges and have been successful elsewhere.
Threats from the current transportation system include: Cost The cost of running a vehicle to transport one or two people has been increasing, and further increases are expected as energy prices are projected to continue to rise. The cost of operating a vehicle in British Columbia has increased by 40% since 2002, with the price of gasoline increasing by 60%.1 This increase was higher than almost all other components of the Consumer Price Index, which includes food, shelter, clothing, health and personal care, recreation, etc. The price of heating (fuel) oil increased by 88%, the only category with a larger increase than operating a private vehicle. Public transportation prices also increased significantly from 2002, but at 24% the increase is not as large as for operating private vehicles. Climate Change The impacts of climate change are evident already in British Columbia’s north and are expected to increase. Limiting the amount of greenhouse gases emitted helps limit the impacts of climate change, and provides examples for the rest of world to replicate. Residents in communities from Prince Rupert through to Prince George emitted over 750,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) from transportation activities — approximately 6 tonnes per person, for on-road transportation alone.2 Personal transportation accounts for approximately 30% of total GHG emissions in these communities. Environmental damages from oil production The current transportation system relies on high consumption of gasoline and diesel. In 2007, over 305 million litres of gasoline and diesel were used by residents and business in communities from Prince Rupert through Prince George. This is equivalent to about 2 million barrels of crude oil.3 If all this oil were produced in the Alberta oil sands with the production practices of the average producer, that amount of crude oil production would: • Use 4.7 million barrels of water • Consume 75 m3 of natural gas • Generate 220,000 tonnes of CO2e, and • Require 1,033 acres of land each year.4 Economic losses from gasoline and diesel purchases Most of the money that residents in northern British Columbia pay for gasoline and diesel leaves the community, going to the companies that produce the energy, while about 35% stays in British Columbia
1. BC Stats. November 2010. Consumer Price Index – BC Stats, monthly periodical. Referring to September 2010 data. http://www. bcstats.gov.bc.ca/pubs/cpi/cpidata. Accessed November 15, 2010. 2. Data from Community Energy and Emissions inventory, as reported by B.C. Ministry of Environment, Climate Action Secretariat. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/cas/mitigation/ceei/reports.html. Accessed October 23, 2010. Pembina compiled the data for the communities: Prince Rupert, Kitimat, Stewart, Terrace, Hazelton Village, New Hazelton, Smithers, Telkwa, Houston, Granisle, Burns Lake, Fraser Lake, Fort St. James, Vanderhoof, and Prince George. The community of Prince George accounted for the majority of these emissions (419,000 tonnes CO2e) due to its large population. 3. Prince George accounts for 168 million litres of gasoline and diesel consumption, or approximately 1.1 million barrels of crude oil. 4. See Appendix A for details on calculations
through provincial and federal taxes. Oil companies received approximately $198 million from residents in the communities from Prince Rupert to Prince George in 2007.5 Social health With an aging population and increasing costs of living, potential social isolation for those without access to a personal vehicle is a growing concern. Sustainable transportation options strive to improve social as well as economic and environmental conditions. In particular, the options in this report consider ways to improve opportunities for all residents to travel to their destinations. Personal health
Oil companies received approximately $198 million from residents in the communities from Prince Rupert to Prince George in 2007.
A study prepared for British Columbia Recreation and Parks Association by researchers at the University of British Columbia notes that physical inactivity is leading to over $200 million in direct costs to the province’s health care system. Several of the options in this report can help to increase physical activity in the community by providing safe and enjoyable ways to integrate biking and walking into regular transportation.
This report covers five sustainable transportation options and describes one on-the-ground example of each option. • Case study #1: Active transportation: Whistler • Case study #2: Rideshare: Nelson • Case study #3: Public transit: Menominee Regional Public Transit, Wisconsin • Case study #4: Electric vehicles: Terrace • Case study #5: Passenger rail: Potential enhanced service between Edmonton and Prince Rupert The examples in this report provide potential solutions that each address many of these threats and can lead to more resilient communities. The resiliency come through improved health (Case study #1: Active transportation and Case study #4: Electric vehicles), more connections to destinations for all residents (Case study #2: Rideshare, Case study #3: Public transit and Case study #5: Passenger rail) and increased local economic development plus reduced contributions to environmental harms (all case studies).
5. Prince George accounted for $109 million.
Case study structure
The case studies are structured as follows:
AT A GLANCE WHAT HAPPENED?
A brief description of the project. A more detailed description, answering questions such as: What was the motivation behind adopting this transportation option? What is the background info and circumstances that existed for this mode to be developed and/or adopted? What was changed in terms of programs, policies, services, and/or infrastructure? Who made these changes happen? How does this example link to oil reductions? Describes tangible benefits (such as oil savings, GHG reductions, money saved, shifts in transportation habits, jobs created), as well as less-tangible benefits (like more vibrant or healthier communities). Also looks at key reasons that made the change possible and suggestions for overcoming cultural barriers to adoption. Further discussion and examples from other jurisdictions. Ideas that may or may not be in use in the North but are ways of trying to generate out of the box thinking to tackle the transportation challenge. Links to more information, both for the case study and for other related examples. An additional story of a person or program in northwest B.C.
OTHER EXAMPLES ALTERNATIVE IDEAS WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION NORTHERN PROFILE
CASE STUDY #1: ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION
Whistler Multi-Use Trail and Whistler Way
AT A GLANCE
The Valley Trail is a paved multi-use trail system running 35 kilometres from north to south through the outlying Whistler townships, with extensions connecting to the Cheakamus Valley and the industrial community of Function Junction. It serves as both a local commuter trail and a top visitor attraction. The Whistler Way is an information campaign aimed to promote active and healthy modes of transportation within Whistler by building awareness of, and support for, programs, infrastructure, events, services and policies that lead to positive and lasting behaviour change. By promoting active transportation for both leisure and commuting, and providing the infrastructure that intertwines the two functions, Whistler maintains the “cool” factor of biking and walking for everyday transportation. More than 900 commuters participated in Whistler’s Commuter Challenge in 2010, with support from over 100 local businesses.
The Valley Trail Whistler’s Valley Trail is a paved multi-use trail system running 35 kilometres from north to south through the outlying Whistler townships, with extensions connecting to the Cheakamus Valley and the industrial community of Function Junction. The Valley Trail leads to all of the area’s schools, suburbs, destination parks and lakes. Pocket maps are available at most bicycle rental service centres. Motorized vehicles of all kinds are prohibited. Whistler has an active population, and a multi-use trail connecting neighbourhoods for commuting and recreation had been under consideration for decades. Sections of the trail are over 20 years old. Recent additions and upgrades to the trail plus plans for future expansion are motivated by residents’ desire for accessibility and alternatives to cars, and by the municipality’s goal of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.
“Collectively, participants commuted more than 200,000 kilometres by preferred modes of transportation (walk, bike, transit and carpool) during this year’s two-week commuter challenge. Commuting choices by participants (when compared with participants’ normal commuting choices) resulted in a collective reduction of approximately 4 tonnes of greenhouse gas reductions over the two-week event.” - Resort Municipality of Whistler News Release, October 27, 2010
“Cycling is not only a popular form of recreation, cycling offers significant social and environmental benefits including reduced emissions and traffic congestion as well as health benefits through physical activity. Cycling supports Whistler’s image as an active community that cares about the natural environment.” - The Whistler Cycling Plan
Many residents have moved to Whistler to be active in the outdoors and active transportation for both commuting and pleasure easily fits their values. For example, two-thirds of respondents to a 2002 recreational cycling survey conducted in Whistler indicated that the ability to cycle to a trailhead was important to them. Some residents prefer not to own vehicles or find the cost of private vehicle ownership too high. Residents are most likely to ride if there are trails near where they live. Whistler’s Integrated Energy, Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Management Plan acknowledges bicycle transportation as a means of improving local air quality and meeting goals for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. The Whistler Comprehensive Transportation Strategy was developed to provide transportation alternatives and reduce automobile traffic within the community. The Cycling Plan and Comprehensive Transportation Strategy were driven by the community vision, priorities and strategies articulated in Whistler 2020 – Moving Toward a Sustainable Future. In the preparation of the Transportation Cycling Plan, community members articulated a Cycling Vision for the community, in which they imagined how cycling in Whistler could look and feel in the future. The Whistler Way As a means of encouraging Whistler residents and guests to consider their transportation options and reduce their carbon footprint, the Whistler Transportation Advisory Group developed The Whistler Way, a marketing campaign to raise awareness about preferred transportation options that counters the perception that cars are essential to live, work and play in Whistler. By focusing on community pride and Whistler’s “cool” culture, the campaign communicates that together, Whistler residents and visitors can reduce their carbon footprint. The Whistler Way builds on Whistler’s Cycling Plan.
