The Institute of Field Archaeologists - Why Join?

When I first started digging I had absolutely no idea what the IFA was or what it did. From what I could gather fiom conversations with my more experienced peers, they were some mythical entity which wielded a kind of mysterious power, and acted in some way like the Masons, where no-one really knew how to get in or if they did they weren't letting on.. .and whe was I to be asking anyway? To be fair I was young and nalve, but even now I am not entirely sure of the purpose they serve, and if you ask yourselves the same question you may be struggling too. I have a lot of friends who have joined the Institute, and who will sing the praises of the establishment. They point out that by joining they are proving themselves to be of an acceptable standard in order to undertake certain work, and anyway the extra letters after your name look good, don't they? My personal problem with this is that I have worked for quite a long time as a digger, I have a long and impressive enough CV, I have gained a lot of skills, and I don't have a lot of problem getting work. So why should I spend £50 a year (plus the £10 non-returnable "application" fee) for little reward? The argument that by joining you are proving yourself to be a far better digger than your non-member compatriot seems ridiculous. I know members who cannot dig for toffee, besides which most, if not all, units will go on quantity of experience rather than membership of the IFA as a selling point ... especially these days where acceptable d i m are baoming a rarer species. Most units will now employ diggers on the back of only a few weeks experience if they are desperate enough, which in itself is not necessarily a bad thing as it means more people get the paid digging experience they deserve, but this just emphasises my point. Why join? Exponents of the IFA will point out that actually the conditions we now fmd ourselves working under are entirely down to the IFA issuing guidelines which units can now follow in order to come under the umbrella title of 'professionals' (to quote their literature, their aims are 'to provide an active professional organisation', and 'to develop professional guidelines7 for field archaeology and some other nice fluffy stuff). As an example, English Heritage and the IFA are at present doing a survey of pay and benefits (e.g. accommodation) in order to attempt to standardise job titles and pay scales as guidelines for units to work by. This is not a bad thing (how can it be?), because the one thing this job needs is some form of professionalism to kick it into the nineties. But the IFA's guidelines are not mandatory - no IFA police will come down heavy on a unit who chooses to bend a few rules and cut a few corners. We all know Here are some of the items that may be appearing in the next issue. A11 comments welcome. The IPMS (archaeology division) -yes, archaeologists do actually have a union. Does anyone actually know what it does and how we can make it workfor us? A league table jor units - (coming over all New Labour for a nzomenl), who are the good units to workfor, who are the bad units to work for and why? Student archaeologists - how do you feel about the job market... can you even get work? Finances: Credit Debit £30.00 Total contributions PO Box number costs £52.00 Printing costs £50.00 Postage costs £25.00 End balance £87.00 'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter existing on donations. All donations welcome, payable to 'The Digger'.

only too well what this means... low wages, short contracts and no comeback - no change. The IFA have a big thing about any members (note you have to be a member, this doesn't work on non-members) bringing the profession into disrepute because when you become a member you have to be a 'proper person' and joining has to 'mark a new threshold in an individual's professional development' (I'm not making this up... it is the Masons!). As far as I am aware only one person in its entire history has been brought up in fiont of the council and actually reprimanded. To me, the Institute has now effectively been rendered powerless, if it ever had any power, by the outbreak of 'unsolicited' units on the back of competitive tendering which.it can no longer reign in. All it now seems to exist as is a talking shop between increasingly older members who are in comfortable positions within the profession and who can afford to discuss the higher problems of archaeology in a relaxed and convivial manner without ever having to change very much for those that matter on the ground (if you pardon the pun). So after all this opening build up it may surprise you to know that I am going to join the IFA, and that I think you should too. My reasoning is this. The Institute may be outmoded, out of touch and at present may serve very little purpose, but at present it is the&o thing we have which allows us any form of clout as regards the profession we are in. Whatever we may think of them now, they started up for the same reasons that we are presently fighting for. Apparently, in the past, other opposing groups did start up but they never got anywhere (or things would be better and we would have heard of them), so why not use what actually exists and is firmly established for our own ends? As it stahds at the moment, nothing will change through the IFA because no diggers are joining, and if they do, no one is standing up to the say "e rm... I don't like this... change it, please". They have conferences! We could make lots of noise and really upset the people who actually give us the crap wages, long hours and woefully short ,contracts. By getting large numbers to join to pull weight in l elections, and using the newsletter as a rallying point, we can use our lnumbers to get someone on to council and to push through motions which favour diggers' work conditions. Sub-groups exist in the IFA as regards (for example) finds/environmental staff, so at the very lleast we could push for a sub-group to be formed for us. So that's why I'm joining. I want to make a difference in some way and I think lby doing this I will ... what do I have to lose? (Apart fiom £50 a year.. .of course). It is the only way. tOr is it? What do you think? Are you a member and disagree with 1this writer's point of view? Or is the writer mad to join? Or what? Write in.

The Digger
Yes, it's now your chance to participate in our statistically dubious and irreverent league of archaeological units. Just write back to us regarding units you have worked for and each issue we will make some vain attempt to get them into a table as a guide to where to go and where not to go. In six mor,:hs iime h e winning unit's director will receive a Creme egg; the loser a rotten egg. Check out the following points: + wages: above f 190 or below? + pay problems - yes or no? + sick & holiday pay - automatic or conditional? + travel eqenses paid - yes or no? + _;ommodation:free, charged or nonexistent? + provision of equipment - e.g. boots? + length of contract - above a month or below? + level of respect - valued colleague or trowel fodder? Dead easy! Get writing. Also on Lhe subject of reviews...

Issue No. 2, February 1999 PO Box 39 1, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3GS
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: w e n t training situation and how it might ,e improved. f you would like to volunteer to be nterviewed in confidence as part of the ,eview, please contact the AFT'S consultant ~t the address below and let her know when md how she can get in touch with YOU. nterviews are usually conducted by phone )U[, K you prefer, you can fill in a luestiomaire (available either from 'The ligger' or from the address below). Or ;imply write with your views. AI1 records of nterviews and comments of respondents .emain anonymous. four contribution to the training review will )e appreciated, and is a chance to make ~ractical suggestions and add some iubslance to the case for change in the way .hat Lrai~ngand career development are xganised in archaeology. Sill Chitty, Hawkshead Archaeology and Conservation, Hawkshead Home Farm, Highfield Lane, Bolton le Sands, Carnforth, Lancashire LA5 8AE

Carlisle Archaeology Unit are to be aken over by Bradford University in iugust. What effect this will have on the vages and work conditions of the unit staff lnce they are no longer council run is .nyone1sguess. A meeting will be held with tafT in March.

Winnersh Farm, Reading One bog for thirty people Morning time bad Zen. Fobney street, Reading Curl one down in the river No Elsan on site. Hampton Court Palace Trowelling gravel four weeks Finding nothing there. Wine stained through T-shlrt Chop stripped down, oil in grill pan Road kill and rank feet. Soaked through the bone, Slithering through wet clay. God let's get wasted. Project Officer Hot on the tails of female Student volunteers.

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The Archaeology Training Forum is a delegate body which represents all those organisations which have an interest in the issues of training and career development + A joint IFNEH survey of archaeological within archaeology. The Forum has recently employment, Projlrng the Profession, will conmussioned a review of current training be published shortly, and a summary will haeology and is looking at how appear in The Archaeologist (the F A mag) in promlon should be developed in the future and will also be accessible via F A , CBA and at particular areas of need. Part of the and EH websites. If like me you have accen review has included interviews with a to none of Lhese (!), you will be pleased tc sample of archaeologists, drawn from the hear that the author, Kenneth Aitchison o: membership of professional groups, to seek Landward Archaeology, will be writing ar their personal views and record thei~ article on it for us, on its publication. experience of training. A nunlber 01 + The next F A conference is in Glasgon respondents have commented 011 the serious behveen the 7th and 9th of April 1999. Thc problenls faced by hose working on h e annual elections to the FA'S governin{ digging circuit, in particular the general council are this sunlrner, when member! lack of training and career developmeill will be canvassed Tor nonlinations. Ge opportunities for those entering the joining and let's get a dlgger on council profession on short-tern coiltracts ol The Director has also asked if some form o employment in archaeological field projects. meeting could be arranged between digger! The AFT is concerned that the views of this and the IFA, quote: "to learn more abou particular section of the archaeological your concerns, and to discuss with you ou coinmunity are not properly represented ir strategies for addressing some of thc the interview sample for the review, so we problems the proTession faces". Anyone u~ are taking the opportunity to seek views and for it? Feedback welcome. constructive colnments from you on the

The IFA write back...

R Your anonymous correspondent's article The Institute of Field Archaeologists - Why Join? (The Digger, I , December 1998) zontained a number of nusconceptions about the Institute, some of which I know to be widely held amongst dyggers. Before tackling them I should point out that although addressing those working in the field, the IFA is the professional body for all archaeologists, whatever branch of the discipline they work in. Your co:-responder.t rig!iUy rubbishes the argument that by joining the F A you 'prove yourself to be a far better dygger than your non-member con~patriot'. You don't. But you do demonstrate that your performance as an archaeologist has successfully undergone the scrutiny of your peers, and that you have made a personal commitment to a demanding code of professional ethics. You have undertaken work only in a responsible, professional way. The article IFA to the Freemasons, unkindly likens l l ~ e

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and although both organisations are ~ o u p for excavators (excavators are ve separate general slippage in post:xcavation work from the deliberate exclusive - for very different reasons - only pecialists) is long overdue. viiithholding of information? There is the one of them is secretive. We publish the 'eter Hinton, Director, The Institute of pestion of interpretation; important sites identities of F A members, and we expect Tield Archaeologists :an be 'talked down'. It only needs a them to encourage others to adopt our professional codes - somewhat different ro sz~ggest that all the woes of the vatching brief or a few trenches placed so as from Uueatening to cut out the tongues of n-ofession can be blamed on non-members o find nothing. But how do you prove any s simplistic; surely the blame lies with the )f ths? Sites have a 'subjective' component, those who reveal our secrets! The article and the editorial make similar 'FA, for not addressing the reasons why ~ n d effective monitoring by curators cannot points about what the IFA considers to be >eople generally aren't joining (no point, llways happen; what goes into the diggers the biggest problems facing archaeology lever do anything, waste of irroney w k e t when no one is looking is anyone's . today: generally poor pay and conditions, ltc.).. how about making the joining and pess. In the end, if you want to be a cowboy myre 2nd inadequate training, job ilis~cti~ity t!te ~ie~nher.vhi,u,fees manageable:' El. here's going to be no sherrifs posse after {ou and if things get a bit hot in one county lack of career structure. In essence, hen you can always work elsewhere. Join improving the situation could be he F A by all means, because one day there straightfonvard. The only group of people ,..as do the diggers! nay be an opportunity to get rid of these that wants to solve these problems is the l only one that can. It's up to archaeologists to Z 1 am well impressed that the newslette~ :rooks. sort the profession out. Employers - most 01 sot together. I 100% agree with the arlicle Z My thoughts on field archaeology in the l them - pay diggers badly because theii m the F A . 1 have always shunned the F A , :onsidering it completely ineffectual where 30's6?Beyond the obvious "goddamn rip-off' competitors do. It's no more reasonable tc 11s pretty much the way you expressr i t expect a single employer to act unilaterallj 11 mattered. 1 still thmk that, but as the yourselves in the newsletter. It's a disgme than it is to expect a sole excavator to refuse uticle says, change isn't going to happen where it needs to by shunning the issues: that our employers place such a low value on to work for less than E25,000 a year. Bul what we do. Compare [our wages] with the there's no fundamental reason why the and infiltration with change from within is definitely the way forward. Fuck it, 1 am werage E15K p.a. that graduates of other whole archaeological profession shouldn'l sciences walk into. Experienced staff are move together to address these issues, f o ~ going to join. leaving, or suffering in silence. And the the benefit of all. E? The last issue lamented the fact that the people responsible f o ~ rake in the cash. iius That's what the F A is about. It's made U[ [FA does not discipline or investigate it: mb their hands in glee and congratulate I of individuals who realise that archaeologj own members; to be fair this might be themselves. They don't want us to lead needs regulating, and that i t has to br dlfficult or inappropriate as the 1FA i s on15 clccenr Irappy iives b~cause- wiil cos1 ii1e111 it 1 regulazd -from within. Its members havr an association and has no real status in law money. What fucks me off most about 1 agreed to submit themselves tc The problem is that an individual membei archaeology is that it doesn't transfer to I deinocratically agreed regulations that arc lacks the resources to gather evidence tc anything else. I've tried [all the jobs]. All far more stringent than those demanded b) make a good case against miscreants anc any employer sees is that you've done 20+ the archaeological marketplace. If al: runs the risk that the subject of thc lobs, none have lasted long and you've archaeologists agreed to be bound by thr investigation might take retaliatory action ir moved all over the place. And if you're Institute's regulations, and to use it! the courts or elsewhere. On the other hanc passed 30, you're basically dead. You can't democratic procedures to ensure that a1 there are no other organisations who arc settle, you can't hold a job down, you're a areas are covered, our problems would bt either willing or able to take concertec -a few. Your writer has pinpointed the' rea action to do t h s kind of thing , and somt waster. The most tragic t h n g is for an £50 I'd be happy to stay in archaeoldgy. issue: its not the F A that's the problen regard it as distasteful even to conside! Fifty fucking bar. The difference between a (however much he or she may see the neec gathering evidence against fellov happy life in my chosen career 1vluc11 I do for reforming it), its the non-members. B! archaeologists. There is also the problem o very well and living hand-to-mouth. The not conlnlitting themselves to improving thc evidence; most archaeologists are reluctan sanle amount as a "Time Team" presenter's profession, they help to perpetuate the woe: to 'put their heads above the parapets' nightly bar bill... that they complain about. Again the fear of reprisal comes in ' So Im glad that your writer will be applyin! employers take a dim view of such activitie: hatc zai! io !he for membership. His or her zeal fo - being a whistleblower is never apopz!~r Please send any $cn i changing the profession is just what the F The case of sites where no report i, address above... needs, and the suggested Special lnteres produced also presents problems - how d c Finances: Credit Start balance (revised) Total contributions Printing costs (projected) Postage costs (projected) End balance . f 52.00 payable to 'The Digger'. Any 'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter existing on donations. All donations welcon~e, contributions of funny stories, cartoons, ail, crosswords etc. (black and while only, please) welconle.
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very last little saving and squeezing every chap went misty-eyed and said he wished he unce out of the credit card so that at the ould do all that again. Hello? Tlus would nd of the dig, some despotic landlord can le seen as a near fatal accident in the real Every now and then it comes to the point urn round and say he's keeping it all vorld, yet in archaeology it is vicived almost when you want to moye on, so you pitch out ecause you've chipped a mug he mm. omantically. your CV and wait. Eventually you get a 'hen the biggest downer of all...all the bills :he ideal solution would be units phone-call from some unit you've heard hat suddenly fly your way as soon as your ecognising that for an initial outlay of say good things about who say that they've got a lame is down on a contract. Council tax, ;75,000 they cr~uld buy up a house; do i! U@ kbul3ns si:e, i ~ o f i t hof wcric, con^ on vater rates, gas, electricity, TV licence. - md rent it at low rates to dggers, and still down and join t k m . Excitedly you ask them hey all lace up their size 12 Docs and give ~e well in the black vis-a-vis mortgage all lunds of questions...and then the IOU a good booting when you're down to Iayments etc. Tlus would provide enough question of accommodation comes up. lour last few pence, no matter how long you Ieace of mind for us ro maybe consider "Sorry I'm afraid we don't actually provide ry and duck them. And then t!xy 'forget' to aking on jobs that we would ofien like to do anyhing" is d ~ inevitable answer. OK, you ,eimburse you when you have to leave as jut can't because we can't afford to: live e think, I'll wing it... lou've been hid off early, only to traipse off tnywhere in the south, for example. The sad Lf ~rou're lucky enough to have friends o another unit to do it all again. The knock act is Lllat Llus will probably never happeii al,dy working for Lhe unit, you may-be In effect of course is that you never have ind diggers will carry on losing money able to doss down onra male's floor fqr a tny damn money ever, and that f i S 9 per land over fist while Q i n g to get by and wlule, but of course tlus can only be a shop veek you are doled out ends up nearer hall :am a living, or end up in some godawful Lerm tl~ing.Even the best of friends will hat. ;hack which most people wouldn't even eventually nind up not speaking lust occasionally the answer to that question louse their dogs in. Sad but true. to/liurting/killingg each other after 2 weeks will rules be "of course we supply 301 any wdwlievable acco~n~nodation of foot odour and vegetarian coolung fallout icconunodation" ...at tlus point be very veq 'o relav7 write in. in a two metre squared box room. You also :areful. To be fair often the accommodation feel like somc free-loader, no matter how ;upplied is way above par...for e.uample, If aayone is going tn f!ie F A cnnferc-?cc .""Pp:. L".: ^.'' 'l I.-',. T.:".' many pints you buy them. so alternative 3ci;!i;?& ~t Glasgow University between the 7th and measures need seekng... ~cconunodation,but for a cost (it was free, The B&B is always a tempting ~ u tthanks to the government any free 9th of April, could Lhey write us a little alternative... a cooked breakfast every 3ccomrnodation supplied to workers is nov $ece about it? (preferably satirical but 1 morning, clean sheets to come back to, axed.- Free accommodation is seen as E leave that up to you!). Due to the rather complimentary soap, Swedish porn on Lhe ?erk, ergo taxable, so EH are now forced tc unfortunate choice of days (i.e. Wednesday satellite telly... ern1... it's too good to be true. ?ass on the cost to the diggers - beware, ti to Friday) we can't actually go, as !he h: we Except it never is of course; the places may soon happen to other units too). Yet the ~astards work for won't give us time off. usually end up as some bad version 01 jtories of appalling and insanitary livin~ Failing Lhat, anyone fancy dumping a load F ~ . 4 t yTowers on acid, there's always a ;paces are legion - caravan sites with nc of copies of this newsletter around, get in lo, scally building crew living there and heating in the depLlis of winter; ex-drui touch. Also, if anyone knows the outcome of every time you stumble in drunk fronl rehab hostels wilh junlues breaking dowr whatever hostelry you may have frequented. [he doors to get in; sleeping in tht the nieeling behlieen Bradford University, there will be some blue-rinsed scary lad] portacabin in Februaq; an old chapel wit1 Carlisle Archaeology Unit and h e i r giving you the evil eye for existing. And snow coming th:ough the holes in Llle roof enlployees please let us know. We just love they are incredibly expensive, especially or an abandoned warehouse, building you. juicy gossip.. . our wages. Scratch h a t one... own room out of scrap metal - tliese have al The inevitable and horrible result is that y o ~ been considered acceptable accommodatioi will have to rent somewhere, and iiii! at some time by our illustrious leaders, whc IFA JIS Swizz'? always presents problen~s,especially wher potter off in tlie Volvo at night to their IUCI P Most archaeologists I know are only Z you Inay be renting somewhere else already cenlrally-heated semi. Most frightening i members of the IFA because it advertises as is often the case for diggers with partner! that we are often charged for these hovel jobs that can't be seen elsewhere. Perhaps andlor faiiiilies. The hunt is always r by those caring employers of ours. The: The Digger could set up a job search facility drag...endlessly trudging around over-price( appear to view tliese ex~eriencesas bein] as a separate entity from thc newsletter (at a bedsii ratholes ivith mould on the walls unti "jolly things to do, an exercise in Dunlurl small fee to cover cos!^)'? All it needs is for finally you cave in and agree to a 6 montl spirit, the team pulling together for Llle gooc readers to inform you of anything they hear contract with a months notice, even thougl of the dig". A friend recently relayed , going . your employn~ent contract notice is only :wc conversation undertaken with a senio weeks and you will inevitably lose money 01 arcliacologist about how he'd been stuck i .4 urce idea, Our this p~rblrcafionis proving an unoccupied room. Finding the bond i a caravan with a gas fire which l e a k un a~nplyfime conswning rusk on i f s own! ;~lways enterlaining...sccmping togetlie Carbon Monoxide by some unit; the 011 Wh-v don '1 you give i f a go? We could point
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peuple in -vur/r dirrciiuii Q" rlecessary. On [he su~ne topic... :-i I was intrigued bj. your article on the IFk, and in particular the reply from the

)ecple working in the fieid - if they make so nuch on advertising why not provide it iee?
us. Bevan replies: Thanks for suggesting hat a wage of £200 per week is a reasonable sum' for my labours - l wish! 1 :ompile the JIS as a part-time job (for which receive a part-time wage) in addition to ny full-time work at BUFAU. I'd like to loint out that 1 started in field archaeology md spent two years contract digging, so I io appreciate the ilificdti~;& esqxrienced !)y lour readers. Apart from my salary, yolu correspondent is ~ a d l y rnisiaken about our adverlising revenue. We don't have paid adverts every week, or even every month, as most of our adverts are a e n from newspapers and iournals, -which leads to a hefty annual newsagents bill on top of our other expenses @hotocop$ng, postage, telephone and fax :os:s, stationery etc.). Our -adverlising revenue is essentially unpredictable, fluctuating throughout the year, and would not finance my modest wage, never mind all of our adhtional expenses. Besides, there is no secrecy about our turnover. It's published annually by the E A . From the feedback I receive, I know the JIS is 'a lifeline for people woiklng in the iieici' but I disagree it is 'overpriced'. The JIS is provided to IFA members at a substantial dlscount (which just covers costs) as a benefit of men~bershp. example, if you1 For correspondent joined the F A as an for only £12, they could pay the annual nizmbers rate of L30 subscription, spending £42 and saving £18 on a nonmembers subscription as well as receiving Thc Archaeologist and the annual director) which contains useful addresses for the job. seeker. Sending SAEs would cost the samc m o u n t in postage and envelopes as the £3C subscription. (cheersfor the tip! Regarding the suggestion that the JI5 should be provided free to 1FA nlenlbers, : send ou: ';CO S M s ro IPA nlernhers eve? week. Lf the IFA paid for postage an( envelopes, it would cost over £100 pel month in addition to photocopying cosir

10p a sheet no discount) and my time (if
). @y ncrease in membership would illcrease hese costs dramatically. Members sending ; a s need only receive the sheet when they leed it, for example, when a contract is onling to an end. Bear in mind ihat the FA is financed by members subscriptions a d it cannot afford tc make a loss. 'ersonally, 1 was against the subscription aise for non-members hvo years ago, but he JIS is still value for money. ~ y n n Bevan, !SA JIS Compiler e

lnly costs us 6p per sheet ...&l

director. What bdfles me is the conslant claim bj' tlus pamcdar organisation that [hey are in some way battling for the rights of archaeologists, when to my mind their Service is so over-priced. Jobs l~lt^ormation For some time now 1 have subscribed to their jobs-sheet as a non-member. For the j r.l.,. ~ i i lsilbscrip!ion of E60 a ;-?;v I receive r b one shecl. a week (except where the organiser is on holiday) listing all jobs available h a t particular week. Now I've found this service very useful - a lot of jobs appear in there that don't actually appear on a Wednesday in the Guardan - but there is something which puzzles me. A doublesided A4 sheet costs at most 10p to photocopy, often as much as a t h r d less-if photocopying in bulk, which they must do. A Grst class sta!!p costs 26p. An envelope costs around 2p (again if you are buying in bulk). Add it up . . . 38p, at the highest possible cost. So out of the £1.15 w h c h you pay for each release; you get s o m e h n g which costs 38p. A profit of 77p for the F A . or- two thirds of what you pay them. - -.T h e x 1s the aigi~iiefir rkzi d i ~ yare provihng a service, and it costs to do tlus (e.g. Lynne Bevan's salary), hence the figures. But let's have a look at their advertising rates.. . E40 per week for up to an A5 ad (which most are). If you count up the ads in any issue wllicli you happen to pick up, you will find an average of about 10 (except maybe over the Christmas period). So on each issue the IFA nets £400 ir advertising rates, which is not a bad little sum, especially when you consider you're paying for the ~uedlum on which it is produced. If Ms. Bevan is being paid E200 per week, which seems reasonable, there's still L200 going into the coffers. Even wheu you have actually joined the IFA, you have to supply S.4F.s to ge! the bulleiin, whlch l think is distinctly fishy. I think most archaeologists woidc appreciate a substantial reduction in thesc rates fcr what really is a life-line for mosl

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'lease send any fan / hate mail 10 the zddress above... anrljinally . . . . .

iere it is, part one of our statistically fubious and irreverent, cut-out-and-k 1 eague of archaeological units. You write to IS regarding units you have worked for and :ach issue we make some vain attempt to ;et them into a table as a guide to where to ;o and where not to go. In.six ulonhs time he winning unit's director will receive n 3 e m e egg; the loser a rotten egg. First up ln the block.. .
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B.C.AS (aka LbRedford") Wages above El 90? 0 I Sick pay ? 0 I Holiday pay? 0 f Acconunodation? I O£ ! Free eaui~ment? l @ ! Any available training? ; Contracts 1 month+? I Level of respect for staff 0 .. Good archaeology? ---------------

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GreaUyes Passablelyes Badlno 2 Total poison - auoid! 6 ND. of months wai!. f Costs a bit! hrot a bad score. More next issrre...keep 'enr rolling in. -.

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Credit Debit Start balance (revised) L47.00 Total contributions f42.00 Printing costs (projected) E30.00 E20.00 Postage costs (projecrcd) End balance £55.00 'The Digger' is a non-profit nlaking newsletter existing on donations. All donations welconq payable t b b ~ hDigger'. Any e of funny stories, cartoons, art, crosswords etc. (black and white only, please) welcome. Back-issues available.

For anyone currently working in the northeast and north-west of England. it appears tha! Bradford University seem to pop up everywhere, whether its carrying out upland sumeys to just straight-fonvard escavation. This is no bad thing. as it demonstrates a commitment on the part of the university to a wide range of experiences for its students, and provides in essence a well-rounded vocational background for all those who ha1.c attended its courses-there. However. Bradford are now looking to enter the commercial market through their rger with Carlisle City Council A-ichaeological Unit, a move which has been on the cards for some time (as previously mentioned in February, Issue 2). The benefits are reciprocal on both parts: the university will get to buy in to a cornmcrcial market which already esists through the unit's long history of archaeological work. and any associated research which comes from this tradition of working intensively in one area on some of the most archaeologically fertile areas of the country (e.g. Hadrian's Wall): the unit will be assured a safe future as an independent yet university owned company, and will be able to terider for work outside of the city boundaries for the first time evert being no longer restricted by council bureaucracy. The unit will also benefit from the wide : e of research opportunities and scfentific facilities on offer at the university. :he which will in theory ex~and possib:!ities of work undertakeable by the unit (e.g. geophysics), and will provide core staff members with the possibilities of personal research and development. In order to outline the coming changes. due to go through in August, the university and unit director held a meeting with the core staff in March at the unit in Shaddon Mill. The 'temporary' digging staff were not invited to this meeting, despite the fact that a number of the diggers had been with the unit for two to three years with continuous service on open-ended contracts. A correspondent describes how, as an "appeasement", they were finally allowed a meting of their owl: "It was the feature of the meeting that all the diggers were trying to find out in

essence what would happen to them come .. the merger. Apparently our conditions .of service are guaranteed to remain the same. initially. However, we're a little confused as to what would happen should they lay us off for a period before the deadline then rehire us. or whether our conditions have to remain the same afier a sis month period. Another concern voiced was the possibility of paid professional diggers being gradually laid off, and their nunlbers being. replaced by Bradford students. We were assured this would not happen, and it might well not. as I can't see them coming over to Carlisle (or wherever) in term-time. However, in a 'goodwill' gesture from the unit director, four Bradford placement students have already been taken on (on full pay with no esperience). I have no objections to training anyone, as long as it does not interfere with the archaeology. Everyone needs a start. but preferably it shouldn't be by being thrown in at the deep end on a highly comples urban site suffering time and money pressures! How about some in-house training for the current staff? Any chance of being able to mingle with Bradford people, learning new skills, stimulating our interests and makmg ourselves more marketable? The university representatives were very helpful and suggested that perhaps we could get reduced rate courses...except that, of the people in the room, a majority had already gained pos?gr&unte qua!ifica:icns. S= what good would that be? A further point was also made that we are all on temporary contracts. and these are not normally compliant with course Icngths! Everyone accepts that archaeological digging is quite a transient occupation; the good point of the unit is that it does try to keep people in employment as long as possible. The bad point is that it takes the rather excellent talents of its workers completely for granted. The point that thc diggers were trying to make the hardest is zhat yes, we are temporary, yes, we are hirable aud fireable, but that can be relative. A years solid work is pretty good going whether as a fised term contract or an open ended one, let alone three years! With that in mind. perhaps Bradford could consider

the skills base available, and invest in it in terms of opportunities for noncore staff to provide input at a greater depth to archaeological projects." The correspondent also voiced some of the diggers' concerns about just how well such a merger will work: "geographical distance isn't necessarily a factor, with the es!stence of technology such as e-mail; sadly. Carlisle is a little behind arid only purchased a fas machine in the -past .twelve ~nonths. We were told that by joining with the university it would enable digging outside the county, something not permissible at present - but how can this be feasible when the unit has very little experience of escavations outside of Carlisle, let alone Cumbria? We were also told that there would be no drop off of work within the boundaries, as the council would still give all the work to the company because of the 'friendly' relationship with the director. However, many units are gleefully awaiting the merger so that the socalled exclusive area becomes open, once the unit is no longer council-run: one unit already has a dig within the city limits." In what can only be described as sonlething of a hvist. Bradford University are now in the process of merging with one of those 'gleefully awaiting' units as well, Lancaster University Archaeological Unit. From those who know and work in the north-west, it is alleged that Lancaster and Carlisle have both had occasional differences regarding the pursdi: af conirxis, so ii now seems strange that both units will be operating as part of the same company - but perhaps it will work. Lancaster provides a greater range of services than its future sister-unit. particularly within the spheres of survey and building recording, so there is a possibility of greater concentration on those areas, with Carlisle undertaking more of the excavation work. If anything the unit is far more in tune with a possible merger. as it already operates within the aegis of a university organisation. and therefore may have little of the teething problems which may bc around the corner for Carlisle come August (e.g. pensions etc.). A meeting was held with core staff at Lancaster in June, though we have little in the way of details of what was actually

No. of months wait. discussed (no meeting was held with the merger will offer better conditions for all 8 diggers. strangely enough). However. from staff from digger through to director. Any Costs a bit! Self-employed only what we have gleaned fro111various sourccs, xoblems described hcrein may well vanish Q the unit will opcratc as part of the same In the coming months. so we wish thcm the company as Carlisle, as different branches. I xst of luck. But the question remains ....just can't help but wondcr whether the hvo mits what are they going to call themselves'? IFA JIS: I have to praise you \.ill also cnrn on tendering agair~st cach In the good old days, searching for jobs fantasy ~nit$&igue . other as before. though common sense meant spending an afternoon each week in would lead onc to think not. as it would be round three of littlc bencfit to the company as a wbolc. Part threc of an indefinite series...and a thc local libran;. working through back A further qucstion would be tlie disparity in lopical dok~ble-header in our cut-out-and- nunibcrs of newspapers. The process was tedious. and sonlthe currcnt \.age levels betwcn tlie two keep league of archaeological - units! Just time-consuming. destroying. However good or bad thc IFA is, cottipanies - are they to bc standardised remember that change is just around the across the company? If so. this could well be Zorner so all information contained herein JlS has been the jewel in a sonletimes good news for diggers in Lancastcr if wages may shortly be out of datc. Kecp on writing tarnished crown: an efficient. reliaMe and arc set to risc to thc samc levels as the 10 us regarding units you haw worked for; professional service that no ad-hoc council scales of Carlislc. :ach issue we'll chuck 'em out 'til someone voluntar). cfIbfl could compete with. ;l;,iiik~ io I t is worth pointing oui at lhis point just comes up with something bctter to fill the C2 l i ~ o u l dlike io iigistci Lynne Bevan for thc service she offers. As what our sensation-grabbing headline space. In six months... oh you know the rest. parcnts of' a universit?; student lookirn for actually alludcs to. Thc company. once Let's get it on! his first post. the J1S has been inva. ,ale. established. will incorporate Carlisle. , - - - - - - -& - - - - - - - - - - speedy and (very important to him) cheap Bradford. Lancaster and Lancaster's I Carlisle Archaeologj Unit I E When you're unemployed. £20 sec l Newcastle oficc - four points of an Wagcs abovc );200'? 0 like a lot of money. but it's a got,..: (admittedly skewed) rectangle. By setting up Sick pay ? 0% I investment. Due to JIS; I now have a onc this company. Bradford havc effectively year contract in London. crcated a v e v powerful force within archaeology in the north, as at any point [ Accommodatio~~'! they will be ablc to mobilise quickly across a Frec equipment? 0 I wide area in order to secure work. Whether Any available training? @ I I tlic implications for digging staff from this , Contracts? (1 month+) I O ! 'fast action' approach means that digging ; Level of respect for staff 0 ; stay will also be moved around the whole of Nice archaeology'? thc north and beyond, as contracts dictate, remains to be seen. How hard this may i Lancaster Uni~rersityArchaeoloa Unit ; prove for those members of who do not 0 ! Plrnsr .sent/ c z r y Jh , hotc mm/ to /hc wish to bc so easily ~nobilisedfor whatever I Waees - abovc &200? adtl~.t..cs nbow.. reason - e.g. family and friends - is a moot point, and one which I feel surc will be a :Wo'rk'irig.AbroadThis Summer? bone of contention for many. Diggers' Sojourning in the south of Frar - or lifestyles are transient at best, but at least escavating in Eg!,pt? Working abrohd can occasionally we get to rest u p some\.here! be such n fabulous espcrience. and \VC all il perhaps sceins to be unfair to k~iockthe need a holiday. So write in and tell us the elTorts of Bradford. Lancaster and Carlisle hot destinations with the best archaeolog,. to unite together to strengthen thenlselves the best bars and the best pay - \ ~ l ~ c r c against the potential problems which you'vc been. or where you're going. Tlic competitive tendering seelns to produce so weather's crap. the job's crap, so WC may as Key: much of these d?ys. By uniting they will @ wcll bugger otT solnewhere else. If your nest GreaVycs guarantee that they will not go to the waI! @ issue starts mysteriously appearing from the Passablelyes (not that there was cver any suggestion oj why. See you by the continent. you'll k n o ~ Badlno this, but it happens). that work \..ill alway: @ pool... Two tier - depending on experience be available for them through theil El Free for 'away' sites only. nibined efforts, and that, potentially, thc 63 Finances: Credit Debit Start bala~~ce (revised) L55,OO Total contributions Printing costs (projected) 30.00 Postage costs (projected) L20.00 End balance 'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter existing on donalions. A11 donations welcome. payable to 'The Digger'. Any contributions of funny stories, cartoons. art, crosswords etc. (black and white only. please~~velconle. Back-issues available.

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The Digger
Doing-It-Yourself the lowdown on self employment

Issue No. 6, September 1999 PO Box 391, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3GS
own took 3. Movc from job to job (and employed frcqucntly). -So archacologists and units nced to bc careful in how thcy arrange thcir work - otherwise they might fall foul of the powers-that-be'. I reckon that, generally. it sounds likc more trouble than its worth, and not so rosy as people make out after all. Might just stick to working for The Man....
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own tax and NI. and it can be a pain in the arsc. Howcvcr. thcre arc some benefits: !ou only pay tax on your profits. not your Evcv now and then. you'll hear sonieonc income. Any expenses that are work-related banging on about how nicc it would be to bc (site equipnient. clothcs. travel. laundry self-en~ployed, about all that money you items for d i q work. stationery for admin. sa\x on taxcs and all thosc expenses which some of your gas/electric/phone bills if you can bc kvrittcn off by those nice chaps in Ihc use your home as an ofice: and probably Tax Office. It certainly scems tempting. and other things I don't know about) can be on a personal level l'vc ohen bcen enticcd deducted from your earnings, so you only by thc thought of that little bit of cstra cash pay tax on what is leh aftcr that. But you wery \-c&. Quite a few units no\1 pay tax on last years profits. which by the mandatorily cnlploy thcir staff on a selftime you get thc bill will ha\,e long been emplo!ed basis. so we asked 'is this a good spent. lexing you looking a1 a bill for x thing'?' (1.rsue1).or as r~sualdo we lose out y' again. A numbcr of pcople esprcssed hundred quid. due yesterday. along with the shirt off your back and a pound of flesh. Not v,,.ing views: here is a piece scnt in by a onc-time self-employce (for want of a better much h n . Also, as a self-employed person. you pay term): different N1. If, like me, you are sometimes 'Owr m!. post-uni digging career I have ~elf-eniplo~~ed sometimes an employee and come across the use of self-eniploycd ficld (depending on which unit has work). you staff on three occasions. In two of those cases the staff were 'employed' on that may earn so little as a self-employed person basis, with no real choice. In one other, it that they let you off NI. Generally though. the self-employed NI is paid at a flat rate of was simpler to carry on being self-employed about £6.30 a week, less than employeeonce registercd. So how does it work'?. Basically. taking on staff on a self-employed status rates. But then again it doesn't count basis n.orks mainly to the employers towards contributions-bascd Job-Seekers Allowance. vcn relevant in the world of ad\.antage. If you are an employee. you may shorl-term contracts and involuntary dote have sonie rights (eventually) like sick pay, holidays betwcen contracts. holiday pay, etc. However. as self employed staff you are effectively a sub-contractor So. as a digger arc you better off? Well. you mnning your own business. The main will almost certainly pay less tax and NI, but you w i l l also have more of your time contractor has no obligations to you in tcrrns spent on extra forms when you sign on. r o -ick pay etc.. you need to pa?. for then1 !;wrself. Also. the employers don't have to extra papen~orkdoing accounts and tax rcturns. as well as the same sort of general pay sonieone to work out your tax. NI. and shite diggers on the circuit usually put up P45 through thc period you work with them, you do that for your own business. with (late pay. crap digs / archaeolog?. / Essen~ially.taking on a self-employed sub- weather. {insert appropriate whinges contractor mems a unit can cut overheads. here! 1). So for me. 1 don't reckon it bencfits This can be reflected in lower tenders to get anyone but the eniployer. 1'11 end up a bit liiore work, andfor higher profits for thc~n. better off after I've paid my tax. but the extra hasslc means that effectively you earn But what does it mean for diggers'? If you Ivork as a sub-contractor and are self- that extra cash. And for the amounts emploj-cd, you need to register as self- involved. I wouldu't do this by choice.' employed with the Inland Revenue; this \vill We wrote to a number of units who are then be added to your file on las and NI known to employ workers as sclf-employed contributions. You \.ill also gct lots of staff. and perhaps unsurprisingly got littlc lelters saying they would like to help you in the way of feedback. One employer did but the computer q~slem still shagged, so witc back. and sounded equally as cautious is please be patient. Eventually. you will get a about the whole situation. They suggested tax reference number (whoopee!). and at the that if you want any guidance you can get a clid of the financial ycar, you will bc sent a leaflet from your local contributions agency. self-assessment form. This is where the fun The main things they noted were that if you begins. By not paying someone to do this. do wish to be self-employed you need to: 1. the employer has left you to sort out your Be secn to be unsupervised: 2. Have your

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l .his is a genuine extrcrct jrmr cr digger k

It was twenty years ago...

diimv enfty for /he 20th oJ'./une (979:

"Agh. The pain in my head. with string tied ro~undit which didn't shrink. Feature 22 a glaring mirror of dust and gritted teeth. I barrowed. The barron a final straw. Twmist. I turn on the spoil heap and ask myself why. Tea break in the hut, no sun. no relief from the heat though. The orange squash a warn1 d r i n k in the gullet. Tllc sun again blindingly bright my make-up's running. I lie and try to get a tan. No benefits but socially unexceptional. The drone. Thc scrape of picks and shovels. Am I a convict of my own convictions? What have I done to deserve this? Smre old .same old...

Review
A Manual of Archaeological Field Drawing - J.M.Hawker A copy of this manual flopped onto The Digger's doormat. and has proved sincc then to be an invaluable aid to our daily slog. so we thought we'd review it. Written as the first half of a pair of publications (one on ficld recording to follow soon), the rrtantial is a response to the increasing numbers of archacologists and volunteers moving into commercial archaeology. wlio find that they are expected to know instantly how to be qualified draughtsmen. \-ithout any suitable training from their employers (except perhaps to be shown briefly a sitc manual. with only a vcry sketchy section on drawing conventions). On a personal le\cl. it is cquall!~ useful for those moments at 8am where, brain fogged with last night's ale, you cannot for the life of you reme~nbcr how to lay out a site grid. The manual is task-orientated. offering stepby-stcp instructions on how to complete all aspects of archaeological field drawing. mainly on excavation sites. The illustrations are spot-on. and the simple language and often humourous quips allows any work to

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be completed in a fluid way, without any militant contra-IFA fashion before fizzling hiccups. Thc guide also goes right down to ,tit. A correspondcnt has reminded 11s of its Key: GreaUyes the dctail of csactly what equipment you :sistcncc. and WC wcrc wondering whcthcr 3 Passablc/yes inyonc would like to submit an articlc on it. 3 need for each task, before you've walked a Badno xrhaps to illustrate how to/how not to 3 mile from thc site-hut, only to realise you've Two tier - depending on esperience forgotten your hand-tape. A couple of approach issues whcn dcaling with thc Jowers that bc. Ancient histoy it may be, 9 Free for -away' sites only. chapters also deal with building and sunfey . , No. of months wait. recording. although. rightly. these are only 3ut certainly it ivould be interesting and "Q all dealt with to the estcnt that they would be ~nlbrmative the same. E Costs a bit! encountered by field staff. prior to nnlre The Fantasy Unit League 8 Self-employed only specialised staff being called in. It is very \lore next issue... keep "enr rolling in. round four usefully indesed by chapter and subI11 keeping with the topic of self@Letter bombs heading. to allow readers to quickly find the :mployment, here arc the league tables for a Emerald Isle a land of gold? task that they have to complete and to carry ~oupleof units who eniploy staB on this 7 The following are the minimum pay it o ~ taccording to the best possible specification. Thc trouble-shooting section basis. hence thc sick/holiday pay status and ratcs rccommcndcd by the Irish Association toward the end is absolntcl?; essential Ihe big smiley faces nest to pay. Kcep on 3f Professional Archaeologists (IRL per reading, providing easy escapes to all those writing to us regarding units you have itleek): L695.25 sticky sihrations we all get oursclves in from worked for, and we'!l do our Icve! best t~ Senior Archaeologist in £587.10 time to time. like removing a string-line bang thcn~ when possible. As anyonc ivho Site Director has been paying attention will know. thc six Site Supervisor £489.25 , personal failing). before levelling it (111~ £386.25 As specified by the author. the manual is months period has now long passed. but we Sitc Assistant not intended to be read cover to covcr, but still have a back-log, so an estcnsion may be Archaeological Worker - L283.25 rather is to be used as n quick reference in order. Then it's time for thosc rotten The following are the ndnimum guide (though I did this in a moment of eggs... recommended subsistence levels (lRL per boredom, and found out many handy hints bi~eek) : and shortcuts which I did not pick up in n ~ y Mileage - minimum 33p per mile long haul through archaeology). No I Wages - above E200? , 1 00 1 If over 8 hours on site or away from base equivalent publications exist which so Sick payp? E per day and £9 meal allowance 6 clearly e.qlain site terminology Holiday ay'? Overnight allowance (rural location) (distinguishing bet\veen different units' @ Accommodation? E30 per night methods where they cxist). how to record I, Free eaui~ment? 1 0 1 Overnight allowance (urban location) the archaeology, and why that recording has ; Any available training'? 0 I 'E45 per night con~pleted cerlain ways. Whether you are in Comparc with the IFA recommended levels Contracts 1 month+? @ just starling out and need to know your way 1 Q -1 -why are their rates so low? Why aren't WC L Level of respect for staff I around a planning frame. or arc a harassed all working in Ireland? supervisor needing to quickly teach an Tliev will tlou/~tles.s arg~iethnt there is n inexperienced crew how to get the job done. higher cost oJ living in Irelmtl, and [hot tlus n~anualis an essential and cheap (a1 Northern Archaeolo ical Associates so~treho~c! potrnds are cliflerent, ' Irish I around a fiver) solution to all your thitik even with tknt taken into nccoun~ is r . , problems. It even comes with both a pocket- I Sick pay '? obvious we're being cliented. Do tlie /E3 sized and a --wall-mountable laminate o f . -.. Holiday p! a: ? 0 ~~ecortrr11erzd..vuh.~i.vt~-111~~.1e1~? I don 'r think drawing conventions. ~ " -y- it now! Accommodation" ' 0 W..-l c o p ofthis letter htis been sent ot the (avnilnhle j-o/rt tlie nufhor 01: i l Gq).lficIr, IF-I nrrtl we look Ji71wnr.d to /heir n n w e r . I Free equipmcnt? @ ,Yqunrt, Edi~ihurgh EFII 3P,4) I Any availablc training? 0 I'

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A.C.T. -'know the history?

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I'lense send an-v Jan hare rrrail to the In thc early eighties. an organisation was sel atidress t r b o \ ~ . callcd Archneologists Conr~r~unicatt msfortrr, which flourished briefly in : Credit Finances: £53.00 Start balance (re\ised) E 10.00 Total contributions Printing costs (projected) Postage costs (projected) End balance E 13.OO 'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter existing on donations. All donations welcome, payable to 'The Digger'. An!contributions of funny stories, cartoons. arl, crosswords etc. (black and whitc only, please) wclcome. Back-issues available.

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The Digger

PO Box 391, Abingdon, Oxon OX141999 Issue NO.7, October 3GS

Don'f Moan, Organise!
As the debate ragcs about whether membership of the IFA or of a trade unionI is worthwhile, diggers eveywherc 'we still having to endure thc sorts of terms and conditions of employment most people would find abhorrent and others would simply deny esist in modern Britain. It would be wrong of mc to attempt to profess the virtue of trade union membership over that of a professional association: it is like comparing an apple with -- M crange. - the two.. types. . of organisation have vastly different purposes and objectives, and each should be a owledged as having a legitimate role in yoG field of work. A trade union is a collective organisation intended specifically for the improvement of work conditions. Professional associations have an entirely dfferent role, and cannot be expected to perform the specialist task of negotiation and representation. The role of the union is to pursue and improve the bread and butter issues of your working life. The IPMS Archaeology Branch is attempting to do just that. Three months ago at Royal Holloway College. twenty-onc diggers from Framework Archaeologj (a joint venture involving Wesses and Oxford based archaeologists) committed themselves to actively doing the same when they collectively decided to take a proactive sr .awards making their voice heard. ~t-'~ramework Archaeology, a steering corrmittee h s been established to progress the issues members have raised both publicly at a general meeting of staff. and privately with individual menlbers of the committee. The issues raised can then be taken to management as part of a common agenda, which will carry the moral weight of the mass of the organisation's staff. Whilst it may be a relief to cry into your beer that working conditions are poor or that your career is going nowhere, you can now do something constructive about it. The time for indifference or apathy or even fear has long since passed. Diggers are now faced with a simple choice to be proactive in fighting for what they know to be only just and reasonable, or to submit to substandard conditions indefinitely.

