COMPOUND WORD 1. Definition Compounding is a formation of new words by stringing together other words.

A compound word is made when two words are joined to form a new word. Compound word is often used in place of phrasal word. However, compound word is not the same as phrasal word. See the following examples. Phrases black board : board that is black silk worm : worm made of silk (e.g. a soft toy) hair net : net made of hair white house : house that is white Hairnet : net for covering hair (the) White House : residence of the US President toy factory : factory that is a toy toy factory : factory where toys are made Compounds Blackboard : board for writing on Silkworm : caterpillar that spins silk

2. Classification a. Compound verbs Verbs formed by compounding are much less usual than verbs derived by affixation. Nevertheless, a variety of types exist which may be distinguished according to their structure: 1) verb–verb (VV): stir-fry, freeze-dry 2) noun–verb (NV): hand-wash, air-condition, steam-clean 3) adjective–verb (AV): dry-clean, whitewash 4) preposition–verb (PV): underestimate, outrun, overcook Only the PV type is really common, however, and some compounds with under-, over- and out- do not need to be classed as lexical items. For example, out- can create a transitive verb meaning ‘outdo in Xing’ from any verb denoting a competitive or potentially competitive activity (e.g. outsail, outsing,

however.can also be created freely (e. overpolish. c. In overactive. namely to express familiarity with the denotation of the . b. overactive As with verbs. coal-black. it is the type with the preposition over as its first element that seems most productive. butterfly net.g. Compound adjectives According to their structure. playtime 2) noun–noun (NN): hairnet. These changes therefore generate new vocabulary needs that are more readily answered by new nouns than by new verbs or adjectives. mosquito net. faintheart 4) preposition–noun (PN): in-group. Examples can be found with each of the other main word classes supplying the left-hand element: 1) verb–noun (VN): swearword. are readily acceptable: for example. this adjective is not a mere string of morphemes (over + act + -ive). Compound nouns It is with nouns that compounding really comes into its own as a word forming process in English. But clipping. overcriticise. which. oil-rich 2) adjective–adjective (AA): grey-green. overindignant. in that new adjectives of this type. In structure. is often used as an equivalent to ‘truncations. compound adjectives are divided into: 1) noun–adjective (NA): sky-high. overbleach). overcoat CLIPPINGS Clipping is a subclass of truncations.’ Clippings appear as a rather mixed bag of forms abbreviated from larger words. hair restorer 3) adjective–noun (AN): blackboard. outpost. greenstone. therefore. oversmooth. squeaky-clean.outswim). red-hot 3) preposition–adjective (PA): underfull. but rather a nested structure: [over[act-ive]]. the head of the compound is the adjective active derived from the verb act. while new words with over. That is not surprising. Cultural and technical change produces more novel artefacts than novel activities or novel properties. share a common function. drophammer. with the meaning ‘too X’. in other publications.

fax ← telefax 6. and so on. in which case they lose their in-group flavor. Without going into further details. condo ← condominium 3. Consider some data: 1. t´elef`ax). or. Definition Definitions of blends in the morphological literature differ a great deal. but most treatments converge on a definition of blends as words that combine two (rarely three or more) words into one. a more elaborate one is chortle (first used by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass). where only . ad ← advertisement 2. demo ← demonstration 4.derivative. Some clippings find their way into larger communities of speakers. lab is used by people who work in laboratories. Examples of partial blends. deleting material from one or both of the source words. photo ← photography 9. demo is part of the vocabulary of people who attend demonstrations. disco ← discotheque 5. and are usually based on the first part of the base word. much less frequently. A straightforward example is smog. blended from smoke and fog. porn ← pornography 10. as for example ad (for advertisement). lab ← laboratory 7. on material from a stressed syllable (t´eleph`one. Thus. BLENDING A. prof ← professor Most clippings are monosyllabic or disyllabic. we see that it is restrictions on prosodic categories that constrain both the structure of clippings and their relation to their base words. blended from chuckle and snort. phone ← telephone 8.

smoke + fog → smog 15. Example: brunch is a blend of breakfast and lunch. The ready acceptance of cheeseburger and similar blends such as beefburger and vegeburger may have been encouraged by a feeling that hamburger is a compound whose first element is ham – scarcely appropriate semantically. compressor + expander → compander 10. motor + camp → mocamp 3. . Spanish + English → Spanglish 16. boat + hotel → boatel 6. Phonemic Overlap : a syllable or part of a syllable is shared between two words. Algeo. modulator + demodulator → modem 13. breath + analyzer → breathalyzer 2. breakfast + lunch → brunch 8. 2. Example : intercom. Blending Formation There are many types of blends. sheep + goat → shoat 14. motor + hotel → motel 4. Clipping : the shortening of two words and then compounding them. since the meat in a hamburger (originally a kind of meat pattie from Hamburg) is beef. a linguist. Other examples : 1. guess + estimate → guesstimate 12. goat + sheep → geep 11. from internal and communication. science + fiction → sci-fi 5. proposed dividing blends into three group : component is truncated. channel + tunnel → chunnel 9. are talkathon (from talk plus marathon) and cheeseburger (from cheese plus hamburger). based on how they are formed. boom + hoist → boost 7. stagnation + inflation → stagflation B.

RAM (for random access memory). It is clear from these examples that acronymy is in active use for the creation of new vocabulary. the word Californication. is a blend of California and fornication. SCSI (pronounced scuzzy. then it is not an acronym but an abbreviation. as with USA and RP (standing for the ‘Received Pronunciation’ of British English). ANZAC (for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps). Phonemic Overlap and Clipping : shortening of two words to a shared syllable and then compounding. Most blends are formed by one of the following methods: 1. The use of capital letters in the spelling of some of these words reflects the fact that speakers are aware of their acronym status. and AIDS (from acquired immune deficiency syndrome). . It does not follow that any string of capital letters represents an acronym. 4. from stagnation and inflation. Multiple sounds from two component words are blended. Example : stagflation. 3. The beginning of one word is added to the end of the other (see portmanteau). For example. Two words are blended around a common sequence of sounds. ACRONYMS Blends made up of initial letters are known as acronyms. Intermediate between an acronym and a blend is sonar (from sound navigation and ranging). of which wellknown examples are NATO (for North Atlantic Treaty Organization). The beginnings of two words are combined. 2. from small computer systems interface). For example. brunch is a blend of breakfast and lunch. while mostly preserving the sounds’ order. For example. If the conventional way of reading the string is by pronouncing the name of each letter in turn. An example of this is the word slithy. a blend of lithe and slimy.3. cyborg is a blend of cybernetic and organism.

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