• The Whistler Way 2010 Commuter Challenge (Sept 22 – Oct 5) A two-week-long, friendly, fun competition, the Whistler Way 2010 Commuter Challenge was organized by Whistler to encourage employees to use preferred modes of transportation – walking, biking, taking transit, ridesharing – to commute to and from work, and to celebrate residents who already choose commuting options that make a difference in the community. Participants logged their travel choices over the two-week period and gained points for using preferred modes. Prizes included passes to Whistler Blackcomb resort and the sport complex, as well as transit passes. More than 900 residents participated, out of a population of 10,000. • Bicycle Task Force Council created the Bicycle Task Force in late 2000 to coordinate a transportation cycling plan for Whistler. The task force (renamed the Whistler Cycling Committee) assisted staff with community consultation and with the development of a draft Whistler Bicycle Network Plan. Whistler’s Cycling Policy created the foundation for expanding the Valley Trail, developing The Whistler Way, and other actions to support active transportation.
• Whistler Cycling Policy Guiding Principles: 3.1 Specific provisions for cyclists will be made on new and upgraded municipal roadways. Exceptions to this requirement will be subject to the evaluation process described below. 3.2 Valley Trail connections will be extended to new and redeveloped neighbourhoods and commercial developments subject to the evaluation process. 3.3 Appropriate bicycle end-of-trip facilities will be provided at municipal buildings and parks. The Resort Municipality of Whistler will encourage the provision of appropriate end-of-trip facilities in development permit re-zoning developments such as commercial and residential buildings. 3.4 Municipal roads and paved bicycle paths will be maintained to enable cyclists to use the facilities safely and conveniently within our financial framework. 3.5 The Resort Municipality of Whistler will work in conjunction with the Ministry of Transportation in planning and implementation of cycling improvements to Highway 99. The Cycling Plan also reports that cycling trails provide access to natural environment without compromising its values, while cycling contributes to the community’s long-term economic health.
During its 2006 Commuter Challenge event, Whistler received national honours by having the highest rate of participation in the use of sustainable transportation of any municipality in Canada with 900 residents participating in the 2006 event. It received similar recognition was in 2005. In 2010, the municipality estimated that the Commuter Challenge saved four tonnes of greenouse-gas emissions, with participants cycling, walking, taking transit or carpooling a cumulative total of 200,000 kilometres. Many factors contributed to Whistler’s success in promoting active transportation.
“Cycling benefits Whistler’s environment, its economy, the health of its people, the resort experience, and society at large. It is the goal of the Resort Municipality of Whistler to integrate cycling into the lives of residents and visitors by providing safe, accessible and convenient transportation cycling routes and facilities.” - The Whistler Cycling Policy
People move to and live in Whistler because of the active lifestyle (despite the high cost of living). For example, the Whistler Off Road Cycling Association (WORCA) is a local group of Whistler residents that provides biking clinics and organizes community events. WORCA has approximately 1,500 members – an amazingly high percentage of Whistler’s permanent population of approximately 10,000. For many Whistler residents, the high cost of living means owning a car is difficult if not impossible.
Recreational cycling in the summer is now a vital part of the Whistler economy and is what allows the resort to operate year-round with no off-season. Thus, people on bikes – any kind of bikes – is good for business and good for Whistler. The Valley Trail and recreational mountain trails are interconnected. Residents can use the Valley Trail to commute to work or school, but also use it for accessing the recreational mountain trails as well. Likewise, tourists are able to take advantage of the Valley Trail itself for recreation or to access to the mountain trails. The Whistler Way is also connected with residents’ underlying values – including their competitive side. Although commuting by bicycle and recreational cycling are two very different things, in Whistler they support and complement each other. Other communities considering active transportation infrastructure and information campaigns can learn from Whistler’s experiences, even if they are starting with smaller numbers of active transportation supporters. Key lessons include surveying the residents to understand their needs, linking active transportation to both overall community visions and transportation plans and policies, and engaging the community through task forces, committees, and fun events. Finally, communities need to recognize that cycling and other active transportation provide long-term benefits for the local economy, and that commuter and recreational cycling can complement each other. Active transportation that replaces vehicle trips (either for commuting or recreational purposes) also avoids the consumption of oil products.
Active transportation has been receiving a lot of interest from municipalities in British Columbia and elsewhere. Other examples of ways in which active transportation is being supported include: Smithers Blue Bike program: This program began in 2005 and ran through 2007. Youth were trained to repair bicycles donated to the program, which were then made available for use around Smithers, free of charge. Whitehorse paths, lighting, lanes and bridges: Whitehorse has invested approximately $2 million in improving its active transportation infrastructure. The city upgraded multi-use paths, installed new lighting along selected pathways, added bicycle lanes and built a new bicycle/pedestrian bridge. Whitehorse also developed a program to encourage more people to cycle to work between May and September, providing prizes as incentives. Other multi-use paths have been built in Dawson Creek, Kelowna, and other communities. A popular website for sharing information on cycling, bikely.com, lists many options for rural trails in British Columbia.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
For this case study http://thewhistlerway.ca/ http://www.whistler2020.ca/whistler/site/genericPage.acds?context=1967914&instanceid=1967915 Other examples Transportation Demand Management: A Small and Mid-Size Communities Toolkit. Fraser Basin Council. 2009. http://www.fraserbasin.bc.ca/programs/documents/FBC_TDM_toolkit_web.pdf Sustainable Transportation in Small and Rural communities, Transport Canada website. http://www. tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environment-utsp-smallnruralcomms-1012.htm Information for planning active transportation in British Columbia can be found at: Built Environment and Active Transportation: http://www.physicalactivitystrategy.ca/index.php/beat/ Hub for Action on School Transportation Emissions: http://www.hastebc.org/ Vancouver Area Cycling Coalition: http://www.vacc.bc.ca/index.php Better Environmentally Sound Transportation: http://www.best.bc.ca/
Cycling Enthusiast Chris Gee from Terrace, B.C.
Chris Gee is an avid bike commuter. “I refuse to drive for any trip less than 30 kilometres, round trip,” says Chris. “Bikes equal freedom. You can go wherever you want, whenever you want.” While going to the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, Chris rode his bike daily, no matter the weather. The biggest challenge for Chris in minus 30-degree weather? Overheating from being too layered while working hard to get up the hill. “There’s a perception of comfort with a car, but by the time someone has warmed up their vehicle and scraped their windows clean, I’m already at my destination.” But riding for Chris isn’t just about the ease and affordability with which he cycles, it’s also a lifestyle choice and something he tries to expand into the northwest B.C. communities in which he lives. Philosophically, Chris doesn’t believe that it’s enough to say no to Enbridge’s Northern Gateway pipelines and Shell’s coalbed methane drilling in the Sacred Headwaters. He feels the need to follow-up on that by avoiding the gas station as much as possible. In addition, he needs daily exercise to maintain his physical and mental health. Chris tries to share his love for bikes by starting community bike programs. In 2010, Chris started Guerilla Cycle, which donated bikes to businesses and non-profits around Terrace to lock up outside their locations. Anyone could go in, sign up and borrow a bike. The program was a big success for patrons and visitors wanting to pedal their way around Terrace or use a bike for quick errands. The program was so successful that an additional dozen bikes were added to the fleet. This year Chris is opening Skeena Bike Service – a community bike space in the basement of George Little House at the Terrace train station. It will be full of tools, equipment and volunteers to assist people with maintaining and repairing their bikes. “Terrace is a great cycling town with trails connecting different sections of town,” says Chris. “Hopefully I can help get more people out on their bikes.”