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We know what the issues are: poor pay, lack IFA mcmbers. Non-members should witc of carecr stnlctures. job insecurity. to the IFA for their copy. or to us and wc'll continuity of s e n k e and nwch more. The h). and get you one. Any comnlents on the time has comc to act! sunrey welcomc. positive or negative! Ed. Thc IPMS. .for its part. is co~nniittcd to Archaeologists wanted helping archaeologists build an effective union for their profession. An cstablislied no experience necessary prc?/i'ssionnl nntl industrial organisation has the expertise and The relntionship he/~cwti mmtcur ~rclineologis/.v c>lwq~.:s 110s been n resources to support a process of organising strained one. InJ?)rtt~ation recentlv cottle 11n.v employees into a common purpose. and can portr offer the tools to hclp niakc practical and fn our- nttrnfiori which will 111littrnrri~: vet ttlore oil 011tht.,/irt.: tangible things happcn. If n c arc succcssfi~l every archaeologist should bc unionised - Both Leiccstcrshirc and Lincolnshire and from that will flow !hc powcr that this County Councils arc no\v nmning a schcme to sort of strength of numbers brings to the which r~niiermkes i&~ol\klocal \.oluntCers from difTcrcnt parishcs into the bargaining table. archaeological planning proccss. The But how effective the collective is depends entirely on thc individuals who decide to 'archaeological nehvork' scheme. under the archaeolog?. aims to join it. It is not sufficient to wait nenrously banner of conin~unih. establish and co-ordinate 'Ficldnork in the background ~ h i l others take the first e Groups' built from the 'ranks of enthusiasts' steps: if that happens. we will fail. A trade union can go a long way in 10 undertake archaeological work in their promoting thc interests of workers - it has regions. Among its esponcnts has been thc been donc before. and can bc done again if former director of thc CBA. Richard Morris. workers are serious about achieving who dcscribes it as 'utopian' (Rri~ish ~ r c l ~ ~ e o l o g v . l 999). July something. Each parish's representative bodv is invitcd In 1913. the American tradc unionist Joe Hill was esccuted for his pursuit of to appoint a warden in consultation with the reasonable tcrms and conditions of council. The warden's principal job is to emplo-vment. His final words to thosc seek out known and unknown sites and around him'? "Don't mourn. organiscm - check their condition. so that the SMR call we're ready to make things happen - join be updated ("archaeologists in the county are unable to make regular \isits to all thc us! sites on the SMR". from the Lincs. leaflet). Chris Gamhian, IPMS organiser They are also expected to act to develop Tel: (01 18) 931 2300 understanding of the past in their particular E-mail: gambianc@ipms.org.uk Another shatr~elessyet well-cjesen~lplug parish. to promote sympathetic intcrcst in /iir the lP.t.CY, p;~bcb.$,the on!\, :!nion we archaeology. and to improve com~nunication renliv hove access ro. I om ir~~pressetl tl~at between the general public and the SMR Frntnework hove tt~nrmngetl to orgmise office. This will be particularly effect ivc tho~~selves, /qv clown tertrls bv which since parishes who appoint a warden will nnd receive a copy of the SMR for their parish. they wish to work. Howewr, ns I u~~derstnnd listing all known archaeological sites and t. the conrpnny nws set up fur the Henthrow 'oh, a long-term piece oJ work en~plu.ving indspots, as well as a 'selected range' of n 'orye number of' people. Ilow '.sitr~ple' )uildings and industrial features. So, so far o :.lioicei t is fir those who are only n IinndJul ;o good. In many senses; the archaeological 'n n unit, or- with o very jinite orrrount of ieritage is not a preserve of the professional vork, is sotnetliing which is conjecrurnl - I rnd surely it makes sense to build upon 7er.sonollv would,find it clifl~cultto stnnd lip ocal knowledge of a given area. Certainly 7nd he counted. <r.vour circumstnnces w e he voluntccrs will have far better contacts fiferent and you think zvol/ con do the stitlle with local landowners than the County 2ouncil. and with local people who are after YS Framework, join and rr~nke dvference a 111 an important source of information. 't can happen. Ed rhere is also an intelligence behind raising ~ews'-Profiling Profession he profile of archaeology at parish level. If The The above-mentioned survey by Kenneth 'arish Councillors can be encouraged to 4itchison is now published, and free to all

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lcarn about thcir local archacolog\-. perhapr bricf car^ bc ur~dcrtakc~~an! one \ \ l10 ha: shall \c just stcp back and Icl soll~co~~c ~ b' ! c l the!. will becornc niorc S!-mpetl~ctictowardr bccu gi\.cn ;I few quick icssons i l l tlic local mdcrtakc thc work'? I'm off to t n bci~rgI I I ; i t \hen considering thc ncst batch ol archacolog. of n rcgion and a ' h o ~ dig' airlir~c pilot for a bit: its sor~~ctl~ing to !'\.c planning applications! manual ( i assumc thar cslra nrcl~acological al\va!s bccn i nlcrcsrcd in. and thc! haw this \k schcnlc no\ \.hicl1 lcts an!onc do i t . Rather \vorn.ingl! though. thcsc arc crcdit \-ill bc g i \ m to ll~osc\.i~rdcns volirntarv roles \it11 a disturbing rcrnit. Thc arc regular

ic\crs of Time T'ci~~n!). With C'hccrs. rcspecti\.c Count!Archi~cologist \v111 this schcr~lc a prcccdcnt. thcrc is nothing as The Fantasy Unit League pro\.idc training ; I I I ~ ad\.icc on ho\ tc to stop dwclopcrs tv ing to saw nlonc!' b ! Round Five (Terrier Special) idcntify sitcs and collect informatio~~. gctli~lgMr. Bloggs fro^^^ up tl~croad to dc 11 > r ( l / ) l v r t / /hl.V o / l / t : l ~ ~ ( ~ / ~ / ~ l l /~;L l\ ,l/,l ~ ! l l lt// W \ l Ho\vc\cr, rhc \m-dens do not I'IR

Related Interests

c tc thcir work for frce. rather than hiring a acri\dy scck 0111sitcs but can act si~npl! as profcssional archaeologist. \ Y [ V g o o ( / c , c ~ r ? ( / i ( / c ? / ( , , ///W r0//~11 o/~ rccordcrs of infor~nalionas i t is brought to Pcrhaps thc qucstio~lis not '\vliat' thcy \.ill them bj, others. though thc schcnic strcsscs bc doing but 'why' they \ \ i l l doing tllcsc the importancc of the former. So what arc rolcs. Is this thc bcginning of thc slippcn. Wages: @ (But kccn on cnlcrgcncy tax!) \vc sa!.ing herc7 Son~eonc \v110 has slope. 11-hcn finally County Arcliaeologists Sick Pit?: @ Ycah right. sick of thcjob! undergone a tuo hour intcnsi\.c training concedc that cut backs \.ill no1 allo\. thcm course from tlic County Arcllacologist \.ill to c a r - out thcir jobs to the best of lhcir Holida? P a y @ Not a bcan! slippcn Accommodaticm: @ X .4rc \.c fz!xilinr aci as a recorder or' i~dornl;~iion i?orn pcoplc abiiity. and if so \vhcrc does ~ l \ i s gas cara\,ans" \vho have not evcn rccci\,ed this littlc slope cnd (apart from at the bottom)'? Yes. \vith: a) thc fro~cn cl~a~nbcr b) the junkie-laden. psycho-fricndl! DSS attcntion'? I t is likc thc blind lcading thc vxdens \.ill be helping to fill the kno\vlcdgc gap. which will bc of grcat use to hostcl? (BUT \ve should be gmtefnl. A 1st blind. to I t is cspected that the Nctwork in Leicester thc cnhancemcnt of the archaeological \ve didn't Ii;~\,c pa? money i n ordcr toJ' ieopardisc our li\.es!) are i~icspcricnccd \ v i l l put "Parish reprcsentati\.es a ~ ~ d local record. But l archaeologists in touch \vitIi cach othcr". enthusiasts being askcd to cart out Equipment: @ Ycs if !.ON count the world's \vatcrproofs. blucli This I assume is a \,a! for the cou~icilto \.atching bricfs'? If I his schen~cbeconics stiffest. lrlost pern~eablc srchacological equipment poor or sinipl!. save itself money b getting the conmercial natiomide, it will cffecti\,cl!. nark thc present. A tour-de-force i n for most small-scale 1###BOT_TEXT###1 archacologists to provide further advice and dcath-knell ~ganisational Icthargy! training for the n.ardcns. Thc result: Ten archaeological work. cutting work for local Training: @ Cara\.anasin the depths of Easy Steps to Becoming a Ficld units as \ell as for so many consultants tn-ing to make a li\:ing. Who is regulating ivinter? Arctic sun.i\.al training only 1.m Archaeologist (no espcriencc necessan-). The main initiati\.es of \,hat nardcns should and monitoring thc standards of tlic training ifraid! We wcrc taught ho\. to mattock and do, as laid out by thc pron~otionalmaterial. Lhat thc \vardcns reccive and the standards nothing clsc. are: record local collections. memories and 3f their archaeological recording? If the Contract: @ Letter of appointnienl onl-. parish lore; encourage people to scarch thcir County Archaeologist has not got timc to Respect: 3 Yes. but onl! because the!. gardens for finds: undertake ficld-\valking w r y out a fc\v sitc \.isits whcrc will the realised it \.as the diggcrs \.l10 kcpt thc suneys: and undertake 'watching briefs' on lime comc from for the training and ;how on the road. Good skills scrvice trenches and othcr ground necessarily the continued monitoring of the Good Archaeology: msted on barren landscnpcs. interventions. "Wardcns are idcally placed 9fcctiveness of this kind of scheme? This to watch sniall building sitcs. \vith due may be an estrcme reaction to u.hat nright K e y k an innocuous turn of evcnts but the 3 authorisation" (Leic, Information Sheet) Grea t/!;es , of I t sccms relati\,cl. harmless. allouing kcen i~riplications thesc parish networks do not 3 Passiblelycs amateur arciiatologists ro 'check the S i W appear 10 have been -considcreci bcyond thc 8 ~ad/no for the council. espcciallj. in light of the dirc realms of rose-tinted bcspcctaclcd amatcur 4 Two tier - depending on cspcricncc financial constraints so many of tlic council irchaeology groups. and County P Free for 'a\n~!" sitcs onlj,. a r c h a e o l o ~senices arc operating undcr. Archaeologists \v110 havc cnough on thcir ii No. of months \.ail. However, the most alarming factor is thc date \orking out hou. to con~inccCount!, E Costs a bit! removal of archaeologists from parts of the Councils that their bvork fulfills the D Sclf-cmploycd only actual archaeological work. to whit thc 3bjccti\,csof 'Best Value'. qucstion r~ccds bc sskcd: do \:c \.ant to watching brief. What thc schcme is Tl~c effectively saying. and thc lncssagc \vhich is irchacolog?; to bc a profcssional disciplinc. ng givcn to dc\clopcrs. is that n \varching i\ ith profcssional st;lndnrds and practiccs. or Finances: Credit L l .YOO Start balance (rwised) E25.00 Total contributions Printing costs (pro,jccted) Postage costs (projected) End balance 'The Digger' is a non-profit making nc\vslctter csisting on donations. All donations \dconic. pa!.able to 'Thc Digger'. Any contributions of funny stories. cartoons. art. cross\vords etc. (black and U hite onlj-. plcase) \velcome.

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Christmas Double Issue (No 8) December 1999 PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX14 3GS
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No Future: Professional Training - A Digger's Reply
Tnis article was written as a response to A Future for Archaeologists (Bishop, Collis & Ifitton, The Archaeologist 35), rcgardihg training issues i archaeology: n "In the last issue of The Archaeoiogisk, the IFA presented what i t regards as its vision for the future, an agenda which will provide a career struclure and training "that serves Lhe needs of -the__profession, its clients, the discipline of archaeology - and the public we serve" (Bishop, Collis a n d k-ion, 1999). 'The IFA has realised through the results of a number of surveys thal there is not currently enough provision for training within the sphere of archaeological work. It identifies the principal problems which contribute to this a s being the lack of a formalised career structure (i.e. employees working nationwide at one scale, yet under a range o f different titles in different conditions undertaking different roles for different wages!); no formal practical training ; inadequate documentation of skills; no value placed on trailling (presumably by employers); and no resources available to reverse these '~lems. TK institute proposes to address these probiems in the fol!olvir:g ways. By highlighting skills a n d 'abilities which it believes workers should be able to undertake a s part of their scale within the profession, it hopes to promote the demand for, and provision of, post-graduate vocational courses through universities, organisations a n d the IFA itself. These courses may be modular, and may be financed by government grants from training bodies, though this is at present only a possibility. The courses will include a s a lundamental part ol their structure the provision ol placements and/or secondments, though they insist that these "are used
iirly by employers, and do not lisadvantage existing employees". 4 further way in which it hopcs to ;timuldte the desire amongsl the ~ o r k e r s for lraining is the mplementation of Continuous 3rofessional Development (CPD), "a nechanism for planning and recording 11.1 archaeologist's training". This will u~volve the archaeologist in question ?reparing Personal Action Plans, -t.c.o:-din;; "what -they wish to. learn, ~ h y , and their programme for ~mplementingthe plan", through the use of log-books which record their day-to-day advancement within their :hose11 field. The result of these proposals is that an individual will have a clearly defined level of skills which can be used to further their career. The results of the training andlor CPD will also figure heavily in thc individuals ability to join the IFA. Prospective members will De expected 10 demonstrate adequate training at whatever level they choose to enler the organisation; current menlbers will be tested at random a n d expccted to prove that they are still eligible to be at the scale they are practicing at. Individuals Inay also be able to join the IFA through a n accumulation of points gained through training alone, and experience may become less of a factor for membership. The fact that the IFA is indeed addressing the problem of training within archaeology is encouraging in itself. The issues of inadequate vocational opportunities for members of staff are well documented. A n y training at present depends on the goodwill of a n employer to provide i t andlor finance it, and [.he slight chance of being employed by just such a benefactor. As is normally the case, this does not happen. The current upsurge in interest regarding training by employers for their staff may be a rcfleclion of the current state of lhc profession as regards experience at the levels of practilioner. Certainly from personal experience, Lhe ratio of experienced to inexperienced staff on excavation sites has shifted dramatically over Lhe lasl few years. One possible reason for this is thal the profession is now experiencing the knock-on effects of the abolition of grants and the implementation of the student-, loan scheme. When this digger '[ell university, this issi~e. a s w certainly a mitigaling factor for why a number of my compatriots turned [heir backs on the low-paid and insecure world of field archacology, and got proper jobs. The issue remained a problem even for thosc who chose to dig, and gradually more and more of my pecrs have fallen by the wayside, felled by the apathy of a profession which did not recognise lhe worth of their skills, nor financially rewarded their efforts. Even those old hands who first helped me on my faltering steps into the professional stalus which I now hold, through the personal dedication and love of the job which lead 10 them passing on skills which Lhey had learnt, have now disappeared from view. As a digger expressed in a letter to The Digger (Issue 2): "If you're passed 30, you're basicaily dead. Yoi; C A ; ; ' : sttk!e, you can't hold a job down, you're a waster". This is the reality ol field archaeology today. This is not to suggcst that i t is the h u l l of those now entering the profession that they are inexperienced. To say this would be a ridiculous statement to make; I was 110 more experienced when 1 entered [he job market than they are today. Yct the IFA now considers that archaeological degrees are not worth enough to produce pr(dessiona1 field archaeologists, despite the fact that for !Foh%k;d o n 3 page 2 )

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www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uWNews~ 311, and whcrc exactly will they take place? Arc they 10 naliotlwide, o r Views.html 'I'his site is hosted by the exccllcnt will cvcryonc have to g o to (e.g.) Ihctrack Archacologv, a Scottish Ih-mingham for a vcar, undergoing illustratio~i/CAl> consultancy, w h o relocalion costs a n d otlicr geographical have d o n e i t fcr nowt. I3ig thanks! Any problems. other decent sites that need a plug, Ict Of course, no1 cvcryonc will bc able L o u s know. We're not proud. k k c these cou rscs, because of the (c*o~ztiliueJ from piigtn I ) a s long a s I iievcr-ending financial worries, a n d can remember, i t w a s esseritially the the time factors which will bc only qualificalion you needed t o start involved. So thc option will be to not nut o n the rocky road of a digger. My oothcr, or t o g o i l l to archaeology experience of degrees were that thcy 3nyway a n d sec what happens. I provided the basic necessary skills: bciievc thal this will create a Lwo-tier how 10 take levels, h o w to dig, what m t r y systcm t o a rchacology: thosc o w e were looking for, dnd s o o n . No, 1 ~ h have studied a n d those w h o have couldn't g o o u t a ~ i d straight away l o t . l ' h e net rcsult of this will bc ac become thc world's best urban ~ m p l o y c r s o ~ ~ c g a i ~ i being able t o excavator; this w a s only possible ~ . m p l o v non-qualified diggers at through the e x p r i c r i c e which 1 theii r ~ h a t c v e r wage o r c ~ l i d i t i o n th(:y gained through working in field :hoosc, whilsl mainlaining the belicf archaeology (and still a long way off :hat thcy arc encouraging training bv fro111 being the world's best...). l ' h e :aking o l i trained diggers side-by-sidc. facl that new entrants arc I ~ O W I'his already happens. A number of expecled to d o s o much more is a ~ l n i t s have a two-ticr levcl o f reflection ~ i o o n their lack of skills a n d r.rnployniaiL accordi~ig t o experience, t those with less cxpcriencc being abilities, but the absence of ~ i t h experienced staff to teach a n d coax the m p l o y e d a t a far lower scale than thc :econimended II'A standard. H o w rlicc best from them. What I find most disconcerting about .hat the issue of traini~ig cat1 n o w the idea of the post-graduate 'ortnalisc this divide! vocational courses is that it appears :'he possible option mootcd by the thal t.hev will be a n enforcing factor a s II7A a s a n alter~iativclpartrier to the training courses is t o w h y people become employed in mcational I'rofessional archaeology. 'l'he article argues thal .mntinuous undergraduate yualificalions d o not I'>cvc4opmc.nL, a n d this would certainly opcn 10 thosc riot pursuing address the areas required to produce good field staff. S o w h y not mdke ~ocational courses. I-lowcvcr, w h a t them d o just that? Instead, those w h o )ption is it rcally? The article states choose to gel into field archdeologv :hat maintaining Lliese logs will bc a will now find that they will have to "personal responsibility", which tends undertake these . further courses to io suggest thal - :nininial ernplover .. prov@.thtycan dig, before they can get effort will be required to maintain this a job. T h e issue of t h e placements atid form o f training. I t is rcfrcshing thal secondments provided by these thc 1I:A thinks thal most diggers call f courses o p e n s a whole dilferent can o have a "programme" for changing worms: I havc lost count of the their careers, and that in some way w e number of times I have heard people are in control of what o u r destiny Cdn complaining about having been hold. The career path of a digger is not shafted for a year, being paid C50 a chosen, but is o n c of necessity. I an1 week to work a s cheap labour, because generally appreciative if I know that I they undertook a placemen1 year. have a job bcyond three weeks, that I MosL of these never bothered lo gel can pay my rent a n d put food o n the into field archaeology o n completion o table. At the e n d of a hard days slog, f their degree, s o skills are lost a n d time the last thing l want to d o is update is wasted. l'he courses will inevitably my I'ersonal Action Plan, a n d think only be partially funded, if lunded a1 about where 1 want my career to go, a n d to suggest that I can d o this w h e n

dealing with these day to day ilisecurilies is perhaps asking a bit much. A corrcspondcnt w h o wrote in dftcr hearing these ideas outlined at the Il:A confcrcricc in April also made the following valid pninl: how cxacllv dre W C 10 get the books t o improve :)c~rsclvcs wilh, w h e n we're in the middle of nowhere with n o transport and no library? O r with n o money to buv books? W h o will provide the resources for o u r personal [.here is no real a n s w e r to that. l a m also moderately amazed that this forni of monitoring is now being ~iiootcd~ t s cor~dition m c n ~ ~ r s h i p a for 1 - ~ h c A . 'l'hc organisation is :onstd~itly at pains to try a n d Jncourage cmployccs <:L pra~tiiioticr eve1 t o join, yet surely the knock-on result o f lhc random rnoniloring v ".l W that n o one a ~ t u a l l y b o t h e ~ ; 3ccausc ol the reasons just mentioned. Nliat information d o c s a rAIZ log provide that a Curriculum Vitae docs lot? iurthertnore, can you honestly .ell me how V ~ L Iwill monitor the I'APs .)f Members I o r d e r that they ,nainlain their grade? According to f o u r annrral report for 199819, you :ould only monitor o n e in six units ~ h arc considered RAOs, a n d n o o -cports or corisultalin~l came nut of .his process. I'hc issue o f training is o n e which is nassively important to us dll, but to +uggcst thal "orie day, archaeologists n a y view lhc Annual Conference a s a .urning point for archaeologir-l\ .raining a n d crnployment" is o v v i ' :'ggitig thc. p u d d i n g to say. Lhe. least. .. . UVhal comes across from this whole cxcrcisc is that the IFA by their o w n admission havc borrowed d load of idcas piecemeal from o n e organisation, a n d havc grafted them o n t o the tottering cd ifice thdt is Professional Archaeologv. T h e organisation in queslion is o u r "sister body", the I<oyal Town Planning Institute. 01-w has to ask - how many of them are 011 temporary contracts a n d low wages? In closing, the article stdtes that "the development of a structured approach to learning, related to IFA standards a n d with the potential to link to pay a n d conditions, will lead to a carecr structure" (ibid., mv emphasis). This
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6adIno T w o tier - d e p e n d i n g on experience Free f o r 'away' silcs only. No. of m o n t h s wail. C o s t s a bit! Self-employed only

I w a s intercstcd to note the comments of y o u r correspondent in the article on councils employing amateurs for minor archaeological work ( h u e 7). I think this is symptomatic of a n attitude to archacologv which frequently secs the a c 1 fieldwork sidelined in favour of V the political a n d financial issues of thc council o r a n y o t h e r orga~iisalioliw h o has to deal with i t . Most illustrative w a s the recent edition l of 7 3 - 7 ~ 'l;l-am l.ivc; a programme filmed entirely on location in the historic city of York. If you missed it, it w a s f i l ~ n e d over three days, a n d consisted of three major are'is o f excavation. 'T'hc tea111 wanted three different phases to be exposed, a n d so the sites were dcemed a s I(oman, Viking a n d Medieval. What followed amazed m e . As a n y viewer will know, the programme relies heavily on maintaining a level of excitement for each site, so if nothing is encountered

In the first half a d a y a new trench is d o n e quickly regardless of rapidly o p e n e d , a n d then more, until consequence to t h e ~ncltcrial evidence. 11all beco~iicsover-strctchcd a n d they Its not just lhost. w h o have thcir five have to actuallv look at w h a t they've m i n u t e s of fame. I have friend\ w h o qot. 'l'his w a s very obvious a t York; 1 have worked o n l'ilnco /cwm wtio have lost count oi the ~ictmberof trclichcs tcstificd that the t a n t r u m s tlirown bv which kcpt popping u p all o v e r the the regular digging stafl a r e incredible, whingint; about the place, with l o n y I<obllison flitting u p freqcwntly to them briefly only for them never to s t a n d a r d s of thcir (frankly luxurv) free r be seen again. All archacolog~calwork accommodation while t t ~ c ~peers 111 thcsc d a y s h a s to follow a prcscl t h e real world strugglc without, o r pattern of cvents within the m o a n i n g bccausc their frcc (a-la-carte) parameters of development control - food is maybe a bit ovcr-cooked. 'l'alk project brief stipulating thc maximum about 'lost in showbi/,'. .. drca to be uncovered, projcc<design I have t o w o n d e r w h a t the agenda (,i stating how this is to be drme. It dll those w h o get involved is. A frcc stems to go out the window w h c n a evaluation of a n area which I ~iglibh camera is ncarbv, a n d in York of all I-lcritdgc h a s d w m c d ~ i n t o u c h a b l e ,s o 13STdcFs, w1icr~- dcvclopmci;! is :X?- 2s t o -have a bit of ~ n u s c l cto gel mc)re . tightly controlled that y o u can't build archaeology uncovered a n d niorc brclss a sand-castle without a n archacn\ogical in p o c k e k ? I'rcservation in situ m e a n s assessment. scrapping ovcr w h a t 1 1 e ~ ' d sto 'I'hc search for spcciiic periods in each exposed; h o w useful to get the area was stupefying. York has s o m e of tclevision crvcvs in t o provide frcc the most complex urban archaeology a d v c r t s for the bencfits of extensive in the country, a n d vet with the aid of rcscarch excavations in o n e 01- two the Time Team this w a s disregarded arcas. So t h e '/?me r".,dtn country-widc wholeheartedly. O n n o cxcavalio~i tour of pilldging conLinucs.IkL it won't have I ever encountercd multiple hc long bcforc w e s e e I'hil tlarding medieval floor layers being machind bunging a few t r c ~ i c h c s across away without recording in o r d c r to gct Stonehcngc, w i t h only thrc-c d a v s to to the Viking lavers ("it's O K , we'll work o u t (brcclthy s h o w b i z voice) "just sec. them in section", said CarellLa). w h a t w e n t o n in those distant tirws". An unpardonable act, vet this looked It's fashionable to knock the ' l l n c . a s i f i t had full sanction of the cily r'~w171. think it is also very juslifidble. I archaeologist, J o h n Oxlcy, w h o h a d &';!?g dt.vil'.s dJvocdlt; 1 will h v c . !o obviouslv d u g o u t his best suit a n d snv Ihdl 110 p r q y r d m t m ~navbc. s h a d e s for the telly. Mor[i/ric'r W h c - ~ / ~ r 'rd cjio .sheW ] hij G .s He w a s just o n e of a n u m b e r of donc cts much to promolc. arch~eologv 'eminents' w h o flitted x r o s s o u r d11d [o bring i! ~cro.ss .such A /<jrgc. lo scrtvn, giving u s !heir wonderful insights into this or tiidt asp(:cL, while keeping their best profile. This is s o m e t h i ~ i g which I have ~ioted frequently, mainly with /'/7c Time> 7kn1 but a s m u c h with M c - c ~ f This Al~cc~.slor.sr a n y othcr archaeological o programme you care to mention. Cet an drchacologist in front of the tclly carncras a n d Iiclshe goes all Indiana Joncs o n us, a n d a n v sclnbldnce of professional s t a n d a r d s g o o u t Lhc w i n d o w in favour of ego-massagc a n d goody hunting. 'I'hc television crcw run the excavation and the drchacologist become5 thcir p11ppet, net ( i f wc'rc not o n there already) at: anxious to please by getting things

misses a rather large point. Pay a n d conditions are fundamental to the state we find ourselves in today; shouldn't Inore effort be made to address these problems as well, or is the IFA without teeth when it comes to laying down the law with units? Even the survey Profiling the Prolession, by its au thof S own admission, missed archaeologists at the bottom e n d of the pay scale (Thc Archaeologisl, 34). The future for archaeologists remains the same: no future to speak of."

GB Letters Bombs CI'
Issue 7 was the best one yet. I particularly enjoyed the article on the 'archaeological network scheme' - a fine example of the popular 'anyone can d o it' view of our profession. While I can understand amateurs wanting to 'have a go', that county councils are using them to replace professionals in order to save money is beyond belief. Surely THIS must be a n issue for the IFA? Another amazing scandal unearthed was the appalling conditions at Tees Archaeology. Putting diggers in a DSS hostel? How can THEY sleep at night, never mind their poor staff? What about asking them for an explanation? We have sent thcm copies of the newslettec and as yet have not heard anything. The argument usua/[v follows the 'it's the best we could do, for such a short time with so little funds, and allywa-y, we could NOT provide accommodation! You should be grateful!' line. Yes, mattresses on t7oors in-flophou&. . .if you're lucky. Most grateful, ta, & E As a n older digger (over 4U), I a m 4 now reaching a stage of having done my fair share of mattocking and shovelIing, year round, in all weathers [including -20° in Dresden, Germany the director came u p with the novel idea that w e could work outdoors in these temperalures...by creating a small flame-thrower to blast the ground surface (after excess snow had been shovelled off, of course), thus

facilitating planning. Unfortunately, it worked rather well for sections too. That was the hardest winter I have ever endured]. At this stage in life I decided to wise up a little. Four years ago the Fates led me to doing (finally) an archaeology degree (no previous qualifications - left school early). Having just about recovered from that, 1 a m in the process of going for a driving licence (never wanted t o before). Actually, my 100% mark for the theory test meant more to mc than the degree - as sad a s that is to admit. At my age I & to move up a rung or two. Nowadays, the driving licence is essential, a n d so too seems the membership of the IFA. Look how many jobs prefer it. This is the only reason I would apply. To me it seems to be a game o n e must play - there's n o pretending it's not there. The finer points of membership will have to come later. Too true. German ingenui{y - let's hope no other directors cotton on to this flame-thrower idea' or it could well be a very grim winter indeed!

a lot of my colleagues will be with me on this one. It's a sign of the corruption of the moral fibre and the dysfunctioning of society in general that people don't seem to know their place. For example, I was down on a site of mine the other day, when some young girl, couldn't have been more than thirty, had the impudence to address me on a matter of archaeology, as if I with thirty years of experience needed to be told anything and actually appreciated my very deep and contemplative thoughts being disrupted. Then I heard someone behind my back make some crude comment about the siye of m y M!y. ! didn't see who it was; otherwise 1 would of course have sacked them 7n the spot. I would have just sacked ,~e lot of them if w e didn't need them to that's the dig the bloody site, b ~ ~ t problem these days, a necessary evil I SUppOSC. Anyway, that's all for now. Can't waste my time with this rubbish, have very important things to d o...

A Unit Director writes...

t22 I have seen a number of your
issues and have some comments to make. I have been in archaeology nearly thirty years and have seen a good few changes in my time I can tell you. I am the Director of a unit myself (Archaeological Research Surveying & Excavation), and have been since the late seventies. So I know what you and your contributors are on about. There seems to me to be rather a lot of rxmiyiainf, a b o i ~ tthe sta~idardcif $ay and conditions amongst you digger chaps, but I really don't understand. You people don't seem to know when you're well off; I saw one lad with his own car the other day, and my diggers never seem short of cigarettes, always puffing away, and you know how expensive they are, need I say more? 1 think the underlying proble~ntoday in archaeology is not pay, which seems to me to be quite enough to live on, let alone cars a n d cigarettes all the time; it's a lack of respect, a n d I know

Final Comment
/ w e that this finds you somewhere

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warm and away from the pen70us frosts' nursing a cuppa! This has bee17 a rather larger /hall normal issue; normal service resumes in the new veac in its new format. We would all like to thank those who have made contributior~.rto our scurn70us rag throughout the last year, and Fe that you will continue to do so. //%as -far e~c~>edecr' sliccess W-ehoped it the would have, hendirg the ears of [hose that matter, and with your help will carry on growing. Thank you, thank vou, wherever you are...

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<TheLHgger'is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE.

Issue No 9 January 2000 PO Box 39 1

Abingdon Oxon OX14 3GS www.archaeo.freesenre.co.ulc/New-S-Views.htm1
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Self Em~lovment. Self Em~owerment..
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(The fdlowing drliclt. was written h y I /he director o l a slnall archac~o/c@a. practice , a rt-spo~~sc. an arlick 01; m to the lack of meril ih h-.in,n sdl: ~ l m p l q publi,shcJ in The nigger 6): v~~ 'Your correspondetit (Issc:e 6 ) i~ correct in his assessment of the relative benefits of self-employment of site staff, in that A T 'THE MOMENT they certainly fall o n the employer, though h e a p p e a r s not to havc recognised that [ h e self-employed should also charge for employers NI tributions, sickness insurance, pensions etc., and that selfemployment offers far more scope for negotiating higher rales. Let's look a h e a d a t w h a t MIGHT BE, rather than moaning a b o u t the presenl. Currently, Archaeology UK Ltd is struggling to a d o p l lhe vestments of professionalism, principally by emulating the construction i n d u s t p w e all feel jolly imporlant in o u r yellow coats don't w e - b u t is hobbled in doing s o by adherence to employment structures developed prePPG16. Yet t h e nature a n d a m o u n t of employment in UK archaeology 1999 is wholly different to w h a t i l w a s e v e n only 10 years ago. There is a h u g e a , 7unl of 'archaeology' being d o n e , mnst of il in tlie form of assessme~its/c.valua tions!waLching briefs of short duration, whilst [here is a national shortage of skilled sitc staff ( w h y you haven't all exploited this simple economic fact, I don't know). However the bulk of the work is still being undertdken by the old Units ;IC:;. naincs a n d (despite !heir corporate logos) w h o pull their hair o u t trying to juggle the conflicling d e m a n d s of [his erratic work profile with the maintenance of large pools of slanding staff. T h e administrative costs of d o i n g s o a n d the necessitv of planning b u d g e t s a n d rates in advance contribute to the generally low pay

rates for site workers, a n d indeed for everyone elsc. Dul look closely a t t h e II'A vcarbook o r C'r~rrc~~~l~ ' h d ~ d o ~'l)irk:ctory Ar ;v Archacvlogy', Lhcrc arc sliiall I'rofcs>,ior~~~l I'racticcs I.;yrir.~giligu p ' ~ i l over the U K exploiting the increasing d e m a n d for archaeological services that the larger units canno1 - o r can't be bothered lo - cope with. T h e s e smaller practices all learn quickly that wage ratcs for smaller projects are larsely irrelevant; for a n evaluation lasting - 5 days, t h e difference between paying a skilled site worker L5 per h o u r a n d Lli) per hour h a s little real impact o n the final price a s far a s the client is concerned they expect to pay a few t h o u s a n d p o u n d s for [heir archilectural a n d planning services, s o a similar bill [or drchaeological cvaluation doesn't raise even a n eyebrow, never mind a query. Furthermore, in o r d e r to get good people a t short notice for short jobs, w e - the Professionals - have to pay well. Good people are exlremely important; the F1 consequences of d n incorreclly interpreted cvalualinn o r watching brief a r e potentially very -xpensive, so thal only t h e most sxpericnced diggcrs should be used o n Lhcse projects. Now, a s a n occasional -~nployer,faced with a choice &lween two good diggers, 1 will c ~ s clhc o n e who already h a s SE status to avoid the hassle of working o u t the tax a n d NI For 5 d a y s in the middle of Lhe tax vear. i foresee, within the next 5-10 ycars, h i the slrcicture c l w h a t w e laughably call 'the profession' will zhange dralnatically. Evcrv market .own will have ils archaeological practice, run by o n e o r [ W O s e a s o ~ i e d m hacologists each with li)-20 years 3xperience a n d a modes1 publication word. They will d o desk-top m e s s ~ n e n t s a n d consultancy work, 3ossibly acting a s Archaeological

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Frojecl Managers to local construction projects; thcv will sub-conlracl small tcams of ecluallv cxpcricnccd diggcrs 10 d o the silc w o r k Tor cvalualions, walching briefs a11d small excavations, .inccryoratil~g lhc.ir r c i : ~ r d ink) Llic ~ resullant reports. 'l'he Learns of diggcrs will negotiate prices o r rates for each job separately, d e p e n d i n g o n work load, Lvpe of site, distance from base, their reputation a n d efficiency etc. The inexpericnccd dnd timid will start Lhcir carccrs with the large unils, gaining experience on set-'iece excavations before being allowed to d o evaluations a n d watching briefs, Lhcn moving to private praclicc a s rR0T:I-SSIONA1.S o r self-employed CONTRACTC>RS, only after they h a d accrued e n o u g h expericncc a n d a reputation for reliabilitv. At that poinl w e will have succeeded in emulaling the conslruction industrv, but not Self-employed s t a t u s s h o u l d nol a l a n n site a n d (.>[her short-term workers, it heralds the start of the next major change in the wav UK archaeology is organised. C h a n g e is good, embrace i t a n d move on.'

Fantasy Unit League 1999 Awards
After a n incredible first year of lhe league, il's n o w crunch time for [hose units that were enlered by tlie hapless individuals w h o have had to work for them. I f you missed o u t o n gelling your rcsults in, don'l worry. Th? league will continue this year,.as [here arc plcnly more sorry looki~ig cc..ndidates ~ n o c k i n g a r o u n d w h o haven1[ been included. GET

SCRIBHl..INC!
Wc had to havc a bit of a rethink o n the prizes, a s a sliorl discussion with o u r k i ~ i d l ypostal depot revealed Lhal t h e s e n d i n g of offensive malerial through [ h e post (viz rotten eggs) is actually illegal a n d a prosecutable :)[fence; m u c h a s w e would LOVr.! to

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'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter exislug entirely on donations. A l l donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Diaer'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Digger'on the web, admirably maintained by Backtrack Archaeology, with extra art and discussion areas. Check it.

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W e would like to apologise for the middle two pages of the ldst issue being bdck-to-front, hence all the stickers. This w a s d u e to an error Wages, Contracb Sick Pay, Holiday during the photocopying; the s h o p IJay, A ccommodation, a n d Respecf concerned has been bombed. For those seemed like the most important w h o didn't actually notice, ignore this aspects, so each O gets 4 points, bit. It never happened, honest... each 0 2 points a n d 0 nulpoints, & Letters Bombs of course. 1 point deducted for twotier wage systems (m); 1 point Dirt versus Gown... I've never understood how deducted for expensive 'academic' archaeologists can profess accommodation (E), 1 point added for free away dccornmodation (c?); to mdke their cdreers o n sites, that but none deducted for waits on sick they cannot offer a n opinion on how and holiday pay (9) a s all units they were excavdted or recorded. That w h o did this got panned in this 3ne facet alone should have becn mough to have had 'dirt' category anyway! archaeologists trained and organised Free Equipmen4 Training and Good Archaeology get maximum to minimum standdrds. Sorry, I marks of 2 points for each O, 1 graduated in History - s o I'm not a point for each 0, a n d again, nowt 'true' archaeologist. The transition to academically fer yer 0. 'qualified' only field staff has led to a The grand total, therefore, should a d d quite shocking drop in field project u p to 30 points (plus a n y additional standards. Examples include - 'we points as previously detailed). Maths Aodt clean sections any more', 'why was never my strong point, but here A w e have to clean the site first?', o a re the results (fanfareddrum- 7aving to prompt supervisors to draw mlldthunder and lightning etc.): jections - and then they had to be guided, no questions (the what, why, where, when, how?) of the actuai Aeposits. That w a s on my l d s t 'circuit' jite, which I only got onto a s a U NAA 19 1 'ostgraduate archaeological student. I was the only person to have redd a n d issimilated the site brief - during the ea breaks. The other non-graduate was the oidy person qualified to drive he 1.5 tonne dumper! Interestingly,

d o it, I'm not doing time for dodgy oeufs. So as a coinpromise w e arc going to knock u p some immensely tasteful certificates for the winning and losing units to proudly display in their entrance-halls/offices/torture chambers. They'll most likely get binned, but keep your eyes peeled and let u s b l o w if [hey appear. The awarding of points has proved a bit of a headache, a s when w e set this daft caper u p w e didn't think i t through (as per usual). However, after musing for ten long minutes whilst o n the loo, I think the following should just about work:

So the clear winner is Bedford, dn oasis of niceness in dn otherwise bdrren desert of organisationdl complacency. As for Tees, well what cdn I say? Certificates winging their way to them both. If you disagree with the results, then re-enter dny unit already mentioned for the next bash, and we'il see if the the picture changes for 2000. We dwait with baited breath ...

out of the twelve others on site, 1 was the only digger producing any finds...

Watching the Wardens... '? I t seems like the Leicester scheme (sct. The Dimer, Lssue 7) is an
excellent idea in theory, a formal way of getting local dlnateurs involved, except- for the bit when they start doing the professionals' jobs for them, instead of merely being helpers to the professioi~als.Them gathering info o n sites, visiting them to check u p on them and suggesting new ones all seem OK, but watching briefs no way! I've been digging for 2 years, have worked o n a number of sites, and 1 still wouldn't feel 1-00 confident .ng a watching brief on my own without more experienced back-up to hand. And i t doesn't sound like the back-up will be there for the Wardens. Also, how well will they be able to stdnd their ground if they don't have the -xperience, when a developer is not being a s co-operative as they might in facilitating the watching brief. And that would have knock on effects of :he type of "well, they only sent an 3mateur s o there can't be anything ~orthwhile here". Dodgy way to start. 3 I hope w e won't be seeing any n o r e of the 'Archaeological Warden' schemes u p here [Scotland]. O u r Zouncil Archaeologist thought it was a good idea to let the local he "3ge group carry out their own wat~n'ing xief on their new centre. Both the p u p and the Council Archaeologist 'ailed to appreciate the significance of :he 0.75m of 'top soil - in an area where it is normally 75mm! Even worse, they seem to have removed arge parts of a n early medieval iron melting a n d working- site ...( think Zoppergate) which I ended u p digging IS a o n e day watching brief mvself!

An Apology (sorry)

Apathy in the UK
1 was delighted to read Chri: ; Can~bian's aptly titled piece ( L h z ' A.Iua7, Orgmjst,, in Issue 7) but wa: concerned by the cornmmts whiclfollowed i t . As a n IPMS rcprescntativc ill srnall unit, rccruitmcr~i has becl. one of I I I ~ major headaches dnd I anstill not entirely sure why. I'br thosc. w h o d o no1 have idc:ological reason> against joining a 'Trade Union - why Lhc reluctance? S o many times l havt heard colleagues cry 'If only thcre wa> a r organisation that reprcscr?ted us'. 1r ' ,e : is, but you have to join it tc make a diffcrencc a n d the more whc join, thc bigger the difference will be. Some of the main reasons why arcl~~icologists reluctant L join arc: are o 1. I .ack of U r g c a a - many pcoplc only gcl round to joining a Union when Lhcy lccl threatened by redundancy, changes to working conditions, disciplinary action, etc. Joining before you reach crisis point means you can influence cvcnls to the point w h e w Lhc crisis is averled, noi just for yourself but I your colleagues a s well. 2. Indifference - After years o f watching the IFA never quite getting k o doing anylhing, round an-haeologists often sewn to fcel pc- aless to influence their o w n working lives. They don't believe joining a Trade Union will rnakc a difference. Believe me, i t does - not just to the big things like k i n g able to negotiate better pay a n d condilions, but also a s a source of information, advice a n d support. 3. Lovalty - Joining a Trade Union isn't a n indication of disloyalty to your employers a n d it shouldn't be seen a s such. Many enlightened employers these days welcome, o r even positively encourage, Trade Union membership amongst their employees. Membership gives you the ability to influence dnd enhance your working lifc a n d the

I desire to d o so is not o n e that I would
regard a s particularly subversive. 4. I.ack of. continuity ol employment - Although individual membership of IPMS has many haicfits, official recognition by your cmployer cnables you to start influencing your working conditions and for this, you need your colleagues to join up as well. Thc situation is complicated when, as in archaeology, people arc moving between contracts a n d organisations all the time. However, if you have individual membership a n d you work for a n organisation which has officially recognised II'MS, you are included, no maticr how short your contract. So, the more n i e m k ~ r s ,the mare likely it is you arc going to end u p represented by arl officially recognised Union W herever you work. 5. 1.ack of Money - not much I can say about Lhis one! For some people, the subscription will be just o n e demand too many o n a n already overstretched budget. FIawever, if you can afford it - join. If your circurnslances change (i.e. you're laid off) you can change your subscripkion right away and unemployed membership is free for the first year. 6. Apathy - this seems to be the most common obstacle to joining up, and the most difficult to deal with. All I can say is - if you're not preparded to even try to change things then you deserve the ~ o n d i t i o n syou get. The whole point is that nobody has to d o it by themselves. At the e n d of the d a y it doesn't matter why you join - whether its the credit zard a n d cheaper insurance deals, the need to protect yourself from unscrupulous employers, fear of -edundancy, belief in Trade Unionism l r simply a concern for the profession you have chosen a n d the way it is w a d e d . As a member, you can get a s nvolved a s you like or sit back a n d let

someone else d o all the work. Whatever your reasons a n d whatever you want to get o u t of it, a s a member you will be part of a n organisation thai looks after you, supports a n d advises you a n d represents you, a t local level in your day-to-day working life a n d at national level, influencing government policy that affects you. Mow many more reasons d o vou need?

IFA Pro-active Shocker!
In what can only be described a s a moment of extreme motivation by the Institute, moves are afoot to set u p a Special Interest Group for diggers. Matthew Reynolds, a digger currently serving on the IFA Council, is COordinating the exercise. H e needs the names of a minimum 15 members (including Affiliates) w h o wish to become members of the group, a n d 5 members (excluding Affiliates) w h o wish to act a s thc organising cornmittce. 'This will be a n excellent opportunity to get issucs across to the IFA, s o GET AC'TIVE! Contact Matthew at the IFA for more details. The annual conference is also likely to be interesting, a s Wednesday's session consists of full day discussing short contracts, poor terms a n d conditions and poor pay for diggers. RAOs are being encouraged to pay for their diggers to go, s o badger your boss now! If anyone fancies reporting o n the conference for us, w e may be able to swing a small donation to the fees :oo. You don't need to be a member to p, SO NO EXCUSES! Brighton 4-6 April; details from the IFA.

T d e s From The Other Side
N e have heard of Lhe plight of the jigger, now hear tales froni the other side, o r should I say the other half. -or reasons of kindness the digger in juestion shall remain nameless, but his story is true. When I met him a .ew years ago I had my work cut out o repair the damage of 15 years in

staff have left the profession in droves various stales of decay themselves. Archaeology. Whcrc do I start? Is it so bad to want good Food, a nice and we have failed in our attempt to Physical: Bad back a n d knackered knees, so who i b Lhe lucky one who house, a crap cat and security for the replace hard knowledge with cheap to look after him whcn hc is future? Not to mention the lurv of a labour. In our haste to slit each others brnken? Add to that a dodgy stomach good wuman ...... after all a partner is throats to win contracts, we have seriously undervalued ourselves to that had expanded to fill half my flat for life, not just between digs. our multi-million pound turnover (all that lovely I.orry driver type food), Letters Bombs &,' zlients and carried out excavations that let's IIOL forgct ~ h smoker's cough, the c Another Unit Director Writes... are often farcical. h e r belly (hidden the fat) and For sometime now I have been Somebody somewhere has to buck the grinding tecth..JusL where do I reading your publication. I enjoy the trend, and I believe we at Winnits start.... Fie must have had hidden debate it has started - it has certainly Archaeology can lead the way. For a depths, I hear you say. made some of us think about a few start, we will no longer be a PLC - I I1ot.s thi5 person r e m i ~ ~ d you of uncomfortable truths that we have am turning the company into a someone yet? preferred to sweep under the carpet in worker's co-operative. Profits will be Mcntal: Stressed and jc~~npy, wlth the the past. shared equally among staff and there attention span of a three-year-old, 1 have begun to realise just how out of will be no more casual hiring and deep in thought about obscure Middle touch we in the upper echelons of firing. We will no longer sell ourselves Rronzc Age feaLurcs, but an inability archaeological management have down the river when bidding for sites, to deal wlth anything more complex become. My own large income, private or encroach on others territory. '.ir than o p e n ~ n ga tin of beans, - REAL pension, comfortable house and clean, database of knowledge will be shafed WORLII rHORIA. Hc explained it to well-scrubbed children are in stark amongst our former competitors. rnc as being a h111 time archaeologist \ contrast to the lives of many of my Laugh if you like, but please part time human. current and former employees - I have remember my selfless gesture when Stdl not remind you n f someonc? never had to sign on or do secretarial you pass me, holding my tin of Super 1.lnancial: Pass m e my laughing corset As temping - and until recently I never outside the shopping centre. as I have just split my sides. realised that my own comfort could someone who had their own thc flat, a Fantasy Unit League I1 never have been obtained unless at permanent job and a car, imagine my Round 1 their expense. dclight at flnding somconc who As the director of one of the more thought negat~vc eqc~itywas a good thing. ItitermitLerit pay\no pay makes hawkish practitioners of competitive life interesting don't you think? tendering I should not be having these ; Sick pay ? @<L> ; I'specially when you must find money thoughts - it is madness a n d Holidav nav? 1 for that ~nortgagc, bills, shopping, professional suicide. It never bothered I Accolnmoda tion? l @ : council Lax, pctrol, ctc. etc. etc..... Oh me before that I could be making my ; Free equipment? 0 i he did manage to buy the odd bottle of employees homeless by laying them ! Anv available trainine? 1 0 off, or that I kept them on a scale of vodka from time to time. Feel free to Contracts 1 month-t? Q I apologise to your partncr anytimc in pay comparable to unskilled labour, or f Level of respect for staff O _I that they had to spend long hours the ncxt few days. I Good archaeolo~y? -----J I have now come to terms with life travelling to and from my sites. I t was only when one of my exwith a freelance archaeologist, with a Key: fcw major modifications. He-looks a employees c hanged his name to 0 GreaVyes o~~ as& @ lot better now (slim and innit its ~ r c h a e o l PLC Passabletyes Badho sexy. .... honestly) and his mental state Bastards" after I laid him off without @ notice a week before Christmas that I is nearly that of a nomial human Two tier depending on experience being. As to thc old bug bear - money x g a n to have doubts. The press had a Free for 'away' sites only. 'ield day, colleagues began sniggering 3 No. of months wait. - he is not bad now and manages to pay half of everything (which is nice). x h i n d my back, my wife refused to E Costs a bit! When he started to change, his fellow ;peak to me and Winnits Archaeology @ Self employed only. archaeologists trcated him with ?LC lost clients. Sleepless nights Finances suspicion (1 of course got the blame for 3ecame the norm. this a ~ p a l l i n g state of affairs) a s it was : now realise that my love for Mrs. a threat to the belief in the immortal Thatcher a n d her economies has had Total contributions consequences for Total costs (projected) BLI secretly maybe they Aisastrous t digger!! End bdance wanted the same; as they are in L~rchaeology.Experienced and talented 'The Digger'is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All dlonations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Digger' on the web, admirably maintained by Backtrack Archaeology, with extra a r - d discussion areas. Check it.

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Issue No 1 March 2000 1 PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX14 3 G S m.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk/News-Views.html

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Last year, Kenr~eth Aitchison wrote tc us d i n his hrthcoming publication Profilirrg the Frofessioar. Ifi his letter, he said there wa> informatio~~ which didn't mdke it ink the 'official' report which he was kmfi to disseminate, On the 7th Movemfm; with the publication now free@ a vailable, we wrote to -him with the following questions: 1 - .'he survey claims to be a n accurate representation of the archaeological workforce. Ye1 the original premise of the survey was to contact any organisation employing archaeological staff and to get a responsc from the organisation or_llv, rather than Lhe workforce itself. The survey therefore is e~;tirely skewcd tc a n employers perspective of the siiuation, rather than getting to the employees il sl&s to profile. 'The survey t o ~ ~ l d perhaps have encouraged the d i ~ t r i ition of b~ questionnaires to a!l staff interested in replying so as to get a Iu!.ier picture. Why was this not done? 2. The questionnaire asks for t h e number of paid stall employed by each or-misation, yet does rmt stipulate tk,staff should 'be includeci. it is therefore feasible that those staff who are on temporary (:ontracts and employed perhaps I'or c r d y a s h r t time will not have been cunslderx! .:>S 'paid staff' (as opposed to, say, a project officer on a 6 rnontln coniract) during summation. Simi!arIy, anydiscussion of benefits may only have related to those considered more 'permanent' by the respondent rather than perhaps those wore 'temporary r, (diggers often don't receive siclaess or holiday pay). How much of i: factor would this be in distorting the results? 3. The geographical distribution of the workfcrce presented sonre surprises; according to the results, there arc no excavators or site assistants working in Scotland or Wales, yet there are a number of contracting units in both

countries who employ staff (e.g. SUA?' in Scotland; CPA'T in Wales). Similarly, there are no excavation staff listed in the North-East, the NorthWest and Mersey, the West Midlands and London (all also home to a number of units - MOLAS, PCA, UMAU, NAA etc.). Is this a n indication of non-response by units to the sai-~eyin these areas, or has this category of staff been excluded by those supplying Lhe information? If so, can the survey really accurately represent a picture of British archaeology without these statistics? 4. The survey states that two thirds of archaeo1ogis:s are on permanent contracts, and that the average contracl. l w g t h is 13 ~nollths.Further si:a tiskics s:.ate !hat 72% of staff wxlting ::)I- at-chaeo!ogkal contractors have a'c thelr place of work for more t h k t i l a year. In view of the (uncertain) nurnber of archaeologists working a t the iowcst levels of the profession, .c)fter~ a very temporary on basis, do you not consider that this lig~i'e map be slightly inaccurate, and is indicative that these people may have been overiooked in the survey? (NB. stdndard contracts offered to zca-$3tors/sil:e assistants average 1 month).. r 5. -i h e averclge salary for full-time 3rchaeologists is P,'17,079 according to :he survey. By your own admission: " h e r e may be a sample bias against bhe poore" paid (temporary) staff. Not 311 oiganisalions responding gave details or these employees" :Aitc hison, P.rofiiing the Pmfession) . 5 o w cou!d this have been avoided? Do you believe these figures on a ~ e r s c n a level? l ; The survey asks whether there is . nvolvement of volunteers within a n ~rganiscilinn,statistics for which are riuly provided. However, there is no nei~ticm of the roles which the mluntcers actually perform within an

specifically asked on the questionnaire. Were employers generally cagey about replying to this section, and to what extent are volunteers employed in the active - contracting areas of archaeology? 7. It could be argued that there is a statistical gulf in the result-s, and that those at the very rawest edges of the profession have not been represented. Do you consider that the survey has been a success, in view of this factor, and that the 'profile' is a full picture? How could this problem have been overcome? Should a further, more in depth, survey be carried out, now that the limitations of this exercise have been revealed? As yet/ our questions haven't been answeed. Wonder why?