CASE STUDY #2: RIDESHARE
AT A GLANCE
The Kootenay Rideshare is a service that matches two or more people who want to share a ride in a car to travel to a common destination. Rideshares may involve one person who does all the driving, with riders paying for a share of fuel and maintenance costs. Drivers can also rotate equally, in which “I can pick between case there may be no need for money to change hands. The program has been operating since 2003, and is well used with approximately 200 active ride offers or requests at any given time. It is just one of many ridesharing services in North America, which exist in communities of various sizes. Other examples include Vertigogogo, which supports cycle touring in Quebec; RideshareOnline.com, which offers rideshares, vanpools, and bike ride-matching in Washington and Oregon; and Carpool.ca, which offers ridesharing and employer commuting services across Canada.
four and five rides to Vancouver any day of the year, which is awesome service.” - John Alton, cofounder of the service and current volunteer coordinator
The Kootenay Ridesharing service started in 2003 as a free service to the community. It connects people looking for rides with drivers looking for help with travel costs, or to share driving. The primary reason for starting the service was to reduce the number of cars on the road and cut down on their environmental impacts.
The service helps to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption (and associated greenhouse-gas emissions) by reducing the number of people travelling alone. Instead of two or three people driving from Nelson to Vancouver on their own, the service connects them with each other and allows them to share just one vehicle. The Canadian Automobile Association reports that the average yearly cost of operating a vehicle can be as high as $9,000 per year. That’s nearly $25 per day! Ridesharing can help offset these costs. Greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels are changing our Earth’s climate at an alarming rate. Road transportation is responsible for 46 percent of the average Canadian’s personal greenhouse-gas emissions. Ridesharing with one other person can reduce the average commuter’s greenhouse-gas emissions by half a tonne to two tonnes per year!
Kootenay Ridesharing facilitates connections for people looking for rides or looking for passengers. It allows users to categorize requests as either one-time or regular trips, and either short trips (within the Kootenays) or longer trips (to Calgary or Vancouver, for example). The service itself is a relatively simple website that lists trips. Users can post requests for either rides or passengers, and have the option of providing information such as starting point, end point, name, date of trip, cost-sharing approach, interests, habits, and, if it is a regular trip, how long the posting should be available. Kootenay Ridesharing also provides a user forum (added to the website in 2007) to discuss users’ experiences with the service. The system originally started as a complement to the Nelson car co-op, and is now administered by the West Kootenay Eco-society (http://eco.kics.bc.ca/). The start-up was relatively easy because of the car co-op’s existing organizational and web infrastructure. The society also made an effort to make the system as simple and user friendly as possible, which led to a relatively simple website.
The website appears to be reasonably well used, with 185 current postings for long-distance trips and 35 for shorter, regular trips at time of writing. The West Kootenay Eco-society has not completed formal evaluations to learn how many riders the program has connected, but they have seen almost ten years of steady web traffic so they believe users are happy with the service. In addition to its financial and environmental benefits, the service advertises two other advantages: The community-building benefits of ridesharing. By travelling together you get to meet and know people from your community you might not otherwise get the chance to. The traffic calming of ridesharing. On average, over 18,000 vehicles travel in and out Nelson each day. Ridesharing reduces traffic flow, making travel safer and less stressful for drivers. Safety and Kootenay Ridesharing Apart from a few complaints about unfriendly rideshares, the service has not had any complaints or problems with user safety. The service does not provide any background or reference checks to ensure user safety. However they do provide the following recommendations for users to help them increase personal safety: • Obtain a work number or other contact number for the driver/rider, and ask if you can contact someone for a reference. • If possible, meet your driver/rider in a public place before getting into the car. They also run a message board and recommend posting warnings there if users experience a situation in which they feel their safety was compromised during a Rideshare trip. The success of the program was powered by a belief that residents of the Kootenays wanted to make more sustainable transportation choices and would do so if they were available. The initial success of the Nelson Car co-op made a great platform from which to launch the complementary ride-sharing service. Additionally, a small grant, committed volunteers, and a simple, user-friendly website were the other key factors in the getting the program off the ground and keeping it popular with local residents.
Tips from Kootenay Ridesharing The success of the program also depends on drivers and passengers being respectful of each other. The website offers the following advice to ensure good experiences:6 • Ask questions about the vehicle, such as its age, condition, and whether it has appropriate seasonal tires. Ask about the driver. Does he or she drive the speed limit? Drive conscientiously? Have sufficient insurance coverage? Don’t forget to discuss plans for frequent stops to get refreshed and rested, and possible sharing of driving duties to keep drivers alert. • Discuss the suggested contribution BEFORE departing! While Rideshare is not meant to advertise for-profit shuttle businesses, it is prudent for drivers to ask for costs to cover vehicle wear and tear as well as fuel. We suggest that passengers pay $30-$50 for a 600-700 kilometre trip, depending on the number of other riders. • If you need to cancel, contact the other person. It is disrespectful to simply not show up. • Discuss the maximum wait time for latecomers (5-10 minutes is standard for those commuting to work or school). • Discuss your “rules of the road” such as: radio/music preferences, food, coffee, smoking, perfume/ cologne use, talking versus reading, or seating arrangements. • “No Side-trips” is a common rule. Unless your group agrees beforehand, it is unfair to ask others to wait while you do errands.
The following list of other rideshare examples can also inform program development in your community: Washington’s Puget Sound region has some of the most successful vanpool programs in North America.7 Vanpooling represents about two percent of total commute trips and seven percent of commuting trips over 20 miles. Several factors contribute to this success: a Commute Trip Reduction law requires large employers in the region to help employees use alternative transportation; vanpooling services are provided by transit agencies, which ensures high-quality, integrated services; and HOV (High Occupancy Vehicle) priority provides travel-time savings for vanpools on some routes. (http://www. vtpi.org/tdm/tdm34.htm) RideshareOnline (rideshareonline.com) is a resource for commuting options in Washington and Idaho. In addition to being a ridesharing, vanpool, bike ride-matching service, it also offers tools for employers to implement effective commute reduction programs. RideQuest (ridequest.com) is a ridesharing website provided by the Greater Redmond Transportation Management Association. Users enter street addresses or intersections into the database along with information regarding travel needs and preferences.
6. http://kootenayrideshare.com 7. Vanpools typically use vehicles that are provided by the vanpool service, when requested by a sufficient number of users. Rideshares rely on personal automobiles.