Digging Jobs ONLINE!
A new free service is being provided to all diggers (Rc archaeological staff generally) which will help those seeking w o ~ k ,and those seeking workers, find each other. The ~ r i t i s h Archaeological Jobs Resource is an internet service. designed to provide a searchable list of available archaeological staff for excavations/other positions, as well as a bulletin board detailing up to the minute news of forthcoming vacancies within the archaeological community. The service, run by Backtrack Archaeology, is free for all entrants, whether units or archaeologists. The searchable CV database requires archaeologists to submit a shortened svnopsis of their CVs which employers can search for required characteristics. The information required is as foIlows: Name; Address; Phone numbers [minzinm7 of one reqznkd; E-mail , address [optiona4; S i l kl [digger, osteologist, researcher, surveyor etc... any combination of terms c7llowab,le]; Years experience; Other information [only acceptable in dipg7taI form - send disks]

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the F A , unions, or anyone else who will use the stairs! That night in the disco bal listen. Anyone interested should write to (eek!), tlu-pugh a lavish sea of dry ice, 'Class Action' at our address and we will happenedlto pass comment to the samc MU about my absolute abhorrence o; forward any mail. 70's PAP (music). "Hey, now just holc L&Letters Bombs 4 F on a moment young man!" said the I was about toss my copy of The clearly hurt MAA, "this happens to be Archaeologist (36) into the Tesco carrier my era! It's before your t&e so yoc bag (special file!) that hangs on my ddn't appreciate it". At that p i n t we kitchen door, when at another quick flick struck a friendly conversation ... through it, I noticed your article and l leased to meet you. And you are?".. o decided L rescue it. A refreshing change and you can guess-the rest ... amidst this small world of blinkered, in- The IFA might see CPDs and PAPS a s a house back-slappers! h myopic style the "key to ou; future", but could we firs1 F A is currently preoccupied with CPD have a key to unlock the door of IAF and PAP -. but in all seriousness, what is (Inherent Age Prejudice?). the point of spending time promoting R A suggestion for the older digger I West Yorkshire Pay Farce this Samuel Smiles approach when our (letters, issue 8). Next time somebody A digger has written to us to highlight a little world is rife with ageism? suggests working in temperatures of problem which appears to be occurring Some 18 months ago I did a telephone minus 20 degrees, try turning ; . as a matter of routine at West Yorkshire 'follow up' action (I suppose the F A flame-thrower on them. Archaeology Service regarding their pay would express it a s a PAP exercise?) on a system. It appears that random sums of failed job application for a 'Community Fantasy Unit League money are being deposited in former Archaeologist' (no piizes for guessing Round 2 employees' bank accounts without prior the name of this RAO). r--------------------- 1 nohfication or any form of invoice, after The director came on the line: "I'm s o n y I University of Durham I having left WYAS. The consequence is you didn't get the job, but if it's any I ~ r c h a e o l o & c a lServices I that a few weeks down the line when the consolation you were on the shortlist of a Wages - above EZOO? 00 hapless digger realises the error, the half dozen, narrowed down from I , Sick Dav ? money is spent and the County Council upwards of 50 applicants!". So where are then on their backs to retrieve the did I go wrong? Was it the relevant money, often numbering large sums (a degree, the extensive teaching case where an individual is paying back experience, the computer literacy, or just £7.50 has k e n quoted). In a climate the decade in British field archaeology? I where finances are tight, often down to a was assured that I had "sailed through I Contracts 1 month+? I Q I weekly basis, diggers do not have the admirably" on all the requested job Level of resvect for staff I C3 ! capital to suddenly repay these amounts criteria, but ... "we are a young team 'L--------Good archaeology?---- -----L and are forced to desperate here and we felt that a s you are in your as Visa cards Ws, well, you are just too o l d "And Key: means.. ..such Greattyes ('shudder*). ...in order to get their houses how old are you?" I asked. "Ah, well C3 back in order, causing distress m d loss now, you see that doesn't count because C3 Passablelyes of time for the individual concerned. The I'm the boss" he laughed, evidently 0 Badlno problem appears to stem from the unit pleased with his own humour. Two tier depending on experience using the County Council acco~mting Not the first encounter of the kind that d' Free for 'away' sites oniy. No. of months wait. procedures, which fail to understand year. But when one is mindful of one's 8 short-term archaeological contracts and position as an out-of-work archaeologist £ Costs a bit! the problems which they pi-oduce (and and understands only too well the small @ Self employed only. often also fails to provide receipts for world of the discipline, it is better not to Finances 'repaid' moneys). As a n aside, the make a scene. County Archaeologist was reputedly the At the IFA annual 'do' lasl year in hest paid county archaeologist in the Glasgow, having returned to the Halls of Total contributions countly in the mid to late 1990s... Residence after a run, I found myself Total costs (projected) The digger in question would like to hear sweatily sharing a cramped lift with a End balance 654 from other folmer employees of WYAS friendly middled-aged - archaeologist who have experienced similar problems, (MAA) who jovially suggested that so as'to form a group to badger the unit, someone of my years and fitness should non-profit making newsletter existing entirely donations. All lonations welcome, cheques should be made o u t to T h e Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Digger'on the web, admirably maintained by Backtrack Archaeolom, with extra art a n d discussion areas. Check it. Any information regarding vacallcies which can be passed on to the service provider will allow others to know where to gel more work, and will be posted on the bulletin board. Units are encouraged to make use of this service by p s t i n g their own adverts to the BAJR to get further coverage than they might otherwise get from media alone. Access to the internet is not required to take part in this scheme; post the required details to us, marked RAJR, or to 5/2 Hamilton Terrace, Edinburgh, EH15 1NR. The cost of a stamp could make a difference to your career.. . www.archaeo.freeserve.co.u~

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Issue lrlo 12 May 2000

PO Box 391
Abingdon Oxon O X 1 4 3GS wwu7.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk

Irish Dig :ing Boom Damaginl : Rights?
As many people are aware, there is at present a digging boom underway in Ireland, on the back of road schemes and development in general. This has seen a large number of British diggers, frustrated with working conditions here, making a break for Holyhead in the search for more money and a better life. In issue 6, we publicised the quite disproportionate difference in wages which ltish diggers get paid in c. _-.parison to our lowly scraps - a site assistant can get L386.25 as well as subsistence and other benefits. However, reports are coming back that the situation is not a s rosy as we may have portrayed. Despite the high pay rates, the exchange rate means that pay at the archaeological worker level is pretty much the same as in Britain. Furthermore, the benefits situation is very much dependent on who you work for (no surprise there). Workers for Valelie Keeley Ltd have reported that not only were travel expenses nonexistent, but that in order to get to rural sites, workers had to hire their own mini-buses as none were supplied. Staff were invited bv application form to undertake watching briefs, which meant a higher ri of pay, and time-and-a-half for o3mtime. Yet, once again no transport was provided for this, and the early starUlatc finish meant the shared transport was out, that taxi costs would cancel out any benefits and so invariably onlv car owners could undertake the work. As with archaeologists in Britain joining the IPMS, many archaeologists in lreland have been joining SIYTU (one of Ireland's largest unions) to try and get their voices heard. Communications across the different counties have been helped by a recently formed group called WAAG (Workers in Archaeology Action its Group) which amongst accomplishments produces a regular newsletter. A survey conducted by WAAG of the archaeological work-place in Ireland produced results which are sadly not that unfamiliar: bad pay, no health and safety, sick pay, contracts etc.
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The pace of development in Ireland is such' that delavs in the construction industry cause2 by the archaeological process are being blamed directly on the archaeologists. The National Roads Authority (NRA) for one are trying to push through legislation concerning archaeology which could not only have a diverse effect on archaeologists but could irreversiblv damage the also archacologicdl record. I h e N R A have stated that they will no longer pay archaeologists for breaks, lunches, wet time (hours lost end u p being extended at the archacologists' cost) o r holidays, amongst others. Workers state that a recent job was under such pressure from the County Council and road-builders, who were desperate to find fault with the archaeologists, that the unit they were working for (VJK 1-td again) caved in, allowing break-times to be cut back. Diggers were counted twice a day (echoes of Stalag Luft?), watched from a distance (big black land-rovers on the horizon being a sure sign of trouble) and photos of archaeologists apparently not working were taken with ldng lenses. Our source states "this invevitably boiled down to the usual ignorance and misconceptions about archaeological work; i.e i f we are not down a hole chucking soil, then we are not working". Rumours state that the NRA are also pushing proposals (still at the discussion stage at present) which will severely cut down the amount of treatment an archaeological site on road schemes receive, with only 'standing archaeology' to be dealt with, and no 'subterranean' work to be undertaken at all, not even as watching briefs. These are probably onlv extreme proposals in order to provide haggling space for the authority, but even the middle-ground will inevitably spell bad news for the archaeology. SIPTU are actively fighting against the NRA proposals, lobbying the Heritage Secretary and chairing emergency meetings, in order to respond to the threat. Though the arguments are likely to rage for months, this is a c~ucialtime for archaeology. Unless the conipanies stick together and refuse to sign

contracts which con~promisethe welfare of the diggers and ihe sites then these conditions will become the norm; as the SIFTU newsletter stdtes: "we have got to make demands now while the canvas is still blank, before precedents are set and the system becomes s o solid we are unable to shake it". Feedback suggests that diggers generally feel under-v&ed and d i ~ & ~ e & xbv their employers, and l . that they- do no( see the companies sticking "p for their rights, unles; there was financial advantage to themselves. Tenders have already been submitted under conditions where archaeologists will be not allowed breaks; any further pressure by developers niay see other rights evaporating ds well, as financial constraints always end up being passed on to the lowest tiers. The NRA are already pushing for diggers to work the same hours as machine-drivers - daylight

PO Box 7076, Ru/lc)r7d Place, Dublin I ------------------------.
P M 5 (ArcChdeo/ogyBranch) 76 ,Scacroft Road, York, Y024 IDD http:/www.ipn?s. org. uk

A Conference for who?
So another [IFA] conference rolls around and, if you are anything like in my predicament, disappears off without so iZii~!i a s or! i;; =;.v -'irX5;,32. The 'Ch conferences are just a waste of time, no use to any digger For starters, the IFA has been running these conferences for years yet only now is i t even thinking about sorting out its house a s regards diggers. At n o point in the last X amount of years has there been any attempt to get diggers involved; in their minds you were never 'propcr' until you'd reached the level of project officer, or had done a Phd and nipped in the quick way. I know for a fact that a number of 'high u p archaeologists' (County Archaeologists and a few others) aren't even bloody members and take no interest in the Issues, yet get a cash bung to go every yedr during whlch time they catch up on their shopping.

- possibly something to d o with the slight Matthew Reynolds

Now all of a sudden the IFA seem to care reached everyone! What exactly does this I t stinks, and with any luck i t will soon rlo for the people he rot a w a y irritations caused by your production is supposed to be representing, or come Of course the BAJR does have its faults. (ma-vbe ...&d.Only I don't actually to that Peter Hinton? Bugger all as far a s Without a Iaptop, modem and mobile reckon they do care, because to be quite I can see. I hope against hope that phone, how is the digger on the circuit honest all the efforts they make are people do start joining the IFA in their going to access the website? And I would tissue-thin. Take this idea of getting masses and making the token working hate to see the e n d of the fights over the diggers to the 'stratification in committee they've set u p work against Guardian at teabreak on a Wednesday archaeology' discussion; a significant them, so they rue the day they ever took morning in fear of being laid off, the accumulation o f idea. Get d g g e r s face to face with the big on the job. But most people think the followed by bosses, so as to get their ideas across and IFA stinks, and quite frankly so d o I, and shredded ncwspaper all over the of the site mavbe make sorne changes. Or so you'd 1 doubt I'll join again. How's about floorlseatslwindows think. Only instead of actually doing actually seeing these peoplc on a few hut/van/portaloo. that, they just mention i t on the quiet m sites, making visits and stirring u p Fair critic is^^?.^: vacancies are nahrra/!v everyone who is going knows about it interest. Or are the officcs too warm? I hard lo see wilhoul PC access...speaking and thinks 'oh how praiseworthy are still haven't heard anything about how as one who doesn'l have access to the they', and i t bypasses the rest of us like Lhe conference went or how many nel, I know exacUy what you mead every other year. Take their advert for attended. ..how about sorne facts, or are Solutims are: lo ba+er your unit to do regular prinlorrls (bound not lo work h to the session in The Archaeologist. They these only for the select few too? /ibra';v/internet cafe service ,_,~y offered paid help for diggers to go to the Top ranting article o f the year. D N ~ G use conference and stated that units should Sn?i/es,you ha VC been rechrislened. IFA. cos/ -vou BUT cheaper lhan IFA subs!) or an6 sneak into PC World and pretend to be pay for their staff to go. What use was it contribule a piece on the c~oderence buying a computer (I do this when I advertising i t only in there? I'm a WC will prinl il. Ed wanl to see how the web pages are member of the IFA, but no one else was & Letters Bombs & ping$. Wllere /here's a will... .Ed (some. 8 people o n one site I worked on and 6 on another), and so no one else - Hurrah! It's a huge relief to see that Fantasy Unit League I1 would have evcn been aware of the offer the BAJR is finally online. If the F A had Round 3 - most diggers are too poor to join. ever pulled their fingers out, they could have achieved the same thing - they have Stinks, right? Amazingly enough the (1FA-approved) unit we were all working the contacts and the resources - and hey, for (were, as we are now dole-bound with all the cash they squeeze out of 0 Wages - above f2W? once more) also neglected to mention their members, Lhey can sure a s hell I Sick nav ? 0 = I I this generous offer because they were in afford i t (I don't belive their protests that Holidav pav? 0 they are on a shoestring budget) (God. the middle of a crisis a s regards a badly I! I Accornmoda tion? v-. tendered site which ended u p with us all Bdsh the IFA monlh! Eel). However, I am Free e q u i p m e n t ? @ butchering the archaeology, surprise curious that they did not see f i t to compete with this clearly superior service Anv available trailling? surprise (how EH'S David Smiles can @ I support competitive tendering when i t or even join forces with i t . I h e y must f Contracts 1 month41 0 has ruined more sites than i t has saved is have known that the majority of their Level of respect for staff G -1 members are not actually supporters, but beyond me - which he did in the F A : Good archaeoloev? yearbook, surprise again. Wake u p are merely taking advantage of the jobs Key: David - the Heathrow job was not typical service which was never adequate 0 . a"'/..,c. r ~ . . l 1.-.or - -- -+ .a m w v a . ;-. ?ha:, i i i ~ i i : I I U W , wab tile oniv of the iisual w a y thil.~g<gci cionci) ( / E @ Passable/! es praises Hcalhmw Ternlinal -7 a big join1 bonus of m e m k r s h i p . 'They never 9 Badlno job twtwt.cn Oxford and Wcssex using managed to offer any digger any type of Two tier - depending on experience security - yet another promise they failed 'sophislicated I syslems; lo coin his T arlic-1e.m. Most of the workers only got to get off the ground. Their job service 9 -; Free for 'awa! ' sites only. I No. of months lvait. a notion of this happening because i t was was the only one of its kind, and i t was used to hide the lack of expertise and E Costs a bit! by which time mentioned in the +r, Self emplo!cd only. it was tor, bloody late to do anything general mismanagement. Hopefully, now @ anyway as we were all locked into this that they have lost the monopoly on the Finances site til death, no sick or holidays ( s o n y service, w e shall see the beginning of the demise of capitalistbastards.com. Short we couldn'l gel il on! artv earJicr. How hard would i t have been to send of forking out a lot of cash just to be sent Total co~~tributions +L25 oul some posters or leaflets or the job-sheet, I have never understood Total costs (projected) something, or publicise more why we have to provc our abilities in the End balance widely. .. The Gudrrlian might have field in order to acquire this information.
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'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter existing enth-elj on donations. AU donations \velcorne, cheques should be made out to T h e encouraged. Back-issues available, pleaw send SAE. 'The Digger'on the web, with extra art Digger'. Any contributions of material positivel~ and discussion areas: and the British Archaeological Job8 Resource, a free Jobs service for evellrone, with job adverts posted regularlj and online CV service, admirabl? maintained bj- Backtrack Archaeology. Check i t .

PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX14 3GS e-mail: cyber-digger@talk2 l .mm web: wuw.archaeo. freeserve.co.uk

Know your Digger: A Directors Guide
When choosing your site slava...s r y staff you or want to know what sort of digger you have, here are some handy hints to spot the tell tale signs oi just the s r of digger you are after. ot f The Dirt Dimr: The most common and shy o the d i ~ e species, commonly dressed in Oxfam r chique with combat trouser pockets stuffed full of things that may be useful at some time in the -future. Fingerrids are alniost always a g o d indication as to where they last dug and check the size of their howel (remember size matters). Usually communicate in a series of grunts and nc ' so don't ask them any difficult questions l&-o you have a P60/bank account. The Survevor: This sub species on the other hand is on the other end of the spectrum of flamboyance. Proudly strutting around the site with a small black notebook, nodding and going hmmmm. If you can, check the notebook (though they are carefully guarded), if it has strange hieroglyphics and numbers scrawled all over it then you may have discovered a real catch.... an actual surveyor. You have to keep an eye on them though as they usually use the theodolite to keep an eye on the talent in the nearby village. The Planner: Another flamboyant sub species with an unnatural liking for 6H pencils (place one of them on the table and see if they make a grab for it). Their belt is often hung with the tools of their trade and they tend to walk like gunslingers with their hands never far from a fear--me seven metre Stanley Tape. Th, ,~otoma~hec: Bleary and pasty faced from too long in dark rooms they are easily recognised by three tell tale signs. 1 chaffing on the back of the neck from multiple camera straps 2 An inaedible appetite for expensive black and white film 3 never being there when you want them with the excuse 'that, the light isn't right'. The Finds Assistant: Almost invariably the female of the species as this is deemed a suitable They have an job for a young lady (hmmm....M. incredible ability to create complex coding systems that only they understand. If they instantly know what MWT1004/CBM/F198 then you have definitely found one. Beware, they usually have a pet love of a certain pottery type and will often care for it to the exclusion of all others (this may affect your statistical analysis of the finds. Got it...well off you go and have fun...but remember a Digger should always be returned to their natural habitat (unemployed) as it is cruel

to keep them in captivity (...shouldn't that be Write to Rhona Brankin at the Scottish employment'?)for longer than 6 weeks. Parliament! Start a campaign!!

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Lost County Archaeologists
We are all aware of the Planning Guidelines o England, however here in Scotland we have ; different set of rules: PAN42. Paragraph 3 ' states that no work may be carried out beforc proper archaeological investigation has beer implemented This is all well and good but does it cove] regions that have no county archaeologist? Ar example would be West Lothian which wher asked if it wanted to share the Edinburgh Cio Archaeologist (who already deals with Easl Lothian), informed them that no archaeolog, existed in that area. Now correct me if I ar wrong, but this area has Cairnpapple Burial Mound, Linlithgow Palace, several castles, statelj homes, standing stones...as well as a host 01 industrial archaeology sites. Without the guidance of a planning archaeologist, just horn are planning proposals vetted? I personally know of one site, a 17th centurg farm, that was gutted and partially demolished for a courtyard development without any archaeological investigation O n being informed of this the RCAIIMS sent along a representative but they were told to leave the site as the planning dept had already passed the proposal. How many other sites suffer the same fate across the county as new estates spring up? You want to alter even slightly, a building in say East Lothian then strict guidelines are enforced. I f you want to demolish a historic building that is not protected by Historic Scotland in West Lothian then there is not a lot can be done as the proposal never passes through the hands of an archaeologist. When will a blanket coverage of the PAN42 guidelines be enforced and the appointment of a county archaeologist be made mandatory in each region? When cost-cutting exercises are implemented by councils you can guess where the first cuts are made. It is time that the councils see archaeology as a resource for the area, instead of a waste of money. HS inspectors are overworked as it is, as are regional curators who must deal with many areas at once. Simple solution....one county one archaeologist. In my work in Scotland as an archaeologist, I have noticed that people love the thought of history under their feet, even using it as a selling point for their development., until it comes time to pay for its retrieval or preservation. There needs to be a big push now for properly curated SMRs to be made a statutory responsibility of local authorities.

FTAs in rights case
FIFIXEN members who worked at the Museum of London are waiting anxiously for an employment tribunal decision concerning unlawful deductions from salary. The 15 archaeologists and specialists on fixed term appointments - were excluded from last .. year's pay deal because they left the museum between the April l . settlement date. and September 23 when the deal was approved. upto 60 more archaeologists on fixed term contracts were also excluded from the pay deal in the same way. IPMS negotiator Alan Leighton says the FTAs should receive the increase because the museum clearly indicated that all staff would be entitled to it. Excluding them amounts to an unlawful deduction under section 13 of the Employment Rights Act 1996, IPMS maintains. The museum claimed it was too difficult to contact all the FTAs involved to resolve the issue. (0IPMS Bulletin May 2000).

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SEX and lots o f it!
This is a subject that we are all familiar with (I hope) but has not yet been approached by this fine publication (er...go on... I strongly believe that every field archaeologist (apart from Gordon Childe and Mortimer Wheeler who wouldn't have women dig with them) has noticed how incestuous our profession is, and has at some point fallen victim to lusty advances of a colleague, or at least dreams of it and covets it from afar. The women are not in short skirts and suffer from perpetual bad hair days, and, instead of makeup, are smeared with whatever noxious substance is in the general area. The lads aren't decked out in their-finest either - not a sharp Italian suit anywhere (I wouldn't go out on rite in anything else The general attire of weybody is either very old and should have been left in the 1980s, or is bought from the nearest army surplus store or charity shop. Crash hats and flash jackets are not sexy. The number of times I've been mistaken for a brickie is silly. We have to be practical in our choice of slothing, and to worry about appearance or :leanliness would be unprofessional, so why on s r t h do we want to have a nice hot roll on the spoil heap with our fellow workers? Not to mention the pride of winning the boss' d k t i o n s myself and several friends have done this (different sites/bosses!) you know who you are!

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The jargon that we use doesn't help matters life', why not go on strike' A oneday, nation unhealthy competition between specialising staff How many times have the women gone to tht wide strike; perhaps with pickets, demos members, causing much upset and bad feeling. I supervisor and said (before thinking): "woulc petitions, placards, all that stuff. To let pmpk understood we were a unit, a team, working you like to come and have a look at my hole?" it- know that the archaeology of the IFA, and 01 together achieving common aims. a completely innocent manner? Back in m) television, is not the reality of most of tht Case in point: being totally ignored when tying inexperienced days, a friend of mine couldn't archaeologists of this country; to tell people thal to greet senior, and heads of unit with a cheery help but snigger when a more senior member 01 if they really gave a shit about archaeology, ther 'good morning'. Surely this is bloody common the team was going through the context s h e e ~ they should have a proper profession to deal courtesy and manners??? vnth her and said "you do know about physical with it. %se of us who pay union subscription It really gets my goat. Who do they think digs should start asking for something for our these very large holes in the ground? We are the relationships, don't you!". It doesn't make sense when site staff are all money, we need to leaflet every unit in the largest, and most important cog in the accommodated together, and end up being country, decide a day, and talk to the press. W E archaeological machine, the people who actually around each other 24 hours a day, yet still can'( need action; stop just complaining, or making do the work! I demand respect, not a lot, just the get enough of the 'coveted one'. It would be excuses to each other, and at least bean to do basic respect and acknowledgement for which lcgical that there would be more arguments than something. Things aren't going to get better on myself and fellow diggers deserve! flirting, but in fact there is an equal amount of their own, why should they?Strike! Fantasy Unit League I1 both. This is the result of that great institution: WYAS Pay Farce.. some replies Roaand 4 'healthy competition' (although these words are E I may be out of date, but somewhere in m ! y by no means synonymous). This is how it goes: dim and distant past I am sure that I remember day one of a new job. Arrive at site: I'm the being told that if an employer makes a mistake I l second woman in a sea of men. Most speech is in salary payment it can only be recovered by the l Specialists I monosyllabic. The first woman is well consent of the employee That is the employer j Wages - above f 200? i established in the unit and is far more attractive has no legal right of recovery if the mistake is : Sick - a,v ? 1 0 Ii d , - c ~ I than me. I'm sent away to dig a large hole across theirs. Agreed, you probably will not work for : Holiday ~ a v ? a ditch while she is sat gracehlly planning a them again/for long, and the law may have : Accommodation! 1 Of i feature. I'm happy female dominated sites are a changed under Thatcher etc. Get unionised is my advice and get them fighting on your behalf. : Free equipment! 8 : nightmare I'm swinging my mattock I There are unions for professionals out there; : Any available training? 0 i with gusto, sweating like a pig and feeling great find an appropriate one and get your moneys I -B ; Contracts 1 month+? Then some of the men gradually start to drift worth. over and begin to communicate with me. The RYour reader Iabwre] endeavours to assure us : Level of respect for staff 1 8 1 first woman is not happy. For the next two that an employer cannot take over payments out : Good- archaeolow?- - - - I - - - - - - - - - -( 0 ; -, - -------------: months we barely spoke. The crazy thing was of salaries. True, but I had this problem whilst that neither of us had any serious interest in working for a very large London unit, (it belongs Greadyes anybody on site and we were both already to a museum). They simply made it so that my Passable/yes attached. What's going on? Everybody seems to job was no longer tenable. They were very much Bad/no be reduced to surviving on their wits and animal aware of this too. After leaving it took me over 6 Two tier - depending on experience instincts alone. In the heat, clothing becomes weeks to get all my due pay out of them. I have Free for 'away' sites only. No. of mo~lths wait more scarce and bodies more tanned. The been assured that I will never work for them Costs a bit! shades go on, and then its survival of the fittest. again.. Ho Humm. @9 Self employed only. You strive to prove yourself when you're new, Northamptonshire rant and to the new people who join the team. B 1 am writing in utter disgust about the total ,fix a ndT u&t ~ateI$'d+nt ti &t Whether we like to admit it or not, we lack of respect shown to myself and fellow own ba* and let other p p 1 e know just htwoccasionally lose our professionalism, and it all diggers at Northampton Archaeological unit. bad .they ard Or were hy wondfvl e comes down to projecting our image. Or it could There is a total lack of communication between condirians coulddt do enough for you? Unit all be down to the funny chemicals in the higher members of staff within the unit itself, Send m in your er& far the F tanning lotion. mplt causing much upset, outrage and at times total League NOW! You got to be in it to...win *ALSO' someone-has written -into point mt I would also like to point out that most despair. archaeologists, if they're not already having a Case in point: 26th of May - current diggers thatCtheIFA minimum wage requirements are' relationship with a colleague, are likely to be contracts ending a week on Monday; being f213'fot di&ger$minimum- please adjust-any ngty...n~Q for anythf ng less!!!! having one with another archaeologist promised to be renewed for 2 weeks for ongoing dn;nriiesii~cotdi somewhere else. We bump into each other time postacavation work to be completed, all and time again, gossip is rife. One supervisor relwant staff to be contacted. Arriving back at once commented to me: "you know, the next the unit I am told again by a senior project generation of archaeologists are going to come assistant that I have 2 more weeks work. Head of Total contributions unit over-hears conversation, a s h me to enter from a very restricted gene pool". Total costs (projected) his ofice where I am told they have no more End balance -294 Letters Bombs work for me! Why doesn't senior staff tell staff, Strike! directly, THE FACTS. It IS their job to do this E Instead of sitting around in the pubs of this isn't it? l country discussing unit politics or just 'the hard Case in point: VERY LOW moral created by 'The Digger' is a non-pzofit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All donations welc:ome, cheques should be made out to The Iigger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send S LE. 'The Dimer' on the web, with extra art f md discussion areas; and the Brltkh Arohaeological Jobs Resource, a free jobs service for everyone, with jo; adverts posted regularly and d i n e CV service, admirably maintained bv Backtraok Archaeolw. Check it.

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e a l cybeydigger@talk2 .corn -m i : 1 web: www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk

Utopia Archaeologica
The problems which face archaeologists on a daily-basis are all well known, and well listed in this publication. Poor pay, short-term jobs, crap career structure ...in a sense you get the feeling that n o t h i i will ever change because it just never does, despite all the lofty words of the IFA. Diggers become Supervisors become Project Officers, and the whole system reproduces itself through time. People who once worked side by side with each other end up bitching away later in life as tb y h none of that ever mattered, and dkerately trying to steal each others work by constantly halving tenders in order to get one over on the unit down the road. Sad. My personal perception is that the problem is and will always be the worth we put on our profession as a whole. The contractors to whom we present our ludicrously low bids to wouldn't really care if they were higher...all they want is the cheapest and quickest possible work done so that they can get on with making a packet, and retiring and moving to Spain as quickly as possible. Get two units scrapping over one bit of work and there is only one winner the contractor. One solution is the cartel: if two (or more) units who mainly work in one area actually shared out the jobs, and agreed sensible costings between them before putting them to the contractor, then they would work as ,m , as before but would make more by doing so, rather than cutting each others throats to get the work off of each other. If you as a unit are worried about another unit encroaching on your territory, cut your costs then and only then, across the board of units in the area, until the encroaching unit hi cannot compete and goes elsewhere. T i only works where sane and mature adults are in charge of the units involved, and as we are all well aware, invariably only over-paid egomaniacal slightly psychotic idiots with inferiority and/or superiority complexes end up in charge. The only people who suffer are those at the raw end who are the economic victims of bad management, hence all our bad pay and appalling conditions. Simplistic this may be, but get rid of the khting and start chucking around a bit more cash and the situation could only improve. The

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Hmongst units as a whole, and I think the IFA could actually sort this out if it wanted, as it does have the systems in place with which to deal with the problem. Think about this: all work originates from the county archaeologists and the development control department of the county council, who recommend what work should be done prior to a development taking place; on the basis of this, tenders are submitted in order to land a particular contract for a particular unit, which are duly approved or rejected by the contractors. If the county archaeologists specified that & IFA-accredited units could undertake the work, this would have an effect; cowboy units would suddenly become very thin on the ground. Units submitting tenders would have to maintain the sets of standards laid out by the IFA for Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs), or else not get the work At present the scheme is only operating as a by-law of the institute, and is not directly linked to any disciplinary regulatio11~',any problems at present fall directly on the shoulders of the Responsible Postholders, which are usually the directors of the units. This means a unit has to do something REALLY bad in order to get not really an ideal solution. cautiond... However, the IFA has a whole raft of recommendations in place which units are encouraged to abide by if they want to be seen to be good RAOs, and one of these recommendations is pay. If pay-rates were made mandatury, and failure to comply was made to be a disciplinary offence punishable by expulsion, RAOs would have to comply. All units trying to seek work would have to increase their tenders to accommodate the increase in pay, or else they would not be allowed to work at all, because by failing to take account of the change they would be expelled and not allowed to tender for work by the county archaeologists. Build into the IFA accreditation process other factors such as provision of accommodation, mandatory sick and holiday pay, pension contributions, and units would have no option but to implement these changes if they wished to work This would see further increases in the costs which would have to be accommodated

in the tender, but these changes would be nation-wide rather than on an individual basis. This would have absolutely no effect on the contractors, for whom archaeology is but the smallest of potatoes compared to the total cost of a development, and who would have to deal with the archaeology as usual because othewise they wouldn't be able to proceed with making bootfub of cash. Net result: better conditions in archaeology, and the same amount of work for everyone. NOW someone write in and tell me why that wouldn't work

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Poets corner
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Tlte fobwing immensely cheesy poem was sent in a ~mdm, written in 1975 by Peter Mahon check out tlae cheese!

Trenches stretch as far as the eye can see, Above, porters slowly advance on scree. All around endless sand, unbearable heat: Men working tirelessly, Trying to compete.
Six archaeologists, plans in hand, discuss, While excavation continues without fuss. They have come to fulfil1 an ambition, dream: Thousands of pounds being spent on the scheme.

To one side a tent houses treasures of silver, Careful hands clean sand from a gold salver. Excitement mounts as they uncover new Finds, Protected for centuries by the winds. Somewhere out there is an ancient burialground, The local natives think evil will be found. They view the expedition with anger and malice, These strangers mutilating their Royal Palace. One day these finds will go on show to the world, In the desert the marks where new man called. As young and old gape at wonderous sights, Natives return to primitive days and nights.
Flipping cracking giggle eh ? %nkfuRy or u correspondent has written us a brilliant updated version for the 90s, what you think: see

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Trenches stretch as far as the eye can see, Around, trainees emerge with their tea. All about, endless mud, unbearable cold, (Wolmen working listlessly, hunting for gold Two archaeologists, plans in hand, argue, Will the dig continue or the developer sue? They have come to build a pub with a theme Hundreds of pounds being spent on thc scheme. .

A portacabin houses treasures of iron anc
pot, It's left to the volunteers to clean the lot. Excitement mounts as the end of the dq draws near, Has petty cash enough for every digger tc have a beer ?

Somewhere out there is another Seahenge, Bound to send someone else round t h e bend. O r perhaps a repeat of Manchester airport, Where "dope smoking" archaeologists got caught O n e day these finds will have gathered rust, And we archaeologists will have turned to dust. As young and old gape at the new housing estate, We do our CVs and leave it to fate.

IFA Conference IFA reply..

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The fouowing article was written as a response to; bit of a rant someone had in issue 12 about the IFA, specijicalbj relating to the conference: "The IFA isn't caring "all of a suddenn. The idea of getting Diggers to the "Stratification in Archaeology Forumn [at the IFA conference] w s absolutely genuine. Units were asked by a the IFA to send Diggers, and to let their staff know about the conference, and the possibility of financial wherewithal. A hardship fund was created, and not a sing!e digger applied. Funny, isn't it, that bad news always travels fast while good news is ignored? True, in hindsight, the fund could have been wider/better advertised, but at least your anonymous author got the information and did nothing about it but complain. We get the message - good try, must do better. As one of several speakers in the Stratification Forum, I spent valuable time preparing a talk that Matthew Reynolds and I thought would be of real use to diggers an explanation of the local government system of job ranking used by most archaeological organisations. Few diggers were there to hear it, but I was asked to the Cambridge Forum to repeat it - and answered a bombardment of questions as an elected officer

of the IFA At both meetings the prospect of Speck! Group for Diggers, like those fc Marine Archaeology and Local Groups, wa encouraged, but so far no takers. How about I Diggers? This is one way to get your viewpoint over to "the big bosses". Matthew worke extremely hard to get the session off th ground, and I am sorry that his efforts on you behalves was so unpleasantly "rewardedn. H should be congratulated for getting IPMS t c attend; union membership can protect Digger in a way that the IFA cannot. As for Pete Hinton (The IFA direaor...Ed), his output i phenomenal in quantity and qualitg Constructive criticism would be far morc :ffective. 3-1 equally serious note, if an IFP an Registered Organisation "butchered thc uchaeologyn because of a mismanaged tender w would like to hear details from thc e uchaeologists who did the butchering. Harc ~ d e n c please, not hearsay in a signed letta e )f complaint to the Chair and there wl bc il h e possibility of doing something about it 4nd any other evidence of competitive endering damaging archaeology, or pool iealth & Safety, to the IFA please. Withou~ trchaeologists giving us the ammunition our lands are completely tied time for heads lbove the parapet! h d the IFA is also looking at better use of the reb for job seekers. Anything that helps Xggers to gain employment is to be tncouraged. Cvelyn Baker, Hon V c Chair Standards, ie FA Srstly, I'd just like to say that I am really not that

for complninants? And isn't it acrualEy m job to
monitor such bad

rmrnmfl

RAOs?

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This I% a special letters sectrbn due to the 0vefwheIming response to 3 x and lots of t i written forissue N b y a corresponden~.. f

No sex please, we're digging V I am writing in response to the [ad&]

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because I am irritated at its silliness and dismayed by the writers attitudes which, if left unchallenged, could seriously harm the position of women in archaeologg. No one can deny that sexual artradon in the workplace exists, but most people keep it in its place and keep a professional attitude to their job at the forefront of their minds. The writer of the article, however, seems downright ~bsessedwith having a "nice hot roU" on the spoil heap, when she should be getting excited about the archaeology and maintaining her professionalism and, perhaps, her dignity. ['m appalled that there are women on the ircuit who have, on different sites, tried to win h e bosses affections. Do they want to go back :o the days when a woman was assumed to have ~ oon in a job only because she had slept with t h e boss? The writer's pride in having done this S misti~ing. My pride comes from being dcnowledged as a capable worker by my boss, lot as a good lay. am angry at the suggestion that women invite exual attention to when they innocently ask a ,upervisor to 'come and have a look at my lolen. This is l i e saying that women ask to be exually abused if they wear shorts. If "Carry 3nn style jargon is deliberately used on site, it wprised that the 'St~atijkation in Archaeology s a only OK if it is casual banter between :mm' failed, because o the m y it was advertised. onsenting diggers. Depending on the f tick a w e advert in 'The Archaedogirt' dfen'ng ituation, "can I come in your hole" can be Lnancial assistance, a d exactly hau many digm ither a juvenile joke or real sexual harassment n'U see it, seeing as so few are membets? Not that 've heard lads saying it to each other.urny. Aye, the complainant did nothing but lowever, the writer tells us that a senior omplain...if you'd spread you7 message a bit more, nember of a team used a similar phrase to a erhap you would have got a better ms section of riend, who snbered. I hope her friends can s ie digging populace, some of u h may have hstinguish the sleazy innuendoes of a creepy ctuaUy have been interested. Asking the units to boss from harmless banter amongst mates. The romote the confuence was aEo a bit daft...canlt see omer is sexual harassment and in this case im many units Wanting to send a fafr proportion of niggering is totally inappropriate. I& workforce away for a fm days, while projectr h e article get sillier. Quote: "I'm the second Ioman in a sea of men... the first woman is well P on hold. 1am really gm+l that you both @t so ucch effort in; it tvouId have a m U y haw been stablished in the unit and is far more ice if it hadn't been a wasted opportunity, like so ttractive than men. Excuse me? She rated the any previous. Furthermore, I would have happily ttractiveness of fellow female workers in aw gone werboard adudsing the confer ence...fulG elation to herself? Archaeological sites are not contests! It's bad enough that some men age spread if necessav. Why don't you use us to get ~eauty ompile lists rating women on sites in terms off le message amass next time? m a l potential (this happened whilst I was at S to the 'heads above parapets', I know exdctly the niversity), without women doing it to each redicament described as I've seen my fair s h e of lther. The writer claims that she and the other -ompetitive butchering', but I wouldn't do the romen on site did not speak because the men Ung. 1 am trying to keep in employment, and smff ad shown her some attention and the other ke that sticks to your name. HOW about anonymity

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woman was not happy. Her assumption that it resulted in the two women's non communication is very sad and dduded. She should realise that the other woman saw herself as an equal and capable member of the unit and saw the men as nothing more than a work colleagues. She wanted nothing to d o with the writers silly flirtations. ?he writer feels that kmale dominated sites are a rughtmare. Having deduced something of her psyche from her article, this is presumably because she feels there are less men to flirt with and more competition Male dominated sites can sometimes (not always) be a nightmare. Female dominated sides can often be more civilised and supportive. I suggest that this woman takes a long, cold shower and grows up a little. I hope she will begin to see that sleeping with bosses will do h* -areer no good in the long run, that other wt-en are potential friends rather than competition for male attention and that, in future, on sites, she should keep her mind o n archaeology. All the other silliness should be saved for a more appropriate time, for her own sake and for the sake of women being taken seriously o n a archaeological sites. V Maybe I'm getting old. I'm sorry the anonymous female archaeologist thinks female dominated field teams are worse than male dominated ones. In what way? Less men offering to empty her wheelbarrow in the hope of a shag? The worst teams consist of unavailable project managers, inexeperienced supervisors and unprofessional diggers who think that archaeological fieldwork is a great big 18-30 holiday laid o n specially for them; ie a n opportunity to increase their t a n / m d e tone/bedpost notches (em..see last letter! P* ' ssionalism isn't just about getting the m k i x right or remembering to fill in sample sheets. It also includes things like behaving appropriately to your co-workers. Respect for yourself &odd precl~de workplace flirting, but if it doesn't, then think about the fact that you are likely to know all these people for the next 30 years if you stay in archaeology. People have the right to go to work and not be harassed or wen made uncomfortable by a sexualised enviroment. I'm not saying archaeologists shouldn't ever have relationships with other archaeologists, just that if they do, it should be as discreet as if they both worked in an office, factory or school. As a woman, I am embarrassed by some of the behaviour Ibe seen on sites. Not because Ibe gone into tool sheds and found people in various stages of foreplay, although I have; but because you are letting those of us who choose to keep our sex lives out of the workplace down Female diggers should think long and

hard about the way they use their gender and other than me. I've lost count of the times minority, and if we define oursleves in this way, how can we complain when the men do it' You won't have your looks for ever, girls! What are you going to do then, or will you have married the director of a unit by then? You can be the site totty or you can be a professional. One thing is certain, men won't let you be both. We all know of women who've been promoted because of who they have slept with. The gossip tends to get embellished until you are the whore of Babylon and you don't know one end of a context sheet from the other, even if you happen to be good at your job. So what am I saying here? Flirt with that grimyfingernailed, tattooed digger in the pub, take 'em home and give 'em a good seeing to if you must, but leave it out between the hours of 8am and 4.30. Its not big, its not clever and its a lot more stomach churning to have to watch snogging in a minibus at close quarters first thing in the morning than it is to do the snogging. Not to mention that restricted gene pool thing do you want a kid born with celtic tattoos, a lipstud and a dog on a hairy string instead of afterbirth? bleugh! but ...".The worst case is when, after weeks of Iaying the groundwork and you're on the verge of taking a major step forward, some bloody fresh- faced graduate joins the dig (usually as a break before getting a real job), spouting aU the it latest theories, and being a general wty bastard. He then proceeds to work his way through all the lovely ladies on site including the apple of your eye. Sometimes more than one at a time. If you happen to share the same digs as this c*** he usually gets the bed that has the most knackered springs with a head board pushed right up against the wall separating your room from his. Thump, thump, thump, squeak, squeak, squeak all night long. So come on ladies take another look at that shy, weather-beaten, bow legged old git. He may not be much to look at, and may also have no money, but he could be hung like a donkey.

was competition for male attention that sexuality at work OK this is sexist, but we are a when the phrase "I think your very special

The restricted gene pool writes...
)) As the son of two volunteers who met while digging up the same Saxon grave I want to say we should discourage breeding in the profession. I could have had a proper job if I hadn't been off to such a bad start Anyway I've just returned from a uni dig in a France which w s starting as an exercise to resemble Big Brother. 6 boys, 6 girls stuck in a tent for 3 weeks with nothing to do but drink I can safely say that sexual tensions were incredibly high and as for sexual innuendo... In which other profession can I get away with supervising 'a trench full of bitches? This was a definite plus to having woman on site so long as they don't flutter their eyelids and ask you to take the bloody barrow. A piece of advice someone should have told my dad.

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More from THAT Unit Director

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V Sex and lots of i t What planet is the author of this article from, or more to the point working o n In my experience archaeology and the S word do not go together and as Principal Archaeologist within a unit (Archaeological Research, Survey and Excavation k d ) I take every step I can to nip any blossoming romance in the bud. It was only last week that I had to lay off one young female for being too attractive to the opposite sex. I for one will not have my workers distracted from the features Fantasy Unit League I1 by the curves of some hussy who even brought Round 4 her own condoms on to site. It's hard enough getting a full 10 hour day from the lazy good for nothing diggers who have enough fag ! Trent and Peak (TPAUI* ! breaks as it is, without the compulsory post Wages above f 213? J bonk one. Another factor that must be kept in I Sick ~ a v ? I Q : mind is the fact that there are not enough of Holiday pay? the lesser sex working o n site to go round. All ; Accommodation? it takes is for one of these creatures to start Free eaui~ment) @ applying sun tan lotion to parts that I care not Any available training? to mention than for WWIII to start as the testosterone drunk males start vying for Contram l month+? attention ! Level of resuect for staff 8 ! No! In my point of view any woman on site should be forced to wear masks of the Queen Key: Mother and if possible all tea should contain a 0 Great/yes liberal dose of bromine. 0 Passabldyes

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Gentleman digger, GSOH, WLTM... 8 V Sex and archaeology always happens to someone else. In my experience the few women & on a site will all only have eyes for someone 0

Badho Two tier - depending on experience Free for 'away' sites only. No. of months wait.

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systematic failure to inform staff of staffldjob out regularly? I am not the bashing BAJR, E Costs a bit! @ Self employed d y y situations. which is a useful service, although it doesn't r' 'frut6er notest aside from having a name CASE IN POINT: as if the above attitude advertise a fraction of the jobs advertised in the wasn't bad enough I experienced an attitude of JIS. I've been subscribing to the JIS for some sexist behaviour not encountered before (after time, and I found my present job through it. digging for 3 years in 4 different countries) I'm not a member of the IFA, as apart from the from some male members of staff. This took JIS it does not seem to have much to offer field two forms: work staff, but you don't have to become a firstly and most obviously: the good old member to receive the job-sheet, contrary to Field Archaeology Specialists a macho culture based around the familiar set of what your correspondent said. Also, I fail to see dubious premises which goes something like: why he describes the JIS as 'never adequate', comtion A representative of the Univmity of York, a bit digging big holes fast is an end in itself men just because it isn't available on the Internet - a like digging big holes fast - therefore what are facility which as he admits himself mostly s rattled by lan i m league, wrote the foilowing "Having just read the latest issue, I wanted to all these women doing on site, don't they know itinerant diggers don't have regular access to. I note a point in relation to your Fantasy League this is a man's game? Now I know that this used the BAJR on the rare occasions when I and Field Archaeology Specialists. Although kind of thing can be found (sadly) to a greater am at home and I think that there is room for FAS are situated at Kings Manor, within this or lesser extent on many sites what was most both, and possibly more, job services, and that Dept., they are NOT part of the University of disappointing at Northampton was the extent there isn't a conspiracy or some kind of York They simply operate from that base, for to which this attitude was promoted and competition going on between JIS and BAJR If your correspondent had any sense, he'd get which they pay rent. Thus, unfortunately, fostered by senior and experienced staff. secondly, more suLtly and worse: at his colleagues to ppoi resources and pay for a those of us within the Dept who hme tried our best elsewhere to supp~rtdecent wages and the start of a long, largescale project, it became group subscription to JIS in someone's n a m e . d conditions of service for excavators, and would clear that the male director and male Most fieldwork jobs last as long as a two month certainly wish to push FAS in similar supervisors were fractionally more at ease subscription . Let's face it, if digging wasn't an directions, in fact have no formal influence on communicating with male diggers than their option, some of your correspondents would be how they operate (and, in my case, no actual female colleagues. Nothing blatant, just a unemployable but if I see any adverts for knowledge of the situation there, until I read tendency for the men on site to be kept in the 'whining bastard wanted' I will be sure to pass your piece). O n the plus side, having seen the picture a little more reliably than the women themLeague result and passed on its content to FAS, Over the course of several months this led to Or they could get down to their fiendly perhaps they might take the implications to real division, with the men being given first neighbourhoal internet provider and do it for free. refusal of interesting tasks, exclusive use of and BAlR is slightly different from JIS in that it costs heart we shall see." Obviowly pays to highlight units' bad practice...keep training on unfamiliar high-tech equipment you nothing and is always available, witlwut (what a career development opportunity some subscription. It also mmes CVs online, which it up kids! We'U get 'em yet....& of us didn't get there ... ), exclusive assignment means any unit seeking staff can find you if they @ to any work involving machinery, first chance want to. It is a n evolution of the job service, but JIS to take any extra responsibility that was going stiU is necesarj for those evithmt access to PCs to be Northampton Rant Mark 2 able to find jobs, and no one would say otherwise. Further to issue 13's 'Northamptonshire Rant' ... you get the picture. I have this to add. Please note that whilst this All of what both I and last issue's Northants Its just a s h we have to pay for that unfortunately applies to most members of the ranter have highlighted is unnecessarg and information, which I think is the point the organisation, there are a couple of excellent avoidable. It may all be attributed to a cmespondent wm trying to make. people there who are to be excluded from this disgracefully unprofessional attitude to As to the bows issue, a somewhat fatuous point and employee relations. as it is everyone's right to have a holiday, I have this, they & others will know who they are.. and so management Questions: to say. Whik David was away on holiday (his will the accused... CASE IN POINT: My recent stretch of To diggers: Would we put up with this in any honeymoon, incidentalb...), the service was still accessible. Lynne Bevan also takes htohdrrys, and employment (as well those of other people) other job? Would we be expected to? to when she does, JIS does not come out, sometimes fm with the mmed ur?it=v terminated abi~ptly To t'mse in a p ~ s i d o n make h e r e l m t : a week to two weeks. Also bem in mind that David and I found out in a 'by the way' manner by decisions: How can you expect the outside does the jobs sewice foJ nothing, at a great d e d of phone with no notice. The senior project world to take field archaeology seriously as a profession when you appear not to yourselves? time and pmonal expense, while Lynne gets paid for officer bravely delegated the task of giving me it (albeit on a nominal salary r a 3 . & and others this news to one of the site Do you care? supervisors who, strictly, had no responsibility JISversus BAJR - who cares? In reply to your foul-mouthed and inarticulate for personnel-related matters. I think you &E IN POINT: there is a strong 'us and correspondent (issue 12 St" balance (this issue) 4 9 : Total contributions +£l 18 them' attitude that comes down from senior should bear in mind that the BAJR was off line staff members. Many think they are far to good for about a month recently when David Total w s t s (projected) this Connolly [who rum the site] went abroad. Could to communicate with mere 'diggers' -S56 End balance ranges from senior members of staff not this be why the IFA pays someone to collate Thanks too all who contributed this issue! replying to a simple 'good morning' to and send the jolxheet, to ensure that it is sent #The Dfgger' is a non-prdt mddng newsletter existing entirely on donations. All donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Dlggcr' on the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the British Archaeologid Jobs b o u r c e , a@e jobs service for everyone, with job adverts posted regularly and online CV service, admirably maintained by h-ck Archaeology. Check it.
reminisce~lt of a dodgy eightia band (oh, you kn w...never mind)... this lot seem awful According to our source, they recruit fresh grnduates, and erploit them This g i w a high pmmnel turnover and much disilltcsionment, but there's always more crocuel* .f Sounds familiar?