Trans Canada Carpool created a website (carpool.ca) in 2000 to help communities form and manage carpools. Carpool.ca uses home and destination locations, driving route and other personal information to help commuters identify potential carpool partners. It has a strong presence in British Columbia with financial support from a number of local governments and organizations. Currently, carpool.ca allows people to find potential matches for their carpooling needs in 33 registered Canadian communities. Approximately one-third of these are small communities with populations less than 20,000. A large rideshare service can be found at erideshare.com. The site includes cities around the world, with a concentration in Canada and the United States. In Val-Morin, Quebec (north of Montreal), Vertigogogo is a ride-sharing service primarily for bicycle tourists coming to the region. A pilot project saw approximately 200 bicycle tourists use the program’s automated ridesharing software to search for rides, of which approximately one-fifth successfully found a ride-share match. Vertigogogo’s software is now offered as a permanent service for tourists and residents alike. (http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environment-utsp-smallnruralcomms-1012.htm)
The disappearance of women hitchhiking on British Columbia’s “Highway of Tears” (Highway 16 between Prince George and Prince Rupert) has resulted in a concerted effort to reduce the use of hitchhiking as a regional transportation option. Nonetheless, people continue to hitchhike due to a lack of viable alternatives. A potential, though likely controversial, option would be to improve hitchhiking safety by installing hitchhiking posts along the route and implementing a service whereby hitchhikers could text or phone in their name (or be pre-registered) and the license plate number of the vehicle they’re about to get into. This way, the passenger name, time and vehicle could all be tracked, improving rider safety. Drivers may also feel safer picking up hitchhikers if such a service were in place. In several communities lacking sufficient public transit, such as the Hazeltons and Moricetown, residents with vehicles are charging up to $60 per trip to provide transportation to nearby regional service centres, such as Smithers.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
Kootenay Rideshare website: http://www.kootenayrideshare.com/index.html Several other website in the Kootenays mention the service: Nakusp: http://www.nakusplife.com/rideshareautoshare.htm Trail: http://www.communityskillscentre.com/resource-link/kootenay-rideshare Nelson: http://ilovenelson.com/community-directory/community-resources/transportation-services/
GO2 Carshare Co-operative
The GO2 Carshare Co-operative based in Smithers was originally created to help reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in the Bulkley Valley and provide residents with a sustainable transportation option. Personal transportation is responsible for 35 percent of Smithers’ total greenhouse-gas emissions (Community Energy & Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, 2009). To maximize emission reductions, the Co-op chose a Toyota Prius hybrid as its first fleet vehicle. The Carshare Co-operative’s benefits go beyond reducing emissions. According to the Canadian Automobile Association, it costs the average household $8,000 per year to own and operate a vehicle, a good part of which can be saved through car sharing. Co-op Members are able to both avoid purchasing a second vehicle and save on longer trips by using a more fuel-efficient vehicle. “My recent trip to Vancouver cost me less than half what it would have in my Subaru station wagon,” said Shannon McPhail, whose employer, the Skeena Watershed Conservation Coalition, holds a corporate membership in the Co-op. “The car co-op totally makes sense for long trips – you save money, the car’s reliable, and you’re burning less fuel.” Since incorporating in January 2010, the GO2 Carshare Co-operative now has nearly 30 members. There has been significant support from various organizations and community members – the Co-op even won the “Environmental Business of the Year” award handed out by the local Chamber of Commerce. The local not-for-profit organization One Sky secured a grant to help pay for the Co-op’s initial administration, coordination and outreach costs. The carshare movement was supportive in helping GO2 get established and offered its members reciprocal agreements: GO2 members can take advantage of car share co-operatives in Nelson, Victoria and Vancouver. Responding to customer demand, the GO2 car cooperative has now added a pick-up truck to its fleet. “I’m excited to go out with a fellow Co-op member to gather my firewood this year,” said GO2 Director Emily McGiffin. “As a co-op, the line of responsibility is clear when taking out the truck. Who is responsible for paying for the blown fuel pump when you borrow a friend’s truck? That’s a difficult situation that can be avoided with the car share.” The cost of insurance is proving to be the biggest barrier to the car co-operative’s success. Currently, insuring the late model Prius costs nearly $400 per month. The Co-op’s Board is looking to replace the Prius with a more conventional fuel-efficient vehicle that would cut their insurance costs by more than half, making the co-op financially sustainable over the long-term while maintaining its original objectives. McGiffin says GO2’s long-term vision is to become a regional co-operative with branches in Terrace, Hazelton and Prince Rupert.
CASE STUDY #3: PUBLIC TRANSIT
Menominee Regional Public Transit, Wisconsin
AT A GLANCE
This small transit system in Wisconsin provides reliable, frequent service connecting 3,200 riders to destinations both within the Menominee Indian Reservation and throughout the state. Strong partnerships with other organizations, such as health clinics and a university, are key to its success. Since 2000, transit ridership has doubled. Routes now extend up to 240 kilometres, linking riders to family, health services, shopping and other needs.
Menominee Regional Public Transit (MRPT) was founded in 1982. The system serves a population of 3,200 spread across a 250,000-acre land base (over 1,000 square kilometres). Many people on the reserve do not have vehicles and have long distances to travel for groceries, medical and other services, and for community connections. By 2000, the system was providing a basic transit service within the community, but its limited budget meant it could not meet the needs of people wanting to travel farther. At the same time, the medical clinic was struggling to provide quality care due to patients missing appointments or being unable to travel to see specialists. Public transit director Shawn Klemens discovered these issues after surveying the community to determine people’s travel needs and talking to administrators at the medical clinic. Recognizing a potential win-win solution, he partnered with the clinic to develop routes and schedules that aligned with the needs of the clinic and its patients. Working together, the clinic and the transit system were able to combine funding and build a better system. Over time the success of this partnership helped encourage other organizations, including the local school district, the college and neighbouring communities, to work collaboratively with MRPT to expand routes and service. MRPT has developed its own operations database to allow clear reporting to both its partner organizations and state and federal funders. Menominee Regional Public Transit Timeline: 1981 – Original transportation plan developed. 1982 – Menominee Regional Public Transit started. 1999 – Transit system meeting basic needs of local residents. 2000 – Shawn Klemens takes on transit director role. 2001 – Transit system extended to neighbouring county, providing access to groceries.
2002/3 – Surveys undertaken to collect information on residents’ needs. 2004 –Five-year development plan created, identifying partnership agreements as a key opportunity for service expansion. 2004 – Conversations initiated with medical clinic regarding potential partnership. 2007 – Service partnership with the medical clinic allows patients to attend clinic appointments and visit specialists outside the community. 2008 – 2010 The success of the partnership with the medical clinic helped spur interest and subsequent partnerships with other service agencies and even neighbouring counties (who had less successful public transit systems). Typically, partners had been providing transportation as one aspect of their work, but lacked sufficient funding or administrative capacity to meet their needs. Partnering with MRPT enabled agencies to pool funding and take advantage of the existing administrative capacity. Present – Menominee Regional Public Transit now • Provides approximately 80,000 rides per year, more than double the number in 2000; • Connects to destinations through much of the state; • Serves 13 fixed routes (within the reservation) and 11 daily intercity routes; • Maintains a 28-vehicle fleet, including 21 shuttle buses (18-28 passengers) and seven vans able to provide services to smaller populations; and • Delivers an increasing number of trips outside the reservation for employment, shopping and family visits (previously most of the off-reservation trips were for medical appointments). Shawn Klemens has been transit director since 1999 and continues to be a champion of transit service expansion. In 2004, a transportation advisory committee formed as part of developing MRPT’s five-year development plan. The committee provides a broad perspective of transportation service needs and has helped connect potential partners. A key part of the MRPT’s expansion has been bringing partners into the system. Examples include the medical clinic, social services, a casino and other nearby communities. With the partners providing funding and knowledge of transportation needs, the transit system is able to grow to meet the community’s needs. The transit system also receives funding from the State of Wisconsin and the federal government. Link to oil reductions Public transit can reduce oil consumption by replacing several single or double-occupant vehicles with one larger vehicle that carries 6 to 28 passengers. However, public transit only reduces oil consumption if ridership is sufficient and vehicles are sized appropriately for the typical number of passengers. One example of oil reduction from the Menominee Regional Public Transit is the partnership with the College of Menominee Nation (CMN) in Keshena, Wisconsin. CMN has a campus on the Menominee reservation and an urban campus in Green Bay, 45 miles (72 kilometres) away. The college was concerned about both students’ travel costs and the carbon footprint resulting from the many intercampus trips. CMN partnered with Menominee Regional Public Transit to provide free, door-to-door bus services for students and employees. This service is provided on a dispatch basis – passengers call dispatch a half hour before they want to depart. This service provides transit to students without cars and helps reduce oil consumption by passengers who would otherwise drive alone.