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4 Letters Bombs

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PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX l 3GS 4 e-mail: cyber-digger@talk2 1.corn web: www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk

M L S to strike? oA
Archaeologists and specialists at one of the U k s largest units have balloted to take industrial action over pay. A management deal t a amounted to a pay cut was &o thrown out ht by a 70% vote. In a packed meeting at the Museum of London one digger called the deal a 'slap in the face' considering that workers there had endured pay freezes and had lost annual leave in order to 'save the Museum' in the past. Currently the archaeological arm of the museum is booming, with many large excavations in the City of London ' I ballot was organised by the IPMS union, and diggers voted by 57% for industrial action Management had offered a flat payment of 1% from April to November 2000 followed by a 3% rise from November 2000 to November 2001. Over the 17 month period the pay deal equates to a 1.9% rise a pay cut in real terms since inflation is currendy 3.3%. A strike may also be looming at the Museum itself, where the vote for industrial action was over 90%: Any action is likely to be coordinated with IPMS members at the Science Museum, where workers voted for industrial action by a similar margin

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Archaeology and Dams
I wonder how many archaeologistswatched the n BBC "Correspondent program, broadcast 30th September, concerning the Turkish government's damming of the Tigris and El -ate rivers? ?he regional development scheme, the South-Fast Anatolia Roject (GAP), includes 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric stations, and is being backed by a number of international corporations, including those from the UK. Balfour Beatty (famous for the Pergau dam scandal in Malaysia) lead the Swissbased consortium undertaking the work, and are likely to be backed by the British government to the tune of f200 million under an export credit guarantee. A leaked government report states that up to 78,000 Kurdish people will be made homeless and landless by the scheme; the damming will inundate the most fertile irrigated land in the area where landlessnesg and poverty are already widespread, drowning most available pasture which the Kurds rely on to stay alive, and forcing them into greater destitution. Much of the land to be drowned is owned by absentee landlords who will receive large sums in compensation. The people who work the land

have only grazing rights granted by oral tradition: unless they can produce a 'deed' on paper they will get nothing. Waterhrne diseases such as malaria will also increase in the area, but no remedies are planned. 125 villages wl be affected; 19 villages in the catchment il area have been cleared at gun-point, the houses destroyed. There has been a lack of concern for those displaced under previous such ventures, with no consultation or monitoring of the social impaa; Turkey has not provided a resetdement budget for any of the displaced Kurds or set up a forum where they can state their views, which violates World Bank and OECD guidelines on financing such projects. The British government backing of the scheme is conditional on a satisfactory resettlement package being implemented, and is currently having a rocky time in the House of Commons. The Ilisu dam project in that region has probably the highest profile. Since 1984, the area has been racked by a savage armed conflict between the PKK, the Kurdish separatist organisation, and the Turkish security forces. Locally elected officials of the preKurdish parties state that the climate of fear and a intimidation provoked by the ongoing w r makes it is impossible to voice concerns over wfl the dams, as any opposition would be sity crushed by the military rule of the government.. Many see Ilisu as being part of a wider strategy of destroying the Kurds as an ethnic group; the area is 95% Kurdish. The dam will flood Hasankeyf, the oldest continually inhabited town in Turkey and an ancient citadel of great cultural importance to the Kurds, which has been compared archaeologically to Ephesus (it was awarded archaeological protection by the Turkish 98) government in 1 7 ! . *By destroying n Hasankeyf, they hope to eliminate our history , said one Kurd, quoted in The Guardian. The movement of Kurds into planned urban areas in Ankara and Istanbul will allow them to be controlled easier, and the dam will cut off the escape routes of the Kurdish guerrillas into the mountains. hi However, ti was not the subject of the program; the nisu dam is still on the drawing board. The scheme chosen to highlight the injustices being erp pet rated upon the people both sides of the Turke-ySyria/Iraq border was the Birecik dam, part of the same scheme but already nearing completion. In the path of the

flood area is the Roman garrison town of Zeugma. The ruins of the town have lain undisturbed for centuries, and the dry climate has preserved scenes of stunning complexity in the 60 mosaics recovered. The site is currently being excavated by Oxford Archaeological Unit (amongst other archaeologicai contracmrs) and it appears that British contract archaeologists o are "relishing' the opportunity t dig such a uniquely preserved ancient town selflessly rescuing the remains from the flooding. The OAU website describes the town as being 'the Turkish Pompeii'. Hurrah for development! I accept that the GAP programme offers opportunities for British companies to expand into international markets, but am quite frankly shocked that any company should want to be involved in such a project purely to remove an archaeological contaminant from a construction site (or should that be saving these hemendow threatened remains?). Unless I was the unwitting victim of some clever W editing it seems that the archaeologists were pretty much on their own in welcoming the Bireclk dam to that area The local population have been turfed out of their homes with hardly adequate compensation for their flooded pistachio orchards. In the village of Belkis, the villagers were pulling apart their houses so as to take the timber and bricks to sell, rather than see them disappear intact: "I've seen the mosaics, they're beautiful", said one, quoted in The Guardian, Ubut I rather liked my house as welL Who cares about that?". O n the other side of the border, Syrians and Iraqis are losing their water as a result of the restriction of the flow of the Tigris by the dam; no consultation has occurred with them, which' is a violation of a treaty signed in 1946. Their supply could be diverted at any time and without consultation, leading to waterwars in the Middle East This raises serious human rights issues and yet the IFA, our professional standards body whose code of conduct insists we operate in a responsible manner, seems to be either unaware of the involvement of one of the largest units in the country or is not concerned. How well does this sort of behaviour sit with the notion of the RA0 and Responsible P d o l d e r s ? Doesn't inspire a lot of confidence, guys. In the UK, we accept that our livelihoods are based on the polluter. But in the case of South-east Turkq, the polluter pays nothing. Contract archaeologists have always existed in a poorly defined middle ground between the

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interests of the dewdoper and those of the environment, yet surely there should be a point at which greater emphasis was placed on people rather than profit, and surely this should be it? Do we raise ourselves above political situations and 'save the archaeology?' Or do we accept that people are more important? If the remains at Zeugma are as important as the programme suggested then should we not be invoking the heritage argument to prevent or divert development' What about internationally commissioned surveys of archaeoiogical potential such as are already being produced by OIL-funded individuals? This sort of involvement would not only allow greater opportunity for properly instituted research excavation of the sites but also have the added fringe benefit of allowing some of the local population to keep a roof over their heads and land to farm, both worthwhile causes in the eyes of any reasonable professional archaeologist or human being. I can see why many British diggers would jump at the chance of a free, all expenses paid holiday in the sun, with some tasty archaeology for a change, given the conditions we have to work in here at home. But please try and have a conscience! People are los& their homes and getting little or no compensation and you are facilitating this by blithely engaging in rescue excavation. I would like to see the bill for the air fares, wages, subsiste&e payments for those 'selfless' archaeologists compared with the compensation received by locals in that area. Or alternativelv, if the BBC have misled me, .. then maybe a representative from one of those British archaeological companies involved in the excavation of Zeugma, or the IFA, could qualify their position and allay m fears about y archaeologists smoothing the way for the profitdriven bulldozers. So what is it that archaeologists actually conserve? Is it a quantifiable set of material remains, or the ethical responsibilities of the profession to local communities?
Apologies m all h e cwrcrpondma who wmrc in condensing dui7 4inro one a&. E$

Get Active..

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The letter in issue l 2 says it all really. The majority of people joined the IFA for the jobs resource. The problem is that any association/club/society is only as good as its membm. You only get out what you put i . n The IFA will only improve if all its members play a more active role in running it. Start writing letters, tell people what's wrong with the job, what you want out of it etc. Don't sit back and moan, get active!

Or JustSit On Yer Arses € I refer to the letter in The Digger 13, 3
calling for a oneday, nationwide strike to publicise the reality of archaeology for the majority of diggers (and others) within the profession. All I can say is "good luck to you!". My experience of trying to get archaeologists to do something, especially in circumstances where they are not directly affected, is dismal. I have never heard of a more selfish, self obsessed bunch of people, ever! Sure, we all have stories to tell of appalling employment conditions, lack of respect, redundancy without notice, poor pay, illegal deductions from wages, etc., but how many people are prepared to join a union and do something about it? Not many, I can tell you. I work for an organisation that has an officially recognised trade union, and we have been successful in negotiating a number of improvements to working conditions - for our p e m e n t staff. The next obvious step would be to begin negotiation on behalf of our staff on short term contracts to bring their terms and conditions up to speed with ours. Except that when we held a recruitment session for our short-term staff we only ended up with one additional member. The rest thought it was a great idea, yes, of course something should be done, etc, etc but none of them ever quite got round to it I have heard many excuses from people who do not have any ideological reasons against Trade Unionism, for not joining. For most people, unless they q n see a direct, personal benefit, they will not join. Even when that means leaving their colleagues open to unfair redundancy, harassment and deterioration in terms and conditions. Joining IPMS -the only Union with a branch specifically for archaeologists - is unlikely to cost you more than £7 a month, depending on your annual income. If you earn l s than es

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£1 1575 in a year, it will cost you £4.77 a month. If your annual income is less than £3690 then it will cost you just 64 pence a month If you are laid off, then the first year of unemployed membership is free. I know that there are not many rich archaeologists out there and rich diggers are even rarer, but s this i not a lot of money to benefit yourselves and your colleagues h the larag Exin. If you had a choice between an extra pint after work once a week and enabling a colleague to contest an unfair dismissal, (that's what it comes down to in financial terms), what would you do? My experience suggests that most of you would go for the pint. Live for yourselves, for the present and stuff your colleagues and the long term. You have a choice. Prove me wrong!

2X.s

Ltter W written bejbre tlavs of the

impending MoLAS strike, but I think it makes .some signif;cant points. 7 k M O W diggers me prepdring to stand up jbr b righu - what wiR r

YOU do?U'

Fantasy U & League I1 Round 5

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13) is a common combination, and not just at the bottom of trenches when the PO is at the other end of the field one of the authors of a recent, large, heavy and WO* English Heritage sponsored tome on Stonehenge left archaeology to...write some Black Lace books. Straight up. I know which I'd rather have on my cv!

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Badno Two tier - depending on experience Free for 'away' sites only. No. of months wait. Costs a bit! Self employed only.

Finances

Total contributions

Total costs (projected) End balance Braesic again!

l 'Thc Wggsr' i a nap- ofi it maMng newsletter existing entirely on donations. A l donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The s
on the web, with extra ert Digget'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The a jiee jobs service for everyone, with job adverts posted regularly and and discussion areas; and the Brftbh Archaeologid Job8 online CV service. admirably maintained bv Backtrack Arohaeo1oeg. Check it.

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Issue No 16 February 2001 PO B 391 & Abingdon Oxon O X 1 4 3 G S e-mail:cyber-digger@talk2l .corn web: www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk

Proposed 'IF'A Chartered Archaeologists' Scheme
'I have recently been trying to come up with an idea for some sort of system that would address the issue of archaeological standards and employment standards together, rather than seeing them as seperate problems, as the IFA currently seems to. I w s pleased to read the a Utopia Archaeologica contribution as it seemed to be along similar lines to what I was thinking. Having showed my draft to various colleagues, the response seemed to be 'Very P - , but the IFA would never do it'. The :I . ,on for the pessimism ranged from the general perception that the IFA hasn't got the balls to the idea that, run as it is by the Great and the Good of Unit Directors, they wouldn't ever implement a scheme that might end up damaging them (by making them work for a start). It seems to me that the IFA are facing a massive challenge at the moment, the pressure from all sections of the profession is on for them to do something. W i l they rise to i ~ '

The Scheme
The IFA has two stated aims: to improve professional standards in archaeology and to improve conditions of employment for ik archaeologists. Although the l n between these aims is generally accepted, they have traditionally been approached in different ways. The scheme outlined below attempts to address both issues toged-ter. M-~bershipof the IFA would exist as at p_.-cnt, but applications for full membership would involve becoming a chartered ar6haeologist. The procedure would be comparable to that of becoming chartered engineers, architects or SUNeyOrS and to the outside world, chartered archaeologists could be compared equally with the above All Trust and Unit Directors would be chartered archaeologists, as would County Archaeologists. Excavation directors of all publicly funded excavations (EH, Cadw, Historic Scotland, etc.) would also need chartered status. Chartered status would be available to all archaeologists, regardless of discipline or specialisms. Experience and qualifications would be considerations, but ability would be the most important factor. Achieving chartered status would be a significant individual commitment The IFA could give financial assistance below an earning threshold to help

lower paid archaeologists. Provision of training towards chartered status would be a joint responsibility of IFA and employers. Organisations wishing to become Registered Archaeological Organisations would need M O % of their staff to be chartered. Any publicly funded work (grantaided, Cadw contingency, etc.) would have to be carried out by a chartered archaeologist (if an individual) or a R40(if an organisation). Curators within the planning system would be able to.stipulate the same for developer funded work R e m o d of chartered status (and consequent financial loss) would be the ultimate sanction for malprabice. Chartered status would be equally available to permanent employees and archaeologists on short term contracts. Within other sectors, there is a financial reward for chartered status; this could overcome the problem of disproportionately low pay for archaeologists within a local authority context (i.e. equality of pay with chartered architects/surveyors). The financial reward would also be an incentive for 'diggers' to become chartered (and to join IFA). Any digger wanting to direct excavations (or assessments/evaluations) .would need to be chartered anyway. A 'Charter' scheme for archaeology would drive up standards, encourage more individual members to join and would enhance the R40 scheme. It would indicate a standard recognisable to the outside world and would allow for direct comparison with other skilled, graduate entry professions. It would improve pay and conditions for archaeologists at all levels and would be accessible to all practising archaeologists. It would shengthen the position of the IFA as the representative body of archaeology.

practical and theoretical problems and to address concerns at an early stage. The wider the consultation the better. Having examined and incorporated initial comments, the working party could then circulate a draft scheme. From start to finish, the scheme could be implemented within two years. KG.

Fantasy Unit League II 2000 Awards
After yet another incredible year of the league, it's now crunch time for those units that were entered by the hapless individuals who have had to work for them. If you missed out on getting your results in, don't worry. The league will continue this year, as there are plenty more sorry looking candidates knocking around who haven't been included. GET SCRIBBLING! The prizes as usual are some immensely tasteful certificates for the winning and losing units to entrance proudly display in their halls/offices/torture chambers. They'll most likely get binned, but keep your eyes peeled and let us know if they appear. If anyone out there can think of some alternative prizes (nothing TOO offensive) get in touch The awarding of points is still the same as l s at year, because it seems to just about work and I can't be arsed revising anything: W g s Contract, Sick Pay, Holday Pay, ae, Accommodation, and Respect seemed l i e the most important aspects, so each gets 4 points, each 0 2 points and 8 nu1 bints, of course. 1 point deducted for metier wage 1 systems (H); point deducted for expensive accommodation (f), 1 point added for free away accommodation (R);but none deducted for waits on sick and holiday pay (8) all as units who did this got panned in this category anyway! Free Equipment, Training and Good Anzfmeobgy get maximum marks of 2 points for each O, 1 point for each 0,and again, nowt fer yer 0. f i e grand total, therefore, should add up to 30 points (plus any additional points as previously detailed). Maths was never my strong point, but nere are the results (fanfa~es/dmm~o~s/thundeT

Implementation
The first stage of implementation would have to be consultation: if archaeologists are going to impose this sort of regulation on themselves (as architects, etc, etc, have done in the past) it needs to be with consent. No doubt a working party would have to be set up! [n the first instance, professions operating 'Charter' systems would need to be consulted. The more closely the scheme could be modelled on those in existence already, the more directly comparable they will be in the end. The second phase would be to consult with all branches of the p~ofession to highlight any

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Archaeoiogy University of York Field Archaeo1Ogy Specialists Trent and Peak

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! other was an importantprofession)to actually getI l felt it members of the moment and as such

the clear winner is Cambridge Archaeological Unit , not quite up to Bedford's 26 points last year but still a good result Also good to note that Carlisle Archaeological Unit have improved on their 12 points of last year, leaping up to a massive 21 points. As for University of York and Trent & Peak, well what can I say? They have scored EVEN LOWER than Tees Archaeology last year, who scored 6. Certificates winging their way to both winners and losers. If you disagree with the results, then reenter any unit already mentioned for the next bash; and we'll see if the picture changes for 2001. We await with tense bowels or something.

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Food for Thought

The Digger has no doubt provided a useful forum for those who feel un-represented within iw archaeology to air their v e s about the state of the profession regarding conditions for field archaeologists. The overriding conclusion is that field archaeology is in aisis with a disillusioned work force who feel undenmlued for the work which they undertake. As was recently highlighted there was a session at the IFA annual conference which set about starting to address the issues which most field archaeologists regard as important namely -pay and conditions, the lack of training available to temporary staff, the nature of employment and the future role of the IFA and importantly the unions. I d M e e with the editor in issue 14 that the forum was a failure. The session w s a very informative and for me provided what I feel are the seeds for the future of archaeology (though it will take a lot time a ~ effort). d Overwhelmingly the session produced positive discussion which must be a start. I am a digger and gave a paper at the forum (and to set Evelyn Baker straight I did apply to the hardship fund and received ample a remuneration). As I w s writing I found it incredibly easy to find things to complain Finances about because, lets face it, there is a lot wrong. will still be having the same old moans years What I found more difficult to do was actually from now. say anything constructive or voice my opinions The only feedback 1 haw had regarding the Total contributions in such a way as to be taken seriously rather conference (apart fim this letter) wns the IFA's Total costs (projected) than being dismissed as merely another digger own dssertion that 'few diggers t u m d up'. 1 have End balance with a chip on his shoulder and an axe to just been sent the fobwing letter which all of you I credit for first time ever! Thanks! n mind. The session was attended IFA council should take up: members, unit managers and diggers (as well :ome, cheques should be made out to The 'The Digger'is a non-profit manewsletter &sting entirely on donations. All donations LE.'The Diggsr'on the web, with extra art ~iger'.-&~ contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please sen a free jobs service for everyone, with job and discussion areas; and the British A r c h a e ~ l o g i ~ ~ l Reoource (also at www.bqjr.co Jobs

'The IFA has put some money aside to help lower paid archaeologists attend the the point across that conditions are conference. We would be grateful if you could unacceptable and that t h i must start to bring this news to their attention by publicising a change Whether I w s successful or not only it in your newsletter. time will tell. Could interested archaeologists please write to: Until I went to the IFA conference I was MSRacbtl Boning,Company Administrator ardently anti IFA for the reasons that I'm sure IF& University o Reading, 2 Earley Gate f will sound familiar, they never seem to d o PO Box 239, Reading RG6 6AU anything, they don't represent digg.a, I'm Please encourage your readers to take advantage poorly paid and can't afford it etc. etc. None of of this offer, which will probably be on a firstmy views have particularly changed having comefirst~erved basis unless particular been to the conference but I am now hardship is the case. determined to join the IFA and do something. Yours sincerely You can sit in a tea hut and moan about it Evelyn Baker, Hon Vice Chair Standards until your blue in the face and all that will What you waiting for, frw money, go go go...The happen is conversation will get repetitive. I am conference is on the lOfil2" April and will be held already a member of the IPMS and I am in the in Ne~ucastle-UportTm, B process of joining the IFA because it is the Letterc~ Bombs @' combination of these two institutes that will be Wages rant a powerful tool for change within archaeology. These two organisations fulfil radicdly iXI I've just read the most depressing -_ different roles and without both nothing will archaeological advert I've ever seen in my life. happen. They have only one thing in common Perhaps it's a Millennium Bug mistake and and that is the need for members. Without they've used 1901 pay rates not 2001 rates? membership both the individual and the Who says we don't need unions? I sent this to institutions have no voice. There have been a Pete Hinton at the IFA (and a copy to lot of things going on in Britain and France Canterbury for good luck): recently which demonstrate admirably what Dear Pete PAY AT can be done through united action. The effect ARCHAEOLOGISTS CANTERBURY that a bunch of people gening together and being vocal has had on British society is I read with alarm an advert in the Guardian for incredible and to a great extent almost "trainee archaeologists... preferably with some unbelievable. The message in this is that to excavation experience £7737 pan. It is not have a voice diggers have t stop expecting entirely clear from the advert who the o things to be handed to them on a plate. Sign employing archaeological organisation is, up, get involved and create the voice for though the 'cat' in the email address clearly change. It is not enough to just pay your refers to Canterbury ArchaeologicalTrust. subscription and then sit back and wait for Can I ask you to investigate this flagrant breach things to change You have to get involved. Join of IFA pay standards as quickly as possible. I the IFA special interest groups and committees, understand that CAT are not an IFA-registered run for council. If you don't like the way health organisation (and I trust that they never will bc _, and safety is approached on site join the IPMS after issuing an advert with this level of pay). and become a health and safety representative. Can I assume also you will want to contact the Encourage others to join the union and project managers Mark Houliston and Alison increase union recognition If you think the Hicks and inform them that they are no longer archaeology is being compromised report it to IFA members? the IFA council, you don't have to be a Yours, depressed about British archaeology member to complain. Join the IPMS and the Nick Holder, Chair, Museum of London IPMS IFA and join others shouting for change or you union branch

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adverts posted regularly and online CV service, admirably maintained by Backtrack Arohaeok

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Museum strike shows way forward
O n 16th February, fifty workers at the Museum of London walked out on strike. The official halfday action was in protest at the below inflation pay deal imposed by management last year. An IPMS union official reported that the strike w s 95% solid. a As the strikers walked out they were applauded by archaeologists from MoIAS and specialists from MoLSS (the finds arm of the Museum). .This was despite -a threat by management that an^ such demonstration of support would rc . in legal action The lunchtime protest o&ide the Museum swelled to 1 0 as diggers 0 trooped in from nearby sites. Senior managers looked on in dismay from upper storey windows as leaflets explaining the action were handed out to members of the public. Nearby, posters pinned to columns announced 'We give you gold, you pay us peanuts!' contrasting the low pay of archaeologists to the Roman gold coin hoard found recently in London, worth over £70,000. The diggefi and specialists of MoIAS/MoLSS are also angry at the real-terms pay cut they received last year. One digger commented, 'Our work generates hundreds of thousands of pounds surplus for the Museum.' Another added, 'Next time we should bring barrows full of soil to dump outside the Museum entrance.' The strike -the start of a campaign by IPMS against low pay in the heritage sector. Workers British Library have already voted for a at s e r L of oneday strikes due to start soon. Strikes at other museums are also likely to follow later this year.

Why Diggers Need A Union: IPMS Membership And You
Archaeologists generally - and diggers in particular - have legitimate grievances about poor pay and conditions. Pay rates of E200 a week, no contractual sick pay, no pension, short term contracts ... the list goes on. Conditions are reminiscent of the early days of the industrial revolution: low pay, no job securitv and little or no training and develovment Staff are scared to complain in case their contracts aren't renewed. In the contracting sector, fierce competition between units is based largely on price. The drive to keep costs down means that any unit that pays 'above the market' is likely to go out of business.

Somehow, we have to break this circle. History suggests that it is not going to happen as a result of generous employers (although many support the need to improve things, they are not going to do it independently of each other). Change will only come about if employees combine together and make demands that are coordinated across the sector. The only way of doing this effectively is through a trade union. IPMS has over 300 members employed in around 20 archaeological trusts and units. The largest groups are in MoIAS, York, @ford, Wessex and AOC. We also have 160 archaeologists in our English Heritage branch and 20 and 50 in EH'S Welsh and Scottish equidents. Over the past 3 years or so, we have been developing our profile in archaeology and expanding our presence in the independent sector. We have been working with organisations like the IFA and the employers' body SCAUM to improve training and development and to bring better definition to archaeological jobs and careers. This is all important long-term work, but it will not improve things overnight. We need to start making in-roads with the leading employing units. Unless we are formally recognised by a specific employer, there is a limit to the practical assistance we can provide in any problems at work (we cannot represent you in negotiations on terms and conditions, for example). But we are able to represent members in individual disciplinary and grievance procedures, up to and including legal action, if necessary. And we also provide detailed advice on employment issues, be they legal or very practical (health and safety, for example). Having said this, a recent change in the law now gives a right to staff employed in an organisation with 20 or more staff to be represented by a union. IPMS is actively using this change to seek recognition in a number of leading units. (We are already recognised by some, including MoLAS, with whom we are just about to agree a new pay structure). If we are to make a real impact, we need archaeologists - and particularly staff in the contracting sector to join us. The easiest way to get recognition is to demonstrate that you have over 50% of the employees in membership. IPMS has over just under 80,000 members and you can find more details of who we are and

the services we provide on our web site (www.ipms.org.uk). An electronic application form is available on the site. Alternatively, phone or e-mail me with any questions. Steve Jary jarys@ipms.org.uk IPMS HQ 020 7902 6649

A lot more FAS over nowt...
Steve Roskams of University of York writes: "Following your piece in Edition 13 of The Digger, in which you featured Field Al-chaedogy Specidists in your Fmtasy League, and my response in Edition 14 clarifying the institutional position of FAS within the Department of Archaeology at York, I am contacting you again. This is not because I am "rattledw by your publication, any more now than the first time I emailed you, but to put an impomnt matter straight. H v n- had further discussions with the aig directors of FAS, it is clear that your assessment was completely inaccurate. To be specific, with respect to the questions asked (your original, published responses in brackets):

k fuxi and PIFA l e d a& Z A F nuhimum? Yes ("7h.v tier, dependiog on e~perknce3 -Sick Pay? Yes ("OKD) Holiday pay? Yes, afkr pmvisiooaI onemonth contmct (W03 Accommodation? F m accommdabbn proded when mrking on transfer ("C&& plen W) Free equ&mentl Yes, appropriate PPE and excavathdmniing eqwpment W 0 3 -Any train& available?Y s (7wt &hp) e 1 month+ contnctsl Y~J; r provisional ah one-monthcontract (No3 Level of s t ~ s p e c tOK ~ o t g o o d / O K ! ) tH ?

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I have no particular brief to defend FAS from your observations (I am sure they can do that themselves if they are so minded). However I think it is clear that any objective appraisal of the above differences demonstrates that your s d l e d "assessment" is, in part, misleading, and elsewhere simply wrong. I would therefore ask that you now publish the accurate data. I think this is an important step, not just in the cause of simple fairness to the people concerned; nor because you may open yourself up to legal action by disseminating such inaccuracies; nor even because you put those such as myself, who read what you ~ublish and believe it, in a completely invidious position when trying to argue for remedies. NO, the

STONEHENGE THREATENED
The unique landscape around Stonehenge,one of the world's most famous ancient monuments, is threatened by a major road scheme to turn the A303 into a dual carriageway all the way from London to the West Country. Stonehenge is a world heritage site, which Britain is internationally WHAT YOU CAN DO ? committed to protect, bui the H:-hwags Agency plans to drive a Ask UNFSCO to place r-our-lane highway right throu~h Stonehenge on the List of World this sensitive area, des~roying Herir:age in Dange~ irreplaceable archaeological evidence. Write and encourage othcrs to write to the government, to English 'To alleviate its impact on the srones, Heritage and to the National Trust, the authorities want tohide the road asking them to: in a 1:unnel close to the henge. Unfortunately the chosen option is Observe che World Heritage very destruc.~ive.Involving the Convention and the Managenlent diggins of two 11ugetrenches to cut Plan by recognising the val~~c:the of t~.~nnels. and then cover the t w ~ whole Stonehenge Landscape and which would pern~anentlydamage conservingit for future gneralions. the integrity of the site. Oppose (he release of National Trust in.alienable land tor dual The peace of this mysterious and carriageways and C L I ~ and cover sacred landscape would be shattered t~~nnels. by nois37 dud carriageways, sccurely fenced of, with long cutthgs leading Puc as~de Stonehenge 'Master the down to the tunnel entranc:es, Plan' road scheme xnd asses the long illunlinaced day a d night bored tunnel option and seek funding to irnplenlent the right W solutiou

BE CAREFUL OUT THERE!
Quite a few have written to us about various problems they have hacl with either accon~odation, invellirg expences and site equipment. Some people have been put up in sheds!! while others wlk about getting to sites where it is rheir duty to provide the transport!! Even the classic 1 hand shovel between 12 diggers!! A lot of this is down to Units trying to cut budgets down to at the the n~i~~irnum expence of the digger... but there must be a certain amount of responsibility placed with YOU. When you apply for a job and it says there is accon~odationprovided Find out whar sort is on of. fer Also , get in writing just what you are supposed to provide yourselflike steel toed boots,waterproofs, trowels etc ( i l you feel it may hc a bit to good to be true). If you work in Ireland clvxk to see \vhether you arc paid in Punts or Pounds.

-

If there are any serious breachcs of H a (and some of the letters are truely scary) then don't jusr leave it ~ ~ n someone gets hurt, write to the ril management with your conccms or talk to the site director. If it still con. tinues (likc uushored baulks or dangerous ~nasonry) rhen get onto the IFA - thats what they aw there foK
Most of all though make sure you have all the facts so there is no way thac you can find yourself on the site from hell.

WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE??

CAMPAIGNING COSTS MONEY. PLEASE HELP
The S~onehellge Alliance consi.sw of: The Council for the Protection of RuraI England; Friends o l the Earth; RESCIJE The British Archaeological Trust; Save our Sacred Sites; and Trampon 2000 For more infornla~on, visit he web site at
WWW.SAVEST0NEHENGE.0RG.UK

Protect the wholc World Heritage Site Minimise the impact of the roads Relocate the visitors centle Follow the Management the Master Plan Plan

&' Letters Bombs !l
Tell them what you want! * I was just reading the!ert$s section of
this (and prcvious) m&t% mmgazine, and it x c m like everyLwdyenjoyshavingagwd 'dig'areach otherand usually regarding thc gulf between the rop and b t t o m of each unit. Often this is the case and admittedly even in my ~elatively short career within contract archacology l have seen gross incompetancc by management. In any other vocation it would result in severe disciplinary / legal action. However there arc sornc very good m n a g r s out therc:and only too righrly thcy should be applauded. My personal p d g e /chip on shoulder / soap Lnx topic regards slander (and I mean it in its legal definition), bullying, sexism and cven dishonesty, anlongst the lower reaches within units. This is often compounded by weaknesses of nlauagnlenL in dealing with such issues. So hey, why don't we niaks it casy for rhrt management. l..eL1sall k rcliahle, honest, hardworking. If there arr any problerrs lace up to them and try 10 sort thcm out. In the Ion: rcrm u n ~ t swhich have prolessional staff can only go forwards. Keep up the good material PSIfanybdy clisageeswithvhat Isay they had better watch out....... I'll make up stories about them.

consider thc possibility that tllese staff miglrt work elsewhere. This docs not mean that there arc not staffwithin the unit who arc not suitable [or promotion, merely that when pbscome up. t h e opportunity is there for b o t h internal and external applicants to be judged o n a level playing field. The second assuniption, that this cstcrnal advertising is a reflection o n the qualityof the staffthat work ineithcr unit, is simply wrong. Over half of the Project Oficers at Wssex (including me) started morking for rhc unit as Site Assiscancs and have workcd their way up rhe ranks (sounds uncomfortably like a career ladder to me), as did all of the current site superviso~s. There is a policy of identiking site assistants who are thought to have the potential to progress to suprrvisor, Project Officer andbcyund, andgiving them Iongel contiacts Ah, 1 hear you cq: what about mining, skills development etc. Recenc 'in house' training has covered surveying (including total stations), First Aid, standing building recording, reporr. wriling and desk cop assessments arid has bee11 targeted largely as permncnt site ,,sis:an:s a d sup-rvisors. T1:is seems to mirror thc rcquests of your correspondcnt
m

Tell it as you see it!
"Just a quick note on my experiences this summer with a fum out of Milmn Keynes called ASC.'I'he immediate supewisor and the Project Officers were rantasric to work for. They b t h were keen to do good archae ology, record in good dcrail, and created an cnjoyablc work atmosphere. I-Iowever, the "corporate" aspect of ASC ran roughsl~ocl over [he excavators. It wasn't so much the difficulties in the housing anangenients as opposed to he rude attitude concxrning thosc arrangcrnents. The "management". in alter stating that we would be kep~ cottages, relegated us to acan~pground. While this wasn't an agreed upon situation, whar made it worse was thc lact that the "management" wouldn't pay for extra spaces for demanded tha out ten6 and se~iously "double-up" in Lents.'Thi$ s i t u a t i o n w ~ . ~ acceptable and eventually led to tluee or iour O ~ U to decide to not rcncw our conS tracts. So, if you work for ASC, my recommendation is that you enjoy the orchaeology with the supervisors and projcct nwuagels, but he wary of any mawagement pn~mises. It would be [wd to hear m! o h side of the l u story. Ed

..

Tell me whar t do! o
"1 hope ail i h wrll with the D i g e L.. worried ro sec it nlighr cloac an all!! about is a desisiun I feel What I amwr~ting a I musL make scan. Should I1~comc PIFA whir.11 might help my clrances o l getting work....OR should I join the IPMS and unionise roprhettrrpay and conditions (rhat old gripe eaiu!!). I have h e n working in years and feel tlmt the fieldrorudl over 1% my 'carccr' is ,ping nowhere

Drcnm... you know ... it mrgh j i i r work ... Ed

Tell it like
*

it is

As a Project Officer Idr \Vcsses Archaeology, I feel ohligcd to rcply to a letter printed in iaue #l8 abut the lack of'iu house' trainingin archaeology which was riddled with errorsand inconsisicncies. After having spenL much of my adult MC beingbrutalised invarious hostelriesby the assorred viewpints of other digers (.and probably responded in kind) I had thought that 1 wus incapable of bcing surprised by che views ofnlore or less anyone in he archaeological community. I was wrong.

T h e r e are several problems facing archacology ~ o d a y ,a n d he lack of suicahly csperienced :md craincd staffisonc OS thcm

I wish your correspondcnt luck with thcir

F~rstly, cannot understand why the fact I that jobs a t \Vesses and Oxford are advcnked nationally should bf a surprise right first NC to anyone. Surely any sensible unit is going to want toemploy t h e k s t std& Fair points ... I)o and to do s o must s ~ ~ r c rrolf?? lid l~

letrcr writing campaign. (luitc whar rhe IFAEngiish HeritagcICBA erc can do is beyond me. (Thats true!! Ed) I do Who do I throw nly lot in with! TF notdeny r:hat these skill^ need to br ~.a~lgh~., or a t thc very least Icarncd, and this ..-/ 1 llasbce~iaproblen~for longas I haw k c n W 1 no;u weU now.... as y working in archaeology. M adgiu for whal u s wonh b to do both... m Clearly the employers nccd t~ make much The ~ : u u e not rnurudly cxc!usive and mu ? (bile.< more of a n effort, cven if it is for could m j q r h t brrlrfirst l q I I ~ I~oufftr So, Lip f i i t i n ~ u ~ ) . their benefit riithe~than yours get O U L there, write letters of complaint, As [o the Digp ... hopefiiuy some liitui soul or badgcr your employers, ask for souk will come along a d rescue it ... training, but for heavenssake get your hcrs uhat ohout you?!

...

.

orher

Units irrvesr in llreir

'Tire Digger' is a non-prolit making newsletter existing curirely on douationo. All douations welcome, cheques should be made out to T h e Digger'. Any c o n t ~ i b u ~ ~ofnruale~ial o s posrt~wly encouraged. Rack-issues nvaihble, plesve send SAE. 'The Digger'oo. the web, with ext1.a art and clir-cussion areas; and the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.hnjr.cu.uk), a /TCP jobs seiviw for cvc1yone, with job adverts posted ~ ~ g u l a r .ly~ud l y onlinc CV service, admirably maintained bv B ~ c k t r n c k Archaeolocv. Check it.

hit some 400 EH properties, including Stonehenge. The action will be coordinated with sister union PCS (the Public and Commercial Services Union) First it was postal workers, then it was that represents administrative and security train and tube drivers, now it seems even staff. PCS are also balloting for strike workers at English Heritage (EH) are action. joining the picket lines. Prospect union members at EH have voted by a massive The industrial action at EH comes against 77% for industrial action after rejecting a a background of increasing militancy in 3.5% pay deal. A campaign of one day the heritage sector, with strikers at the stnkes is planned to start on 11 March, Museum of London winning a big pay backed up with overtime bans and increase last year, and diggers in units like working-to-rule. Wessex, Oxford and AOC pushing for

English Heritage vote to strike

report will be completed in Septembcr 2002. The APPAG admits that 'Responsibility for archaeology is divided amongst several Government departments both in Westminster and in the devolved administrations. Archaeologists are also split into many different areas and groups. This has meant that thcy have rarely spoken with one voice.' The Group aims to reflect 'the concerns of all those with an interest in archaeology, both professional and amateur' and will 'consider strategies for funding' UK archaeology.

.-,le pay offer was the last straw,' said Prospect's national heritage officer Steve Jary, whose union had recommended a 'Yes' vote for strike action. 'It's one of the lowest offers in the heritage sector this year.' Recent years have seen a decline in English Heritage workers' pay compared with other Civil Service salaries, with pressure from the Treasury on the -Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) to drive down wages. Yet 'the DCMS is paying its own staff a 5.6% increase', said Steve. 'English Heritage has fallen behind mainstream civil service employers and, with this offer, is set to fall behind other DCMS-fknded bodies, too.' But the industrial action is about more +"-m just pay. In 2000, EH staff voted to , ~ e p t a pay deal after management promised t l s about an improvement the ak following year. These talks never materialised and management simply imposed 3.5%. At first they blamed the Foot and Mouth crisis, but once the provision for foot and mouth was released management still failed to put more money into pay. Management even rejected the union's offer of arbitration because they claimed they couldn't afFord to pay their staff more. However, managenlent were able to find 'around 0.5% of the pay bill to finance the former Chief Executive's severance package,' say Prospect. The Chief Executive earned &100,000in 1999. As well as the monitoring oj archaeological sites, stnke action would

union recognition.

The Digger wholeheartedly supports the Concerns that are likely to be flagged up action EH union members are taking, and include: we urge all archaeologists to do the same. We wish them luck. A victory at English pay and conditions, Heritage will strengthen the campaign for health and safety, conditions for better pay and training, archaeologists too. It will show that the problems with developer-funded way to win improvements won't come archaeology, from relying on organisalions like the fragmentation of the industry, IFA, but from action we take ourselves. PPG 16, underfunding All Party Parliamentary no career progression, no money for research, Group just a talking shop? the destruction of sites supposedly preserved in situ, As you work in a cramped, cold trench standards of work, with the winter rains lashing down, spare old uncle Tom Cobbly and all. a thought for a group of Parliamentarians munching biscuits in heated rooms as they decide your future. The All-Party But will this just be a tallung shop for Parliamentary Archaeology Group MPS? The mainstream parties' (APPAG) has been set up to i d e n w commitment to archaeology is problems with archaeology and will be demonstrated by the fact that none of them presenting a report to the government in even has a policy on it. Admittedly Lord the Autumn. Redesdale has tried to correct this embarrassing omission by hastily The APPAG, headed by Lib Dem peer convening a Lib Dem archaeology panel to Lord Redesdale, consists of 129 members decide what his own policy should be. One of the Commons and Lords and includes digger in Cambridge who happened to MPS Tam Dyall, Simon Hughes and write a letter to Redesdale suddenly found Jeremy Corbyn. Individuals and himself seconded onto this panel to give it organisations like universities, units, the some credibility. IFA and the union Prospect (formally IPMS) were invited to opine on the faults Rumour has it that Redesdale himself is of archaeology in the UK today. 250 determined to bang heads together to get submissions have been received. More some answers, but also that he has already evidence will be sought in a series ol rejected the solution to a problem which public meetings in the Spring and the lies at the heart of the crisis in UK

archaeology - an end to competitive tendering. Competitive tendering leads to fragmentation of the industry as sites are often dug by units who submit the lowest bid, not those who have the most local knowledge. The market also drives down wages and conditions as units cut corners to bid as cheaply as possible. The alternative - public fimded archaeology is no panacea, but at least funding decisions are dcmocratically accountable. Another moot point is how much effect even the strongest-worded report will have on a government that is dogmatically committed to private finance, whatever the consequences. Chances are that in a year's time we'll still be stuck in the same (or similar) cold trenches, and the Padiamentarians will still be sitting in heated rooms, munching on the same (or similar) biscuits.

you tell us what's happening where you are. So keep your letters coming! The BAJR is at both www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk and www.bair.co.uk . And you can email 92%say IFA minimum not info@,bair.co.uk too. enough In a poll conducted on the BAJR website a staggering 92% of people demanded L250 or more per week as a reasonable wage for diggers. David Connolly, who runs the website, asked, 'When will the F A raise the minimum wage level from the £215 that is currently in place? Just how long does it lake to change the minimum pay rate? Surely RAOs [archaeological organisations registered with the F A ] could be informed of the change with a single email.'

Jamie Oliver to present Time Team?

New Editors for The Digger
The Digger is set to continue with a new team of editors. The new team stepped in at the eleventh hour to save the publication that has become a forum for ordinary archaeologists often forgotten by organisations like the F A . The new lean said, 'The Digger is a massive achievement on the part of the original editor and we want to cany that achievement forward. From day one, the publication gave diggers a strong independent voice that we've rarely had before. It would be a real loss to have this voice silenced.

'The publication has highlighted bad units, discussed F A and union issues, covered strikes and international concerns like the Ilisu Dam, all on a shoestring budget. And the Digger has an irreverent streak that we want to see continue. It has frequently enraged the archaeological Finances establishment, for example - always a But if you are looking for a new job, the good sign! ' BAJR is the place to go too. It's frequently The change of editors means that there updated, free and used by almost every Total contributions will be a new PO Box for correspondence unit and archaeological organisation in Total costs (projected) (see above) and a new email address: the UK. And if you want to advertise a job End balance thedigge@,email.com. But the Digger can on the site it's £2.5 a shot, or £7.5 for the Thanks to everyone who only continue to reflect what you think if year. Cheaper than the Guardian and contributed. you'll get more replies.
I I

Recently the makers of Time Team advertised for new presenters. Applicants had to care about archaeology as deeply as 'Jamie Oliver cares about cooking'(!) the advert said. But The Digger asks - why settle for second best? Now the Naked Chef has been dropped by the BBC, why not snap him up for the Channel 4 programme instead! Or failing that, the new dumbed-down Time Team could be Over 600 people answered the question presented by Gordon Ramsey or Ainsley 'What do you think a reasonable weekly Harriot. digger's wage should be?' 3% said it should be L21.5, 29% said it should be Channel 4 are desperate for new ideas , £250 and 63% said it should be 'more breathe life into a programme that many believe has gone stale. The alarm bells than 6250'. started ringing in the production suite a Twenty-nine people (5%) said diggers month ago when the viewing figures for should be paid nothing and should do the the first programme in the current series job for love. David asked that they 'get in dipped below two million - the lowest for contact with me as I would like to hire years. Viewing figures have picked up a bit since then, but producers are already them! ' experimenting with new formats. The average wage in the UK is £380 per But if new presenters are introduced week. what's to become of Tony Robinson? The producers hotly deny that they'll be 'doing BAJR watch a Carenza' on him. Still, if he is sidelined 'I'm perfectly happy in my job, thankyou' it'll leave him more timc to fulfill h s is not a phrase you often hear in site tea duties on New Labour's National cabins or in unit offices. But even if you're Executive Committee (NEC). Here the not bothered about the latest vacancies, ictor who is best known for playinn why no1 check out the BAJR anyway? It's aowan Atkinson's manservant WM.-. more than just a job sheet. There's a jway the hours agreeing with everything rony Blair says and does (surely 'battling MESSAGE BOARD as well as that vital 'he bzireaucrats for a better deaf for accessory that no up-and-coming website can be without - the infamous CHAT zrchaeofogy'? Ed). ROOM.

has

The Digger i a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All donations welcome, cheques should hc made out to s The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Mgger on the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the British Archaeolo&cal Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name and address? If not, drop us a line and well pi11 i t right. If you want to receive The Mgger but don't, or you don't want to receive The M_ager but do, send u s
your details.

London E13 9YP e-mail: thedigger@email.com web: www.archaeo.fkeeserve.co.uk

Prospect loses its nerve over EH strike
L a move that will anger many union n members, the Prospect and PCS unions have called off strike action at English Heritage. As we reported in The Digger, in February EH workers voted overwhelmingly for a campaign of oneday strikes backed up by overtime bans and working-to-rule. However, the hard work of ordinary union members in building this campaign has been thrown away by union officials who have accepted a management deal which even they d . - ;ibe as 'vague.'

The only thing that has been agreed is the bare bones of a pay structure. Although this goes some way to address the grievances of EH S W , the deal won't be fully implemented for 3 years. Important timescales have yet to be finalised, although EH has been tied down to providing a minimum amount of money to fund the eventual implementation of the deal. The danger is that now the threat of action has been lifted, there is no longer any pressure on EH management to complete negotiations. Unions hope to ballot members on the new structure in May, but this is doubtfi~l management soft-pedal if on the deal. The unions would have been in a much stronger position if they had kept their nerve and gone ahead with stnkes. This would have shown that they were serious about fighting for their members' interests and much more could have been achieved.

(1999). Since the act came into force most employers and unions in the UK have opted for the voluntary route. With statutory recognition, however, the union has to demonstrate it has support of 40% of workers in a given 'bargaining unit' as well as a majority of those voting in a secret ballot, or 50% membership. A 'Central Arbitration Committee' (C AC) makes the final decision. The latest report of the CAC reveals that of the handful of cases that made it through the entire procedure, union recognition was enforced on employers in all of them. In London, PreConstruct Archaeology (PCA) have agreed recognition without a ballot, although this won't be formalised until the Spring. Prospect is also negotiating the recognition agreement at the Oxford Unit (OAU) following an overwhelming ballot in favour of union representation. The union also won an internal t;allot at Wessex by a landslide, but management there are insisting on another formal ballot. AOC, based in Edinburgh and London, were listed in a union publication a year ago as a unit where Prospect was recognised. This attempt to 'encourage' the management down the road of recognition, however, did not succeed, and a ballot looks likely here too. The union is also in talks at the Dyfed Archaeological Trust in Wales. At the Canterbury Archaeological Trust, management were initially reluctant to contemplate recognition, but agreed to let the union have a meeting with all staff when the union explained what might happen if statutory procedures were invoked. Progress has been slow everywhere. 'I don't think management has blocked unionisation, but I suspect that they're dragging their heels ... There is a feeling that until Prospect is recognised as representing all members of stafT, the union is without teeth should their services be required. All this, of course, while the subscriptions continue to be paid month on month. Prospect is keen to negotiate on

The dispute centred around poor pay and the lack of a pay structure at EH. The wages of the 500 staff employed by the heritage body lag approximately 10% behind those of the mainstream civil service. The threat of two one-day strikes in March brought EH management to the negotiating table, and the stnkes were of postponed until the beginning of this A ~ u e s t i o n Recognition month. Last week, industrial action was cancelled altogether when unions and Whether it's Unison for local government management signed up to a new pay units, or the AUT for university units, archaeologsts are joining unions in ever structure. greater numbers. However, the union that But in documents seen by The Digger, seems to be reaping the greatest rewards is union officials wony about the Prospect, which organises in the shortcomings of the deal and admit that independent sector. In the next edition of U 1 members may feel betrayed. In a The Digger we speak to the Secretary of c k d a r , Becky Payne, the head of the the Prospect Archaeologists Branch about negotiating team, says that 'a lot of our the reasons for this, but today we report on members are going to be disappointed, the progress of union recogniton in angry and frustrated' at the decision to contract archaeology and see what diggers call off the strike. The deal itself is at the sharp end have to say. 'vague' and 'lacking in detail', she says, although there is 'extra money on the 'A few of us who have been IPMS [now Prospect] members for years went on a table. ' recruitment carnpgn, as we had a new influx of diggers,' one of our contacts told A major flaw is that there is no mention of this year's pay deal, an issue at the heart us. 'We did this with a view to forcing of the dispute. Management had imposed management's hand over the percentage 3.5%, condemned at the time by Prospect issue. A rep was appointed and as 'the last straw' and 'one of the lowest representations made to both management settlements in the Heritage sector.' In a and to Prospect.' The union and ballot 90% of union members rejected it. management then began talking about But union officials seem to have forgotten recogrution. about the pay deal and it has quietly Union recognition can be voluntary or can dropped off the agenda. be enforced using the statutory powers outlined in the Employment Relations Act

our behalf, but cannot do so until allowed to the table.' There are also wonies about Prospect itself. One digger we spoke to said, '1 am uncomfortable with the union representing such a large proportion of workers in the nuclear industry. No one begrudges their right to representation, but I am not happy with the political implications of my subscriptions being used to lobby for purposes to which I may object.' Prospect reckons that by 'mid 2002', union recognition should be in place in four of the units that it is targeting. But perhaps the union shouldn't count its chickens. The Digger has learned that in at least one of these units management toured sites trying to dissuade their workers from joining the union. 'We were gobsmacked!' said one of the diggers. 'But we joined Prospect anyway!'