“The medical clinic was the first to ‘take a chance’ on us and we had to build trust with them. They made an investment and we had to prove to them that the services were being provided. We did this [through MPRT’s database on its operations] and it had a domino affect with other agencies. We are able to provide more by relying on each other.” - Shawn Klemens
“One of the early tasks of the Sustainability Development Institute at CMN was to develop a greenhouse gas inventory, which showed transportation was the largest source. Working with MPRT is a good way to reduce emissions from travel; we are in the process of estimating these reductions through a student intern.” - Beau Mitchell, Sustainability Co-ordinator CMN “Funding the use of one transit bus to transport many students and staff instead of everyone riding separately in many vehicles makes sense to us and the environment. As environmental leaders we need to model what is right, and we hope many students and staff will see it that way also.” - Melissa Cook, Director of SDI8 “Transportation-related issues are one of our top retention issues here at CMN. We believe this service will help reduce the times that transportation problems cause students to miss classes and delay or entirely miss a great opportunity to earn a college degree. If transportation was the reason you did not sign up for post-secondary schooling, then we have a solution for the problem. Hurry in and apply for fall or spring classes now. There is still time if you hurry.” - Gary Besaw, Vice-President of Student Services at CMN9
8. From College of Menominee Nation Media Release, “Free Transportation Using Menominee Regional Public Transit Available to CMN Students Starting this Fall” No Date. 9. Ibid.
The success of Menominee Regional Public Transit is measured primarily by the extensive transportation service that it provides to the residents. Examples of this success include: • Increased ridership. 80,000 trips in 2008, doubling the ridership in 2000. • Expanded service. Frequent trips to Green Bay (six times per day, 65 kilometres), Fox Valley (three times per day, 100 kilometres), and Antigo (twice daily, 58 kilometres). • Longer routes. Trips to Milwaukee/Madison (once a day, 240 kilometres). • Fewer missed medical appointments. Staff at the Menominee Tribal Clinic report missed appointments have “dramatically declined since MPRT and the clinic banded together.”10 Klemens reports that prior to the partnership, the clinic was providing approximately 700 trips per year. Together the clinic and MPRT are now providing 6,000 round trips annually. • Reduced greenhouse-gas emissions. MRPT’s services have likely lead to greenhouse-gas emission reductions by reducing the number of private vehicle trips. The service between CMN campuses is expected to reduce emissions, and for this reason has received funding from the Clinton Global Initiative (emission-reduction estimates were in progress at the time of publication). The success of MPRT, according to Shawn Klemens, lies in its partnerships. Klemens is proud of MRPT’s routes throughout the state and the recognition it has received from Wisconsin’s Department of Transportation, another key partner. Success relied on building partnerships that were in turn based on meeting mutual needs, trust and accountability. Key elements of this include: Partnering with existing community services – medical, education and other. Knowing the needs of passengers and working to provide them effectively – MPRT surveys residents each year on their transportation needs. As well, the dispatchers for the system keep track of requests from riders that are “no can do” with a goal of reducing these in the future. Carefully monitoring the system – MPRT developed its own database to track the operations (number of trips, origin and destination, timing). “Data is what drives our system,” remarks Klemens. They are investigating opportunities to share the database system with other small transit systems since most commercial tools for public transit systems are too expensive or don’t meet their needs. Working with state government and partners to provide for funding for operations. Challenges remain for increasing the ridership on this system.
10. Bogren, Scott. 2009. Wisconsin’s Oldest Residents — the Menominee Tribe Enjoy One of the State’s Best Transit Services. Community Transportation. http://www.ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/wisconsin_tribal_trans.pdf
Public transit systems have evolved to creatively meet the needs of different communities. New systems are no longer dominated by 40-passenger diesel buses that travel routes once every hour or two and involve costly fares. Here are some diverse examples of successful transit services in rural areas: Dirt Road Buses Putnam County, Florida is testing a bus designed for unpaved roads, allowing greater access for transit services with improved efficiency and reliability.11 Demand Responsive Transit (DRT). This service uses technology to more efficiently set schedules and to select bus sizes that match rider demand. Winnipeg Transit uses DRT to allow riders to call and book the transit service they want. It offers dial-a-ride transit services in three neighbourhoods during offpeak hours. Winnipeg transit website: http://www.winnipegtransit.com/en/special/dart/ Rural transit routes The transit service in Ockelbo, Sweden began in 1995 and serves a population of 6,400, half of which lives in rural areas. Its routes have been designed such that 70 percent of local residents live within 300 metres of a bus stop, allowing the majority of the population to use transit to access regional services in neighbouring towns. The service is available only on weekdays, and trip frequency varies throughout the day (maximum frequency is one trip per hour). Guaranteed Ride Home Formed in 1993 in California’s San Luis Obispo County, California. Ride-On is a transportation management association whose mission is to deliver affordable transportation for the County’s citizens and employees. It offers a diverse range of services, including a guaranteed (or emergency) ride home for employees who commute using alternative transportation. Many of Ride-On’s services are provided in partnership with the local recreation department and child-care facilities in the region. http://www. ride-on.org/ Public Transit Highlights in British Columbia Whistler. Whistler and Valley Express (WAVE) provides free shuttle services throughout Whistler Village, including the marketplace and the Whistler Blackcomb Mountain base lodge. Ladysmith. The Town of Ladysmith provides public transit to local residents, with funding from local business donations. Kootenays. Sunshine Coast. Sunshine Coast Transit boasts strong links to the region’s ferry service, and drivers have been willing to adjust travel schedules to match ferry sailings. In 2003 the system carried over 21 rides per capita and recovered 66 percent of its operating costs. It is among Canada’s top six small transit systems in both respects. Quesnel. The city’s public transit service saw ridership increase from 8,700 rides in 2000 to 50,800 in 2005. The service is a partnership between the City of Quesnel, BC Transit, the Cariboo Regional District, and a private operating company.
11. Community Transportation Association. October 2010. “Transit Notes” from Community Transportation magazine. http://web1. ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/anmviewer.asp?a=2205&z=5
Intercommunity transit British Columbia has several examples of regional transit services that connect nearby communities, though few of these offer daily service. Some examples include: • Vernon and UBC Okanagan in Kelowna • Princeton and Penticton • Summerland and Penticton • Osoyoos and Kelowna • Hazelton, Moricetown and Smithers • Smithers and Telkwa • Skeena, Kitimat, and Terrace • Tofino, Ucluelet,Port Alberni, Nanaimo and Victoria • Port Renfrew and Victoria • Port Renfrew and Duncan (seasonal)
School buses as public transit opportunities An opportunity exists for municipalities to partner with school districts to allow pre-screened adults who pass criminal record checks to commute using school buses operating below capacity. Commuters could shift their work schedules to match the school day and allow them to take advantage of the regular bus schedule. As demand for this service increased, additional trips solely for commuters could be added to the regular school bus schedule, thereby maximizing their use.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
For this case study Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, “Transit Services,” http://www.menominee-nsn.gov/ communityDevelopment/transportation/transHome.php Bogren, Scott. 2009. Wisconsin’s Oldest Residents — the Menominee Tribe Enjoy One of the State’s Best Transit Services. Community Transportation. http://www.ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/ articlefiles/wisconsin_tribal_trans.pdf Other examples Community Transportation Association: www.ctaa.org Canadian Urban Transit Association. August 2005. Public Transit and Small Communities. Issue Paper 11. http://www.cutaactu.ca/en/publicationsandresearch/resources/IssuePaperNo.11_ PublicTransitandSmallCommunities.pdf Transportation Demand Management: A Small and Mid-Size Communities Toolkit. Fraser Basin Council. 2009. http://www.fraserbasin.bc.ca/programs/documents/FBC_TDM_toolkit_web.pdf Transportation Demand Management A Small and Mid-Size Communities Toolkit (see references) Weir, Louise and Fintan MacCabe. Dec 2008. Towards A Sustainable Rural Transport Policy. Irish Rural Link. http://www.irishrurallink.ie/Publications/Towards%20a%20sustainable%20rural%20transport%20 policy.pd
Riding the Telkwa Bus
Northern British Columbia and public transit rarely go together in the same sentence. That’s something Taylor Bachrach would like to see change. For the past five years, Bachrach has ridden a small community bus that runs between his home community of Telkwa and the neighbouring town of Smithers – 14 kilometres away – where he works as a communications consultant. The transit service, which consists of two Handi-Dart buses, is run by a local community organization under contract to BC Transit and funded by the local municipal and regional governments. “I think many people see public transit as a sacrifice – an option for people who don’t have any other options,” says Bachrach. “But what you find after riding it for a while is that there are a whole host of benefits that aren’t immediately obvious.” Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions was initially a key motivator for Bachrach. In a community where most households have at least two vehicles, the bus allows his family to maintain a one-car lifestyle. Cost saving was also a factor, since not owning a second vehicle saves his family thousands of dollars every year. But the interesting benefits were the less obvious ones. “Riding the bus means I get home at the same time every day, and that I can’t keep working into the evening. It’s also a pretty neat way to stay in touch with people in your community you wouldn’t otherwise come into contact with.” In the winter, the bus means no scraping windshields, warming up a vehicle, dodging moose, or braving slippery roads. Overall, it’s a less stressful commute. Despite these benefits, ridership remains a challenge for the small transit service – something Bachrach is working to address through his role as a municipal councillor. “The transit committee is starting to look at ways we can help remove people’s barriers to using transit more frequently. It’s a considerable social marketing challenge to try to get to the hundreds of singleoccupant vehicles driving back and forth each day, but one that makes sense from both an environmental and community perspective.”
Northern Health Bus
Northern Health Connections is a travel service for patients needing to travel for out-of-town medical appointments in Northern B.C.. The service provides patients with options to reduce transportation costs – one of the most expensive aspects of visiting specialists, obtaining specialized diagnostic testing, and receiving other health care services not available in the patient’s home community. It also provides an affordable trip home for patients who have been taken by ambulance to other communities for treatment. The longer routes served by Northern Health Connections are primarily between Prince George and Prince Rupert, Prince George and Vancouver (with one route via Kamloops), and Prince George and Fort St. John. The program also includes several same-day routes, such as between Prince George and MacKenzie and between Burns Lake and Terrace. As an example of the affordable fares charged by this service, a patient can travel from Burns Lake to either Terrace or Prince George for $20, or to Vancouver for $60. In June 2009, Dr. Jalil Safaei from the University of Northern British Columbia completed a two-year research study to evaluate whether Northern Health Connections was improving access to health care in rural and northern B.C. Safaei concluded that “the Northern Health Connections service appears to have succeeded quite well in achieving its main objective of enhancing northern communities’ access to healthcare.” (http://www.northernhealth.ca/Portals/0/Your_ Health/Programs/NH_Connections/documents/NHConnectionsEvaluationReport-June2009.pdf, p. 34). In 2010, over 10,000 passengers used the service, demand for which is expected to increase in the coming years with the opening of a new Cancer Centre in Prince George. Northern Health is working with the BC Cancer Agency and the Cancer Strategy to help determine patient travel requirements. Passenger feedback indicates a desire to increase the frequency of shorter trips. The most common positive feedback the program receives is that the buses are a comfortable, safe way to travel. Passengers also praise the bus drivers, who are said to be some of the best and offer outstanding customer service. For more information, visit http://www.northernhealth.ca/YourHealth/NHConnectionsmedicaltravelservice.aspx or call 1-888-647-4997 to speak to a reservations agent.
CASE STUDY #4: ELECTRIC VEHICLES
City of Terrace Plug-in Hybrid Demonstration
AT A GLANCE
The City of Terrace and other municipalities are testing plug-in electric vehicles in their fleets to better understand the potential role of this technology in northern British Columbia. Electric vehicles are less costly to run, reduce oil consumption and generate less air pollution. The battery-electric MercedesBenz Vito has been extensively tested in Sweden and successfully met performance requirements in harsh winter conditions.
The City of Terrace is testing a plug-in electric vehicle in its fleet. In June 2010 the City received delivery of a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid, which has both an electric motor and a gasoline engine onboard. This vehicle is powered by its electric motor until its battery is depleted, at which point the gasoline engine takes over, extending the car’s range. The main battery is charged by plugging the car into an electrical outlet. (Note: conventional hybrid-electric vehicles do not have the ability to charge the battery from an electric outlet, and run exclusively on gasoline). Terrace’s demonstration is one of several that local governments, BC Hydro and the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources have initiated to demonstrate the use of plugin hybrid electric vehicles. The cities of Dawson Creek and Penticton are also demonstrating plug-in electric vehicles in their municipal fleets. The demonstration of plug-in electric vehicles throughout British Columbia is motivated by objectives from provincial and local governments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While personal vehicles are responsible for 14 percent of the B.C.’s greenhouse-gas emissions, they contribute 30 percent of northern British Columbia communities’ emissions. BC Hydro is preparing for future electricity demands that will result from increased electric vehicle use. All of the project partners want to better understand how plug-in electric vehicles will perform in rural conditions.
“BC Hydro has installed a charging station for the car at city hall as well as solar panels on the roof of the building to help offset some of the electricity used to charge the car. Both the charging station and solar panels will remain in place after the demonstration period.” - BC Hydro Media release, June 14, 2010
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle in British Columbia is expected to reduce gasoline consumption by over 60 percent compared to a conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle. Using this figure, various air pollutants are reduced as follows: • 55 percent for greenhouse gas emissions • 57 percent for nitrogen oxides (NOx) • 26 percent for sulphur dioxide (SO2) • 72 percent for carbon monoxide (CO) • 64 percent for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and • 21 percent for particulate matter (PM) Battery electric vehicles, which do not use any gasoline and rely entirely on an external electricity source for battery charging, have even greater reductions in oil consumption and air pollution. The up-front cost of a plug-in electric vehicle is between $4,000 and $13,000 more than that of an equivalent vehicle with an internal combustion engine. While the price tag is higher, it is important to recognize that the cost of operating an electric vehicle is significantly less that of a gasoline-fueled vehicle. At current energy prices, an average car owner in British Columbia would save about seven cents per kilometre, or $1,200 per year, by switching to an electric vehicle.12
“We have set targets to reduce the carbon footprint from our own operations and we are interested in exploring the potential for electric vehicles to reduce emissions from our fleet.” - Tara Irwin, City of Terrace Sustainability Coordinator
The City of Terrace decided to participate in the electric vehicle demonstration primarily because it was motivated to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from its fleet of vehicles. The electric vehicle is currently used as a “floater vehicle” for staff and council at City Hall. It has been used mostly for trips within the city but has also been driven outside of Terrace, to the Hazeltons and Smithers. A staff member also drove it to Prince George to attend a two-day training course. City staff and council members were happy with the performance of the test vehicle: it was enjoyable to drive and they reported no mechanical issues over the course of the one-year trial. Fuel costs for the vehicle totalled $300 for the entire year. One of the City’s key concerns is whether the annual mileage of any of their fleet vehicles is high enough to justify the additional upfront cost associated with an electric vehicle. Other concerns include the lifespan and replacement costs of the batteries. Ideally, the demonstration and other information being gathered by BC Hydro, the Ministry of Energy and others will help answer these questions.
12. Assuming an average annual driving distance in B.C. of 16,700 km, electric vehicle efficiency of 0.2 kWh/km and internal combusion engine efficiency of 8 litres/100 km. Impacts of cold weather on the efficiency of electric and conventional vehicles have not been accounted for in these calculations.