The pay offered by private employers ~ften outstripped the F A minimum and he average was held back by local iuthority units. But there was one xganisation singled out in particular for laying below the odds. 'Come on, English 3eritage.' said James, 'make it your New Year resolution not to employ Project LZssistants at f11,133 when the IFA m m m e n d s f 11,817.'

Ci" Letter Bombs Ci"
rony Robinson promises 'not to sulk' 2 Congratulations on keeping The 4 9igger running. In your last issue you had I pop at Time Team in general and me in mrticular. It was good knockabout stuff md I promise not to sulk, but I'd like to mrrect a few misapprehensions.

h's going to be a long haul. Things won't h n g e overnight because there are too many powerfd forces militating against it. But some of us are spending (unpaid) time md effort to improve matters. We are xginning to see improvements in some xganisations - better archaeology and xtter care and appreciation of their iggest asset, their staff. Managers need help and support too. We have to pull together in the same direction or we'll get nowhere.

The IFA examine your wage packet
In, the most recent edition of The Archaeologist (43, Winter 2001), the F A review what's happened to pay in the past year. They do this by looking at the jobs featured in the JIS, the F A weekly jobs bulletin. The author of the review, James Drurnmond-Mumy, found a marked drop in the number of jobs advertised in most categories. Pay increased overall by 3.8%, but this masked a sharp variation between jobs. Diggers' pay only just kept ahead of inflation with an increase of 2.9%. Supervisors fared worst, with pay actually falling by 1% compared with last year. The pay for Field Officers was virtually unchanged, while Project Managers' pay increased by 7.2%. The fact that most jobs were advertised at above the IFA minimum for each grade prompted the author to comment that 'i1 may mean these are now too low'. This was a sentiment echoed by 92% 01 respondents in a recent poll, reported in the last edition of The Digger.

Things are happening - Valetta, APPAG, the F A Roles & Skills project, RAOs and inspections encouraging better management and conditions, improved [FA membership, wider consultation, useful training, CPD, better understanding with developers that archaeology and archaeologists are important. rime Team is more popular than ever, Archaeologists need and deserve more; 1 with viewing figures in excess of 3 hope you get it. million. We're not loolung for new presenters, I've just agreed a two year Please continue to be a thorn in the side of :xtension to my contract. But we are the complacent. But you'll get further and trying to find new young diggers to reflect quicker with constructive criticism. the changing world of archaeology, something I'm sure you'd endorse. ... and the view of a digger E Just to let you know about Trent & l As to my work on the Labour Party NEC, Peak unit. Basically they have fucked up ['m currently co-chairing the Policy as they simpiy haven't got work in. So Commission responsible for DCMS. It's ALL bar one of their diggers have been my ambition to convince politicians that laid off. Shitty bit was people had been our historical heritage is as important as told work would have been there at the our environmental one. It's only when they time. Now I know that archaeology is a are persuaded of the vital role you play, depressing way eke out an existence, but it that money will become available to pay seems to me that the gulf between 'us' and you decent wages. 'them', that is the diggers and the Best wishes, Tony Robinson. 'managers' has begun to grow far too large. While their positions appear secure, The establishment view they simply don't give a damn what As part of the 'establishment' I am happens to the dggers. We are delighted that The Digger is alive and expendable. flourishing. Honest! Your voice is veq important.

2

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...

Finances

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Archaeology is suffering the growing pains of a young profession and some Total contributions changes will take time as well as political Total costs (projected) pressure from all sides - including frorr End balance The Digger and its readers. Archaeologists are poorly paid in comparison with mosl other professions, exacerbated for many bj Skint! contractual rnculties and appalling physical conditions. 1

4123

The Digger is a non-proflt mahlng newsletter existing entirely on donations. AU donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The D f g p on the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the British Archaeological Joba Resource (vrr.baJr.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name and address? If not, drop us a line and well put it right. 1f you want to receive Ttra D i m b u t don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send us your details.

PO Box 23570 London E13 9YP e-mail: thedigger@email.com web: www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk

'Don't blame the system'
In the March edition of The Digger, we suggested that competitive tendering lay at the heart of the crisis in UK archaeology and that publicly funded archaeology could be on answer. Here, one of our readers puts his view.

:ities on Brownfield sites. A firther tax on ihe~ developments will not help the regeneration of historic towns. What is needed is grant aidmg by the Lottery of :xcavations carried out in advance of regeneration projects. This would mcourage a greater take up of difficult Brownfield sites. 'Blaming the funding method for all our problems in archaeology is wrong. The reason some sites are badly excavated is that a unit puts too low a tender in to get h e job and then cuts corners. It is illogical to blame thls on the system.'

:ontracts mean that archaeologists have more of a stake in their profession and are quite within their rights to enquire about xnsions, sick pay, training, appraisals md career prospects. 'Third, the slow improvement of thc mhaeologist's lot to date has largely come From exqernal factors and not the :mployers themselves. The competitive tendering economy is usually blamed for a lack of provision of basic necessities. Similarly, attempts at dialogue about terms and conditions through other means (eg professional bodies, Staff Councils, site reps) are generally unsuccessful especially for those in casual employment. The individual contracts of employment dished out by non-union employers divide a workforce and make participation almost impossible in decisions affecting how we work. 'But trade union representation offers the option of collective bargaining - a real tool in the fight for better conditions. Mass membership of a union is an acknowledgement that there are areas of conflict within archaeological organisations where disenfranchised workers require outside representation. Union membership is a sign that archaeological workers find their terms and conditions of employment unacceptable and that they are keen to see a change and participate in the nature of this change.

'Is PPG16 so bad? P P G ~ ~ benefited has archaeology by forcing Local Authorities to address heritage issues within development plans such as Local Plans. This has resulted in more sites being investigated and more archaeologists G ing out tlus work than in the halcyon dafi of the 70's and 80's public funding.
'Are readers (and editors) of The Digger willing to go back to the days when nonelected county archaeologists and English Heritage distributed funding to County units based on importance of sites? This would lead to less work being carried out and fewer archaeologists. The smaller sites now covered by PPG16 would not happen. Meanwhile loads of sites will get dug in February and March and other perhaps more significant sites would not get investigated if too many sites come up in one year.

Unionisation the wav forward?
I the last 2-3 years, trade union n membership in developer-funded urchaeology has grown rapidly. The Prospect Archaeologists Branch, which represents many contract archaeologists, has seen a four-fold increase in membership. The Digger asked Jayne Gidlow, the Secretary of the branch, why urchaeologists are joining unions in such large numbers.

'The method of paying for archaeology within a public finding system is a form of development tax. Presumably this would b percentage-based t x on the costs of a all'developments nationally or regionally. So the more expensive a development the more tax paid. 'What happens if it's a regeneration project involving the redevelopment of a threatened historic building (perhaps for social housing) carefidly designed to ensure no affect on any archaeology? Is it fair that this developer should be paying tax to fund the excavation of a Greenfield site down the road that destroys an Iron Age settlement?

'With the present system at least those who d e c t archaeology most severely have to pay the most. A development tax wilI end up costing environmentally friendly developers more than others because 'Second is the random variation in t e r n national strategy for archaeology. careful design often costs more initially. and conditions between employers Archaeologists are a dedicated workforce 'At present the Government is trying to Increased work opportunities and longei with a sense of responsibility for what they encourage redevelopment of towns and

'First, there has been a change in the dynamics of archaeological work. Archaeologxal skills and labour are in more demand than ever before and many units find it hard to recruit. It appears that far fewer archaeologists in the UK are unemployed and many itinerant field workers have seen an upturn in general 'Obviously it is not in our interests to put terms and conditions. our employers out of business! For 'In addition to this, multi-million pound example, Prospect is very close to road, air and rail link developments finalising recognition agreements at PCA, brought large numbers of field workers AOC, Oxford Archaeology and Wessex together. Excavations and 'stay away' jobs Archaeology. Along with MoLAS (where generated a network of informal contam Prospect is already recognised) these form and this network was both strengthened the big employers in the South-East. and utilised by the arrival of The Digger When these four 'jump together', Field workers have come into contact wi6 developers will no longer be able to expect other subcontractors and witnessed thei~ lower prices via cutting of necessities for far superior site welfare provisions. Fol archaeological staff, because those workers many archaeologists this has mean1 will be protected by recognition throwing their rose-tinted, 'Rescue agreements. spectacles on the spoil heap! 'Prospect advocates this approach as a

do whilst at work. The level of dissatisfaction and of union activism to date dwsn't come from a group of people who bear a grudge and can't be bothered to do the job well, but from people who genuinely care about all aspects of archaeology and those that work within it. 'So go on, join and get involved, whatever stage in union relations your employer happens to be at. Union recognition is the first step toward a decent living wage for all archaeologists.'

From start to finish the archaeology formed the backdrop to the unfolding human drama. A large urban excavation followed the all too familiar themes of little time and less money. Perhaps the most touching scene involved Tony Robinson being given the 'grand tour' of the dig house and shown the single hand basin that Sewed as the only sink for hventy diggers! Then cut to a permanent member of staff, who could at least afford to have his own roof and central heating repaired.

employers. So come on guys, give it a shot, you have nothing to lose. -Chert Beware court action! B I am not a unit manager. I do take your point about how suppressing costings whllst tendering for archaeological works leads to low wages. However if the industry was to hike its costs and a developer took umbrage. Well...PPG16 is only planning guidance, not law, so if in court a developer was to win the right not to deal with archaeology then we would have a precedent and we would no longer have an industry. Damned if you do. Damned if you don't. What is the legal minimum? I've got a querylgrumble - what are h e legal minimum standards a digger or experienced and qualified archaeologst should be offered? I am thinking mainly of holiday, sick pay and notice periods when, work is likely to dry up. Where I am employed at the moment we do not get any of the above. Surely something is wrong, but ignorance certainly isn't bliss. Yet rocking the boat would mean quick replacement. Any suggestions out there? Ed. Charity work at OAU [X1 While I naturally applaud all the good charity work that the Oxfam Archaeology Unit (OAU) does, I do think that putting up all those poor souls in long-term bed and breakfast accommodation is only a short-term solution to the problem. It is not uncommon for many of these poor people to live in bed and breakfasts for many months (in some cases years!). There is the danger that they will become rootless, living from one breakfast to the next, existing outside the community most of us take for granted, their few possessions stuffed into a plastic bag. Yes, the phrase 'bag for life' becomes more poignant when seen in these terms.

Contact info: Union website: www.prospect.org.uk For the first time a digger's wages were Enquiries about recognition to: dxussed on camera. It was good to see prospectarchaeology@hotmai1.com this classic exchange between managers: 'We have taken out a big advert to get 10 diggers, but we haven't had that many Give Milord Redesdale applicants.' 'Why - is it the wages of £215 a piece of your mind! per week?' 'Er, could be ... ' 'So how big is the shortfall?' 'Eight! ' Lord Redesdale's All Party Parliamenkuy Archaeology Group (APPAG) is We also saw dggers working in the attempting to dmover what's wrong with appalling weather conditions we know and the way archaeology is organised in the love. Arguments with ground workers and UK.A series of meetings is scheduled for unsupervised machining of archaeology all May and June at the House of Lords to featured. By the end I was in tears. Not for grilI English Heritage, the F A , the CBA, the loss to archaeology, but because my Rescue, museums, universities, life, our story, was there. government departments etc. APPAG say that ordinary diggers are welcome, but Originally posted on the BAJR messageboard. only as observers (ie only if you keep your mouth shur). Letter Bombs But there is also an APPAG public meeting where you can have your say. This will be held in London at the Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly (on the left hand side of the courtyard as you approach the Royal Academy) on Saturday 6 July, from 13:OO to 16:OO (doors open at 12:30). The meeting will be chaired by the formidable Dr Rosemary Cramp. So if you're hacked off with your pay, conditions, health and safety, or with seeing unrecorded archaeology ending up on the spoil heap so your unit can make a fat profit - get yourself along!

Employers - you have nothing to lose B It is about time that more employers realised that what they need is not more staff, but more time. If you can ration your staff out and negotiate longer slots for excavations, you increase the length of time you can employ individuals. This should put no extra cost on the project. Fewer sta£f equals fewer NI subs. Staff are kept on for longer, become more loyal, are more able to put down roots, find accommodation etc. Therefore less need to advertise. Longer digs mean more continuity between excavations .equals fewer and shorter lay offs.

Finances

TV Review
Some of you may have seen Time Team's latest venture 'The Big Dig' in Canterbury. I personally think it was the greatest leap forward in TV archaeology since their original series, which showed the public how we really worked.

A realistic unit should ration and sequentially organise its projects so that it employs exactly the same number of Total contributions people throughout the year. And before Total costs (projected) you say it isn't possible, it is. I've seen it in End balance action and it works. And because it works Thanks to everyone I have a house and a wife and a car, and I live in the same town in which I work. All contributed! it takes is a shift in the mentality of the big

+£l05 -&l28 -5137 who has

The Digger is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. AU donations welcome, cheques should be made out to r The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger on the web, with extra a t and discussion areas; and the British Archaeological Jobs Rerource (araa.bajr.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name and address? If not, drop u s a line and well put it right. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't waut to receive The Digger but do, send us your detdb.

archacologists arc forccd to leavc thc industp EH: No. due to poor pay, poor job security and no hope D: So in what way do the training posts This month The Digger and BAJR are of'moving up a carcer ladder. differ from the work that the ordinary launching the Petition for Change. The 111 July, a ~tullio~i IJiiison, GMH and T k G archaeologists do? petition is aimed at the employers of members went on strike for a 6% pay rise for EH: (pause) You get a turn with the archaeologists and of other workers in the public sector workers. We also demand an end EDM. heritage sector. It draws attention to the to low pav. With decent wages and career lack of career structure and pensions, the stnicture comes respect aid pride in the The EH person went on to explain that thc training jobs were aimed at archaeology long hours and the poor job security that profession. graduates who were 'not up to working on we all know and love. The petition also We call on Ule enlployers to end poverty pay calls for the Institute for Field for archaeologists and others in the I-leritage site.' She said she wasn't aware that the Archaeologists (FA) to increase its Sector and to introduce a clcar and wage was so low (the cost of ten pounds a minimum pay rate to a level deemed by standardised career structure with a recognised week for accommodaLion effectively reduces the trainee wage to 69680 pa). But the European Union necessary to lead a work description for each grade. she said that the trainees at Whitby were c' m t life (the 'European Decency We also call on the F A to raise its minimum -1hieshold') and to expel any of its pay rate to the European Decency Threshold or in fact lucky because elsewhere 'most £280 per week (£7.34 per hour) with training positions aren't even paid.' members that do not comply. immediate effect, and to enforce this b y The editors of The Digger said, 'The idea expelling units and unit managers that do not She praised English Heritage's other work in funding training. is that people take the petitions round their comply.

Petition for Change

workplaces for their colleagues to sign, n and ~ e return the sheets to us or to BAJR. We'll forward them to the F A . The more people who sign the more impact the petition will have. The petition highlights problems faced by all Heritage workers. Let's use it as a tool to improve all our lives at work.'

Training wage or cheap labour?

In June English Heritage advertised for trainees to join the fieldwork team at their long-running project at Whitby. 'Trainees must be keen 10 learn and gain experience as part of their career development,' the In a recent poll on BAJR 92% of people said that the current F A recommended advert in the Guardian said. The wage for 15 minimum pay rate of &2 per week was the trainees was just &10,200 pa. too low. It would cost the F A nothing to At The Digger we decided to find out what increase its minimum to a decent level. sort of 'training' EH was offering for such A- -' yet this change would mean a real a pittance. A Digger correspondent posed in+ovement to the lives of thousands of as an unemployed archaeologist with a few low-paid workers in the heritage sector. months experience and phoned the EH the site. The The petition will be publicised to the people organising CBA, Rescue, Britarch, APPAG etc. The conversation went something like this: text of the petition is as follows:

No one is born an archaeologist, so of course people need training on site. But if you're doing the same work as others you deserve the same money. And low pay for one group of diggers drags down all our wages. EH, as a leading heritage organisation, should be setting a better example, although they are not the only offenders in paying 'trainees' so little. Many Digger readers will remember last year's notorious job advert from the Canterbury unit offering E7737 pa to trainees 'preferably with some excavation experience.' To be fair, the EH person did point out that with our few months digging experience, we could apply for one of the slightly better paid site assistant jobs. But training with no formal lectures, no tests, no written work, no accrcditation, no recognition or regulation by any academic or professional body, and very Iittle difference to the site work being done by the other diggers - can these really be called training posts? Or are they just an excuse for getting the site dug on the cheap?

End poverty pay in the Heritage Sector!
The Institute of Field Archaeologists (FA) estimate that archaeology contributes £100 million to the economy. Many sites that archaeologists work on yield big profits to developers; some are multi-million pound projects. Yet many archaeologists and other Heritage Sector workers earn less than £13,000 pa, and some earn less Lhan £8,000 pa despite having high practical skills andtor good academic qualifications. Field archaeologists and Heritage Sector workers also work long hours, sometimes unpaid overtime. Few can aflord mortgages. Pension provision and sick pay is often nonexistent for those on short contracts. Too many

Digger: As a trainee how many hours a week wi11 I work? English Heritage person: It's a 36 hour week, but you may have to work some weekends. D: What does the training consist of! EH: It's a basic five week placement working closely with archaeological staff. It's very similar work to the site staff. D: Are there any fonnal lectures? EH: Oh yes! Well - not lectures exactly. Talks. D: Does the training count towards any academic qualification or accreditation? EH: Er ... no. D: Is there any written component or tests?

STOP PRESS: We wrote to the Chief Archaeologist at English Heritage to comment on our Jndings. This was his reply:
'I have seen the Whitby project design and the training programme has been endorsed by the Archaeologicd Training Forum in

rcsponsc previous years. This year's programme has enthusiastic managements. been submitted to the ATF. 'Thc bass of thc training programrnc 1s that trainees are rotatcd around as many parts of the project as possible. pairing than mith an cspcrienccd archaeologist as a mentor. There arc talks and scrninars from Wcrent cscavation staff members ,and from visiting specialists. There is no formal csainination qstem but the students' work is checked and signed off by a supervisor. 'Your comments suggest you havc a rather formal attitude to training. As I am responsible for the finances, I can assure you that the presence of the trainees adds to the cost of the project rather than providing labour on the cheap. The charge for acconlmodation is to avoid the Inland Revenue taxing it as a benefit in kind. 'Yours sincerely, David Miles. Chief Archaeologist. '

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APPAG meeting postponed
The All-Party Parliamenta~Archaeoloe Group's public rneetlng In London has bccn postponed. A nen datc nil1 be announced for the Autumn. Details at \~iw.sal.orguk/a~~a~/cill.ht~n. Get yoursclf along and tcll thcnl what's nrong with the way archaeology is organised!

hc field staff n-h! isn't any work coming n'? This is what happens when you get m-of-their-depth academics trying to run 1 business! If the! want to moon about .alking archaeology all day they should be Aoody lecturers. otherwise go out and secure some contracts. We could always ?ut the directors on weekly contracts and see how they like living in financial limbo, not knowing from one day to the nest whcre the rent is coming from!

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Wessex says yes to a union
Staff have voted by 71% to rccognise Prospect at Wessex Archaeology. The union says that the majority meets all the swutory requirements for a recognition ballot, which means that Prospect is now officially recognised at the unit. This is unlikely to affect terms and conditions straight away. However, J a p e Gidlow, the Secretary of the Archaeologists' Branch has told The DIgger that 'a recognition agreement wiIl now be drawn up and will have to be agreed upon by both parties (ie the company and the union members at Wessex). Union members will elect representatives to a committee, usually called something like a Joint Consultative Committee (JCC). ' The recogrution agreement will contain the areas of the terms and conditions of employment at Wessex that both parties agree can be collectively bargained upon. This could include pay, pensions, travel time, annual leave entitlements etc. Once this is agreed, then the actual terms of employment can be discussed. The result is a victory for the union and ordinary union members who have campaigned hard for recognition at a number of units, despite a less than

PS - Friend of mine was digging with Network Archaeology and it was pissing C?" Letter Bombs &' with rain. His supervisor was in the bottom of a muddy trench covered in filth Court action could lead to when the guy emptying the Portaloo saw improvements and 8 The letter 'Beware court action' in him. shook his headworld,said. 'You've got [he worst job in the mate.' L)i,gger 32 pointed out that PPG16 is only - Northern Ranter planning gu~dance and could be challenged in court. But if a challenge In Memoriam were successful. would the archaeological profession and the public stand by and The Digger sends its condolences to the accept the consequences? Such a case family and friends of Darren Riddle, 26, .: . would expose the fragile nature of who tragcally lost his life during an archaeologxal provision. Archaeology archaeological excavation in the Yorkshire isn't the NHS. but it has never had a Dales last month. higher public profile; popular awareness has never been greater. Government would Darren, from Huddersfield, was a first have to act to ensure protection of the year Archaeological Sciences student at historic environment, resulting in an Bradford University. He was taking part in inprovement in archaeology's legislative a four-week University excavation at a site situation and also in terms and conditions. near Malham, North Yorkshire. The day he died was a rest day from the Another point. I know several graduates of Iexcavation, and he had gone out walking. an MA course in heritage management When he didn't return a search was who have been lectured by representatives launched and his body was found that of dBerent developers. In every case the evening. He had fallen down a quarry. representatives have been astonished that archaeologsts undersold themselves in Carl Heron, the University's dean of and environmental comparison to all other contractors and archaeological sciences, said: 'Darren was a mature consultants. They're expecting us tal charge more, and their budgets can cope student who enjoyed his studies n' with it - but they're hardly likely to put Bradford. He was well-liked, with ma.., interests and a bright future.' There will that in tender documents, are they! be an inquest, but police are not treating The 'don't bite the hand that feeds you' the death as suspicious. argument has been used by employers tal counter demands for improvements in pay and conditions since the onset of industriall Finances capitalism. If we fall for it we'll wailt forever - and in vain - for sigruficanl improvements. Total contributions Put the bosses on weekly contracts! Total costs (projected) At the unit I work for, supervisors. End balance directors etc. outnumber field staff by 2: 1 Thanks to everyone who has at least, I kid you not! If the directors', contributed! main (if not sole) job is to find work foir
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he Digger is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger on the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bair.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name and address? If not, drop us a lime and well put it right. If you want to receive The Dfgger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send u s your detatl.

peration. And even though a year has ~assed since it went to the wall, mtroversy still dogs the old unit. The Support for the Petition for Change has atest twist is that police are investigating been flooding into The Digger and BAJR. he disappearance from the unit's old HQ The petition was launched in the last issue )f artefacts that could be worth hundreds of The Digger and calls for an end to )f thousands of pounds. So what went poverty pay and the introduction of a wrong at Carlisle? In a special report, The decent career structure for archaeologists 3igger investigates. and others in the Heritage Sector. The rhree years ago, it must have seemed like petition demands that the Institute of Field he perfect match. Bradford University Archaeologists (FA) raise its minimum was on the lookout for new training digs recommended pay rate to the European md opportunities to dabble in the worId of Decency Threshold of L280 per week mmmercial archaeology. Carlisle Council '7.34 per hour), and to enforce this by was eager to privatise its city archaeology 'expelling units and unit managers who do mit. As a result, Bradford University not comply. ~cquiredthe unit in 1999 and Carlisle The petition has won the support of archaeologists from Southampton, Liverpool, Sunderland, Hull, Gateshead, Norfolk, Newcastle, Bath, Scotland, Tayside, Swindon, York, Middlesex, Durham, Sheffield, London, Birmingham, King's Lynn, Lincoln, Wales, Cambridge, Canterbury, East Yorkshire, Kent, Oxford, Bristol, Worcestershire, Leeds, Cumbria, Essex, Twickenham, and Tyne and Wear. There has been support from members of Unison, Prospect and NATFE. Diggers from units big and small have sent their support, as have university archaeology departments and consultancies.
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Petition for Change support floods in

hailed by experts at the Royal Armouries as 'a unique discovery from anywhere in the Roman world.' But things started to go wrong in the autumn of 2000 when the local newspaper ran a story headlined 'Roman Chiefs House Makes Way for Millennium Gallery'. The Cumberland News reported that the Castle Green finds 'could put Carlisle in the same league as York', but that part of the Roman fort would have to be destroyed to make way for the new gallery. By this time, a local campaign to save the Roman remains was gathering momentum. One letter to the local press described the proposed removal as an 'abdication of responsibility in allowing needless destruction of an irreplaceable asset.'

4rchaeology Ltd was formed. When the takeover was first announced, a m i o r Bradford lecturer held a meeting uith Carlisle staff. 'He said something h u t using Carlisle as a training area for heir students,' one of our contacts told us. I never found this all that convincing a reason though, as there was only ever 2 or 3 students there at any one time.'

. : Branch Secretary of the mchaeologists Branch of Prospect, Jayne Gidlow, has said that she supports the petition in a personal capacity. Stephen Cheshire is promoting the petition on his website for illustrators. On BAJR over 400 people have pledged their support in an online poll.

So keep those petitions coming in! Have you signed yet?

Carlisle Archaeology Ltd What went wrong?

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It was a unit in an important UK city sitting on a wealth of Roman and medieval archaeology. It had just completed a major excavation. It had a well-respected university behind it. Yet Carlisle Archaeology still went bust, throwing sta£f on the dole and losing local expertise gathered over almost 25 years 01

The campaign succeeded in forcing a statement from English Heritage defending the scheme. EH said that the benefits outweighed 'the loss of such a . small part of the archaeological remains.' But the City Council was already approving a redesign of the Millennium Gallery, even though the additional b o t h e r promise was that 'dggers and archaeologml work would increase costs. 3ther staff would be employed at Bradford if work dried up at Carlisle,' our contact 'The whole wllennium] scheme was a said. 'It was also suggested that Carlisle nightmare from star1 to finish,' a source staff would be able to undertake postgrad close to the City Council told us. 'When it muses funded by the new company, but was originally costed, there was no budget by the time the deal was finally done, this for further digs on the Castle Green. The had been quietly dropped.' As our contact Council was picking up a f5 million cost wryly observed, 'They weren't going to for what was supposed to be L3.5 million.' make me a guest lecturer.' Perhaps this very public debacle soured But at the time of the takeover the future relations between the Council and its looked rosy. A L7.2 million construction recently-privatised archaeological unit. scheme in the heart of Carlisle was on the Because there was more trouble when the budget for the cards. The Mllemium Project was jointly post-excavation h d e d by the City Council and the archaeological works came to be Millennium Commission who put up discussed. Rumour has it that the quote for about half the money each. The scheme the work was much higher than the included the construction of a gallery with Council expected. an underground passageway that involved The Council and Bradford University are archaeological investigations around the both tight-lipped about what arrangements castle. Roman remains were known to had been made about post-ex funding. But s w i v e here, particularly the Castle Green former managing director of the unit Mike area. McCarthy is explicit that Carlisle's demise The excavations, led by Mike McCarthy, was because the unit 'was unable to come made some astonislung discoveries. These to an agreement with the client with included important Roman structural regard to the post-excavation programme timbers and articulated Roman armour for the Millennium project.' He also

blamed 'inMcient contracting work to sustain staff..' These were fatal body blows. The unit closed in August 2001 and staff were made redundant. Mike McCarthy secured a post as Senior Lecturer at Bradford University.

llways bring cost savings and improved luality - the opposite can be the case. The mexpected increase in the costs of the vlillennium Project suggests a lack of oresight, and the council must be quinning with embarrassment that lationally important artefacts have gone So what did Bradford do to defend the nissing and that the police are poking unit? A source in the archaeology rbout. department told The Digger that the feeling there is that the university let the What about the role of Bradford unit go into liquidation rather than stand Jniversity? Apparently some in its own up to the City Council. The unit had been uchaeology department feel that the reliant on Bradford to support it miversity was not robust enough in financially for a long time. Three months ;tanding up to the City Council over the later, the unit's work was taken over by mstex funding - an issue that was the ubiquitous Oxford Unit in the form of dtimately to sink the unit. Promises to Oxford Archaeology North - ironically C'arlisle staff were not kept and work to =stain the unit was not secured. Did the itself once a university unit. university fully appreciate the cut-throat But that's not the end of the story. A nature of commercial archaeology today? stock-take last November revealed that Presumably it was not the university's more than 150 finds from the Castle intention to have its new unit close down Green excavation had vanished, including after only two years. the rare Roman annour. News of the dsappearance has only recently been The outcome of this sorry tale is that made public. The finds had been stored in Carlisle is now without a regional unit, six boxes at Shaddon Mill - the former local experlise and important finds have been lost, diggers have been made HQ of Carlisle Archaeology. redundant and the archaeology in the.city 'It's a huge blow for historians. Some of will be carved up between units the items were unique and extremely rare,' parachuted in from hundreds of miles said Gerry Martin, who led the dig with away. Not a great success for British Mike McCarthy. 'The lorica squamata is archaeology. very rare - there has only ever been one found here before.' Artefacts of this nature STOP PRESS:Carlisle City Council have can be sold for hundreds of thousands of written to tell us that despite extensive pounds over the internet to overseas reports in the national news to the r collectors, M Martin added. mntrary, 'the armour was never lost'. It Cumbria Police confirm that they have 'is undergoing conservation at Durham been called in to investigate. The City University.' Since the police investigation, Council refuses to speculate about the many of the items have been recovered, disappearance of the artefacts now it is a 'although a few are still outstanding.' police matter. But a spokesman stated Don't miss the next issue of The Digger that: 'The council has liaised closely with for more responses to this article! and taken the advice of English Heritage With thanks to the many people who and the county archaeologist' in matters contributed to this article. connected with the finds, which were 'being stored in good condition and Archaeologists thorough c l ~ k kwere made to ensure their s on the picket line continued upkeep.' Whatever the outcome of this latest twist, it marks another undgrufied episode for a unit that has fallen victim to a number 01 factors.

;trike was necessary and what happened )n the day. I voted for strike action in the Unison )allot. This was because I feel that the owest council grades are stiIl too low. I would also like to give Blair a hard time. I was not taking action for personal reasons )f greed, and certainly not so senior nanagers can get 6% for crossing the licket lines. We contacted our union branch for advice md picketed outside our ofice and the ocal museum. We did not try to prevent irisitors attending the museum. Our senior aanager did not try to talk us out of aking strike action. He did, however, mme to work. My line manager (a union member) crossed the picket line. Words rail me. The response from the public was mixed - some obvious support and some hought we were trying to better our own position. ' The picket line consisted of finds specialists and SMR staff. No union members at the museum crossed the picket line. 'The manager of the museum stopped 3y to wish us well. He had no intention of going to work! 'I am not sure that a few curatorial xrchaeologists striking for one day does any good in the long term. We obviously Felt obliged to support the others, and will 30 so again. It is the suspension of :ssential services that will have most :ffect. I am willing to keep going until some compromise is reached - not necessarily 6% across the board, but xrtainly a better deal for the lower grades within the council. I would like to see more support and more unions cc ~rdinating their strike days. Longer periods of strike action will only have an effect with solidarity, i.e. no bins being emptied.'
The letters section returns in the next issue.

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Finances

In July up to a million public sector Start balance (this issue) workers took strike action for a day Total contributions against low pay. It was the biggest public Total costs (projected) sector stnke for decades and involved End balance The privatisation of the unit was the members of the Unison, GMB and T&G Thanks to everyone beginning of the end. The City Council unions including archaeologists workmg contributed! are not the first local authority to discove~ for local councils. A curatorial that selling off public servi&s does not archaeologist tells The Digger why the

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The Msger is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All donations welcome, cheques should be made out to -The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Mgger on the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the ~ritish Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name aud address? If not, drop us a line and well put it right. If you w a d to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Mgger but do, send u s your detalls.

Carlisle Archaeology 'An inquiry is needed'
In the last edition of The Digger we ran an article about Carlisle Archaeology Ltd, which went bust a year ago aJer being taken over by Bradford University. A disagreement over the post-ex funding of a large-scale excavation - the Millennium scheme - and lack of other contract work sunk the unit. It's clear that bitterness over the closure still runs deep. In response to the article, "4ke ~McCarthy,who ran the unit and is -,W a senior lecturer, calls for an inquiry into the closure. He accuses the client of 'harassing and interfering' with the unit and heritage agencies of staging a 'coup d 'etat' once fieldwork was over. Bradford Ufiiversity says the affair 'raises many questions about the condition o j professional archaeology in Britain. ' Read the replies below ...

supportive. 'However, once the fieldwork was over, they quickly turned against CAU and effectively staged a rather nasty coup d'etat over the question of the postexcavation programme. The client wished to get away with a minimalist contribution, but the data, including finds, required a much higher level of support.' Mike adds that heritage agencies rejected 'a solution which would have retained the expertise of CAU.' 'The closure resulted in many members of staff who had acquired an unrivalled knowledge of a major frontier zone over many years being put on the spoil heap, as it were. It was as if thev were of no consequence. It was handled with astonishing ineptitude and insensitivity. Some have re-trained to the profession's loss. These are trained, articulate, literate and experienced archaeologists. The profession is not so well endowed that it can afford to lose such talent.'

responsible agencies to ensure that thej will be fully published.' 'The whole episode raises many questions about the condition of prolessional archaeology in Britain. We remain convinced that there should be closer links across the sectors. The problem remains, even if this attempt to achieve somethmg sadly failed.'

Keep those petitions coming!
Many thanks to those who have sent in their copies of the Petition for Change.

The petition calls for employers to end poverty pay and to introduce a decent career structure for archaeologists and others in the Heritage Sector. The petition also demands that the Institute of Field Archaeologists (FA) raise its minimum recommended pay rate to the European Decency Threshold of £280 per week Mike McCarthy: 'Here are some on the 'An inquiry is needed into the whole (57.34 per hour), and to enforce this by affair. There is certainly a great deal more expelling units and unit managers who do record comments for you.' that can be said on tlus shameful matter.' not comply. 'At the time of, and for sometime after, the transfer from the City Council to the Dr. Rick Jones on behalf of Bradford Get your copy of the petition by contacting University, Carlisle Archaeology Limited University: 'The University originally The Digger or by downloading from the (CAU) was winning a very high level of began negotiations with Carlisle City BAJR website. bids. That began to change and by the end Council because we saw an opportunity to of the first full operating year it was in make links across the sectoral divisions in Last minute reprieve +fiCit. This continued throughout the British archaeology. The University took for Gloucester unit -,and year, not helped by the foot and over Chrlisle Archaeological Unit for mouth outbreak. As companies cannot those motives. We saw mutual benefits in A spirited campaign supported by local legally trade whilst being insolvent, the enhancing research and developing press and celebrities and involving University had little option but to opt for archaeological practice. We hoped over petitions and demonstrations has saved the closure. The University did not have time to initiate new projects that would Gloucester unit from closure. sufficient financial resources to continue build links between staff based in the Unit in Carlisle and in the University in Gloucester City Council had been underpinning the operation.' Bradford. We saw many exciting threatening to close the regional unit as <The millennium scheme was a major possibilities in these areas, but all were part of a series of cuts. The council hoped project by any standards. The dependent on the Unit's basic financial to save £100,000 by throwing up to six of archaeological component had been perforinance being satisfactory. The the unit's seven staff on the dole. worked on by CAU on behalf of the University did not expect to make However, a local campaign to save the developer, Carlisle City Council, English financial gains from the Unit's work, but it unit involving Time Team's Tony Heritage and other interested parties over could not sustain losses either.' Robinson and Mick Aston stopped the a number of years. It had undertaken all council in its tracks. Professor Aston said, the fieldwork but the archaeological 'As it turned out, the overall financial programme was bedevilled by the client performance of Carlisle Archaeology Ltd 'Gloucester is one of the most historically who [was] harassing and interfering with left the University no choice but to important cities in the country and for it CAU throughout the last year of terminate its activities, with much regret. not to have its own unit will make it more The Millennium Project resulted in many diEicult to protect what it has. Every year excavation. These are matters of record.' exciting archaeological dmoveries, and [this] happens somewhere and every year I Mike McCarthy goes on to say that during the University has co-operated with other get really angry, we have to fight another the excavation heritage agencies were very battle.' Tony Robinson urged protesters to

'go home and get agitating. Let them :alled for Saturday 7 December at the balance the books but not at the expense of Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London at loam. APPAG is the Gloucester Archaeology Unit.' :ompiling a report about all aspects of The campaign made the front page of the wchaeology, and the meeting is an local newspaper - The Citizen - and when ~pportunityfor ordinary diggers to have councillors turned up at their North )ur views heard. To obtain a ticket, Warehouse headquarters to decide the :ontact Lisa Elliott at le1liott@.sal.0rg.uk. unit's future, they were stunned to be besieged by 100 banner-waving protesters Low pay is also a burning issue for - some dressed as Saxons, Plantagenets museum workers. A meeting 'For love and Tudors. A petition signed by more but not money' has been organised by the Museum Professionals Group as part of than 5,000 people was also handed in. their own campaign against low pay. The Then at the eleventh hour, the council meeting will be held on 9 December at the backed down and said the unit was safe for Royal College of Surgeons, London. the time being. Phi1 Jones from Unison, Conservators, museum education staff, said, 'This is a tremendous shift in policy and the director of the Museums by the cabinet. We had no idea it was Association will all speak. going to happen until a sheet of revised proposals was handed round at the p Letter Bombs meeting. We must now keep the pressure up to make sure the unit is kept. We have Too harsh on EH been astounded by the depth of feeling this YOU were a bit harsh on English issue has created. ' Heritage (EH) regarding the trainee wage Earlier, the cabinet member for culture (Digger 23). The people who take thcse Bill Crowther denied being a hypocrite in positions would probably not get a look in threatening to close the unit even though with most 'professional units'. Don't his party, the Liberal Democrats, has Forget, there are enough so-called training recently adopted a policy of promoting digs that charge a king's ransom for the archaeology. privilege of telling people how to hold a trowel. The experience with EH can only help them get more work - that is if Developer faces fmes for working in Whitby in the autumn doesn't destroying sites put them off archaeology for life! A landfill company faces fines after a local I don't think a fuss would have been made council accused it of destroying parts of an if EH had advertised the positions as l lth century battlefield. Aberdeenshire voluntary. Also, you can't compare the Council has issued an enforcement notice work of a trainee with that of a site to Stoneyhill Waste Management, based in assistant. I can't imagine trainees being Peterhead. The council says the company able to make complete sense of extended its landfill site before stratigraphy and their speed and quality of archaeological work required by planning work is not likely to be great. permission could take place. I am thadd%l that I turned the Whitby job David Lynn, director of the Scottish down after reading that trainees would be Council for Archaeology, said, 'Our paired with experienced diggers. Maybe archaeological heritage is always under you could ask EH if they pIanned to pay threat. You can't have the economic those diggers who had trainees a better imperative overriding everythmg else.' wage? More work demands more money. Glenn Jones, manager of Stoneyhill Waste Doesn't it..? Management, said: 'As far as we are EH training 'the way forward' concerned, we don't believe that they were =AS a 'graduate' of the EngIish Heritage archaeological sites. ' (EH) archaeological trainee scheme, I feel I have to defend it.

practical experience and asking more experienced site staff their advice? On the ' EH digs I've been on everyone from the lproject manager downwards was dead friendly and helpful. You get to work on all parts of the site, learn how to use the l equipment, get talks and informal site visits. When was the last time you got this working on a developer-funded site, eh?
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You also say that £10,200 pa is bad! OK £5.45 an hour isn't good, but then no job in archaeology pays well. If you take the cheap accommodation (£ 10 a week) into account, it is not much worse than your 1bog standard site assistant's post (who has to work the full week without the trainees' perks). Anyway, with EH training I easily walked into a site assistant job at the dizzy heights of £12,000 a year.
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I think you are well off the mark criticising the EH training posts. They arone of the few good things to happen archaeology in the past few years. It's worth putting up with the money aspect for a short time, and having seen the miserable experiences of fresh-faced graduates in contracting units, schemes like the EH one has got to be the way forward. So there!
'Avoid Trent and Peak unit' B 0 n c e again, Trent and Peak Archaeology Unit have laid everyone off, including the assistant supervisors. This is the second time in a year this has happened, but now there isn't even the prospect of future work. How can a unit that should have control over two counties be so crap? The answer is simple. The people at the top do not value their str" They show diggers and supervisors -.J respect and no trust. Diggers are not even allowed to fill out context sheets, and you need divine intervention to even look at the EDM. This is a unit to avoid.

Finances

Total contributions Total costs (projected) everyone

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to You say that there is no formal training on Thanks The All Party Parliamentary Archaeology the scheme. But surely the only way to contributed! Group (APPAG) public meeting has been I become a decent digger is through- .

Speak out against low pay

who

has

U The Digger is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. A donations welcome, cheques should be made out to 'rhe Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Dfgger o n the web, with extra art and discussion areas; and the Bfitish Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. Do we have your correct name and address? It" not, drop u s a line. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send us your details and we'll put i t right.

Rail company 'desecrates' St Pancras cemetery
Most of us use a trowel to excavate a skeleton, some use a plasterers' leaf too, while others favour a spoon bent into interesting shapes to get at the awkward bits. Well, at St Pancras in North London they've discovered a new tool for the job it's called a JCB. The archaeological community was horrified to learn that an important cemetery was being machined out after archaeologists had been thrown off site. A aeologists and English Heritage (EH) inspectors were barred from the Camley Street Cemetery site by Union Railways, despite a 'gentlemen's agreement' that there would be an archaeological excavation. Simon Thurley, the director of EH, said: 'The archaeologists were excavating these remains with respect. Now, instead, the company will bc sending bdidozers straight through the lot, loading the soil, bones, bits of coffin and name plates into what they call a muck-away uuck. It is a total desecration of human remains.' A worker on the site confirmed that: 'We've been digging up skulls, ribs, legs, the lot.' The cemetery was first used in 1792 for the Catholic community in Camden and ari :rats fleeing the French Revolution. BUM continued until 1854. The Council for British Archaeology (CBA) said that 'this short period of burial activity makes as the assemblage even more signiicant trends can be analysed over a couple of generations.' Many of the caskets have names on them, increasing the potential for historical research. The site is part of a new station for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), built by Rail Link Engineering for London and Continental Railways. The scheme is governed by its own Act of Parliament, the CTRL Act 1996. This sidesteps normal planning regulations - archaeological intervention is not statutory, ordy by 'gentlemen's agreement.' The developers u now say that time has r n out, although archaeologists were allowed only three weeks to excavate about 100 graves out of

thousands. The CBA estimates that 'over discussions about the future possibility of
2,000 graves' have now been removed joint working' or, failing that, of OAU without archaeological monitoring. 'acquiring' the Essex unit.

Graham Tooms, the head of the Waste, Recycling and Environment directorate that oversees the archaeology unit, and Dave Buckley, the Head of the Heritage Conservation Branch stressed that the proposed merger or takeover was not definite and only 'one of a number of options under consideration.' A source igr within Essex council told The D g e that these options included Essex 'merging with another unit or units in the SouthEastlEast Anglia region,' adding that: 'It seems that Oxford are keen to establish a base of operations somewhere in the South-East,' - another possibility being The developers insisted that: 'We have all Kent. the relevant permissions required to carry process and we are fully compliant Once the story was out, Essex Council out t h ~ s with all our commitments. The work is issued a press release saying that 'an being undertaken by a competent specialist operational review' had been set up to contractor.' The change in the exhumation examine 'the role of [the Essex unit] method 'could have--serious imp:ications within the county council.' The review for the cost of the project and for its panel - which will initially include three completion date,' they added. archaeology staff - will decide whether the unit will be retained withm the council or The CBA, whch was at the forefront of be merged or go into partnership with an the campaign to stop the destruction, said external organisation. The review will be it was pleased with the result but warned that: 'We need to keep the pressure on to completed 'by late February 2003' and negotiations will only begin with an ensure that the planned archaeological outside organisation if Essex councillors work is reinstated.' The wider give their approval. implications were 'extremely worrying,' however, since proposed changes to make Despite these assurances, our source told planning legislation more 'business- us, 'the temporary staE are not convinced friendly' would result in blanket consent that Oxford would keep [them] employed being granted for other major projects on the county payscale, as apparently they such as airports. pay their digging stag much less then Essex County Council. Why would they pay one group of diggers more than OAU makes a grab another?' for Essex The fact that the council has not rejected The Oxford (OAU) unit's quest for world OAU's proposal outright suggests that it is domination continues: they want to take actively considering privatising the unit. over the Essex unit. Councils have no statutory duty to provide The news-broke first on the messageboard an archaeology service - and some of the BAJR website. Essex staff had been councils have tried to make short-term summoned to the unit's Braintree savings in the past by shutting down or headquarters earlier that day to be told selling off their archaeology units. In that the council had recently been November, the Gloucester unit was only contacted by OAU. A letter from Oxford saved from closure by a spirited campaign raised 'the question of whether it would be of demonstrations and petitions backed by beneficial for both parties to enter into local press and celebrities. Two years after

The outcry - by the Church of England as well as archaeologists - was reported on TV and radio and in the local and national press and after an emergency board meeting the developers agreed provisionally to refrain from using JCBs. An EH statement welcomed the developers' promise to 'reinstate archaeological monitoring and prepare for our approval an archaeological method statement appropriate to the new exhumation methodology.' EH said it would 'continuc to monitor the archaeological programme.'

being acquired by Bradford University the Carlisle unit was controversially closed down. From the point of view of OAU. taking over Essex is a shrewd move. OAU gains a f r foothold in the lucrative South-East im market and eliminates a competitor at the same timc.

P

Singalong

P

&' Letter Bombs @
We deserve a 60% rise Whilst supporting wholeheartedly the petition for a decent wage for archaeologists and for an overhaul of the 'career structure' in our industry, I feel that we ought to say that trained site a archaeologists are worth around £18k p , with salaries raised accordingly for supervisors, project officers, specialists etc. That's around a 60% payrise. The perils of self-employment It's all very well the Petition for Change recommending a minimum wage of £280 pcr week but it's also important that diggers are taken on as salaried staff. I work as a subcontracted employee for £50 per day. This does not seem too bad compared to other units but works out a lot lower. I have to provide all my clothing hard hat, viz vest etc. I have my hours dictated to me and also the invoice form that I have to submit to get my wages. I do not gct paid leave. My wages in real terms are about £5.70 per hour. Being made unemployed from units like these also affects benefits. We need units to fully employ their staff even if it is just for a week.

TESSERA by A Lodoen & K Harris (sung to the hine of 'Que Sera Sera') When I was a young trust trainee l asked my bosses What will I find? Will 1 find treasure'? Will 1 find gold? This is what they said to me: Tessera, sera Whatever you'll find, you'll find And honestly, we don't mind Tessera: sera Then as a site assistant, still I had to ask them What should I do'? Should 1 use mattock? Should I use hoe? I haven't got a clue Tessera, sera Whatever you'll do, you'll do But please make it quickly, too Tessera, sera Then as a supervisor, still I had to ask them What should it be? Should we use mattocks Or JCB'? Please huny answer me JCB, CB Whatever it'll be, it'll be But it is the JCB That will set us free Then as a Project Manager I was in meetings All the day long "You can have this bit" "This bit is mine" "We mustn't get it wrong" Tessera, sera Whatever that we'll decide We never can relax Skanska's on our backs Now I'm Director of the Trust Six weeks from now We will go bust We need some treasure We need some gold All that we have is dust Tessera, sera Whatever I'll do, I'll do Whatever I say - is true Tessera, sera

Union backs petition
The Museum of London branch of Prospect has pledged its support for the Petition for Change. The union branch which represents MoLAS archaeologists as well as museum workers - joins lwndreds of others who are calling for an end to poverty pay and a decent career structure in the heritage sector. Eighty people signed at the London based unit after the petition was circulated around MoLAS's HQ and sites. The petition demands that the Institute of Field Archaeologists ( F A ) raises its minimum recommended pay rate to the European Decency Threshold of £280 per week. This change would cost the F A nothing, but would mean a real improvement to the lives of thousands of low-paid workers. The F A estimates that archaeology contributes £100 million to the economy. Get your copy of the petition by contacting The Digger or by downloading from the BAJR website.

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News in brief
The Annual General Meeting of the Archaeologists' Branch of Prospect will take place at 11.30am on 22 January at Prospect House, 75-79 York Road, London, SE I. Lord Rupen Redesdale will be one of the speakers and all members of the branch are welcome. The union is also compiling a report on accommodation supplied by employers on 'away sites'. As wcll as poor pay and conditions, poor accommodation is 'an additional cause of occupational stress' says the branch's Health and Safety Oflicer. Send details of your experiences to Martin Campbell at blueaceswild@hotmail.com, or to The Digger at the usual address. The Museum Professionals Group seminar, 'For love but not the money', advertised in the last issue of The Digger has been rescheduled for 10 February.

I earn more as a temp Your recent newsletter sums up the frustration that I am going though. I am desperate to get back into archaeology, but cannot because I can't afford such a large pay loss. Why do I get paid more doing simple, boring secretarial work than those who are actively unearthing. conserving War managing heritage? It's absolutely disgraceful and I'm heartbroken. Archaeologists should not only be paid more fairly for their hard work, but should also get more accolades for preserving and presenting history.

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Thanks to those who have contributed! Happy New Year to all Digger readers!

The Dfgger is a non-profit making newsle The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Dfggeron the web, with extra art and discussion mras; and the British Arehaeelegieal Jebs Resouree (-.bajr.ee.uk). Check it. De we have y e w eerreet name h i 3 address?'If not, drop us a Line. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Dfgger but do, send u s your detalk and w'll put it right.

APPAG report met with
deafening silence
The long awaited All Party Parliamentary Archaeology Group (APPAG) report has been met with a deafening silence from organisations responsible for archaeology. The report, entitled 'The Current State of Archaeology in the United Kingdom,' was published over a month ago. But neither the Department for Culture Medla and Sport (DCMS), English Heritage (EH), the Institute of Field Archaeologists (FA) nor even the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) has made an official comment ,ut it. In a special article, The Digger lifts the lid on what APPAG has discovered, and reveals why some of the changes it recommends may be unpalatable to those in charge. APPAG consists of 139 members of the Houses of Parliament who invited selectsubmissions and arranged cormnittee type hearings to gather evidence for their wide-rariging report. The report makes ten key recommendations for change in the way archaeology is organised. These include making Sites and Monuments Records and museums statutory, boosting the teaching of archaeology, the abolition of class consents so farmers can't plough up sites like Verulamium, and much more. This cle will concentrate on the parts that hive most impact on field archaeologists, but it's also worth reading the full report; even the most hackneyed heritage worker will learn froin (and be shocked by) some of its findings. The government plays a vital role in the organisation of archaeology, but the report highlights how fragmented this is. Responsibility is split between DCMS, EH, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, the Department for Education and Skills, the Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs, the Minislry of Defence, the Department of Transport and others. Not surprisingly, there is a 'lack of coordination' between these bodies; the report recommends the establishment of a DCMSchaired committee 'at ministerial level' to bring them together.

Another key recommendation that diggers will cheer is that: 'There is an urgent need to improve pay and conditions for employment in field archaeology so that they are commensurate with graduate entry level in allied professions, such as local authority planning officers, civil engineers and university lecturers.' The F A together with EH and the union Prospect should create a training structure linked to career development, the report says. Employers not meeting training standards would not be allowed to bid for developer funded work. 'In the longer term, the current fragmented commercial unit system which has resulted from competitive tendering should be replaced with a more stable regional, or more local framework of archaeological organisations. ' So how much would we get if this recommendation became law? The report doesn't put a figure on it, but our research shows that graduate level entry in .the professions mentioned is about £16,000£19,000 pa. That's not too bad - it beats the Petition for Change that only demands the European Decency Threshold figure of £14560 pa minimum for diggers. The report recognises that archaeologists are 'insecurely employed, poorly paid and generally itinerant.' We're also 'excluded from training ... [which] prohibits promotion to more secure senior posts.' There is 'no clear career development path'. Why is this? The report is explicit: 'Ths is in large part due to the effects of the system of competitive tendering' and because of 'a weak professional structure.' Developer funding may be worth '£75 million per annum', but competitive tendering comes in for a real bashing. The report acknowledges that 'Competition on cost tends to drive down the quality of work, impair morale and career structure, and to remove costs ... such as training'. Competition for every job 'results in great ineficiencies and unnecessarily large overheads' for units because of the cost of preparing tenders that do not succeed. It is expensive, information is not readily exchanged between rivals, and it cuts off local communities from archaeological activity. Even the group that should

benefit from the current system perceives it as unfair, the report finds. 'A developer in one place may have no plaming constraint, whereas an identical development next door which happens to affect an archaeological site may have a prohibitively expensive constraint.' Many submissions to APPAG suggested a 'developer tax' - but although the report says this suggestion should be 'carefully considered', it does not feature in the recommendations. Instead the report recommends that 'Urgent consideration should be given to replacing the present system of competitive tendering in archaeological developer-funded investigations by a local franchise system.' The report reveals little about how such a system would work except that 'Franchises should be offered after consultation with the relevant local and national authorities and would need to be reviewed at regular intervals.' Who would award the franchises? This 'will need to be discussed,' says the report. The idea of franchises is not a new one - it was mooted in British Archaeology in 1996. The article 'Let us have franchises in archaeology' was pemed by John Walker, now Chair of the Standing Conference of Archaeological Unit Managers and Director of the York Archaeological Trust. He argued that a regulator - 'Ofarch' - would spec* levels of performance, and the contractor who provided the best quality at a reasonable cost would win the franchise. Franchses could be awarded for each county, with the winner subcontracting if necessaq. But would it work? A franchise system may simply reproduce all the problems of competitive tendering. What would stop a developer (or a consultant in his pay) acquiring a franchise and then subcontracting out all the work on a tendered basis? What would stop larger units driving smaller ones to the wall? How would a unit that lost its franchise suslain itself and the postexcavation work it was committed to? Even the word 'franchise' has unfortunate associations. It conjures up dodgy burger bars and train companies ripping off passengers while running down the rail network. Even as a starting

point for discussions about the best system The report has its flaws - even though the to replace competitive tendering, the idea sub-tea is that UK heritage needs more money, the report shies away from of franchises is flawed. recommending anytlung as drastic as an One key reconunendation that will stun increase in general taxation - or even a many observers is that the CBA, the F A developer tax - to pay for it. Franchises, and other lobbying groups should merge, too, are a non-starter. But overall, the or at least clarlfy their functions. It seems report is a step forward. The people who reasonable enough that there should be 'a make the laws have acknowledged the single voice to make the public case for problems with low pay, training and archaeology,' and APPAG says that it career structure caused by competitive 'stands ready to advise on this process.' tendering. Now they've acknowledged it, But the CBA and the F A are very maybe it's time we put pressure on them different organisations, and although they to do somethmg about it Loo. have overlapping aims, il's hard to see how merger would work. The CBA gets You can download a copy of the report or 'core funding from the British Academy,' fiom w~v.sal.or~.uk, send a £3 cheque and both the CBA and the F A 'are in payable to 'The Society of Antiquaries ' at receipt of major funding from EH.' No Burlington House, Piccadilly, London doubt the government would be licking its WlJ OBE. The CBA is also hosting an lips at the prospect of cutting back funding email discussion list about the report. for the new streamlined CBAJIFA. A phrase in the report generating more attention that it perhaps deserves is this one: 'watching briefs ... could be most appropriately serviced by local amateurlvoluntary groups.' Some professionals fear that this means an army of unqualified volunteers will soon be appearing on the horizon to take work off

within the University' and that this was being done 'with full consultation of Field Unit staff, the University personnel department and union representatives.'

Archaeologists against war
Archaeologists have got together to campaign against war with Iraq. Archaeologists Against War is 'an organisation for archaeologists who are opposed to war, the destruction of heritage, the exploitation of professional diggers, establishment control over archaeology, and the abuse of the past to justify imperialism in the present.' It is a 'loose, open, democratic grouping that links together archaeologists and other heritage sector workers,' say the organisers. Two dozen archaeologists marched on thc February anti-war demonstration in London under a banner showing a trowel breaking a bomb. Two million protesters took part in total, with millions more across the world. Neil Faulkner said, 'There was a tremendous excitement that we really could win.We have an email list of about 100, including some from abroad. A university in California even asked if it was okay to have an AA W banner on the Szn Francisco demo - so already we're a global organisation! '

Job cuts at Stafford and Birmingham

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Ironically, just when APPAG is recommending greater regionalisation of units and more outreach work, a local unit with an excellent record of involving the community is being shut down. Stafford Borough Council has announced that its US. archaeology service will be axed at the end It is a sad symptom of the way the current of this aozth. The closure, which may system has divided us that we see amateur save as little as &25,000, is part of i1.2 involvement as a threat. The best amateur million cub across the council. The Digger fully supports this initiative, societies already undertake watching briefs and we urge readers to join Archaeologists - often on sites that would otherwise go Local heritage groups have expressed against War. This is a war about oil and unmonitored. The first ever archaeologists disgust over the closure that will result in US dominance that will kill thousands of were amateurs. Amateur involvement is an the loss of two posts and may put an innocent Iraqis and wreck archaeological expression of the public's fascination with important publication on Stafford Castle sites dating the origins of civilisation. archaeology. We'd do better to nurture in jeopardy. The unit's responsibilities Send your details and E5 to Dave Thorpe, this enthusiasm rather than dismiss it - will be transferred to Staffordshire County 12b Despard Road, London, N19 5NW. after all, public campaigning and support Council. Contact email is dav.thom@,virgin.net. A reprieved the Gloucester unit recently and Meanwhile, we're getting reports that cuts newsletter will be launched soon, with a saved the Newport ship. at the Birmingham University Field conference in May. More protests are So why the silence from official bodies? Archaeology Unit (BUFAU) may result in planned the day war is declared. The motive force behind APPAG, Lord the loss of '25% of the field unit's staff,' Redesdale, has described the way undermining the unit's postex capability. The letters section returns in the next issue. archaeology is organised as 'a bit of a The university promotes the unit as 'one mess.' This is embarrassing for EH and of Britain's foremost centres for applied Finances DCMS, a minor government department field archaeology and research.' 'Not for much longer' a source within the with little interest in archaeology. As for ~tartbalance(thisissue) the CBA and F A , a merger may attract university tells us, describing the decision Total contributions cuts in their government grants. The to launch the new Institute of Archaeology Total costs (projected) findings on pay and training underline and Antiquity just as staff are working out +g42 End balance how the IFA has failed those at the bottom their notice as 'crass.' of the profession. Some people will be The Director of the Institute, Dr Vince Thanks to everyone who has wishmg that this report would just go Gaffney, confirmed that a review was contributed! away. being conducted as part of 'restructuring

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l Mgger is non-proat making archaeological newsletter existing entirely on donations. A l donations welcome, make cheques payable to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Mgger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. If you want to receive The Mgger but don't, or you don't want to receive Ths Mgger but do, send us your details and well put it right..

Open letter to IFA Council
This is the text of an open letter sentporn The Digger to the IFA Council on the eve of the 2003 IFA Conference in Bangor.

Dear F A Council, As the ruling body of the Institute of Field Archaeologists, you have the power to rule on the level of F A recommended pay rates. Many employers of archaeologists use these rates when they set the pay of their staff. Increasing the recommended pay rates would have an immediate affect c 'he lives of thousands of archaeologists a d would be a big step in tackling low pay in the industry. In the APPAG Parliamentary hearings last year, Peter Hinton, the head of the F A , denied that there was a crisis in archaeology. Yet the reality of low pay and the lack of a career structure mean that crisis is a regular feature of diggers' lives. Every time an archaeologist is turned down for a mortgage, or fails to scrape together the deposit for a rented property, it is a crisis. Every time an archaeologist loses their job and has to start again with another employer at the bottom of the 'career ladder,' or misses out on the training they deserve, it is a crisis. The F A seems detached from the reality faced bv many that it claims to represent.

they are commensurate with graduate :ntry level in allied professions, such as local authority planning officers, civil mgineers and university lecturers.' This is about ~16,000d19,000pa. What is the FA doing to implement this recommendation? Last year The Digger and BAJR launched the Petition for Change. The petition calls For a standardised career structure and for the F A to increase its minimum recommended pay rate to the level deemed b the European Union necessary to lead a y decent life (the European Decency Threshold). On current figures, updated since the Petition was launched, this quates to E3 I6 per week. Hundreds of archaeologists and heritage workers from across the country have already signed the petition, and 400 backed it in an online poll. The petition dso gained the support of leading members of the Prospect union's Archmlogy Branch and- of the union's Museum of London branch.

of the S h p group, Simon Rutherford, which headed the campaign to save the ship, said: 'It seems extraordinary that the council would risk bankrupting the archaeological experts.' The Trust provides planning advice for 12 authorities across south Wales.
A spokeswoman for the authority said it was obliged to ensure 'efficient and effective use of public money' and act in the best interests of Newport.

Irish nightmare
A Digger reader S experiences:

When will the F A implement these zhanges? We hope that t h s month's F A ~onferencewill begin to tackle the deeprooted problems in the profession. However, if the F A continues to ignore these problems, many archaeologists will rightly question the relevance of the F A , and its viability in representing their tr5 not that there is no money in archaeology. The F A itself estimates that interests. archaeology contributes &I00 million to the economy, and archaeological sites Welsh trust saved for n o w yield big profits to developers. Letters to Gwent and Glamorgan Archaeological The Digger confirm that other contractors Trust has been saved from bankruptcy by a are astonished to learn how little Last minute deal with Newport city archaeologists are paid, despite high council. The council had been refusing to practical skills andlor good academic pay E31,000 that the Trust needed to pay qualifications. We all know many the salaries of its 20 staff. The money excellent and capable archaeologists who related to work that the Trust had have been forced out of the profession undertaken on the rare 15th century ship because of poor pay, poor job security and discovered unexpectedly during the no hope of moving up a career ladder. construction of a new arts centre in Recently MPS and peers in the All Party Newport last year. Arclueology Group Parliamentary However, a bill for &102,000 - also for (APPAG) published a report into the state work on the ship - remains outstanding. of archaeology in the UK. The report Trustee chairman Bob Trett said, 'We are recommended that: 'There is an urgent obviously in dispute about the larger sum need to improve pay and conditions for but I am relieve4 it is enough to keep us employment in field archaeology so that in business.' The chairman of the Friends

Lured by the pay, the quantity of work and the Guinness, I headed for Fishguard to work in Ireland. I had read tales of Dickensian style workhouse horrors in The Digger. However I wanted to experience the Emerald Isle for myself and I jumped at the chance of a job promising me 1000 Euros [E6601 a week. l also wanted to gain my director's license after interview with Duchas, the Irish Heritage Service. But 1 was about to embark on one of the most unpleasant experiences of my working life. I won't name the company because I might be done for slander, but they are one of the major players in Dublin and indeed Ireland. I began as Assistant Director on a major infrastructure project and was responsible for monitoring the initial 60km strip. My suspicions of doom were first aroused when I was left on my own to watch not one or two 360° excavators but 14! Spread over a distance of 2km. I've watched a few machines in my time but I challenge anyone to monitor that situation successfi~lly.Most site photos were done with disposable cameras and I was told to ignore anything that didn't have charcoal or burnt clay in it. 1 was working 8 till 6 and rarely got home until 7.30pm. I also didn't get half the money I was promised. When I wrote a letter to the company explaining the situation one of the bosses rang me and said I was a troublemaker and if I complained again I would be fired. This was the person who begged me to come to Ireland in the first place.

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Now with all those machines suprise, surprise they hit a cemetery and of course guess who got the blame? Me. There was a 12 foot spoil heap with bones and skulls sticking out - it looked like something Pol Pot would be proud of. So I get hauled up in front of Duchas to explain myself and everyone leaves like rats from a sinking ship. Next thing my contract ends because 'there is not enough work.' Later Duchas exonerated me for any wrongdoing. I moved on, yet all of a sudden no one had any work, despite advertising. I was invited for interview to get my license and I was convinced I had passed. However I got a letter telling me 1 had little clue of how to dig or recognise artifacts and that I would have to wait six months for another interview, even though they are held every month. Someone had been making a lot of phone calls I fear.

Dave Webb is collecting images of You state that 'this is a war about oil.' I archaeologists on his website at agree, but wouldn't it have been better to http://~wv.archdianers.co.uk/dinaers/. invite opinion and suggest alternatives, The photographer says that a discipline like CND or other groups? Let's have a concerned with documenting people's dialogue. activities 'seems to have forgotten to The Digyer has a voice in archaeology record itself.' He wants to 'replace the Decause it cuts through a lot of the crap usual anonymous back of the head shot of and keeps people in touch with the issues "diggers" seen in archaeological reports fleeting dirt diggers. This important role and put a face to them instead.' would be diminished if it came to have too Prospect and the F A are holding a joint political a voice. I feel that you have failed conference in Birmingham on Skills and to be objective on this issue. Pay on 31 May. Contact Becky Wright at There has been debate about this group 75-79 York Rd, London SE1 7AQ or 020 9n the CBA 'S Britarch mailing list and the 7902 6670 for details. BAJR nressageboard. So is The Digger

10,000 holes

The Time Team is appealing for archaeological facilitators to help in 'Britain's biggest ever archaeological evaluation.' Channel 4 is encouraging members of the public to dig test pits in This was the final straw and I've decided back gardens, private land and public to give up archaeology as a career after 5 spaces. years. So don't work in Ireland. We've The aim is to add to knowledge about the heard it before yet we still go. Yeah the archaeological resource, to involve people money's good but the practices would in local archaeology and to introduce them make you cry. to how practical archaeology is conducted correctly, the programme makers say. The News in brief test pits will be 0.60m deep by a metre square, and the facilitators will be needed Ever gazed out of the tea cabin window and wondered what happened to the team to give advice about any archaeological you dug with a couple of seasons back? deposits or artefacts that are discovered. Well, you've heard of 'Friends Reunited' now there's Digs Reunited. Cole Henley, an Edmburgh-based research student, says his site aims 'to help diggers past and present get back in touch with people they've met on excavations but have since lost touch with.' The idea came to hlm 'on a long stumble home from the pub.' The free site has been a runaway success, with over 500 people registering in the first few weeks. Check it out at httD:Nwww.~ole007,netl~nsreunitedl. However, some archaeologists have expressed reservations about the programme. Questions have been raised about health and safety, damage to archaeology, and the impression that archaeology is an amateur pursuit rather than a profession. The project will take place on 28 and 29 June.

pight to back Archaeologists Against War? Ifme your sny write to us at the vsual address. Ed.)
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Not really self-employed One correspondent wrote on 'the perils of self employment' (Digger 26; goes on to describe a situation where i,, sounds as if their self-employed status has been decided by someone else (an archaeological unit). This is not in the employer's say-so (at least in England). There is information from the Inland Revenue, which helps anyone work out whether they are employed or selfemployed within the meaning of the law.

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Lf your correspondent reads this information and feels that they are really 'employed' (and it sounds as if they would prefer to be), they may want to contact their local tax ofice, who have pretty tough powers to act against transgressing employers.
Thousands of people struggled for their work to be recognised as 'employment' in the 19th and 20th century, in the teeth o. strong opposition from employers. To be selfemployed should be a choice, a balance of freedom against security. The law protects people from having that choice forced upon them.

p Letter Bombs

ei

An ex-archaeologist is researching what diggers think about the current state of the profession. Paul Everill asks, 'Do you enjoy the job you do? Does your future lie within commercial archaeology? Has the profession changed since you started out? What would you change about it?' Contact him at Dept of Archaeology, University of Southampton, Avenue Campus, Highfield, Southampton or through his website at h~://www.invisiblediggers.net.

Wrong to back this anti-war group I was worried to see that The Digger has backed the Archaeologists Againsl Finances War group (Digger 27). Whilst 1 and perhaps the majority of archaeologists are against the war in Iraq, possibly all war, Total contributions the reasons for these stances are highly Total costs (projected) varied. I do not feel it is helpful of The End balance Digger to support this group when debate on BAJR has shown that many diggers are not supportive of its political take on Skint! events, something you do not mention.
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r payable to The The Digger is a non-proflt m d n g newsle E existing entirely on donations. All donations welcome, make cheques . . Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by e m d l , or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeologicd Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send us your details and well put it right.

Future 'bleak' for Essex

Substantial job cuts are taking place at the Essex unit as it struggles to keep afloat. Out of the 42 staff, up to 22 face redundancy. Some have worked for the unit for more than 15 years. Work has been so short that diggers were painting the walls of the Braintree HQ to keep them busy. Managers are also under threat, but 'the hardest hit will be diggers and A governmental agency - lNRAP (Institut de Recherches Archeologiques supervisors,' a source told us. PrCventives) - was created to carry out Earlier this year, The Digger revealed that excavation under the control of the the Oxford unit (OAU) had approached regionally-based state archaeological ' sex council to take the unit over. services. Although other organisations d w e v e r now 'the merger with Oxford could carry out excavation work with seems to be very much on the back burner INRAP's consent, there was no external -with the heat turned off?' competition. Funding was based on the 'polluter pays' principle, with a licence fee 'There is a little more work about now, but (rkdevance) levied on certain categories of not enough to make a real difference. I development. This was a break with the don't see how this is really going to save previous system in that it meant that rescue the unit, as no structure so top-heavy can excavation was developer funded without survive for long,' said our source. 'Frankly being developer led. The cost of it all looks very bleak.' archaeological work was calculated using complex formulae based on site surface French archaeology in area, depth of overburden, depth and turmoil nature of stratigraphy etc.
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A change of government later, and a new law was proposed that brought in an annual budget proportional to the level of development (and thus to the level of site destruction). Money would be allocated depending on the interest of the site. It was clearly stated that rescue archaeology is a research activity and a public service not subject to commercial competition.

xevious government (especially :oncerning the 35 hour week) were liquidated including the new law on rescue ~rchaeology.

In December a group of deputies and jenators tried to bring in an amendment to a t developer costs by 50%. This lobby is :omposed mainly of mayors and other Aected representatives, most of whom are llso developers. They seized on some of the more extreme cases of expensive :xcavations to start a campaign of 3isinformation. Their intention was to abolish INRAP, introduce competitive tendering and return to the good old days of volunteer diggers. The total lack of any opposition was painful. The government instructed the regionally-based archaeological services to reduce their project designs by 25%, catastrophic for evaluations and smaller sites.
With no money coming in, INRAP couldn't pay all its expenses and came under the administration of the ministry of finance. Its budget barely meets the wages of the 1200 permanent staff. No capital expenditure is possible and no temporary staff can be taken on (usually 300 or so). Meanwhile, the government still required MRAP to respect its obligations and schedules. As a French proverb says: if you want to get rid of your dog, convince everyone it has rabies. Despite the small numbers spread out over a very large area, INRAP personnel managed to mobilise enough people to stage several protest actions in Paris, including sit-ins at public monuments and government buildings, attracting a good deal of public attention. There was also a campaign of 'harassment' of the minister of culture, infiltrating public and official events, virtually forcing him to answer questions and make public policy statements. A 1700 strong protest march at the end of January made national news. The most important thing is to keep showing that we are active, organised and angry too! Long term, most staff formed impromptu regional working groups to take up political lobbying and contact with the media. In this way, we can counter some of the misinformation spread by the antiarchaeology lobby.

Archaeology in France is in turmoil afier The advantage of the new arrangements the government overturned a new funding was that the funding and the conditions of any given intervention were legally system. A French reader explains ... defined, with developers treated more After barely a year's trial period, the new equally. Most INRAP personnel were '-W on rescue archaeology in France is permanent with some on fixed term ..,ming under heavy fire From politicians. contracts to meet specific needs. Pay and Up until early 2001, French law covered conditions were aligned with those of civil the protection of archaeological sites but servants. Even junior site staff could didn't take into account the funding of consider leading a normal life! From the rescue archaeology. The few rescue staff's point of view, there was real status excavations were carried out by the state with a career structure and the possibility services with the help of volunteers and to develop long term projects integrated amateur societies. with universities. There was a lack of any clear legal However, there were disadvantages too. framework so developers were treated The Byzantine complexity of the unequally. The level of funding for an procedures created an administrative excavation was related to the developers' overload. The funding for evaluations was capacity to pay rather than the real interest insufficient. The 'price' of a deeply of the site. Following on from the scandal stratified urban site was often far less than of Rodeze, where the right wing Prime its real cost to dig, while large area rural Minister Alain Juppe intervened to stop an sites were more expensive for developer: excavation deemed by the developer as than under the old system. being 'too expensive', French archaeologists managed to fight off The political landslide of April 2002 sav proposals for a system of competitive the arrival of a new right-wing coalition The majority of the laws passed by tht tendering.

Contacts with our European colleagues have been helpful - for instance the recent All Party Parliamentary report on the state of British archaeology has provided us with reasoned arguments for our protest movement. Contacts with developers has also been interesting. Contrary to popular belief, it's not necessarily the cost of an excavation that worries them, but delays. Many of them would prefer to pay a tax and have the archaeological constraints removed rapidly than go back to a system of last minute negotiations which could hold up their projects. A tax is attractive because everyone pays a little and no-one gets lumbered with expensive digs whilst his competitor gets away with nothing. It has become clear that the antiarchaeology lobby is motivated by a handhl of extremely aggressive freemarket militants who are able to bring to bear a good deal of political influence. The lukewarm support from ministers is worrying and shows that they do not have any desire to intervene. There is also a real sense of weariness since the personnel of French archaeology have been engaged in an ongoing conflict for the last five or six years. On a more optimistic note, one of the results of this latest conflict has been the growing awareness amongst French archaeologists of the need for a cooperation and an organisation on a European level. Why not create a lobby for the creation of European legislation for the profession so as to enforce minimum wages and a real career structure? If we don't act, we will forever be reacting, and one day that simply may not be enough.

The council has also said that it is too dangerous to excavate the ship's stern even though experts insist that this is vital to understand the ship's construction. Outraged local campaigners are convinced the true explanation for the decision not to recover the stem is the compensation that would have to be paid to the builders of the arts centre by the council if construction work were delayed.

6"' Letter Bombs 6
Shed no tears for GGAT I t is with surprise that I greet the tone of the article about GGAT (Digger 28). Why anybody should be pleased that this outfit have been saved from bankruptcy is beyond me. Perhaps the fact that Newport Council are reluctant to pay would indicate that they, at least, were not quite so happy at the job provided by GGAT as these 'experts' would have us believe. Militant archaeologists - apply here Mick Aston and I dedicated our book 'Archaeology is Rubbish' to 'the army of highly qualified, underpaid diggers whose commitment to high standards helps make British archaeology standards among the best in the world.'

DGchas to be closed down
Duchas - the Irish equivalent of English Heritage - is being closed down. Some of its functions will pass to local authorities and others to the Department of Environment which will have the word 'Heritage' inserted into its title. In a press release, the Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland (IAI) condemned this 'retrograde step.' They say the move 'raises serious doubts regarding the commitment of the Government to the protection of the archaeological heritage ... Perhaps this is indicative of an underlying trend by Government to pandering to the Construction/Development lobby with regard to archaeology in particular and to the built heritage in general.' Certainly this seems borne out by the actions of the lrish government earlier this year when they forced a motorway building scheme through the 13th century Carrickmines Castle site in South Dublin despite local protests and allegations of corruption.

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I'm CO-convenor of the Labour Party's 'Quality of Life' Policy Commission which deals with issues covered by DEFRA and DCMS. We've managed to include tl following into the consultation document? 'Nearly 40% of our archaeology sites are under threat from ever-deeper ploughing and climate change but also from the activities of man. How can we raise awareness of our historic environment? Is new legislation to protect it needed? How can we help communities realise the potential benefits that can be derived from their local historical environment?' Any archaeologists who are Labour Party members and want to make recommendations to us should go to their local constituency meetings or Local Policy Forum and submit something to us. It would be great if we were overwhelmed by militant archaeologists.

OAU to dig Newport ship
There have been more twists in the saga of the Newport ship. The unique 15th century vessel was discovered last June during the construction of an arts centre and was only excavated after a vocal public campaign. 95% of the ship was excavated by Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT).

However, Newport Council has announced that the rest of the ship - the bow - will be excavated not by GGAT but by Oxford (OAU) and Mary Rose Archaeological Cullen, said that the proposed new Services. Is it a coincidence that GGAT are arrangements would 'optimise Thanks for everyone's very generous currently in dispute with the council for an contributions! organisational resources.' unpaid bill for work amounting to over L 100,000?
T h e Digger is a non-profit making new? tter emsting entirely on donations. AU donations welcome, makecheques payable to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. If you want to receive T h e Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive T h e Digger but do, send u s your d e t d s and well put it right.

The lrish archaeologists add that placing responsibility for Duchas into the Department of the Environment is 'inappropriate' given 'the development agenda of that department.' They say: 'The expansion of the heritage roles of - Tony Robinson. Local Authorities is also of concern, particularly with regard to Archaeological Don't miss the next edition of The Heritage. There are many instances where Digger with the FA'S reply to The Local Authorities have not implemented Petition for Change. the recommendations of Duchas, whereby the Archaeological Heritage has been Finances endangered.' The IAI say 'what is really required is a more independent heritage protection agency outside the influence of Start balance (this issue) government' and call for the government to +E 745 Total contributions rescind the decision to abolish Duchas. -E75 Total costs (projected) End balance +E637 The Minister of the Environment, Martin

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IFA reply to
The Petition for Change
Last year, The Digger and BAJR launched the Petition for Change. flundredr o f archaeologists signed the petition which called for a decent career structure and an end to poverty pay. Here is the IFA's reply to the Petition and the open letter in Digger 28. The IFA is grateful for the support that the letter and petition indicate for its longrunning campaign to increase wages in archaeology. Until the profession can --ccessfully address this issue, ,chaeologists will continue to be rewarded below the level we merit, driving talented people out of the profession before they can establish a career. This situation prevents us from serving either our commercial clients or the public as well as we should. It is apparent from the letter that there may not be universal support for the IFA's tactics, but we can all agree on two things: that pay in archaeology is scandalously low, and that the IFA recommended minima are much lower than we would all like them to be. Unfortunately we are up against some harsh realities in terms of market forces, with an oversupply of archaeologists and an undersupply of work. Even in such a situation a professional .stitute can still have a significant effect, k u t its impact is severely compromised when two-thirds of the profession do not sign up to its code of professional ethics, preferring to leave regulation in the hands of the marketplace rather than the profession. With - at a guess - a similar proportion of archaeologists reksing to join their trades union, perhaps we have what we deserve.
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In such circumstances it's worth exploring two scenarios suggested by the petition. The first is the IFA dramatically raising its recommended minima and strong-arming its Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs) into significant wage increases. The RAOs would then have to decide whether to increase costs, with the consequence that they lose contracts to unregistered organisations and make their staff redundant, presumably to work for the unregulated competition at

Training Forum and Prospect to bring about a proper career and reward structure for archaeologists. An alliance of professional institute and trade union is how these things are done. Many signatories to the petition will be IFA or Prospect members. We hope that the signatures of those that are neither is an indication that they are about to join both organisations to help with this campaign, The first limb of the IFA strategy is to rather than standing aside waiting for identifjl the roles that archaeologists fulfill, others to produce miracles. the skills required to cany out those roles, the training needed to provide those skills, Archaeology in Holland the qualifications that indicate that those skills have been obtained, and the IFA There are times when we've all stared out membership grade that recognises the skills of the tea cabin window and wondered - and so to argue about the pay and about digging abroad. But what's it really conditions that reward the expertise like? Recently we've focussed on Ireland denoted by the IFA grade and and France. Today it's Holland A reader qualifications. This is the route in the Netherlands takes up the story ... successfully taken by other professional bodies such as those representing, Developers in Holland are responsible for engineers, scientists, accountants and the h d i n g any digs that need to be done as a like. The National Occupational Standards result of their work, although in very for Archaeological Practice now give us special cases (eg Roman villas etc) the 6onts up the cash. In my the fust two elements, allowing us to proceed to developing the structures for opinion the mostly commercial nature of training, qualifications, recognition and archaeology is leading to a fall in standards reward - importantly expressed in the in this country. Developers are pushing for terms that human resources professionals faster and cheaper digs and opting for understand and using arguments they watching briefs rather than excavations. accept. This is held in check by the relevant authorities - 'het Ryksdienst voor het The second line of attack is to encourage Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek' (ROB) recognition of the importance of 'qualified, - and the Kwaliteitsnorm Nederlandse specially authorised' archaeologists (to Archeologie (KNA) has been recently set quote the Valletta Convention) by up to monitor standards. But it isn't enough government, clients, consultants and for my liking. curators with their responsibilities for ensuring that work of an appropriate Pay and conditions are much better than in quality is done. This is how other the UK. Although archaeologists' pay is professions, with a recognised career still crap compared to other professions, I structure, put in place thresholds of do get holiday and sick pay and all my competence and quality that ensure that the travel expenses. It varies from company to underskilled and undercosting company but if I have to travel more that organisations find it hard to win work. 1 % hours to site I'm entitled to a hotel and And this is what we are pressing the about &15 a day expenses. And of course national heritage agencies, ODPM, the cost of living is much lower over here particularly beer and tobacco! APPAG and others to help us with. below the recommended minima. The second is the union members agreeing to refuse to work for the less than the minima: this, as now, would surely result in jobs being taken by non-union members prepared to accept lower wages. Simplistic and extreme scenarios perhaps, but enough to suggest that a more subtle approach is required. This is a long-term plan. This reflects the IFA's belief that radical changes to pay rates will not be achieved if all other aspects of archaeology stay as they are though modest improvements will continue to be won. The IFA is delighted to be working closely with the Archaeology Digging strategies in Holland are a bit different 6om the UK - I can't remember the last time I used a trowel! And if you want to get anywhere you need to try to learn the language. Everyone speaks English, but companies are reluctant to hire non-Dutch speakers. I would say if you're

keen enough go for it! Digging abroad has given me. the chance to be employed in archaeology for the last 6 years solid, and now I've got a permanent contract. I can't see me having managed that in the UK.

and community identity, there is no pressure for local and national government to give a damn when it comes to axing public services. It should not be an 'eitherlor' question. What is the point 01 digging all this stuff up if it is not shared WhafS your experience of digging oufside with the community whose heritage it is? [he UK? Wrifeto us af [he usual address. We must not allow lack of hnds to force us to make a choice between the resource Giffords to dig and the involvement of the community.

'billion dollar' site
Giffords has been named as the archaeological consultant for the salvage of the HMS Sussex. The warship sunk with its cargo of coins in the Mediterranean in the 17th century. The project has attracted controversy because artefacts will be sold off and the proceeds split between the British government and the US salvage company. Odyssey Marine Exploration say that 'value estimates for the cargo range from several hundred million to a billion dollars or more.'
An Early Day Motion signed by over 60 MPS condemned the 'treasure hunting' and the CB.4, Rescue and the IFA have questioned whether an archaeological excavation is even feasible at the extreme depth of the Sussex.

G Letter Bombs @
Don't forget the public! Your article on the APPAG report (Digger 27) was very informative. I was pleased to see the comments on community involvement in archaeology. Professionals would be unwise to dismiss public enthusiasm for heritage.

is a (rather fuzzy) realisation that pay and conditions must go up - however has anyone noticed that small companies with less overheads often pay more? I would' like to see a system combining the Irish version of the Licensed Archaeologist and a multi-franchise system. With these in place, the policing of archaeology becomes much simpler. If an archaeologist or unit fails to meets recognised standards in the course of the 5 year period, then they are Professional archaeologists (and I am one) banned from that area for 5 years until they and administrators should look to the can prove the standards have improved future of community participation in harsh but damned fair! archaeology; this will lead to the survival of their jobs in the long term. Public Chartered status. This is the only way to involvement should be of [he heart of the go, though the suggestion that the IFA, job not the periphery. It will never be so CBA etc merge is bizarre. A fresh new whilst competitive tendering exists and this organisation is needed ... started from is why all archaeologists should be scratch. I see no problem in using the IFA concerned with the restructuring of the as a template as it is the largest profession. organisation in UK archaeology (though with only c. 25% of the heritage workers - Chris Tripp involved, it is not exactly fully representative). BAJR's view of APPAG Over the past 3 years of running BAJR, l fully agree with the polluter pays policy I have seen the good, the bad and the ugly of a tax levy on developers depending on reality of archaeology in the UK. Poor pay, the size of the company. Balfour Beatty poor working practice and our fragmented, can afford to place &largeamounts& into a disorganised and toothless 'profession'. general kitty, while Tiny Builders Ltd need Whether as a digger in the field or a only pay Esmall amounts&. This is as fair specialist in a museum we have all seen for the developer as it means if Tiny heritage becoming more popular while Builder Ltd finds a Saxon Graveyard in the funding is cut and jobs lost! The APPAG area of a house extension they ars not report is just what is needed; I agree with forced to close down the project because 95% of it. However, there are points that I they cannot afford to pay for the archaeology. am concerned over: People should read the report (or the synopsis), understand the consequences and react. Burying your head and hoping it all passes by is to ignore the change that is zoming. I want to be seen as the professional that I am - this report ' .S begun that.... But not all that glistenb--ln this report is gold, some of it is pure s**t But at least it is a start.

The report states that: 'The Government's priorities are expressed in terms of broadening access to and developing the educational potential of the cultural sector. These aims, while worthy in themselves, - David Connolly. force Government-funded bodies with responsibilities for archaeology to divert Finances attention away fiom what should be their core aims, to identify, protect and sustain the historic environment, towards these other goals. ... Without the preservation of Total contributions this fundamental resource, there will be Total costs (projected) nothing left to provide access to or to Franchkes? Get real! It is unclear whether End balance a single company will receive a 5 year educate people about.' (p 6). franchise for a region or not. If so, many I think that we would all agree with that. ,of us will be out on our ear. There are I'hanks to everyone But without the support of the public for small consultancies that work well in an contributed! archaeology as a community service which area, so there is no reason to squeeze them helps to give a sense of place and personal ,out. Pav rates varv meatlv now. and there L
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Amateurs working on watching briefs and evaluations. Not so much a problem of them working with us ... rather them working instead of us. The whole point of our work is to involve and inform the public, not to shut them out from our secret world. Free watching briefs may sound enticing to developers, but where is the experience of an archaeologist who does this for a living, not to mention problems ,of public liability. Money should be made available for professionals to work with local groups, this not only creates a bridge between us, but allows the concept of 1research excavations/surveys to actually ,exist.

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who

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payable to The D i m e r is a non-profit making newsleltter existing entirely on donations. All don! ons welcome, make c h e ~ u e s ati The ~ & e r ' . Any con&buhons of material positively exkoura&d. The Digger is avdable by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uh). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Dfgger but do, send u s your detruls and well sort it out.

IFA reply to The Petition for Change
Last year, The Digger and BAJR launched the Petition for Change. Hundreds oj archaeologists signed the petition which called for a decent career structure and an end to poverty pay. Here is the [FA S reply to the Petition and the open letter in Digger 28.

The IFA is grateful for the support that the letter and petition indicate for its longrunning campaign to increase wages in archaeology. Until the profession can -vccessfully address this issue, ,chaeologists will continue to be rewarded below the level we merit, driving talented people out of the profession before they can establish a career. This situation prevents us from serving either our commercial clients or the public as well as we should. It is apparent from the letter that there may not be universal support for the IFA's tactics, but we can all agree on two things: that pay in archaeology is scandalously low, and that the IFA recommended minima are much lower than we would all like them to be. Unfortunately we are up against some harsh realities in terms of market forces, with an oversupply of archaeologists and an undersupply of work. Even in such a situation a professional '~stitutecan still have a significant effect, ' ~ u t its impact is severely compromised when two-thirds of the profession do not sign up to its code of professional ethics, preferring to leave regulation in the hands of the marketplace rather than the profession. With - at a guess - a similar proportion of archaeologists refusing to join their trades union, perhaps we have what we deserve. In such circumstances it's worth exploring two scenarios suggested by the petition. The first is the IFA dramatically raising its recommended minima and strong-arming its Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs) into significant wage increases. The RAOs would then have to decide whether to increase costs, with the consequence that they lose contracts to unregistered organisations and make their staff redundant, presumably to work for the unregulated competition at

Training Forum and Prospect to bring about a proper career and reward structure for archaeologists. An alliance of professional institute and trade union is how these things are done. Many signatories to the petition will be IFA or Prospect members. We hope that the signatures of those that are neither is an indication that they are about to join both organisations to help with this campaign, The first limb of the IFA strategy is to rather than standing aside waiting for identify the roles that archaeologists fdfill, others to produce miracles. the skills required to cany out those roles, the training needed to provide those skills, Archaeology in Holland the qualifications that indicate that those skills have been obtained, and the IFA There are times when we've all stared out membership grade that recognises the skills of the tea cabin window and wondered - and so to argue about the pay and about digging abroad. But what S it really conditions that reward the expertise Iike? Recently we've focussed on Ireland denoted by the IFA grade and and France. Today it S Holland. A reader qualifications. This is the route in the Netherlanh takes up the story ... successfully taken by other professional bodies such as those representing, Developers in Holland are responsible for engineers, scientists, accountants and the funding any digs that need to be done as a like. The National Occupational Standards result of their work, although in very for Archaeological Practice now give us special cases (eg Roman villas etc) the the first two elements, allowing us to governm&t ftonts up the cash. In my proceed to developing the structures for opinion the mostly commercial nature of training, qualifications, recognition and archaeology is leading to a fall in standards reward - importantly expressed in the in this country. Developers are pushing for terms that human resources professionals faster and cheaper digs and opting for understand and using arguments they watching briefs rather than excavations. This is held in check by the relevant accept. authorities - 'het Ryksdienst voor het The second line of attack is to encourage Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek' (ROB) recognition of the importance of 'qualified, - and the Kwaliteitsnorm Nederlandse specially authorised' archaeologists (to Archeologie (KNA) has been recently set quote the Valletta Convention) by up to monitor standards. But it isn't enough government, clients, consultants and for my liking. curators with their responsibilities for ensuring that work of an appropriate Pay and conditions are much better than in quality is done. This is how other the UK. Although archaeologists' pay is professions, with a recognised career still crap compared to other professions, I structure, put in place thresholds of do get holiday and sick pay and all my competence and quality that ensure that the travel expenses. It varies fi-om company to underskilled and undercosting company but if I have to travel more that organisations fmd it hard to win work. 1 % hours to site I'm entitled to a hotel and And this is what we are pressing the about E15 a day expenses. And of course national heritage agencies, ODPM, the cost of living is much lower over here particularly beer and tobacco! APPAG and others to help us with. below the recommended minima. The second is the union members agreeing to refuse to work for the less than the minima: this, as now, would surely result in jobs being taken by non-union members prepared to accept lower wages. Simplistic and extreme scenarios perhaps, but enough to suggest that a more subtle approach is required. This is a long-term plan. This reflects the IFA's belief that radical changes to pay rates will not be achieved if all other aspects of archaeology stay as they are though modest improvements will continue to be won. The IFA is delighted to be working closely with the Archaeology Digging strategies in Holland are a bit different fiom the UK - 1 can't remember the last time I used a trowel! And if you want to get anywhere you need to try to learn the language. Everyone speaks English, but companies are reluctant to hire non-Dutch speakers. I would say if you're

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keen enough go for it! Digging abroad has given me. the chance to be employed in archaeology for the last 6 years solid, and now I've got a permanent contract. I can't see me having managed that in the UK.

and community identity, there is no pressure for local and national government to give a damn when it comes to axing public services. It should not be an 'eitherlor' question. What is the point of digging all this stuff up if it is not shared What S your experience o digging oulside f with the community whose heritage it is? the UK? Wrile to us a1 he zrszral address. We must not allow lack of finds to force us to make a choice between the resource Giffords to dig and the involvement of the community.

'billion dollar' site
Giffords has been named as the archaeological consultant for the salvage of the HMS Sussex. The warship sunk with its cargo of coins in the Mediterranean in the 17th century. The project has attracted controversy because artefacts will be sold off and the proceeds split between the British government and the U S salvage company. Odyssey Marine Exploration say that 'value estimates for the cargo range from several hundred million to a billion dollars or more.'
An Early Day Motion signed by over 60 MPS condemned the 'treasure hunting' and the CB.4, Rescue and the IFA have questioned whether an archaeological excavation is even feasible at the extreme depth of the Sussex.

Letter Bombs
Don't forget the public! [XI Your article on the APPAG report (Digger 27) was very informative. I was pleased to see the comments on community involvement in archaeology. Professionals would be unwise to dismiss public enthusiasm for heritage.

is a (rather fuzzy) realisation that pay and conditions must go up - however has anyone noticed that small companies with less overheads often pay more? I would' like to see a system combining the Irish version of the Licensed Archaeologist and a multi-franchise system. With these in place, the policing of archaeology becomes much simpler. If an archaeologist or unit fails to meets recognised standards in the course of the 5 year period, then they are Professional archaeologists (and l am one) banned from that area for 5 years until they and administrators should look to the can prove the standards have improved future of community participation in harsh but damned fair! archaeology; this will lead to the survival of their jobs in the long term. Public Chartered status. This is the only way to involvement should be a1 the heart of the go, though the suggestion that the IFA, job not the periphery. It will never be so CBA etc merge is bizarre. A fresh new whilst competitive tendering exists and this organisation is needed ... started from is why all archaeologists should be scratch. I see no problem in using the IFA concerned with the restructuring of the as a template as it is the largest profession. organisation in UK archaeology (though with only c. 25% of the heritage workers - Chris Tripp involved, it is not exactly fully representative). BAJR's view of APPAG Over the past 3 years of running BAJR, I fully agree with the polluter pays policy I have seen the good, the bad and the ugly of a tax levy on developers depending on reality of archaeology in the UK. Poor pay, the size of the company. Balfour Beatty poor working practice and our fragmented, can afford to place £large amounts£ into a disorganised and toothless 'profession'. general kitty, while Tiny Builders Ltd need Whether as a digger in the field or a only pay .£small amounts£. This is as fair specialist in a museum we have all seen for the developer as it means if Tiny heritage becoming more popular while Builder Ltd finds a Saxon Graveyard in the hnding is cut a ~ jobs lost! The APPAG area of a house extension they are not d report is just what is needed; I agree with forced to close down the project because 95% of it. However, there are points that I they cannot afford to pay for the archaeology. am concerned over:
L ' ,

The report states that: 'The Government's priorities are expressed in terms of broadening access to and developing the educational potential of the cultural sector. These aims, while worthy in themselves, - David Connolly. force Government-hnded bodies with responsibilities for archaeology to divert Finances attention away £tom what should be their core aims, to identify, protect and sustain the historic environment, towards these other goals. ... Without the preservation of Total contributions this fundamental resource, there will be Total costs (projected) nothing left to provide access to or to Franchises? Get real! It is unclear whether End balance a single company will receive a 5 year educate people about.' (p 6). franchise for a region or not. If so, many I think that we would all agree with that. of us will be out on our ear. There are Thanks to everyone But without the support of the public for small consultancies that work well in an contributed! archaeology as a community service which area, so there is no reason to squeeze them helps to give a sense of place and personal out. Pay rates vary greatly now, and there ~

Amateurs working on watching briefs and evaluations. Not so much a problem of them working with us ... rather them working instead of us. The whole point of our work is to involve and inform the public, not to shut them out from our secret world. Free watching briefs may sound enticing to developers, but where is the experience of an archaeologist who does this for a living, not to mention problems of public liability. Money should be made available for professionals to work with local groups, this not only creates a bridge between us, but allows the concept of research excavations/surveys to actually exist.

People should read the report (or the synopsis), understand the consequences and react. Burying your head and hoping it all passes by is to ignore the change that is coming. I want to be seen as the professional that I am - this report ' is begun that.... But not all that glistens--m this report is gold, some of it is pure s**t But at least it is a start.

who

has

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Excavation or plunder?
In the last edition of The Digger, we reported that Giyord and Partners were acting as archaeological consultants for the controversial salvage of the 17th century warship HMS Sussex. The $nu3 said to be worth 'a billion dollars or more' - will be sold off and the proceeds split between the US salvage compaty Odyssey and the British government. Grffords are registered with the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA). BAJR contacted the Director of the IFA Peter Hinton, for comment. Ifis informal response is - ,produced here with permission.

"Never play jokes on the guy with the machine gun"
"NEVER play jokes on the guy with the machine gun. He might not share your sense of humour." That's the advice from 'Archaeologists for Human Rights' (AFHR) who want you to work for them in Iraq. A group of young German archaeologists formed AFHR in the aftermath of the recent war. The Digger spoke exclusively to one of the founders, Sinje Stoyke, who has been in Iraq since September. AFHR advertised recently in the UK for diggers for a 'long-term project of excavating and documenting mass graves in Iraq.' Several hundred graves are already known fiom the hundreds of thousands of victims of Saddam Hussein7s regime. If you want the job, you'll be paid $2500-3000 (£17002000) a month and stay for six months to a year in the war zone where - according tc the Foreign Office - 'the threat to British nationals from terrorism remains high.'

support from the Ministry of Human Rights in Irbil. The University of Salaheddin is providing staff and measuring instruments - even though their resources are limited they eagerly want to be involved. The mass grave issue is a very delicate subject and being here you feel the urgent need of the people to start with the work. They are not willing to wait any longer and they will begin to excavate by themselves, with or without international help."
What experience do you have of this sort of work? "AFHR archaeologists have worked extensively in Syria and Iraq. They are well trained and experienced excavators. They are very used to the climate, soils and working conditions here. The method and documentation of excavation is applicable to any kind of site." There have been reports of archaeological sites being looted since the war. Have you seen any evidence of this? "We only passed Niniveh, but didn't walk around the site. Too dangerous." What other experiences have you had in the country? "On our fust attempt to get to Baghdad we had to return to Irbil because of robbers on the road attacking bypassers. We were travelling in two cars with officials from the Ministry of Human Rights and a bodyguard with a machine gun in each car, but we preferred to come back in a few days rather than in a few pieces. Being in Baghdad was fiightening. Even though it was quiet we didn't go out after sunset at all. During the night there was frequent shooting in the city. That doesn't give you the idea of having a nice time in some restaurant or walking around the place." So is there any other advice for diggers working in Iraq? "Don't use clearly marked cars. Don't hang out around US military bases, UN Headquarters, international NGOs. Stay away ffom Falluja and Baghdad. Don't go sightseeing in Tikrit."