Key concerns surrounding electric vehicles mostly relate to performance. Will depleted batteries strand drivers far from charging stations? This is a particular concern for drivers in cold weather. The battery-electric Mercedes-Benz Vito – a van designed for commercial use – has been extensively tested in Sweden. According to a media release from the company, the Vito “successfully undertook and passed a series of the harshest winter tests near the polar circle.” One of the best near-term opportunities for electric vehicles is as part of fleets with relatively consistent driving demands, high annual mileage and defined routes. Charging stations can be located where fleet vehicles are routinely parked for longer periods. Battery-electric vehicles have a range of between 160 and 320 kilometres (for the Nissan Leaf and Tesla Roadster, respectively). For drivers who frequently need a vehicle with an extended range, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will likely prove popular at first. The Chevrolet Volt – a plug-in hybrid electric – will drive 65 kilometres on battery power before switching to its gasoline engine, resulting in a total range of 600 kilometres. The second generation of electric vehicles, expected to arrive on the market by 2015, will have twice the range of the first (2011) generation. Charging infrastructure will be important for electric vehicles to succeed. Recharge time depends on the size of a car’s battery and the power source into which it is plugged. A typical 120-volt household outlet will fully recharge a battery within between six and 16 hours, depending on the car. A 240volt outlet, as typically used by a clothes dryer, will recharge a battery in half that time (three to eight hours). Higher-voltage charging stations that deliver between 400 and 480 volts of power are being tested and can fully charge a battery in approximately 30 minutes. Local governments in northern British Columbia could work together to develop charging infrastructure to support electric vehicles.
Adapting existing plug-ins for block heaters in parking lots and at RV stations could provide useful power sources for recharging electric car batteries. A number of people in northern B.C. have also acquired electric scooters over the last few years for shorter-trip commutes and predominantly as a summer vehicle.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
For this case study http://www.bchydro.com/news/articles/press_releases/2010/electric_vehicle_rolls_into_terrace.html http://www.emercedesbenz.com/autos/mercedes-benz/vito/mercedes-benz-vito-passes-endurance-testwith-battery-electric-drive-at-minus-30-degrees/ Other examples Simpson, A. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology (Yokohama, Japan: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006), 11. Laufenberg, Katie et al. September 2010. Powering the Future. Why Your Next Car Might Be Electric. Pembina Institute. Fact sheet and background report. http://www.pembina.org/pub/2072
CASE STUDY #5: PASSENGER RAIL
Potential enhanced service between Edmonton and Prince Rupert
AT A GLANCE
The communities along Highway 16 are already linked by VIA Rail’s passenger service, which runs between Edmonton and Prince Rupert. This service is predominantly aimed at tourists and for most residents is not currently a viable option due to infrequent scheduling, lack of integration with other transportation options such as ferry and bus, and frequent delays.13 However, VIA’s passenger service holds potential that could be built upon in the future. For example, the fact that it already stops at communities of all sizes along the corridor is a particular asset. Rail
13. Personal communications and small sample survey of residents from PG to Rupert.
services in other jurisdictions provide some insights into how VIA’s service could be enhanced: • Community rail partnerships in the U.K. • Amtrak’s increased service frequency between Vancouver and Seattle • U.K.’s efforts to link cycling infrastructure and services with rail systems • Integrated fares and schedules across transportation modes in Lille, France
Many communities and regions have implemented solutions to enhance and restore rail service. Improved service allows rail to be a viable option for more people, allowing them to use their cars less frequently. Taking the train uses one quarter of the oil consumed by someone driving the same distance in an average light truck.14 Here are some examples of rail transportation solutions: Northern Rail’s community rail partnerships in northern U.K. Northern Rail is the largest train operator in the U.K., operating local and regional train services across the north and serving hundreds of rural communities. It has a growing network of “community rail partnerships” on most of its rural routes, particularly in the northwest of the U.K. These partnerships bring together businesses, local authorities and the community and volunteer sectors with the shared aim of providing better rail services, promoting sustainable access into rural areas and assisting in rural revitalization. They also actively encourage an integrated approach, working with bus operators and encouraging people to walk or cycle to train stations. In addition to more “corridor-based” community rail partnerships they are developing the concept of “station partnerships” whereby local community groups adopt their local stations and provide improved facilities and a more welcoming environment. Amtrak’s increased service frequency between Vancouver and Seattle While Amtrak’s service in Washington and Oregon has seen increasing ridership, the link to Vancouver has struggled – primarily due to inconvenient and limited service. In the lead-up to the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver, an agreement was reached between British Columbia, Washington and the Canadian federal government to add a second train between Vancouver and Seattle. The expanded service has been widely considered a success and the arrangement has been extended until October 2011. The U.K.’s efforts to link cycling infrastructure and services with rail systems The Countryside Agency in the U.K. has produced a guide profiling best practices in rural efforts to link cycling infrastructure and services with rail systems. Behind the project is the idea that the entire system will be viable if people find it easy and safe to ride bikes to and from stations, and to take bikes on the train. The most successful improvements include constructing bike lanes and trails to train stations; providing secure, dry bike parking at stations; making stations more accessible to bikes (e.g. installing bike ramps), making it easy to take bikes on the train, providing bike rentals at stations, and offering bike rescue services to provide rides back to train stations.
14. Based on: 0.103 kg CO2 / person km travelled for Canadian rail and 0.4 kg CO2 / person km travelled for light gasoline truck. Both figures taken from ghgprotocol.org (accessed in 2007).
Integrated fares and schedules across transportation modes in Lille, France In 2000, the region of Lille set the goal of decreasing car use in the region by doubling the percentage of trips taken using transit and rail. To make the targeted transport modes more attractive and seamless, the program made a number of changes to existing transportation services. One of the key improvements was to apply the same fare system for all modes, making it possible to travel within the region by bus, rail, or ferry using a single ticket. There were also a number of changes to schedules and routes in order to make it easy and timely to change from one mode to another.
These different approaches have helped to reduce oil use and greenhouse-gas emissions, build more vibrant communities, increase tourism and accompanying economic activity, and encourage more active, healthy lifestyles. Highlights from the four examples include: For Northern Rail, the community rail partnerships have led to major increases in ridership on rural routes and improved facilities at stations. Their efforts to market their rural services to urban areas have increased the number of visitors into rural areas, stimulating the rural economy. For the second Amtrak service between Seattle and Vancouver, the economic benefit to British Columbia in its first year of operation has been estimated at $11.8 million. This is a higher per-visitor value than Amtrak’s first train produced because the schedule encourages an overnight stay, allowing more dining and shopping. Approximately 26,000 people have traveled on the second run during its seven months of operation, and ridership on the original run has also gone up because of the increased number of options. Most of the Countryside Agency’s cycling infrastructure and service projects have resulted in increased use of bikes to get to and from stations, and in many cases have also resulted in increases in train ridership. As an example, First Great Eastern Railways doubled (from 1.5 percent to 3 percent) the number of passengers arriving at stations by bicycle, through a program of installing cycle parking at stations across its network. These successes are also positively reinforcing. Better service results in more riders and a host of side benefits. These in turn make it easier to justify further service improvements, which bring further increases in benefits.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
Northern Rail’s community rail partnerships in the northern U.K. http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/case_studies/afe1447northernrail.html Amtrak’s increased service frequency between Vancouver and Seattle http://thetyee.ca/News/2009/05/29/OttawaHaltsTrain/ http://www.governor.wa.gov/news/news-view.asp?pressRelease=1591&newsType=1 http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/07/03/bc-amtrak-seattle-to-vancouver.html
http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2010/09/21/bc-amtrak-vancouver-seattle-portland.html http://www.vancouversun.com/travel/Time+running+second+Vancouver+Seattle+Amtrak+tra in/3668223/story.html U.K.’s efforts to link cycling infrastructure and services with rail systems http://www.ruralcommunities.gov.uk/files/CA175-BikeandRail-AGoodPracticeGuide.pdf http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roads/tpm/tal/cyclefacilities/ikeandrailagoodpracticeguide.pdf Integrated fares and schedules across transportation modes in Lille, France http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/conferences/urban_rural/doc/caselille.pdf The VIA rail service from Edmonton to Prince Rupert http://www.viarail.ca/en/trains/rockies-and-pacific/jasper-prince-rupert
Neil Ever Osborne
Riding the Rails
While VIA Rail tends to primarily promote its passenger rail service to tourists, it remains a viable transportation option for some rural dwellers. Jane Stevenson is a frequent user of VIA Rail’s passenger service in northern B.C. She and her family live in Telkwa and have a recreational cabin in the isolated historic community of Dorreen, located on the Skeena River between Hazelton and Terrace. Dorreen is on the railway side of the Skeena River, and is not accessible by highway or road. VIA Rail provides Jane and the other Dorreen landowners with a critical transportation link. One major advantage of travelling by rail is reasonable fares, especially when tickets are booked seven days or more in advance. A VIA Rail ticket for one person is less expensive than either the fuel it would cost to drive between communities or the Greyhound bus. Another advantage is ease of travel. “I begin my trip in Smithers, where there is a nice station building with a public bathroom. Once the train arrives, I hand over my reservation number and my vacation begins,” says Stevenson. “The train is much less stressful than driving the highway to a rough boat launch, crossing the Skeena River by boat and carrying gear to our cabin in Dorreen. And the train is much easier on family dynamics than a car. There are no car seats required for kids and the train allows for movement, stretching, sitting on the floor, walking to the washroom, eating snacks, reading books and generally being a happier family.” That said, there are some disadvantages to train travel. The schedule on the northern route is not reliable. The Port of Prince Rupert has resulted in an increased number of long freight trains carrying containers. The smaller VIA trains must pull onto sidings and wait for the freight trains to pass, causing long delays. The odd wait is tolerable, but Stevenson remembers once experiencing so many delays that VIA reimbursed passengers for their trip. More than the inconvenience, Jane worries about safety. “In Dorreen the old station that seems such a beautiful little historic shack in the summer becomes a black, freezingcold tomb in the winter. Waiting in the Dorreen station for the sounds of an overdue train – with no power, no woodstove and no communication when it is freezing and blowing snow – is a terrible experience. The more punctual the passenger service becomes the more people will return to the train as a reliable mode of transportation.” The dome car, which unfortunately is closed to Economy Class passengers during the peak summer season, adds so much to the experience of train travel. The train passes by unsurpassed scenery, clean rivers and ever-changing forest types. Passengers can see wildlife, catch glimpses of cultural heritage in First Nations graveyards and leaning totems – even petrolgyphs near Kitselsas Canyon if one knows where to look. Aside from freight delays and the focus on tourists, Jane finds VIA Rail a comfortable, affordable way to travel between northern communities.