Sinje's team is based in Irbil, the biggest city in the Kurdish region in the north 01 the country. The Kurdish Regiona Government is financing the project anc providing protection. A car bomb in Irbi in September killed one and injured 4; people. Elsewhere, recent bombings of thc We will keep the pressure on the Red Cross and UN headquarters haw wernment throughout so that they get the prompted NGOs and aid agencies tc -messagenot to be so dumb as to enter into evacuate most of their foreign staff. an agreement like this again. They know they screwed up but of course cannot admit AFHR have already identified fourteen kej it, and we intend not to let them forget how burial sites. They will be collecting painful an experience it can be. But that evidence for future trials and will return tht doesn't include turning our fire on remains to families for humane burial professional archaeologists trying to make Forensic experts will be closely involved the best out of a bad job. Much the same the AFHR website lists no previou! line as not opposing archaeological forensic archaeology experience for thr recording in advance of ill-conceived dam current team's members. projects, and so unlikely to be universally We asked Sinje about the existin> popular - but the debate I think is about situation. "We are basically occupied witl tactics rather than principles, which seem making contacts with the communities to be pretty universally shared on this one. local authorities and NGOs," Sinje told us I don't have a copy of the Giffords project "We plan to start excavating the burial site design, and I'd be amazed if one is as soon as possible - within the next twc available for public scrutiny - not if it gives months. We will be celebrating Christrna. the detailed whereabouts of E3bn of gold, and New Year in Irbil!" anyway! How have focal people reacted? "Wc haven't experienced a t y resentment fion - Peter Hinton. the population. We have had a lot o

The IFA has been a signatory of most of the letters to the MOD about the project. We've taken the view that it is clear that the site will not survive (too well known, too much loot) and rather than have it trashed with grab buckets it is better to go with the Odyssey plan and get some archaeological data. We've argued therefore that the site needs proper arch~eo!ogical supervision and that the excavation should be to IFA standard. With an RA0 [IFA Registered Archaeological Organisation] we expect to get that. None of the above detracts from the view that the concept of digging sites to flog the finds is appalling and possibly in contravention of the Malta code.

Winchester unit to close
Another archaeological unit is being forced to close because of council cuts. . Winchester City Council plans to axe its field team in March 2004 with the loss of three jobs. The two fieldwork personnel

standards in all aspects of archaeology. There are also individual archaeologists in all levels of the 'cowboy' companies who try their best to work to the highest , standards. often under difficult conditions, and I'm not talking about the weather. I Winchester is only the latest local council have worked with archaeologists from the unit with problems. Essex Council's UK who have grim stories on the conduct archaeology service is also in trouble and of some units in Britain. there are rumours that the Gloucester unit is under renewed threat. Gloucester was Improper conduct happens in all saved only last year when local people and professions, it's up to those of us who care celebrities mounted a campaign of petitions to try to right any wrongs. Please don't be and demonstrations. Councils are under no put off coming to Ireland. Perhaps I can statutory obligation to provide in-house persuade a couple of my English fi-iends field units which are often first in the firing here to write positive accounts for you. They came over a couple of years ago and line when savings are imposed. show no signs of leaving. Indeed, it's tough There has been an archaeological field unit enough to get them out of the pub. supported by the council at Winchester since the 1940s. The popular annual Liverpool's past is being destroyed Community Archaeology project will also In 2008 Liverpool will be European be closed down. The Director of City of Culture - a great chance for the city Community Services at the council, Steve to celebrate its heritage. Massive injections Tilbury, told The Digger: "The fieldwork of money and new development should put service carries a significant overhead and it the city firmly on the map. Liverpool was is the one area of the service in which we an important medieval centre - chartered in can make a cost-saving." But archaeologist 1207. In the industrial revolution, Dr David Johnston, a former tutor at Liverpool was one of the most important Southampton University, criticised contract cities in Europe - the docklands were the archaeologists undercutting the council biggest and busiest around. But the reality service. "Local background knowledge will is that Liverpool's heritage is being be lost," he said. "The cheapest alternative destroyed. There is a tremendous backlog is not necessarily the best." in planning applications. No archaeological investigation takes piace in or around the city. There is no county tendering list, no Letter Bombs p proper established commercial unit, and a Don't be put off working in Ireland workforce that cannot fmd work. [E3 I was dismayed to read the recent This is not the fault of the county article about an archaeologist's experience archaeologist, rather the system that she working in Ireland (Digger 28). The has to work within. I think pressure should treatment that person received was be put on the council to provide funds to outrageous, unprofessional and insulting. deal with applications. I am just one of I'm equally disappointed to say I'm not many professional archaeologists who are surprised, having worked in commercial desperate to work in the place where I live. rescue archaeology in Ireland since 1996. But as it stands I am not able to. So it is I've heard several similar horror stories time to do something else, and I am not from Kends working for particuIar aIone in having to do this. I feel that The companies. I know the person who wrote Digger is starting to carry some weight and the article; I know the story is true. maybe some pressure could be put on. and the team's Documentation Officer, who deals with the curation of archaeological archives, have over 40 years experience between them. The cuts will save £90,000. Yet I have to say that the statement "don't go to Ireland" is a bit harsh and mildly offensive. Yes such incidents happen, yes they raise the question of professionalism and ethicaI conduct in Irish archaeology but please don't tar the entire profession in Ireland with the same brush. Professionally, ethicaIly, in terms of organisation and pay there are companies over here who try to maintain and push up Told to sign on to boost low wage [RI I recently finished a degree in ancient history and &chaeology. M& of my field experience consisted of unskilled, slave, manuaI labour, so I decided to gain some practical experience before doing my masters. Unfortunately no one wants to pay you to train and on principle I will not work for nothing and I cannot afford to -anyway-

However, I was recently offered some paid training on a university run excavation at £150 a week. This is below minimum wage. When I questioned this I was informed that it is cash in hand so 1 can still sign on. I was also told that I would be provided with 6ee food and a field to pitch my tent. I have worked on the side in the past but do not wish to do it any more. But if I sign off to take the job I will not be that much better off. Also, I will have no record of work for the month of the excavation so there will be problems when I try to sign on again. I would like to report the bastards but feel it may make it harder for me to get work in archaeology in the future. No luck with jobs in Europe This is not a story of great success and riches gained in the wonderful world of archaeology outside Britain. I've been employed by units in the Midlands almost continuously since graduating in 1996. But I fancied a change earlier this year so I quit my job and moved to Vienna to fir, archaeological work somewhere in Europe. Couldn't be that hard could it? However, three months later I am still unemployed. To date I have applied to around 100 contracting archaeological companies within mainland Europe with about a 15% reply rate (probably the same as in Britain if you scattered your CV to [Re wind). i've had some very nice replies but the underlying problem seems to be the depressed economy. This was quoted in over half the replies I received. The only success I've had is securing a contract for next summer in Austria. But this is even worse paid than in Britain! So the moral of my story is that archaeology seems to be in a pretty bad state over the whole of Europe. If yc fancy a job abroad I would suggest you-' sort it before you go! I'm coming back to the delights of the British winter soon before the bank sends the bailiffs after me!

Finances

Total contributions Total costs (projected) End balance

+£516

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Issue No 32 February 2 0 0 4 PO Box 23570 London E 1 3 9YP e-mail: t h e d i g g e ~ e m a i l . c o m web: www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk
remove the excuse that if only some units improve pay then others are given an advantage in a competitive tendering situation. Phil Carpenter, Negotiations Oficer for Prospect, explains the union S latest The solution we propose is 'Industry Wide initiative. Collective Bargaining'. There would need

Pay: 'industry-wide bargaining is the answer'

~f the Gloucester unit still looks far from
:ertain, while at Essex it has been ~nnounced 20 jobs are to go. that jloucester council has just set its budget vhich includes E3 million worth of cuts in he coming year, despite extra finding of :214,000 secured fiom the govenunent ecently. The county council said that 'a ange of services will suffer ffom restricted nvestment.' 3loucester's plans to close its Folk vluseurn for 42 weeks a year and cut its ~rchaeology unit to the bone caused a ;tom of protest. Before the budget was set, m insider told The Digger: 'The council is ~lanning sell off the unit building, stop to :ontract fieldwork - resulting in the 5edundancy of fieldwork staff, and leaving WO planning archaeologists - and relocate -emaining staff to the City Museum. The ;ervice will be focused purely on planning 'although still expected to do watching ~riefs and training projects - without leldwork staff).' Two staff were lost last year. 'This is a!! being dressed up a 'improvements" to the Museum and 4rchaeology Service, the result of a ;trategic review of the service which ;tarted in March last year,' our source told 1s. 'Needless to say staff are at a loss to see low this all constitutes improvement.'

Prospect is the trade union which represents staff in the major archaeological organisations in Great Britain. It has members in the independent contracting bodies and archaeological trusts, all the national museums, English Heritage (EH), Cadw, Historic Scotland, and the Royal Commission on Historic Monuments.
( of the APPAG recommendations is that Prospect, EH, the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA) and other national institutions should work towards improving pay and conditions, training and career development for archaeologists as a matter of urgency.
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to be a formal agreement between two parties - an employers' organisation on one side and a trade union, or group of trade unions on the other. There are already other industries that use such a process; discussions cover such issues as: pay (including increments 1 progression and London weighting), sick pay, holidays, hours etc.

Before this process could become a reality there are a number of hurdles to overcome, not least who would form the employer group at the negotiations. At the moment no one organisation covers all employing units. The IFA Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs) cover most of the Both the IFA and the Standing Conference largest organisations and SCAUM covers of Archaeological Unit Managers most of the other employers and units too. (SCAUM) have objectives. which relate to improving pay in archaeology. SCAUM hospect has agreed to work with- the principles of archaeological employment RAOs and SCAUM to see if a common practice include a commitment to 'invest in approach can enable a suitable employers' development and skills, remunerate in line organisation to be formed and appropriate with qualifications, cumulative experience mechanisms for the purposes of Industry and responsibility'. The IFA Code of Wide pay negotiations. says: 'the After the APPAG Report there is a unique Conduct, Principle 5 archaeologist shall recognise the opportunity that should be taken by all aspirations of employees, colleagues and parties if they truly want to see pay and yers with regard to all matters relating conditions improved. The alternative is that to employment, including career we accept low pay and poor conditions as development, health and safety, terms and the natural state of affairs in archaeology. conditions of employment and equaliu of We all know that things must change. If opportunity '. industry wide bargaining is not the answer However, these statements have never been turned into reality. The IFA minimum pay guidelines are a welcome underpinning to pay, but they are based upon local authority pay levels and should also include other parts of the local authority remuneration package such as a final salary pension scheme, good annual and sick leave provision and travel and subsistence arrangements. If a true comparison is to be drawn then these factors need to be costed to produce an equivalent total salary package. Prospect policy is to try to get all units and organisations to raise their pay levels and conditions at the same time. This would

The Gloucester branch secretary of Unison, Phil Jones, told councillors that staff are jick of threats to their jobs. Ln a letter mblicising the union's 'Save our Heritage' zampaign, he said that this was 'the third year in a row the Council has put museums and archaeology in the frame for cuts,' adding, 'Once again it is down to us, the - then what is the alternative? And if we service's supporters, staff and unions to don't take this opportunity for change :ome to the defence of the service.' then will change ever be possible? More than 30 museum and archaeology - Phil Carpenter, Prospect. workers with members of the public lobbied councillors and handed in an 800Council cuts put more signature petition calling for the plans to be archaeologists on the dole dropped. One of the two former mayors who supported the petition, Derek As councils put the finishing touches to Dobbins, said, 'We should not be closing their budgets this month, it looks like cuts our culture in this city, we should be will mean more archaeologists out of work. exploiting it for our benefit.' The protest In the last issue of The Digger, we reported resulted in plans to close the Folk Museum that archaeologists at the Gloucester and being put temporarily on hold. the Essex local government units were The title of Gloucester's corporate strategy under threat. As we go to press, the future is 'Proud of our past, building for the

fi~ture,' yet it fails to mention either the museums or archaeology service once. In a response to a letter of protest from BAJR, Mary Smith, leader of the city council said: 'We did give the archaeology section a year to make themselves self funding, but unfortunately they did not manage to achieve that, and did not win the tenders they expected to win. That does not mean that we will stop doing the statutory duty we have to do in connection with planning applications.'

:he UK and overseas, for U K police forces, :he MOD, the Foreign Office, and the UN; ['ve worked in Bosnia and in Kosovo, and I think I have a fair experience of these jituations. My advice to anyone ~onsideringworking in the set-up that is Lurrently proposed by AFHR is: DON'T 50.

In Essex, the 20 archaeologist redundancies are part of l00 job cuts made across County Hall. Lord Hanningfield, the leader of the County Council, announced the redundancies following the biggestever spending shake-up in the authority's history. The Tory peer insisted the redundancies were "unfortunate" but were part of a major new efficiency drive. He said that "We are able to bring in a much lower rise in Council Tax this year".
Concern is also being expressed at the length of time Lancashire County Council has taken in reappointing its County Archaeologist post. Is this another attempt at saving money?

@ Letter Bombs @
In Digger 31, we published an article about Archaeologists for Human Rights (AFMR) who were advertising for archaeologists to join them in lraq to excavate the mass graves of those killed by Saddam Hussein's regime. Here are some of your responses: AFHR supporting illegal occupation The Iraqi based activities of AFHR may - and probably should - be taken as indirect support for the illegal military occupation and economic colonisation of that country. The investigation of the killings and human right abuses of Saddam Hussein's awful regime is commendable, but it would be naive not to be concerned about the political implications during ongoing military conflict. Any activity that uses the opportunities opened up by the invasion of Iraq is likely to provide the political prospects for hrther human abuses by the occupying army, whose humanitarian record is not better than thal of the former Iraqi butcher.

Balkans since 1999. Armed police and military security were always provided, with de-mining and security assessments conducted at every crime-scene and . exhumation site. Grenades, plastic explosives and live munitions have been routinely uncovered and crowds of people hostile towards the work are not uncommon. Iraq presents further concerns There are good ethical and professional of potential chemical contamination of reasons for concern about the proposed graves, the uncertain threat of depleted AFHR excavations, but in addition there uranium, for instance. u e very strong safety concerns. Insurance is currently fourteen thousand pounds per There are many in forensics who want to month for anyone from the UK working in disassociate themselves from AFHR out of [raq - and for good reason. If you are a concern of inexperience and lack of sivilian, you are a target, especially if you information about security. However, I had u e working to retrieve and record evidence been contacted by AFHR and am considering assisting them with their work >f past crimes on this scale. once unanswered questions have been You need training on mines, on boobyresolved. traps, on behaviour in crisis situations. The advice not to drive marked vehicles chills My objection to your article is that it does a e - they should not be out without a full not at all project the seriousness and military escort. Driving in war-zones is a concerns related to the work to be done in Iraq. This is not the message th skill in itself, not just an off-road burn-up. archaeologists seeking to get experience in This is not cowardice on my part, but forensics should be hearing, it is terribly zxperience and knowledge. I've been in misleading. :nough dangerous situations for work to last me a lifetime, and a long lifetime is Derek Congram what I'd prefer to have. This is not exciting, Editor's reply: In our defence, our article nor a big adventure. Going to Iraq at the did draw attention to Foreign OSfice current time would be - in my personal advice that 'the threat to British nationals and professional opinion - stupid, fieom terrorism in lraq remains high. ' We foolhardy and possibly one of the last pointed out that the Red Cross and the UN decisions you might make. have evacuated most of their foreign staff If you want to move into forensic and that Irbil where AFHR are based has archaeology, look at the reputable been the target of suicide bombs. We organisations around internationally - referred to armed guards provided for the Bahid, Inforce, CIFA. And never, ever, archaeologists and characterised Iraq as a work in a war zone without full backing of 'wanone. ' an international organisation such as the In our necessarily brief article, we wanted UN, full training, and the back-up of the archaeologists involved to speak for experienced team-members to work along themselves. We lefi readers to draw th. the inexperienced. own conclusions about whether AFHR's Laura Sinfield, Forensic Medicine Section, intentions are naive and foolhardy or not, School of Molecular and Clinical and whether there is adequate provision Medicine, University of Edinburgh both for the work and for safety. Misleading and flippant As you may be aware, there is a bit of debate surrounding your article on AFHR. Much of the concern revolves around The Digger's misleading portrayal of the work and flippant attitude, especially concerning security. I feel that The Digger should feel a moral obligation to present the work in Iraq accurately.

Finances

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DON'T GO! I've worked since 1996 as a forensic I have worked as an archaeologist in the archaeologist and anthropologist, both in UK and as a forensic archaeologist in the
to The Digger is a non-profit making new: tter existina entirely on donations. AU donations welcome. make cheaues ~ a v a b l e The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively e ~ c o u r a g ~The Digger is available by post, by emafl, or on the web with d. photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.co.uk). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send u s your d e a s and well sort it out.
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Issue No 33 September 2004 PO Box 23570
London

E 1 3 9YP e-mail: thedigge@email.com NEW! web: www.bajr.org
mefully. The idea was to remove Seller of archaeological werything fast, and find as little as records apologises mssible. The final plan was interpreted as A Digger reader has sent us shocking treas, rather than as the superimposed A person who sold archaeological records allegations about an IFA-registered )hases that they really were. to metal detectorists on the intemet auction archaeological unit based in the south of 4 second site, considerably larger, was site eBay has apologised to the England The reader names the unit in 5iven a small number of workers, and only archaeological community. The seller fiom question, but we have decided not to ;ix weeks to excavate. After four weeks, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, lmown only publish the name pending an investigation w had done only a quarter of it. When by the eBay pseudonym nov1128, sold e by the IFA. iuman skeletons were discovered by the 1600 records fiom five counties for £350.

How can they get away with this?

A few months ago, I worked for a while nachine, so much overburden was with [the unit]. I should like to warn any of -emoved that only the bases of the your readers against working for them, and ikeletons were left. The skeletons were if possible warn potential clients about hen dug up as fast as possible, and we ivere told that it was unlikely that they ~loying them. ivould be examined at all. Similarly, we I am not writing to get revenge for a slight ivere told that environmental samples were of some sort. I am writing because the unit regularly dumped rather than being is the worst bunch of 'cowboy' diggers I :xamined. have ever encountered, paying the barest lip-service to proper techniques and The permanent staff I met told me that such procedures, and they should not be allowed hings were normal in this unit. They also :old me that many units will not employ to get away with it. you if you have worked for this unit. 1 The unit suffers fiom a negative attitude would therefore suggest that anyone fiom top to bottom. One member of senior reading this would think twice before management has been quoted as saying, applying to work with them, because to be "You should never have to resort to using a bank, this company should not even be in trowel," and, "This is what I think of business let alone flaunting its Institute of trowels: they should only be used for Field Archaeologists (IFA) approval. cleaning tools." The tools owned by the unit are few, and low quality - they did not The Digger editor ad&: We have no wy independent w q of verrfiing this story, but own a single pickaxe when I was there. we are passing the details we have One supervisor had no tools of his own, including the name of the unit, but not our lacked a basic understanding of the reader's identity - to the IFA. We are also Harris matrix. Health and Safety on site calling on the IFA to fully investigate the were nearly non-existent, with diggers degations, and to make the result of these allowed to work close to JCB's, without investigations public. hardhats. There was minimal first-aid t equipment, no running water, and sites I is important that the IFA investigate these allegations, and is seen to do so. which had not been cleaned of modern Should the allegations become widely sewage, asbestos and syringes. known - ie beyond the archaeological The standard of archaeology was appalling: community - and it also emerges that the on one urban site, the top three feet of allegations were not investigated. then the stratigraphy was machined away, leaving result could be damage not just to the unit only the bases of contexts remaining. On concerned and the IFA but to archaeolog). this multi-phase site in a medieval town- and archaeologists generally. This is centre, I estimate that two thirds of the particularb the case where the proper contexts were destroyed before hand- excavation of burials is concerned - as Imr digging began. The shoddy organisation on year's experience at St Pancras showed site, and the ridiculous time constraints for this large area meant that maybe only 10% It is in everyone's interests that the of the potential archaeology was allegations are thoroughly investigate6 recognised, and of course only sample cuts and either proved (and appropriate actior were put into these. No attempts were taken), or disproved made - or allowed - to excavate contexts
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The card index of archaeological records for Cheshire, Durham, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire and Cumberland/Curnbria included OS grid references and were advertised as 'a guide to finding more productive metal detecting sites.' The seller had obtained the records h m 'a retired archaeologist/archivist.' But after outrage fiom archaeologists, the seller offered 'profound apologies.' In a statement posted on the intemet the seller said: 'It was never my intention to upset the archaeological and heritage fraternity who have recently voiced #,eir opinions by describing this disposal of these records as unethical, especially as they view this information could fall into the hands of the unscrupulous who may use it to locate and plunder sites. In hindsight, had I realised that this could cause a potential problem, I would not have put them on eBay. I therefore will not offer for sale by auction any more of these records.' There is increasing concern about the sale of such records as well as antiquities on eBay. The British Museum and the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, who manage the HLF grant that supports the Portable Antiquities Scheme, are currently in discussions with eBay with a view to producing a Memorandum of Understanding about such sales.

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Pay going backwards
The FA'S annual review of pay in,. archaeology suggests that wages are going backwards for almost all grades. The average annual pay for diggers fell h m £13,232 last year to £12,903 this year. Supervisors' pay fell fiom £14,806 pa to £14,765 pa in the same period. Pay for field officer and project manager grades also fell, but there were increases for SMR and specialist posts.

The author of the review said that the F A recommended minima were becoming increasingly influential, but warned that the IFA needed 90 increase them more aggressively if archaeology graduates are to have any chance of paying off their t o p up fees." The F A minima for the period covered by the review were £12,720 pa for excavators, E14,8 17 pa for supervisors and E19,185 pa for managers.

Do you have a nomination for Red Face

Corner? Send us details at the usual

address.

BAJR museum appeal

The British Archaeological Jobs Resource pm) has launched a E 1000 appeal to help a museum in Georgia get back on its Feet. The Nokalakevi Museum was looted in 1991 during political disturbances that The concept that a developer can 'win the The review was based on pay rates quoted Followed Georgia's independence. Valuable right not to deal with archaeology in a for jobs advertised with the F A and on xhibits were taken and windows and court' doesn't fit very well with the BAJR and was published in i'%e cabinets wrecked. planning system as it is not normally a Archaeologkt earlier this year. Despite the fact that most other artefacts judicial matter. Developers can argue not were subsequently transferred to the to have evaluations prior to determination Red face corner National Museum of Georgia in Tbilisi for of planning applications and this does happen frequently. However, that decision Let's face it, we all make mistakes. safety, the Nokalakevi Museum is still is up to the elected members or a delegated Fortunately most of us don't have the Dpen, although visitors are advised to bring planning officer not a court. Also a media breathing down our necks when we their own torch since there is no electricity. developer could appeal against an blunder. But some archaeologists aren't so The Museum holds pottery and exhibits archaeological condition placed on s lucky, and end up with red faces when their from the 6th century BC to the modem permission but as long as the reasons . discoveries turn out to be less than earth period. It is located next to one of the most the condition are sound, a planning important archaeological sites in West shattering. Georgia where many of the artefacts were inspector is likely to dismiss the appeal and For example, there was the carved rock Found. The site was a fortified uphold the condition. found on a beach at Gorleston near Great administrative centre and capital of the Very rarely have developers argued that Yarmouth, Norfolk. The two-tome lump of west Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and archaeology should not be a consideration granite was engraved with intertwined Egrisi-Lazika - the land of the mythical in a planning proposal and won, and that is serpents, a dragon and runic symbols. Golden Fleece, of Medea and of the Jason only when the elected members believe Excited archaeologists at Norfolk county and the Argonauts legend. that the reasons for the development council declared that it could be up to 2000 outweigh any archaeological issues. years old. Only after the rock had been The money will be used to buy an However, these are not really precedents as transported away for safe storage did electricity generator that will provide every planning case is unique. Although unemployed construction worker Bany power for the museum and the local some Planning Inspectors have ignored Luxton, 50, reveal that he had made the community, as well as to repair damaged archaeology or removed conditions it is far carvings for a modem druid celebration display cases and increase security so more common for inspectors to place nearby. The rock had become buried in important artefacts can return. BA.lR's conditions on appeals found in the sands and shingle. County archaeologist David Comolly said, "With more money developers favour. Bryan Ayers admitted, "It seemed too good we can even replace the war damaged dig houses and fit them out with Many LocaI Plan Policies have been tested to be true even at the time." accommodation and work rooms for in appeal situations and been upheld Or there was the Viking settlement in visiting specialists. Even a pound will don't worry too much about PPG16. It is & Buckhaven, Fife, that turned out after make the difference - how often do you get robust as any other PPG. Interestingly, months of excavation to be a 1940's patio. to rescue a museum for a quid!" PPG16 is currently under review. It is t Douglas Speirs, chief archaeologist a Fife expected to remain basically the same with council, said it was "an easy mistake to Send donations to: David C o ~ o l l y , some of us hoping the words 'research' f make." The patio "had all the hallmarks o Museum Appeal, 512 Hamilton Terrace, appear in the new version! ancient building techniques" although he Edinburgh, EH15 INB, or log on to the admitted that his team had ignored finds o BAJR website. f Finances a WW2 child's gas mask and an old television remote in their search for Viking Letter Bombs @ evidence. "The chap next door - who has lived there since 1939 - was absolutely Don't worry about challenges to PPG16! Total contributions certain that there had never been a patio in Some readers of The Digger have Total costs (projected) that back garden," Mr Speirs said. The expressed concern about possible legal +£42 1 End balance owner of the patio, Marion Gany, 50, said challenges to PPG16 because it is only she hoped to turn it into a garden feature. planning guidance. Thanks to those who have contributed! "It looks quite messy now but I think it will look pretty with flowers and plane Well, so are all PPGs (Planning Policy Guidance) which cover the whole planning gowing around it," she said. tter existine: entirelv on donations. AU donc~tlons welcome, make cheques payable to The Digger is a non-profit maglng new:sle

system. However, it is not just PPG16 that gives archaeology its place in planning.. Archaeological Policies are found in County Structure Plans and Local Plans which have been adopted by locally elected members of County and District councils. These plans are the basis on which planning decisions are made and therefore cany weight in planning applications or appeals.

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The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Reaource (W-bajr-org). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send u s your details and well sort it out.

Diggers get organised
Last month at MoLAS's London H Q archaeologists with various backgrounih and experience met to discuss the latea IFA initiative - ' f i e Diggers Forum.' Acting Committee member Paul Everill explains what this new group hopes to achieve.

Ten of us made the trip, and none of us knew whether the train fare would be worth it. Later though, as we headed to the pub to wrap up the day, we all felt that the Forum was not only worth the fare, but was an siting prospect for the future of contract mchaeology too. Our aim is to establish an IFA special interest group for the most underrepresented sector of contract archaeology - the site staff! As with other special interest groups (such as those for Finds, Buildings, Maritime Archaeology etc) IFA membership will not be a prerequisite for those wanting to get involved. Instead, non-"IFA members will be asked to pay a minimal annual rate to cover postage and administration, about the cost of a couple of pints of beer a year. Members should be able to discuss issues at national and local meetings, and there will be a newsletter and a wcbsite detailing developments in the profession and the work being done by the Committee to push for change. a y people will ask what can really be achieved in my name? Well, how about this - the Diggers Forum is primarily conceived as a way of unifLing contract archaeologists to campaign through the 1FA for change within the profession. Archaeologists involved in excavation and post-excavation assessment are currently (as opposed to under-represented managers, consultants, county officers etc). The Forum will aim to redress this balance and keep the issues that @ect us at the top of the IFA agenda. We all h o w there are serious problems that desperately need resolving: poor pay and conditions, lack of traininglcareer progression, poor health and safety standards, under-fimded projects. The Forum will serve as a platform providing information and news about subjects affecting archaeologists and how the IFA

responds to them. Through the Forum we can discuss and formulate responses to IFA initiatives and put forward our own. We aim to strengthen our voice by increasing our representation on IFA Council and various committees. From this position we can potentially influence issues fiom the subscription rates for PIFAs, recommended minimum wages, effective and transparent disciplining of units with poor employment practice. You name it! The work of setting the Forum up is still ongoing, but soon we can begin to really change things. There will never be a better opportunity and now there really are NO excuses for not getting involved. If you want more information on the next meeting or membership please contact: Jez Taylor jezt0molas.or~~u.k (0207 410 C M Clarke 2242) or tallteddvc@~otmaiI.com(07751 612574).

I a warned that many Sumerian cities in rq
the south like Larsa and Umm a1 Aqarib were being systematically robbed. This process continues today. An aerial photo in the latest Rescue News shows a site in the southern Dhi Qar Province reduced to a lunar landscape by looters' trenches. But looting isn't the only cause of damage. Although military authorities claim they respect Iraq's buried heritage, worryingly British troops refer to the area outside their bases as 'the Gifa' (Great Iraqi Fuck All). Hatra, near Mosul, is a UNESCO World Heritage site; its thick stone walls and towers have withstood invasions for millennia. However, since May the US army has been using the area to detonate unwanted munitions. US colonel Paul Woerner admitted in an email to Chicago University that the explosions are 'causing a deteriorating situation to the structure' of the ancient buildings.

The Digger wholeheartedly supports this Some sites get caught in the crossfire. In initiative and we urge readers to get October, -Times correspondent J HXde: -. imolveb. described how Marines dug foxholes and trenches at Yusufiyah, the site of an ancient War wrecks world heritage city south of Baghdad. 'The resistance has been using the archaeological sites to bury Iraq's present and future are being their weapons, and have been using the destroyed by the USNK occupation that has already killed 100,000 civilians. But mounds as a vantage point to fire,' he said. Iraqi fighters 'started firing heavily' on the what about the country's past? Iraq is the Marines and 'we spent most of the day 'cradle of civilization' encompassing much pinned down at this historic site with of ancient Mesopotamia and some academics say that the whole county mortars flying over our heads, while we called in mortars to strike back.' Iraq's should be a World Heritage Site. built heritage has fared little better. Falluja Francis Deblauwe's 'Iraq War and - 'the city of mosques' - has been reduced Archaeology' website is regularly updated to rubble according to TV reports. with news of the war's impact. At the start Ironically, millions of dollars of USAID of the war, there was international outrage grants have been allocated for archaeology when the Baghdad Museum was ransacked and museum conservation in Iraq. These after being left undefended by Coalition often subcontracted to programs, forces. Over 8,500 artifacts are still companies with Republican party ties, are a missing according to Dr Deblauwe, but he problem for Iraqi institutions. If they points out that 'the spotlight has not been cooperate, they risk being identified with focused as intensely on the plight of the occupation and targeted by the archaeological sites throughout Iraq. resistance as a result. Journalists are unable to venture out into remote desert areas where most But above all, it is the mounting human archaeological sites are located.' He admits cost of the war that is most alarming. As that his list of at least 32 sites that have Francis Deblauwe says: 'No epic Sumerian been looted, including ancient Babylon, cuneiform tablet, majestic Neo-Assyrian Nimrud and Hatra, is 'grossly incomplete.' lamassu sculpture or any other Mesopotamian artifact is worth a human Even back in June 2003, Haniet Crawford life, be it Iraqi, American, British or other.' of the British School of Archaeology in

Developer bulldozes site after telephone enquiry
Developers in portishead have denied destroying an important World War 2 structure because local historians expressed an interest in getting it listed. The possibly unique pillbox guarded Portishead Marina from air raids. Military historians telephoned Quay's Consortium who are developing the area to ask about the future of the structure. Within hours of their call, the pillbox had been flattened. Chris Cain for the developer said: "This concrete bunker was in a very unsafe state and there is evidence it was being used as a den by youths. It is in the middle of a site designated for employment use." Portishead local Adrian Jones said: "Concerned individuals were carrying out some research into its history and as to whether or not it was the last remaining structure of its type in the country. It may not have been the most beautiful piece of architecture but the very fact that there was a time in our history when we had to build structures for this purpose should not be forgotten."

Second unit referred to IFA
In the last issue of The Digger, we published claims that a unit in the south of England had little regard for Health and Safety and machined away stratigraphy and human skeletons without proper recording (see Letters section for more). The F A are currently investigating the allegations. Since then, it has emerged this unit isn't the only one that's being investigated. Buckingham-based Network Archaeology has also been reported to the IFA according to the minutes of Buckinghamshire County Council's Historic Environment Forum. The forum members expressed concerns in March this year that Network Archaeology 'had not fulfilled their publication obligations.' A revised post-excavation programme was agreed, but by September the outstanding reports had still not appeared. The unit was referred to the F A , with the threat of 'further sanctions' if the medieval site of Bury Farm in Great Missenden and Roman sites found along- the Aylesbury to Steppingly gas pipeline were not

published. The fieldwork for the pipeline While 1 was working for a council in East Anglia I ran a small excavation in the was finished seven years ago. centre of a market town. In the plot next Bucks CC have also had problems with door, a certain unit had also undertaken an Tempus Reparaturn which went bankrupt excavation the previous year. Reading their before fieldwork back in 1996 at a report it was painfully obvious that once prehistoric site at Little Marlow and a again they had machined through medieval Bronze Age and Saxon settlement at and Roman stratigraphy down to the Bierton could be published. natural. This meant that most features were only recorded in section unless they were Letter Bombs Ci:" deep enough to have their bases surviving. In one of their section drawings a Roman That unit has been investigated before wall was visible, but there was no record of I read the article in Digger 33 with its alignment or length. interest, knowing exactly which unit the person was talking about (unless there are One of their former project officers came to work for us and told us that this was two of them, perish the thought!). normal policy, in fact insisted upon by The IFA have investigated them on several senior management. This unit gets a lot of occasions but nothing ever seems to get 'work in our area, and most of their sites are done. The F A never interview the diggers similarly ruined. Something has to be done fiom the unit, just the higher levels of S about them before they bring our and having the boss within earshot means profession into disrepute. that nobody dares to speak the truth. Tell us who to scrutinize My iiiends and I could tell you many 191 Dear Digger, Please find attached our stories about the unit that would make any open, standing list of archaeological archaeologist cringe, it is appalling what contractors. The list is not an 'approved' they get away with. list, and infers no endorsement by the I also have a similar story about the County Council. The list is used only for excavation of a cemetery fiom July 2003, information purposes to help developers. If and other*fiiendsworked on a similar site a you think there are any contractors on this couple of years ago, so it's not just a one- list that might benefit fiom closer monitoring or scrutiny by our service to & . improve quality control, then I would be The unit is very proud of their F A status, grateful for your views. You could respond and all diggers have to fill in PDA forms by simply asterisking such contractors and regularly, although they're told to make returning the document. things up and most of them get laid off as soon as the site has finished anyway. I was I have always taken the view that laughed at when I said that l wanted to be a archaeological endeavour is a joint or site supervisor - girls get to write up the partnership effort, and that higher standards are realised by involving reports, only men get to run sites. everybody, curators, consultants, If the F A want any eye-witness reports I contractors, workers, academics, an$ know several people, plus myself, who avocational people. would be willing to tell them exactly what - Neil Campling, Principal Archaeologist, goes on there. North Yorkshire County Council T h d l l y the local county archaeologists have started to wise up and do everything Finances they can to stop this unit from working in their areas, but money talks and unfortunately they do always manage to Start balance (this issue) l : : come up with the lowest tenders - no prizes Total contributions for working out how. Total costs (projected) Archaeology machined out +E3 5 I End balance [XI Although you edited out the name of the unit, I think that most of us down here Thanks to those who have contributed! can guess who they are.

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The Digger is a non-profit making newsleltter existing entirely on donations. AU donaitions welcome, make cheques payable to The ~i&er'. Any con&butions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.org). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive T h e Digger but do, send u s your details and well sort it out.

Issue No 35 F e b r u a r y 2 0 0 5 PO Box 2 3 5 7 0
London

E13 9YP
e-mail: thedigger@email.com web: www.bajr.org

Parts of ancient Babylon have been severely There are growing fears that government irreparably damaged and cuts to English Heritage (EH) will mean contaminated by US and Polish forces, according to a report by the British less money for archaeological projects. Museum's John Curtis. Dr Curtis, head of Tessa Jowell, the Secretary of State for the Department of the Ancient Near East, Culture, announced the 4.6% reduction in was allowed access to the site that was spending in December, but EH says that in established as a camp by the US military reality the figure is nearer 6.3% on top of shortly after the invasion of h q . 10% cuts since 2000. This amounts to a f l3m reduction in real terns, contrasting His report details how the original brick with a 98% increase in government funding surface of a 6th century BC processional route has been crushed by tank tracks. The for sport. famous Ishtar Gate has been damaged by Smon Thurley, EH chief executive, said, attempts to remove decorated bricks and "We need to look and see what a &13mcut trenches have been dug into the zigguarat means for us. It will mean something, and the basis for the legend of the Tower of probably something that we don't like very Babel. He describes how acres of the site much and that our partners won't like very have been levelled, covered with imported much." gravel and sprayed with chemicals which, He has already axed staff numbers by 1 l%, together with fuel, are seeping into including the post of Chief Archaeologist unexcavated buried deposits. Two 20m last year. He ruled out an "equal misery for long trenches have been dug through the all" approach, fuelling fears that site a ~ d thousands of tonnes of archaeological fimding could be hit archaeological material lie in spoil heaps or have been used to fill sandbags and mesh disproportionately. crates. In a letter to the Guardian, Alison Taylor of the Institute of Field Archaeologists Babylon was the centre of the Babylonian warned that the 'accelerating programme empire and the capital of Hammurabi of cuts' would mean that the 'worst-hit of (1792-1 75OBC) who introduced the all funding will be the budget for world's fvst code of law, and of arrhaeological commissions, ie the money Nebuchadnem (604-562BC). Dr Curtis says that his 14-page report "should not be tl xtually supports work in the field.' seen as exhaustive ', but is only The government cuts are only the latest of "indicative" of the types of damage caused. EH'S woes. There is no guarantee that the Heritage Lottery Fund, which has given Invisible diggers £3bn in grants in its 10-year life including £lbn on historic buildings, will exist after A Digger reader reveals thejindings of his the current lottery contract ends in 2009. survey into UK archaeology ... Its director, Carole Souter, insisted she was "confident" that ministers would c o n f m I left full-time, commercial archaeology that heritage would remain a lottery good two years ago and began work on a PhD at the University of Southampton. I wanted to cause "as soon as they are able". examine commercial archaeology by using In addition to archaeology, EH'S major a previously untapped resource - the repairs programme for cathedrals and its opinions of those within the profession! grants scheme for historic parish churches There are two strands to my project: a are also rumoured to be under threat. s series of i n t e ~ e w and an online survey to However, the Department of Culture submit more detailed comments. I am now denied that the budget had been cut. A publishing the interim results to spokesman said that "English Heritage will disseminate the information and to receive an extra £13 million for capital encourage more people to take part. More projects across the next three years." detailed articles will appear elsewhere and www.bair.org is kindly hosting some of the

Fears that EH cuts will hit archaeology

Babylon trashed by troops

written submissions, which tell their own story. Participation has been fairly good, with responses now about 9% of my estimated total of 2,100 commercial archaeologists. Based on the IFA survey Profiling the Profession 2002/03, these responses appear to be broadly representative. I have, however, had a higher response rate from the under 30s than from those in their 40s. This may be a reflection of the sampling and of an under-representation of the under 30s in the F A study. Of my respondents, 37% believed that a rethink is needed in order to prevent a future crisis in commercial archaeology. 35% believed that it is already in crisis and needs urgent attention. However, of the latter group only 21% are currently trying to get out of the profession while 59% intended to remain as long as they can. This demonstrates the dedication most archaeologists feel to their job, even when they feel the profession i s in crisis. The most disillusioned sector appears to be 2630 year olds of whom 34% are currently trying to get out. The under 30s represented 42% of all respondents. Of these 28% were IFA members; 16% couldn't afford to join; 15% felt the IFA wasn't relevant to them; 7% would never join, but 31% would n consider joining. L this age group 12% were members of Prospect, with 9% members of other unions. 18% didn't believe there was any point in joining a union, but a stunning 60% would consider it. In comparison 31-40 year olds represented 36% of all respondents (making over three quarters of all respondents under 40). Of this age group 33% were IFA members and 30% Prospect members. 32% and 33% would consider joining the IFA and a union respectively. This makes this age group statistically the most actively 'involved.' There is much interesting data to be had by getting it straight from the source, and this research has the potential to be the most detailed study of professional archaeologists ever undertaken. I hope that everyone reading The Digger will get involved. Visit www.invisibledimers.net to have your say. - Paul Everill

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The next Diggers' Forum meeting will take place on Saturday 19th February 2005 at lpm at MoLAS HQ at Mortimer Wheeler House, 46 Eagle Wharf Road, London, N l 7ED. The Forum is intended to unify contract archaeologists to campaign through the IFA for change within the profession. Contact Jez Taylor (020 7410 2242 or 07951 024197 jezt@2molas.org.uk) or Chris Clarke (020 8769 5029 or 07751 for 6 12574 ta~teddyc@~otmail.com) more details.

Hotline set up as IFA dismiss 'moans in a pub'
The Institute of Field Archaeologists have said that allegations about an IFA Registered .Archaeological Organisation ( M O ) are 'moans in a pub.'

The Digger published claims by a reader that the unit, based in the south of England, ignored health and safety and machined out stratigraphy and human skeletons without proper recording. Other readers wrote in with similar stories of bad practice and The Digger passed the name of the unit to the IFA to investigate.
However, the %A says it will not act unless a formal complaint is made. An article in the latest edition of the IFA magazine The Archaeologist says: 'Moans in a pub reported third hand and without evidence don't take us far' but complaints 'with names, dates and description, and ideally with photographs, will be taken very seiiously indeed' by the IFA's RA0 Committee. The F A response has prompted David Connolly, who runs the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (BAJR) website, to set up his own hotline to report rogue units.

archaeologists have a duty to protect our heritage, and if you are party to a site being ruthlessly b******d, then that is on your Give the IFA hard evidence conscience too. - Evelyn ~ a k e r I was the IFA Vice Chair for Standards for 6 years, and some of that time was Network response extremely hstrating because we knew (XI Network Archaeology is committed to there were bad apples in the barrel but had an appropriate level of publication for all insufficient proof to do anything about it. its projects. To this end, Network has RA0 inspections flushed out some bad recently appointed a Publications Manager practice and huge efforts were made to and three dedicated Reports Officers. improve the standards of those who were falling below those of the .Code of With regard to the two projects referred to Conduct. But because the inspections, help in the last issue of The Digger, full and and advice are strictly confidential, the open dialogue is being maintained wider world erroneously assumes that throughout with all relevant parties, and nothing is being done! Far from it - one dates for report submission have now been particular organisation cost the IFA dearly agreed with Buckinghamshire County in staff time and money (despite Council Council Archaeological Service and the Members only receiving travelling EA. The IFA has not previously, and nor expenses) and there has been a noticeable is it currently investigating Network. all round improvement in this and other All archaeological organisations face the cases. The F A has no jurisdiction over challenge of bringing their work tc non-members. The more members we get publication within the commercial an^ .. and the more RAOs the better the standards political pressures of the business world. will become. Timescales for post-excavation

Letter Bombs

Site visits are made so that the archaeology and not just the admii and records are scrutinised, and efforts are made to talk to site staff out of management earshot. If a number of offences are made over time this is also recorded and may lead to nondisciplinary investigation or registration. We are encouraging more participation 6om archaeological planning officers who have a crucial role - they write the briefs, inspect sites and sign them off. This should deal with non-IFA cowboys the minority who undercut by cutting corners.

programmes can range from weeks to years dependent upon issues such as size of project, commission delays, specialist subcontract works, client confidentiality issues, internal commercial pressures etc.

Once David has established that a complaint is genuine and 'seriously breaches codes of conduct in the IFA guidelines or has serious Health and Safety implications,' he wiU contact the appropriate County Archaeologist or HSE officer. David says that: 'This procedure is designed to have a positive effect on the At the end of the day, if dud archaeologists Total costs (projected) +&l77 End balance profession.' are still RAOs it is because you, the diggers, won't use your communal strength The hotline number is 0787 6528 498 or to cry foul and get them out; it need not be Thanks to those who have contributed! email info@,bair.org. one brave soul going it alone. All

We support The Digger in tackling this issue, but wodd point out that there are existing mechanisms in place for dealing with organisations which struggle or fail to meet their professional obligations or planning requirements. Bodies such as LPAs, English Heritage and the IFA generally show an enlightened approach to dealing with such issues by working with We get lots of hearsay evidence - but until archaeological organisations. those who actually witness from first hand We hope that The Digger will refrain fron stand up to be counted, there is little that singling out individual cases a n d the IFA can do. Give the IFA hard (not companies and instead encourage support malicious) evidence and these cowboys can of those numerous organisations that have be removed from the RA0 register and if worked hard to tackle this important issue proven guilty at a Disciplinary Hearing, in .recent years and thereby bring the whole chucked out of the F A . If 'curators' and profession to a much improved position. clients insisted on RA0 or MIFA status or - David Bonner on behalf of the directors proven equivalent for site directors, this would hit the cowboys hard. Similarly, if a Finances client finds that his shoddy archaeological work is not signed off by the 'curator' he won't use them again, and it could cost the unit a pretty penny. Total contributions

The Digger is a non-profit making news;letter existing entirely on donations. AU donations welcome, make cheques payable to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.org). Check it. If you want to receive T h e DIgger but don't, or you don't want to receive T h e Digger but do, send u s your details and well sort it out.

Digger 36 April 2005
PO Box 23570 London E13 9YP e-mail:thedigger@email.com web: www. bajr.org

IFA pledges changes after.
Digger revelations
Following revelations in The Digger about the practices of a rogue unit in the south of England, the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA) has pledged to reform its disciplinary procedures. F A director Peter Hinton admits that the current procedures are cumbersome, lack credibility and are nol transparent. 'Our process has proved long-winded and expensive, and has done little to silence critics,' Mr Hinton says in an article in IFA r uine The Archaeologisf. 1n-the IFA's 22 year history, there have been forty formal allegations of malpractice and numerous informal complaints. Allegations are usually about competence, business behaviour, or impugning the reputation of other archaeologists. However, only one of these allegations has ever resulted in the suspension of a member. Another case is in progress, and in a third case the allegation was withdrawn on compassionate grounds. There have also been 13 formal complaints about six F A Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs). Eight of these were partially or fully upheld and several are pending. The new procedure will be drafted by a lee4 advisor and is intended to improve t t _ redibility of the IFA by making 'the punishment fit the crime'. However, the 1FA will not normally investigate when the complainant insists on anonymity. This is a problem, since many potential whistleblowers have been reluctant to report bad practice in their units in the past for fear of being blacklisted. The proposed changes will be published on the F A website and voted on at the IFA AGM in the autumn.

providing false information in support of The article prompted fury from MS Jowell. In a letter to the Chairman of EH, Sir Neil Cossons, she said 'I have no plans to close Archaeological Solutions has been a longthe organisation. Nor do I plan to hand standing member of the IFA in which control of your historic sites to the managers have held senior positions. National Trust or anyone else.' She added that EH 'does superb work in promoting BAJR hotline a success and protecting our historic and built environment.' The BAJR hotline for reporting rogue units has proved a success. The handful of However, it is well known that the Culture complaints so far have been dealt with by Secretary believes that there are too many alerting the appropriate County 'overlapping' bodies in the heritage sector. Archaeologist, the Health and Safety EH funding has been fi-ozen and there were Executive or the F A . David Connolly of proposals last summer to merge the quango BAJR told The Digger: 'Curators think the with the Heritage Lottery Fund, although hotline is a useful tool, and contractors see these came to nothing. With a general it as a wake up call and a reasonable way election looming and a likely ministerial to watch out for cowboys. The head of reshuffle at DCMS - EH staff will be some large national organisations have also hoping the next Culture Secretary will be privately backed the initiative. Even a bound by MS Jowell's promises. group who have been wrongly accused are backing the hotline as it is easy to squash Curator hits back at rumours before they start.'

an application for registration.'

Private Eye allegations

However, not a! archaeological units we ! happy. The Digger has learned that a director at one unit contacted BAJR to complain about the hotline. He wrote that it seemed to be 'divisive and slighting towards the efforts of the IFA' and risked fiagmenting support for the professional body. The IFA's Peter Minton confirmed that the unit director had spoken to him and initially he shared his concerns. However, Mr Hinton added 'I've spoken to David Connolly since then and have been reassured by his explanation of what the hotline is attempting to achieve.' The hotline number is 07876 528 498 or email

North Yorkshire County Archaeologist Neil Campling has denied allegations that he is undermining efforts to preserve the landscape around the scheduled Thornborough Henges. There has been a spirited campaign by 'The Friends of Thornborough' group to save the landscape that is threatened by gravel extraction by Tarmac.