Today these case studies stand out because they are not common. Northern British Columbia alone won’t solve the environmental and social harms of oil development or use, but as these examples show, sustainable transportation solutions are possible in a rural context and can lead to more resilient communities. And as more communities undertake sustainable transportation actions, we can envision society eventually decreasing our need for oil and allowing further energy production to slow down. Communities, businesses and individuals in northern British Columbia can be leaders by starting these actions now. One of the greatest strengths of communities in northern B.C. is the desire for residents to be where they are. Individuals choose to stay in these communities, or move to the communities for the lifestyle, social connections and natural beauty. All of these elements are supported and increased by the sustainable transportation options described in this report. So, are we in the North hypocrites for opposing projects like Enbridge’s Northern Gateway pipeline? No. We need enabling policies to help create the shift and spur innovation. Greater government leadership is needed to enable a shift to a greener energy economy – one that relies less on fossil fuels and creates jobs in communities. While we push for these changes at the local, regional and national levels, we will continue to oppose mega-fossil fuel projects that lock us into the status quo and bring risks to livelihoods and cultures in the region. Enbridge wants the status quo – to keep us addicted to fossil fuels so that they can go on making money transporting it. The risks are too great – while our society continues to use oil, we want to see changes that support communities and the ecosystems we rely on. As shown in this report, individuals and organizations are leading change. They’re finding ways to reduce their transportation footprint. In the process, they’re finding greater social connections and often enjoying other benefits such as better health and fewer expenses. There are many solutions that already exist and that may work in your community, but not the neighbouring one. The more options we have for moving ourselves around sustainably, and the easier it is, the sooner we’ll reduce our dependence on oil. Together, we can shift gears and move down a different path.
This report is not a comprehensive review of sustainable transportation options; many others exist. These options were considered most readily appropriate for northern British Columbia communities and for the scope of this report. Additional descriptions of sustainable transportation options and examples can be found in the following sources: Transportation Demand Management: A Small and Mid-Size Communities Toolkit. Fraser Basin Council. 2009. http://www.fraserbasin.bc.ca/programs/documents/FBC_TDM_toolkit_web.pdf “Sustainable Transportation in Small and Rural communities,” Transport Canada website. http://www. tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environment-utsp-smallnruralcomms-1012.htm Case Studies on Transit and Livable Communities in Rural and Small Town America. Assembled by Sean Barry of Transportation for America http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/public/display_asset/rura llivabilitycasestudies?docid=453
Calculations for impacts of oil production from Alberta Tar Sands
Tar sands are 55% mining, 45% in situ15
Water use: Mining + upgrading = 2–4 barrels per barrel of synthetic crude16 (Use 3) In situ17 + upgrading18 = 1.5 barrels per barrel of synthetic crude Weighted average = (.55*3+.45*1.5) = 2.325 barrels per barrel @ 2 million barrels = 4.7 million barrels of water Natural Gas: Upgrading: = 0.6 *1000 cubic feet per barrel (purchased)19 Mining = 0.5 *1000 cubic feet per barrel (purchased)20
15. Energy Resources Conservation Board, ST98-2010: Alberta’s Energy Reserves 2009 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2010-2019 , Calculated from Fig. 2.16. (accessed December 22, 2010). 16. In 2004, the Albian Sands, Suncor and Syncrude mining operations used on average 2.62 cubic metres of water to produce one cubic metre of bitumen. When the upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude oil is included, the overall average is 4.04 cubic metres of water (Alberta Energy Utilities Board, personal communication, February 8, 2006). Suncor reported using 2.29 cubic metres of water per cubic metre of synthetic crude oil in 2008 (Suncor Energy Ltd., A Closer Look: An Update on Our Progress, 4.) Note that Suncor’s operations include in situ projects, which use less water per unit of bitumen produced than do mining operations, so Suncor’s average water use for mining operations may exceed 2.29 cubic metres of water per cubic metre of synthetic crude oil. Syncrude reported using 2.26 cubic metres of water per cubic metre of synthetic crude oil in 2008 (Syncrude Canada Ltd., 2007 Sustainability Report ). See also R. J. Mikula ,V. A. Munoz and O. Omotoso, Water Use in Bitumen Production: Tailings Management in Surface Mined Oilsands, presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress, Edmonton, 2008, 1. 17. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Water Use in Canada’s Oil Sands: Document 2009-0022 (2009). 18. Mary Griffiths and Simon Dyer, Upgrader Alley: Oil Sands Fever Strikes Edmonton (The Pembina Institute, 2008), Table 5, p.28. 19. McColl, David, and Mellisa Mei. “Green Bitumen: The Role of Nuclear, Gasification, and CCS in Alberta’s Oil Sands (part 2).” Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI), no. 119 (2008). 20. Ibid.
In situ (50/50 SAGD, CSS) = 1.0 *1000 cubic feet per barrel (purchased)21 Weighted average extraction = (0.55*500+0.45*1000) = 725 cubic feet per barrel with upgrading = 725+600 = 1,325 cubic feet per barrel = 37.51m3 2 million barrels = 2*37.51 = 75 million m3 GHGs Rough weighted average of 111kg CO2e per barrel for industry (mining, in situ & upgrading)22 @ 2million barrels = 111kg* 2,000,000/1000tonnes = 222,000 tonnes Land Use Very rough estimate from one report23 Includes extraction, natural gas production, upgrading, and transportation (no buffer) Mining = 15.1 m2 year/m3, in situ = 10.4 m2 year/m3 Weighted average = (0.55*15.1+0.45*10.4) = 13.15 m2 year/m3 Convert units = 0.0032494358 acre-year per m3 = 0.0005166 acre-year per barrel @ 2million barrels = 1,033 acres per year
21. Ibid. 22. National Energy Technology Laboratory, Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels, 12, table 2-5. 23. Jordaan, Sarah M, David W Keith, and Brad Stelfox. “Quantifying land use of oil sands production : a life cycle perspective.” Landscape 4 (2009).
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