Arch Sols kicked off IFA register
Hertford-based Archaeological Solutions, foimerly Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust, has lost its RA0 status. A statement on the F A website reads: 'Unfortunately it has now been necessary to remove Archaeological Solutions fiom the Register [of Archaeological Organisations] for

In its 'Rotten Boroughs' section and below a cartoon of a wrecking ball knocking down trilithons, Private Eye accused Mr Campling of telling people not to sign a petition to save the henges. It was also implied there was collusion between Mr Campling and his predecessor at the county council Mike Griffiths, now Tarmac's 'No plans to close E ' H archaeologist, in restricting trial trenching says Culture Secretary to just 2?40 of the threatened Ladybridge Tessa Jowell, the Culture Secretary, has site when 'other archaeologists believe a denied threatening to dismantle English sample of 8-10% would give a better idea Heritage (EH). An article in the Sunduy of what may be there.' Times claimed that her department was proposing that EH'S 400 sites - including In a threepage letter to The Digger, Mr Stonehenge and Dover Castle - would be Campling says 'I have never asked the public or non-planning handed over to the National Trust. This general archaeologists not to sign the petition,' would leave EH with liltle except its role of advising the government on the historic although he admits he did ask fellow environment. The article said that the move curators in a private email group not to was the result of 'bitter rows' between EH sign because the petition demanded 'all quauying' wound the henges stop. 'No and the government. planning archaeologist could honestly take

m.

this stance,' he explains, because it would Come off it Evelyn, the blame lies squarely 1the conduct of a unit. Dismissing these as halt existing permitted development and with you and your colleagues. The IFA is l'moans in the pub' in this extremely ineffectual bordering on pathetic and will iinsulting manner only justifies the view prejudge applications. not be worth joining until it develops a 1hat the IFA is only interested in presenting 'Mike Griffiths is the commissioning proper disciplinary system to deal with the iitself as a functioning self-regulatory body archaeologist for Tarmac's archaeological l:ather than actually taking action. few 'duds' amongst the membership. investigation,' Mr Campling says. 'As f i e letter from the ex Vice Chair for County Archaeologist, I am required to Mendacious IFA passing the buck l Standards notes that the F A are discuss with him the planning requirements Several points in reply to the letter in for the case. To imply there is some sort of the last issue by Evelyn Baker. It is no ,'encouraging more participation from collusion as a result of this ongoing surprise that only 28% of diggers under iwchaeological planning officers.' Well dialogue shows ignorance of the thirty are members of this mendacious and 1;hanks for that, because it's not as if procedures.' In response to the 2% claim, pointless organisation. Evelyn begins by (:urators aren't already doing so. In the end Mr Campling says 'the evaluation at complaining that the IFA has investigated 1he IFA is a confused organisation with no Ladybridge has involved resistivity, one unit, which has 'cost the IFA dearly'. 1:eeth and, it appears, little understanding of magnetometry, fieldwalking test pitting The IFA claims to enforce standards in lwhat planning archaeologists do. Every day and trial trenching. Taking this into archaeology, and would have us believe I.eports are returned deemed unacceptable, rites are monitored, context sheets, plan account means that the wider prehistoric that it deserves to be a chartered institute : landscape has in fact been sampled at a 50- responsible in a statutory capacity for imd sections are examined by curators all 55% level, well above the levels enforcing its own standards. Can we really 1without the 'encouragement' of the F A . It recommended'. have faith in its suitability for such a role, iis clear that the IFA are only interested in when one investigation elicits such 13 e perception of themselves as an effective complaint from the organisation? If it (xganisation rather than being one. Archaeologist killed really is intent on enforcing standards, it 3ne way of 'encouraging' curators wouldd in trench collapse must accept that its investigations will cost perhaps be to support them when they 1 Archaeologists around the world were money - and, indeed, some will be fruitless. 1make complaints about organisations shocked to hear about the death of Austrian 'Site visits7 are made (apparently), as well linstead of discounting any problems as Marcus Koller, 30. He was killed last , as other procedures, to investigate units 'moans'. 1 have attended planning appeals month when the 2.511 deep unshored and 'remove cowboys from the RA0 list'. 1where IFA archaeologists l?om RAOs have trench he was working in collapsed. But how many people realise that the iwgued not to evaluate sites in advance of Despite being injured themselves, two infringements closest to most diggers (jesignating them as development areas women colleagues - one of whom was his hearts and pockets - wages and conditions - (despite the potential for significant fiancee - were able to dig him out but he are not considered to be important enough 1remains. Is this raising standards? Is this had suffocated. They were working on a to remove an RAO! A company can pay tmcouraging curators? No! Clearly the IFA Roman f a m site for Salzburg museum. less than the IFAs pitihl minima with 1represents client based units and favours a impunity! It is clear that the IFA, with its lmarket lead archaeological response rather Letter Bombs #$ major membership base being senior 1than one based on the best practice of members of units, makes the rules to suit lmanagement of archaeological remains. No action on my formal IFA compliant l'he idea that we need to stand up and be itself. So Evelyn Baker blames everyone but counted is laughable! 1 for one have no the F A for not removing what she calls A typical passing of the buck from the IFA: (compunction to make a complaint, be 'dud' archaeologists from that body's If cowboy units still exist, 'it is because (dragged through the mud by unit managers, you, the diggers, won't use your communal dismissed by the F A as a 'moaner' ano membership. strength to cry foul and get them out'. So, 1then find my career compromised. A few years ago I lodged a formal in addition to being the lowest paid complaint with the IFA about the conduct professional workers in Britain, we lMy message to the IFA is simple: stop of one such 'dud' who had failed to shoulder the blame for the piss-poor 1being an organisation where units pay to properly record an excavation for which he standards in archaeology. Then what the appear professional by having the IFA was paid and over several years, despite hell is the IFA for? Could it be that, as we ,stamp and use your h d i n g to ensure they numerous offers of help, also failed to all suspect, it exists solely to protect the Ibehave professionally. produce a report. The case was examined interests of management? The IFA has - From a planning archaeologist by Evelyn and a colleague who saw how nothing to offer diggers - join if you must poor the site records were and who ('IFA membership preferred7), but for Finances accepted that no report had been produced heaven's sake don't conhse them for an but who, in a letter to me later, said that no organisation with diggers' best interests at action could be taken against the heart. Spend less money more wisely and Total contributions individual. To the best of my knowledge join Prospect. Total costs (projected) the individual concerned remains a End balance Curator not surprised by IFA response member of the IFA and now has several & I wish I could be surprised by the l other unreported sites to his credit (or FA'S response to the complaints by the Thanks to those who have contributed! otherwise). low paid, temporary contract staff about(

The Digger is a non-profit newsletter existing entirely ati.ens welcome, make cheques - . payable to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.baljr.org). Any problems with receiving The Digger? Send u s your details and well sort it out. STOP PRESS: Read the full text of Neil Campling's letter on the BAJR website.
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love to hear about it. As for CPD, this has Bath Archaeology closes been an idea kicking around for years, with slow progress minimal impact on the lives of ordinary Bath Archaeological Trust has closed its excavation unit. A statement on its website archaeologists. It is two years since the All Party says: 'Bath Archaeology has decided to Parliamentary Archaeology Group APPAG recommended that a fianchiseproviding professional produced its report The Current State oj based system replace the present system of cease Archaeology in the United Kingdom, and competitive tendering. The review says: archaeological services to the conslruction industry and related spheres,' although it now the MPS and peers have compiled a 'Feedback has demonstrated much review into how many of their key scepticism of the value of this approach will continue charitable and educational recommendations have been implemented. within the archaeological community, work. BAT was formed in 1977 and has worked as a professional unit in south and Current responsibility for archaeology is although others have argued that a more west England for the past twenty years. scattered across many government detailed study by a competition expert One of its largest recent jobs was the Bath departments, to the detriment of the would be beneficial to assess the options.' Spa project for Bath and North East industry. The review found there has been This assessment effectively kills the Somerset Council that started in 1998. It apparent progress' on the fianchise idea. In fact, there is unlikely to was hoped to publish the site in 2005, and recommendation that the Department of be any change in the near future since 'the a review of funding for the project was Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) should consultation on the new Planning Policy taking place late last year. give heritage a higher priority and establish Statement which covers the PPG 15 and 16 a committee chaired by a minister to co- guidance notes is now deferred for 2-3 BAT never recovered fiom a loss of ordinate archaeology policy. Indeed, things years until completion of EH pilot £130,000 four years ago compounded by a further loss of £100,000 over the following have gone backwards. The review points projects.' two years. The past five years saw annual out: 'English Heritage [EH] and the Heritage Lottery Fund would appear to The postponed change to PPG16 also income halve from £460,000 to £220,000. have an uncertain hture. The funding to means that developers still will not have to Many archaeologists have worked for BAT the sector in real terms has been cut contribute towards the costs of the long- and there were five permanent staff. Peter dramatically in recent years'. Alarmingly, term storage of archaeological archives in Davenport, the former Director of Excavations, is now at Oxford 'since February 2004 there has been no one museums. Archaeology. in DCMS with specific archaeological APPAG's recommendation that expertise.' organisations like the lnstitute of Field The Company Secretary Stephen Bird told

APPAG puts a brave face on

,

APPAG recommended improved training for field archaeologists who should be paid as much as other graduate entry level professions, such as local authority ining officers, civil engineers and university lecturers. The review says: 'The IFA, the Standing Conference of Archaeological Unit Managers (SCAUM) and Prospect are currently discussing a national collective pay bargaining mechanism for archaeological units,' although there are no details about how far these discussions have progressed.

Archaeologists (IFA) and the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) merge was met with incredulity at the time, and the review says that amalgamation 'is not appropriate.' The organisations are 'working together closely' through the Historic Environment Forum which together with Heritage Link lobbies for heritage interests. On the plus side, the Portable Antiquities Scheme is one success highlighted by the review. Another is that the government has accepted that Sites and Monuments Records (SMRs) should be made statutory, although the review concedes that 'it is difficult to see how this is to be achieved in a climate of Local Authority resource constraints.' The changes will cost at least &8m.

The Digger: "BAT found itself poorly positioned between the big units with large critical mass and economies of scale and the very small or individual operators with very low overheads. The Trustees took the decision, in consultation with staff, to withdraw from commercial archaeology."

Out-of-court settlement for Welsh trust
Newport council has settled the two-year legal dispute with the archaeological trust that excavated Newport's medieval ship. The unexpected nature of the discovery in June 2002 meant that site work on the unique 15th century vessel took five weeks longer than planned. The council alleged that the extra work had not been properly agreed and refused to pay the £118,438 that Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT) claimed it was owed. Before the case reached court earlier this year, however, the council agreed to settle.

There also seems to have been little progress on training. 'The Archaeological Training Fonun is continuing to take the lead on a number of initiatives to embed skills development within the sector and thereby encourage high standards,' the review says. 'The IFA is undertaking a number of relevant projects looking at training, CPD [Continuing Personal Development], etc on behalf of the Forum.' If any digger has had the benefit of their "skills development" being "embedded within the sector", please write in - we'd

The APPAG report marked a step forward in detailing the serious problems within UK archaeology and made a valuable contribution to the debate about possible solutions. But why has progress been so Bob Trett, chairman of GGAT when the slow? Archaeologists deserve an answer. dispute started, said: "For a small

charitable trust it's a lot of money. It's the difference between solvency and going under. As a result of this dispute, four people were made redundant, though one has since been re-employed. It needn't have happened." Newport council declined to comment.

English Heritage to strike
EH staff have voted to strike on 21 June in protest at an imposed below-inflation pay award that averages 1.5%. The action by 500 Prospect members will affect EH'S London headquarters at Saville Row, as well as regional offices and tourist attractions like Stonehenge and Hadrian's Wall. The union says this latest low pay settlement is indicative of the financial crisis facing the heritage body, which has already resulted in job losses.

many and varied jobs I've done in my time, nothing comes close to the camaraderie and the large amount of cool broad-minded people you meet digging and it is a low stress job unlike many other professions. Instead the stress is when you have got home filthy, haven't got to the bank, have Pck all money and have just got a postcard kom your mates with 'proper jobs' who are living it up somewhere hot on full pay."

measly and we are still scraping around doing things in ever-tighter budgets to that . 'fixed price.' "

"The diggers are always the last to know about anything, including where they will befiom day to day. Organisation is not a strong point in any unit that I have ever worked for and there seems to be an overwhelming lack of communication "It's fast becoming a parody of itself. I feel throughout the profession. " we are reaching a stage when the skills "A horde of 'experts' accompanied by needed to close a project quickly and management suddenly drop onto your profitably are far more important than the trench, totally ignore the excavators, and ability to excavate and record a site loudly make pronouncements regarding the properly ." End for Bournemouth H D work people are in the process of Go to www.invisiblediggers.net to re' N completing. Usually no input is requested Bournemouth University is closing its kom the excavation staff, obviously more and take part in the survey yourself: HND in Practical Archaeology. The well- because we are some lower species of pond respected two-year course was a stepping life." @' Letter Bombs C;" stone to BA's and BSc's for many archaeologists who did not have formal "Over the years I have found loaih of sites Stop whingeing! I don't suppose it would be possible for academic qualifications. John Gale, who and archaeological material during works at the university, told The Digger: monitoring. I hove written reports on said us to have some good news occasionally 'The HND has now been replaced by a sites and material. My name appears instead of this endless whingeing. I'm as broke as everybody else but I like my job, (FdSc Field nowhere!! How frustrating. " Foundation degree Archaeology) which was designed in "We need to squeeze out the cheapskates I've had some good bosses (and maybe association with colleagues from the who pay low wages: ultimately their recognising the good units rather than profession.' There will be a reunion for activities harm individuals and are making obscure sideways comments about past students in August. Contact responsible for the appalling loss of talent the bad ones might help), some brilliant brussell@,bmth.ac.uk or jgale@,bmth.ac.uk which haemorrhages out of the colleagues, and some jolly good times. Otherwise I would quit and go and do for details. archaeological world every year." something more interesting instead. In the Meanwhile, the University of Exeter is "There are many dtfSerent opinions as to same way as local news bulletins have the cutting all Archaeology and E,vtology the problems inherent in the current one ' h n y ' at the end of each show we Distance Learning studies at the end of the commercial archaeology system and many could have tips on best handcream, artefi next academic year. In a letter dated I June diflerent solutions. The main problem I see of the month, anything except this endless 2005 Head of Department John Blewitt is apathy; archaeologists are not the most doom and gloom. I happen to agree with advises students to transfer to the Open 'go-getting' bunch of people. They The Digger's politics but at the moment no University. The OU does not offer courses complain, a lot, but no one seems to do one who doesn't already agree will ever be in archaeology or Egyptology. a v h i n g . A complete lack of organised tempted to read it and (perhaps) change rebellion has led to the continuing poor their mind. pay and conditions. " Invisible Diggers speak Paul EverillS 'Invisible Diggers' project ends this month. Paul's PhD examines the profession through the eyes of ordinary archaeologists. We published his interim results in Digger 35, but here are some of your quotes he has published on his website, reprinted with permission.
"We need to be professionally organisedFinances more people in the union, better training and wages. There are people I know who still get laid off over Christmas and go Total contributions kom week to week on weekly contracts Total costs (projected) we are a disorganised bunch fi-om top to End balance bottom and no wonder developers and architects run rings round us and don't take "In the summer it's the best job in the us seriously. The price of an archaeological Thanks to those who have contributed! world, in winter you feel like you've been condition on a developer's budget is sent to a ~ u s s i & Gulag, but out of the The Digger is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. A l donations welcome, make cheques payable to l
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"What do I hate most about commercial archaeology: the fact that prices in competitive tendering are pared down to such a degree that it is impossible to do a decent job on the archaeology without putting in unpaid time (something I do Pequentlyl and that there is no-one who ensures good standards are maintained. And the fact that so many managers appear to have no idea what an excavation involves and have no interest in the archaeologv. "

The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.org). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send u s your details and we'll sort it out.

£13,300 pa. Starting salaries were better for graduates of drama, hospitality and Students and lecturers at the University of theology. The guide also said: 'Prospects Wales, Newport, have appealed to the are poor: 11 per cent of [archaeology] wider archaeological community to help graduates are unemployed and 30 per cent save their department. are in non-graduate jobs.'

'Save our course!'

Third year undergraduate Amy Haskins posted a message on the CBA's Britarch email list revealing that university authorities plan to axe the archaeology course by 2007. 'We need your help!' she wrote. 'They have taken away our archaeology building, which means that we now have to fit into whatever fiee space t :is on campus, we have lost a lecturer an3 our lecture time has been cut by almost 50%.' 'This will be a great loss for archaeology in South Wales,' said lecturer Adrian Chadwick. The department is active in research with an enviable publication record. It has strong links with local heritage groups, includiug the Friends of the Newport Ship. The decision to close the department was taken in August on financial grounds. Students who had been accepted at the university have now been told to reapply elsewhere. As well as considering legal action the 30 current undergraduates organised a demonstration that was reported on the BBC and in the local press a r ' resulted in the university restoring s~-.emodules. Students and staff are particularly angy about the way they learned of the decision. 'The head of Archaeology at Newport, Professor Stephen Aldhouse-Green, only found this out by accident when he overheard a conversation between two members of Estates staff in a corridor!' said Mr Chadwick. University bosses intend redeveloping the Archaeology Centre as a space for Art, Media and Design. The closure adds to the growing crisis in archaeology teaching in the UK. Even though the subject has never had a higher profile, applications for BA Archaeology degrees have fallen almost every year since 2000. The good university guide published in the Times in May revealed that of 61 subjects ranked by graduates' starting salary, archaeology came last at about

article was 'an afiont to the professionalism of all the organisations involved.' He added that 'communication between the developers ProLogis Ltd], the contractor, Northamptonshire NCC's curatorial Archaeology, archaeologists and English Heritage pH] Mr Chadwick said: 'I would urge anyone was excellent.' who cares about the provision of academic archaeology in Britain, and about However, in a letter in the same edition of archaeology in South Wales, to write to the Rescze News Glyn Coppack, EH'S local Vice-Chancellor of the University of Inspector of Ancient Monuments, said: 'I Wales, Newport, and to the new Dean of was assured that Northamptonshire Health and Social Science. It would be Heritage had the matter in hand, and I fiom Northamptonshire particularly good to have the support of understood leading academics from other archaeology Archaeology that they wcre dealing with departments in Britain, and from the the archaeology. What nobody told me was Council for British Archaeology [CBA], that the masonry had been exposed by the RESCUE and the Institute of Field contractor, and EH advice on how best to Archaeologists.' deal with the masonry was not sougbt. I would at least have offered the services of our Civil Engineers.' A concrete revetment Row rages over damaged was built against the 25m length of wall Roman wall that was exposed. This 'is separated from A row over damage to a Scheduled Ancient the Roman masonry by a sheet of Monument is threatening to overshadow a polythene and can be removed without further damage,' he said. local council's plans for a Heritage Park. The scheduled Roman wall - part of the defences of the town of Irchester, east of Wellingborough - was exposed without archaeological supervision last year during construction of a new access road to the A45. An article on the damage by the pressure group RESCUE drew an angy response from Northants County Council (NCC).

Ironically, the council has just bought part of the Roman town with money fiom the government and plans to turn the area into a Heritage Park. The row over the damaged wall threatens to eclipse both this and the good working relationship between archaeologists and developers on the site. Cooperation over the last decade has resulted in the excavation of an Iron Age enclosure and the discovery of previously Ln a letter published in the current edition unknown Roman stone buildings. of Rescue News Bob Colenutt, the Head of Sustainable Development for NCC, said: The row also highlights problems with the 'The exposure of part of the Roman way Scheduled Ancient Monuments are defences in November 2004 was a result of designated. A large part of the monument works by a sub-contractor in advance of contains no archaeological deposits while the agreed development programme. As the an archaeologically-sensitivearea nearby is works were unprogrammed and the main not scheduled. '1 will be asking our construction contractor was unaware of designation team to look at the whole of their taking place, excavation started the site as a matter of urgency,' Mr without the programmed archaeological Coppack said. supervision and control. However, this was identified by the archaeologist on site Policy changes at the IFA within hours of the works starting and the main contractor immediately ensured that At its AGM held last month in London, the Institute of Field Archaeologists (FA) the unauthorised work stopped.' adopted a new Disciplinary code. The He denied that there was any 'failure of change was prompted by revelations in the process' and said that the allegation of a Digger about the unprofessional practices communications breakdown in the Rescue of ab IFA-registered unit in the south of

England. The LFA also voted to change its regulations for Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs). Hertford-based Archaeological Solutions, foimerly Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust, lost its R A 0 status earlier this year after providing false information in support of an application for registration. The new policies can be read on the F A website.

The archaeologists have sent a statement to the National Assembly lambasting the constitution's failure 'to mention in any of its articles that the utilization of Iraq's ancient civilizations, archaeological sites, heritage and archaeological riches is a prerogative of the central government.'

I'll carry on whingeing So your correspondent doesn't like the whingeing. Ahh, bless. Well, there's a lot to whinge about in archaeology - bad practice, shXt pay, poor working conditions, snobbery, elitism and downright corruption.

June Digger

SAMs destroyed
More bad news for Scheduled Ancient Monuments: drainage in the Somerset levels has destroyed internationallyimportant sites. In work h d e d by EH, the Environment Agency and Somerset County Council, small trenches were opened to check waterlogged sites where wellpreserved organic remains had previously been identified. The stakes, wicker fiames, fish traps, village sites and plank surfaces of a network of tracks across boggy ground illustrated how prehistoric people lived and hunted. However, most of the sites examined have been seriously damaged and two scheduled trackways have disintegrated completely. The internationally famous Iron Age lake village at Meare was so damaged 'that the only remaining organic components were shrivelled and contorted wood fragments.' The only sites in good condition are par1 of the Sweet Track, a main road built around 5,800 years ago, in a nature reserve where the original water level is maintained, and the Glastonbury Lake Village which is owned by a trust. The report, published in November's British Archaeology, blames the use of more powerful pumps since the second world war for the destruction.

Iraqi archsseo8o@stsY anger over new constitution
The new Iraqi constitution has been criticized by Iraqi archaeologists who say a federal lraq will leave the country's ancient past at the mercy of regional administrations rather than under central government control. The Head of the Antiquities Department of the Iraq Museum Dr Donny George led a demonstration against the constitution this month and said: 'Our national wealth of archaeological riches will be divided among these regions and subject to the whims of their governors and administrations.' He added that this would be a heavy blow to Iraq's heritage.

Due to a glitch in our distribution system some readers did not receive their paper copies of the last Digger. We apologise for this error which has now been rectified. Distribution of the email and web versions Having spent 4 years at college, getting of the newsletter was not affected. skint, now owing for my course and still taking home less than £300 a week, I think I've got every right to whinge. As for Letter Bombs G ' middle class shXts who stroll through their In Digger 37 a reader complained about degrees, amble through their MA's and 'endless whingeing: Here are some oj then swan into supervisor jobs just because your responses: u i s are terrified of employing people who nt may have 20 years experience (better thar We're being screwed most directors, in my opinion), they too I read, with a sense of incredulity, the make me want to whinge. sentiments expressed in the letter. I suppose the person who wrote this expects Did I mention sexism, racism (how many people to suffer crap pay and conditions black, Asian or other ethnic groups do you just because the job happens to be see working on digs, let alone in post-ex or interesting. This is the attitude that some office jobs?), I get a little tired of being archaeology fums rely upon in order to told I've a chip on my shoulder. justify their unprofessional treatment of There is no investigation at any meaningfd fellow archaeologists. After all, why bother level of crap units, nor is there any real to treat people with common decency when discussion of the real issues underlying the evely year you have a fresh intake of eager decline of development archaeology, which young graduates who are desperate to get is becoming an adjunct to the planning their foot on the first rung of a career and process and is being subsumed by the glow are willing to put up with anything. They of technology and 'market forces'. That's hope that as their career advances (irony why the Bath unit is closing down intended), things will improve for them. underbid by bigger units. Unforhmately, as many of us who live in the real world know, what actually happens 1see no hope in UK archaeology - pay will is that they eventually become continue to drop in real terms, condition L disillusioned, leave archaeology for a "real haven't got better in the time I've been job" and their places in the ranks are taken working and the big units continue to drive up by the aforementioned new intake. down wages and standards.

We could have some cartoons in the newsletter and yes, I like the 'artifact of the month' idea. What would you suggest? How about the director's head on a stick, or a photo of Oxford Archaeology buildings going up in smoke - I'd like that.

e i

I just wish that everyone involved in the So, I'U carry on whingeing, if that's all right profession would own up to the with you. unpalatable truth; the majority of us who are on the circuit are being screwed by our Finances fellow archaeologists. Our pay and conditions are pathetic because the prime motivation of these people is not a love of Total contributions archaeology or a commitment to carrying Total costs (projected) out the job professionally; it is ensuring End balance that they secure their own semi-permanent contracts and careers. That's why tenders are priced so low, so they ensure a Skint! continuity of work (for themselves) and that's why our pay is so poor. - Ken Denham

The Digger is a non-profit making news tter existing entirely on donations. W donations welcome, make cheques payable to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. The Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.org). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Diggerbut do, send u s your details and well sort it out.

Freed archaeologist denies wanting to return to Iraq
Susanne Osthoff, the 43-year-old archaeologist and aid worker who was abducted and then k d in lraq recently, has denied she said she wanted to return to the war zone. Her reported comments had angered the German government who many believe paid a hefty ransom to her captors. MS Osthoff was kidnapped on 25 November in Baghdad. She was intending to travel north, but instead her driver took I to a house in the capital where three bundled her into the boot of a car. She was driven to a place near the border where she was held for three weeks. The German government has denied that its release of a Hizbollah member jailed for the murder of a U.S. Navy diver was linked to MS Osthoffs freedom days later. A ransom is widely believed to have been paid. German Muslim leaders, former Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and Iraqi cleric Moqtada al-Sadr were among those who called for the archaeologist's release. A petition organised by BAJR was signed by over l000 people. Speaking publicly for the first time, MS Osthoff told the Arabic-language Al.. ;era satellite channel that her captors dad treated her well. They weren't hying to get money, she said, but were demanding that schools and hospitals be built in Sunni Arab areas. She was also reported to have said that she may return to Iraq, which drew fierce criticism in Germany. Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinrneier said, "I would have little sympathy if Frau Osthoff puts herself again in danger considering the intensive efforts made by many people to secure her release." Ruprecht Polenz, the chairman of the Parliamentary Foreign Afiirs Comttee added, "In the event of a second kidnapping one would have to discuss who should foot the bill." MS Osthoff is believed cwrently to be in Jordan with her 12 year old daughter.

Heritage inquiry wants your views
The Parliamentary Culture, Media and Sport Committee has announced a wideranging inquuy into the heritage sector and wants you to help identify priorities for the forthcoming Heritage White Paper.

Norfolk privatizes its unit as councils cut jobs

Norfolk County Council is planning to privatize its archaeology unit. NAU will be taken over by NPS Property Consultants Ltd - the authority's private trading company that ploughs its profits back into council coffers. A report by the district The committee is particularly interested in auditor prompted the move. evidence about: Vanessa Trevelyan, head of Norfolk how effectively the Department of Museums and Archaeology Service, said Culture Media and Sport (DCMS), that NAU was in a strong position to English Heritage (EH) and other expand and tender for work across the heritage organisations represent UKWyndham Northam, cabinet member heritage interests to the government, for commercial services, said: ''At the funding for EH and museums and how present time, they tend to work in Norfolk, but as NPS has offices around the country lottery money should be shared out, this will give them an opportunity to spread the responsibilities of EH, the Heritage their wings. It's a win-win for both." Lottery Fund (HLF), local authorities and museums in looking after UK After a decade amassing debts of nearly &Im, NAU now makes a £75,000 surplus heritage and on an annual turnover of £1.3~1. The the balance . between heritage and couosil has said the jobs of NP.W's 32 staff development in planning policy. are not threatened. The inquiry will touch on a number of Other local authorities with archaeological controversial issues. The past year has units will be watching the takeover closely been particularly bad For EH. There were and may follow Norfolk's lead if job losses and a strike coupled with cuts in privatization cuts costs and boosts income. funding and rumours that the government Norfolk is a government-designated would close the heritage quango because of 'Beacon council' that already contracts out 'bitter rows.' 65% of its services. DCMS has also been criticised by MPS for Neighbouring Essex County Council, not giving heritage a higher priority. whose own Field Archaeology Unit has Current responsibility for archaeology is had problems in the past, also contracts scattered across many government some services to NPS. departments and there is no one at DCMS Elsewhere, Northamptonshire County with specific archaeological expertise. Council intends axing its Built and Natural The HLF itself has an uncertain future and Environment service that runs the local there is widespread concern that HLF Sites and Monuments Record. Northants money will be diverted kom heritage Archaeology Society, which is funding to sport, especially with the 2012 campaigning against the plans, says that the Olympics on the horizon. service's archaeological advice on development proposals will be vital for the Local authorities are shutting down their archaeological units and shifting the county that will undergo 'enormous responsibility of recording and excavating expansion in the next two to three decades.' sites to the private sector. Written submissions with your name and The society has called for protest emails to address should be sent by 19 January to the be sent to the council's Chief Executive. Clerk of the Committee at 7 Millbank, Three jobs are also under threat at York's London SWlP 3JA. The committee will Leisure and heritage department as the city take oral evidence during February and council cuts spending before the new March. financial year.

WM8 trowels bite the dust?
Ping! It's become a sound familiar on sites up and down the country, usually followed by the indignant shout of an angry digger. Ping! The noise of the blade of another WHS trowel snapping in half.
We never thought it would come to this. LWIS trowels used to be indestructible. You could lever out slabs of masonry, scrape clean acres of cobbles and then throw your trowel under the JCB and it would still be good as new. Indispensable too. Short of a fishslice for your Friday night fiy-up? WHS to the rescue. Recently the design changed. The new trowel looked good at first - with its knuckle protection and flash red handle. But the blade is thinner and can't stand up to the punishment of an archaeological site. Ping!

workmanship.' It is an icon, a design Hill, an historic landmark in South Northants. classic. We contacted Neill Tools to see wbat they had to say. Marketing Director Derek Thomas told us: 'I can confirm that the design has indeed been amended, this followed consultations with our construction customers (as this is where the majority of our sales go). Their requests for lighter more flexible bricklaying and pointing trowels were considered and balanced with the needs of our other customers such as yourselves. I am sure you appreciate the difficulties in balancing two or more sets of requirements with just one product, and it would appear £torn your comments and those of your readers that we haven't got it quite right.' So what was he going to do? 'I would be pleased to reintroduce the previous 'indestructible' 4" trowel.' This one will be made of carboniferous limestone rather than polystyrene with four 10-tonne stones at compass points near the top of the hill and a fifth stone at the summit. The planning committee was told that army Cbhook helicopters could be drafted in to airlift the stones into position. Ironically this fake monument may actually destroy some real archaeology on the site. Never fear, though - the council says that Northants Heritage will be notified seven days in advance of any work taking place.

Cf' Letter Bombs

It's got so bad that one major unit has already given up on W I S in favour of its US rival. Duncan Waltham, Logistics Manager at Oxford Archaeology, told The Digger that the new WHS trowels are inferior to the old type. 'The problem seems to be that the metal used in the construction of the new trowel is much harder and therefore more brittle. The blade tends to snap rather than flex. The Marshalltown Trowel is one of the types we have tried and at the moment seems to be the favourite.' Manufacturers Neill Tools have also changed their supply Channel 5 reconstructed Stonehenge out of policy, making their trowels more difficult polystyrene for a programme broadcast at the summer solstice last year. Now the lifefor OAU to obtain. size replica is looking for a new home. William Hunt & Sons (WHS) of Brades Could your site oblige? Steel Works was founded in 1793. The company was acquired by Brades Nash Mike Pitts, editor of British Archaeology Industries in 195 1 and then by Spear & and the Stonehenge expert who took part in Jackson eleven years later. Neill Tools the programme, told The Digger that the inherited the WHS name when it bought replica 'is still in storage with the haulage Spear & Jackson in 1985. In the building contractor who took it £tom the site after trade, the WHS initials are affectionately the broadcasts.' The production company referred to as 'Work Hard or Starve,' or if Darlow Smithson tried to sell it on eBay, you're an archaeologist 'Work Hard and but no one met the reserve price. North Wiltshire District Council wanted to put it Starve.' up in the grounds of a local college, but The 4-inch pointing trowel, or the 'London baulked at the cost of hiring a fleet of 14 handle type standard heel width pattern articulated lorries to transport the thing. number 11 1 part number 11 104L IOOrnrn ( 4 7 one-piece solid roll forged pointing So why not? Have a whip-round. Raid the trowel,' to give it its full designation, has tea kitty. It'll be worth it just to see the been used by archaeologists for decades. reaction. WHS boasts that 'all trowels are Meanwhile, Daventry's District Council manufactured in Sheffield from top quality has approved plans for its own fake carbon steel and each one is guaranteed 'Stonehenge' to be built on top of Cracks against defective materials and

Irchester Roman wall The bit of wall that has caused aU the h s s is not m fact part of the scheduled monument. The boundary of the SAM is the northern boundary of the A45 roa-' So there you are. Result! Get your orders in corridor. Works were done within the SA. quick before they change their mind! to my satisfaction under scheduled monument consent. Foam- and fake-henee Glyn Coppack, Can you picture his face? Your site EH Inspector of Ancient Monuments director turns up to work on Monday to MA no guarantee of job find Stonehenge has appeared on his site. I feel I ought to correct the There were only a few muddy pits and misapprehension that a masters degree postholes before, but now he's dwarfed by means you'll automatically get a job in trilithons, he's slmounded by bluestones archaeoiogy. I've got one and strangely and there's a heelstone on the horizon. Try enough, I've left the profession because I describing that on a context sheet. couldn't get a job. My husband also has a masters. He does have a supervisor job, but it took him two and a half years to get it and I suspect that the promotion actually relied more upon his ten years digging experience than his masters. Oh, and he takes home less than £270 a week after tax. So by accepting promotion, he has becon lower middle class (Cl) rather than skilled' working class (C2). Does this mean that he i now a working class traitor? And what s about all the other people that I know that have masters degrees but poorly paid jobs?

1

Finances
Start balance (this issue) Total contributions Total costs (projected) End balance

1 +£;;. I
+&l60

Thanks to those who have contributed!

The Digger is a non-profit making news1letter existing entirely on donations. AU donz ions welcome, make cheques - payable to 'The ~ & e r ' . Any con&butions of material positively encouraged. T h e Digger is available by post, by email, or on the web with photos and discussion areas courtesy of the British Archaeological Jobs Resource (www.bajr.org). Check it. If you want to receive The Digger but don't, or you don't want to receive The Digger but do, send u s your details and well sort it out.

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c tc thcir work for frce. rather than hiring a acri\dy scck 0111sitcs but can act si~npl! as profcssional archaeologist. \ Y [ V g o o ( / c , c ~ r ? ( / i ( / c ? / ( , , ///W r0//~11 o/~ rccordcrs of infor~nalionas i t is brought to Pcrhaps thc qucstio~lis not '\vliat' thcy \.ill them bj, others. though thc schcnic strcsscs bc doing but 'why' they \ \ i l l doing tllcsc the importancc of the former. So what arc rolcs. Is this thc bcginning of thc slippcn. Wages: @ (But kccn on cnlcrgcncy tax!) \vc sa!.ing herc7 Son~eonc \v110 has slope. 11-hcn finally County Arcliaeologists Sick Pit?: @ Ycah right. sick of thcjob! undergone a tuo hour intcnsi\.c training concedc that cut backs \.ill no1 allo\. thcm course from tlic County Arcllacologist \.ill to c a r - out thcir jobs to the best of lhcir Holida? 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If I his schen~cbeconics stiffest. lrlost pern~eablc srchacological equipment poor or sinipl!. save itself money b getting the conmercial natiomide, it will cffecti\,cl!. nark thc present. A tour-de-force i n for most small-scale 1###BOT_TEXT###1 archacologists to provide further advice and dcath-knell ~ganisational Icthargy! training for the n.ardcns. Thc result: Ten archaeological work. cutting work for local Training: @ Cara\.anasin the depths of Easy Steps to Becoming a Ficld units as \ell as for so many consultants tn-ing to make a li\:ing. Who is regulating ivinter? Arctic sun.i\.al training only 1.m Archaeologist (no espcriencc necessan-). The main initiati\.es of \,hat nardcns should and monitoring thc standards of tlic training ifraid! We wcrc taught ho\. to mattock and do, as laid out by thc pron~otionalmaterial. Lhat thc \vardcns reccive and the standards nothing clsc. are: record local collections. memories and 3f their archaeological recording? If the Contract: @ Letter of appointnienl onl-. parish lore; encourage people to scarch thcir County Archaeologist has not got timc to Respect: 3 Yes. but onl! because the!. gardens for finds: undertake ficld-\valking w r y out a fc\v sitc \.isits whcrc will the realised it \.as the diggcrs \.l10 kcpt thc suneys: and undertake 'watching briefs' on lime comc from for the training and ;how on the road. Good skills scrvice trenches and othcr ground necessarily the continued monitoring of the Good Archaeology: msted on barren landscnpcs. interventions. "Wardcns are idcally placed 9fcctiveness of this kind of scheme? This to watch sniall building sitcs. \vith due may be an estrcme reaction to u.hat nright K e y k an innocuous turn of evcnts but the 3 authorisation" (Leic, Information Sheet) Grea t/!;es , of I t sccms relati\,cl. harmless. allouing kcen i~riplications thesc parish networks do not 3 Passiblelycs amateur arciiatologists ro 'check the S i W appear 10 have been -considcreci bcyond thc 8 ~ad/no for the council. espcciallj. in light of the dirc realms of rose-tinted bcspcctaclcd amatcur 4 Two tier - depending on cspcricncc financial constraints so many of tlic council irchaeology groups. and County P Free for 'a\n~!" sitcs onlj,. a r c h a e o l o ~senices arc operating undcr. Archaeologists \v110 havc cnough on thcir ii No. of months \.ail. However, the most alarming factor is thc date \orking out hou. to con~inccCount!, E Costs a bit! removal of archaeologists from parts of the Councils that their bvork fulfills the D Sclf-cmploycd only actual archaeological work. to whit thc 3bjccti\,csof 'Best Value'. qucstion r~ccds bc sskcd: do \:c \.ant to watching brief. What thc schcme is Tl~c effectively saying. and thc lncssagc \vhich is irchacolog?; to bc a profcssional disciplinc. ng givcn to dc\clopcrs. is that n \varching i\ ith profcssional st;lndnrds and practiccs. or Finances: Credit L l .YOO Start balance (rwised) E25.00 Total contributions Printing costs (pro,jccted) Postage costs (projected) End balance 'The Digger' is a non-profit making nc\vslctter csisting on donations. All donations \dconic. pa!.able to 'Thc Digger'. Any contributions of funny stories. cartoons. art. cross\vords etc. (black and U hite onlj-. plcase) \velcome.

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Christmas Double Issue (No 8) December 1999 PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX14 3GS
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No Future: Professional Training - A Digger's Reply
Tnis article was written as a response to A Future for Archaeologists (Bishop, Collis & Ifitton, The Archaeologist 35), rcgardihg training issues i archaeology: n "In the last issue of The Archaeoiogisk, the IFA presented what i t regards as its vision for the future, an agenda which will provide a career struclure and training "that serves Lhe needs of -the__profession, its clients, the discipline of archaeology - and the public we serve" (Bishop, Collis a n d k-ion, 1999). 'The IFA has realised through the results of a number of surveys thal there is not currently enough provision for training within the sphere of archaeological work. It identifies the principal problems which contribute to this a s being the lack of a formalised career structure (i.e. employees working nationwide at one scale, yet under a range o f different titles in different conditions undertaking different roles for different wages!); no formal practical training ; inadequate documentation of skills; no value placed on trailling (presumably by employers); and no resources available to reverse these '~lems. TK institute proposes to address these probiems in the fol!olvir:g ways. By highlighting skills a n d 'abilities which it believes workers should be able to undertake a s part of their scale within the profession, it hopes to promote the demand for, and provision of, post-graduate vocational courses through universities, organisations a n d the IFA itself. These courses may be modular, and may be financed by government grants from training bodies, though this is at present only a possibility. The courses will include a s a lundamental part ol their structure the provision ol placements and/or secondments, though they insist that these "are used
iirly by employers, and do not lisadvantage existing employees". 4 further way in which it hopcs to ;timuldte the desire amongsl the ~ o r k e r s for lraining is the mplementation of Continuous 3rofessional Development (CPD), "a nechanism for planning and recording 11.1 archaeologist's training". This will u~volve the archaeologist in question ?reparing Personal Action Plans, -t.c.o:-din;; "what -they wish to. learn, ~ h y , and their programme for ~mplementingthe plan", through the use of log-books which record their day-to-day advancement within their :hose11 field. The result of these proposals is that an individual will have a clearly defined level of skills which can be used to further their career. The results of the training andlor CPD will also figure heavily in thc individuals ability to join the IFA. Prospective members will De expected 10 demonstrate adequate training at whatever level they choose to enler the organisation; current menlbers will be tested at random a n d expccted to prove that they are still eligible to be at the scale they are practicing at. Individuals Inay also be able to join the IFA through a n accumulation of points gained through training alone, and experience may become less of a factor for membership. The fact that the IFA is indeed addressing the problem of training within archaeology is encouraging in itself. The issues of inadequate vocational opportunities for members of staff are well documented. A n y training at present depends on the goodwill of a n employer to provide i t andlor finance it, and [.he slight chance of being employed by just such a benefactor. As is normally the case, this does not happen. The current upsurge in interest regarding training by employers for their staff may be a rcfleclion of the current state of lhc profession as regards experience at the levels of practilioner. Certainly from personal experience, Lhe ratio of experienced to inexperienced staff on excavation sites has shifted dramatically over Lhe lasl few years. One possible reason for this is thal the profession is now experiencing the knock-on effects of the abolition of grants and the implementation of the student-, loan scheme. When this digger '[ell university, this issi~e. a s w certainly a mitigaling factor for why a number of my compatriots turned [heir backs on the low-paid and insecure world of field archacology, and got proper jobs. The issue remained a problem even for thosc who chose to dig, and gradually more and more of my pecrs have fallen by the wayside, felled by the apathy of a profession which did not recognise lhe worth of their skills, nor financially rewarded their efforts. Even those old hands who first helped me on my faltering steps into the professional stalus which I now hold, through the personal dedication and love of the job which lead 10 them passing on skills which Lhey had learnt, have now disappeared from view. As a digger expressed in a letter to The Digger (Issue 2): "If you're passed 30, you're basicaily dead. Yoi; C A ; ; ' : sttk!e, you can't hold a job down, you're a waster". This is the reality ol field archaeology today. This is not to suggcst that i t is the h u l l of those now entering the profession that they are inexperienced. To say this would be a ridiculous statement to make; I was 110 more experienced when 1 entered [he job market than they are today. Yct the IFA now considers that archaeological degrees are not worth enough to produce pr(dessiona1 field archaeologists, despite the fact that for !Foh%k;d o n 3 page 2 )

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www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uWNews~ 311, and whcrc exactly will they take place? Arc they 10 naliotlwide, o r Views.html 'I'his site is hosted by the exccllcnt will cvcryonc have to g o to (e.g.) Ihctrack Archacologv, a Scottish Ih-mingham for a vcar, undergoing illustratio~i/CAl> consultancy, w h o relocalion costs a n d otlicr geographical have d o n e i t fcr nowt. I3ig thanks! Any problems. other decent sites that need a plug, Ict Of course, no1 cvcryonc will bc able L o u s know. We're not proud. k k c these cou rscs, because of the (c*o~ztiliueJ from piigtn I ) a s long a s I iievcr-ending financial worries, a n d can remember, i t w a s esseritially the the time factors which will bc only qualificalion you needed t o start involved. So thc option will be to not nut o n the rocky road of a digger. My oothcr, or t o g o i l l to archaeology experience of degrees were that thcy 3nyway a n d sec what happens. I provided the basic necessary skills: bciievc thal this will create a Lwo-tier how 10 take levels, h o w to dig, what m t r y systcm t o a rchacology: thosc o w e were looking for, dnd s o o n . No, 1 ~ h have studied a n d those w h o have couldn't g o o u t a ~ i d straight away l o t . l ' h e net rcsult of this will bc ac become thc world's best urban ~ m p l o y c r s o ~ ~ c g a i ~ i being able t o excavator; this w a s only possible ~ . m p l o v non-qualified diggers at through the e x p r i c r i c e which 1 theii r ~ h a t c v e r wage o r c ~ l i d i t i o n th(:y gained through working in field :hoosc, whilsl mainlaining the belicf archaeology (and still a long way off :hat thcy arc encouraging training bv fro111 being the world's best...). l ' h e :aking o l i trained diggers side-by-sidc. facl that new entrants arc I ~ O W I'his already happens. A number of expecled to d o s o much more is a ~ l n i t s have a two-ticr levcl o f reflection ~ i o o n their lack of skills a n d r.rnployniaiL accordi~ig t o experience, t those with less cxpcriencc being abilities, but the absence of ~ i t h experienced staff to teach a n d coax the m p l o y e d a t a far lower scale than thc :econimended II'A standard. H o w rlicc best from them. What I find most disconcerting about .hat the issue of traini~ig cat1 n o w the idea of the post-graduate 'ortnalisc this divide! vocational courses is that it appears :'he possible option mootcd by the thal t.hev will be a n enforcing factor a s II7A a s a n alter~iativclpartrier to the training courses is t o w h y people become employed in mcational I'rofessional archaeology. 'l'he article argues thal .mntinuous undergraduate yualificalions d o not I'>cvc4opmc.nL, a n d this would certainly opcn 10 thosc riot pursuing address the areas required to produce good field staff. S o w h y not mdke ~ocational courses. I-lowcvcr, w h a t them d o just that? Instead, those w h o )ption is it rcally? The article states choose to gel into field archdeologv :hat maintaining Lliese logs will bc a will now find that they will have to "personal responsibility", which tends undertake these . further courses to io suggest thal - :nininial ernplover .. prov@.thtycan dig, before they can get effort will be required to maintain this a job. T h e issue of t h e placements atid form o f training. I t is rcfrcshing thal secondments provided by these thc 1I:A thinks thal most diggers call f courses o p e n s a whole dilferent can o have a "programme" for changing worms: I havc lost count of the their careers, and that in some way w e number of times I have heard people are in control of what o u r destiny Cdn complaining about having been hold. The career path of a digger is not shafted for a year, being paid C50 a chosen, but is o n c of necessity. I an1 week to work a s cheap labour, because generally appreciative if I know that I they undertook a placemen1 year. have a job bcyond three weeks, that I MosL of these never bothered lo gel can pay my rent a n d put food o n the into field archaeology o n completion o table. At the e n d of a hard days slog, f their degree, s o skills are lost a n d time the last thing l want to d o is update is wasted. l'he courses will inevitably my I'ersonal Action Plan, a n d think only be partially funded, if lunded a1 about where 1 want my career to go, a n d to suggest that I can d o this w h e n

dealing with these day to day ilisecurilies is perhaps asking a bit much. A corrcspondcnt w h o wrote in dftcr hearing these ideas outlined at the Il:A confcrcricc in April also made the following valid pninl: how cxacllv dre W C 10 get the books t o improve :)c~rsclvcs wilh, w h e n we're in the middle of nowhere with n o transport and no library? O r with n o money to buv books? W h o will provide the resources for o u r personal [.here is no real a n s w e r to that. l a m also moderately amazed that this forni of monitoring is now being ~iiootcd~ t s cor~dition m c n ~ ~ r s h i p a for 1 - ~ h c A . 'l'hc organisation is :onstd~itly at pains to try a n d Jncourage cmployccs <:L pra~tiiioticr eve1 t o join, yet surely the knock-on result o f lhc random rnoniloring v ".l W that n o one a ~ t u a l l y b o t h e ~ ; 3ccausc ol the reasons just mentioned. Nliat information d o c s a rAIZ log provide that a Curriculum Vitae docs lot? iurthertnore, can you honestly .ell me how V ~ L Iwill monitor the I'APs .)f Members I o r d e r that they ,nainlain their grade? According to f o u r annrral report for 199819, you :ould only monitor o n e in six units ~ h arc considered RAOs, a n d n o o -cports or corisultalin~l came nut of .his process. I'hc issue o f training is o n e which is nassively important to us dll, but to +uggcst thal "orie day, archaeologists n a y view lhc Annual Conference a s a .urning point for archaeologir-l\ .raining a n d crnployment" is o v v i ' :'ggitig thc. p u d d i n g to say. Lhe. least. .. . UVhal comes across from this whole cxcrcisc is that the IFA by their o w n admission havc borrowed d load of idcas piecemeal from o n e organisation, a n d havc grafted them o n t o the tottering cd ifice thdt is Professional Archaeologv. T h e organisation in queslion is o u r "sister body", the I<oyal Town Planning Institute. 01-w has to ask - how many of them are 011 temporary contracts a n d low wages? In closing, the article stdtes that "the development of a structured approach to learning, related to IFA standards a n d with the potential to link to pay a n d conditions, will lead to a carecr structure" (ibid., mv emphasis). This
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6adIno T w o tier - d e p e n d i n g on experience Free f o r 'away' silcs only. No. of m o n t h s wail. C o s t s a bit! Self-employed only

I w a s intercstcd to note the comments of y o u r correspondent in the article on councils employing amateurs for minor archaeological work ( h u e 7). I think this is symptomatic of a n attitude to archacologv which frequently secs the a c 1 fieldwork sidelined in favour of V the political a n d financial issues of thc council o r a n y o t h e r orga~iisalioliw h o has to deal with i t . Most illustrative w a s the recent edition l of 7 3 - 7 ~ 'l;l-am l.ivc; a programme filmed entirely on location in the historic city of York. If you missed it, it w a s f i l ~ n e d over three days, a n d consisted of three major are'is o f excavation. 'T'hc tea111 wanted three different phases to be exposed, a n d so the sites were dcemed a s I(oman, Viking a n d Medieval. What followed amazed m e . As a n y viewer will know, the programme relies heavily on maintaining a level of excitement for each site, so if nothing is encountered

In the first half a d a y a new trench is d o n e quickly regardless of rapidly o p e n e d , a n d then more, until consequence to t h e ~ncltcrial evidence. 11all beco~iicsover-strctchcd a n d they Its not just lhost. w h o have thcir five have to actuallv look at w h a t they've m i n u t e s of fame. I have friend\ w h o qot. 'l'his w a s very obvious a t York; 1 have worked o n l'ilnco /cwm wtio have lost count oi the ~ictmberof trclichcs tcstificd that the t a n t r u m s tlirown bv which kcpt popping u p all o v e r the the regular digging stafl a r e incredible, whingint; about the place, with l o n y I<obllison flitting u p freqcwntly to them briefly only for them never to s t a n d a r d s of thcir (frankly luxurv) free r be seen again. All archacolog~calwork accommodation while t t ~ c ~peers 111 thcsc d a y s h a s to follow a prcscl t h e real world strugglc without, o r pattern of cvents within the m o a n i n g bccausc their frcc (a-la-carte) parameters of development control - food is maybe a bit ovcr-cooked. 'l'alk project brief stipulating thc maximum about 'lost in showbi/,'. .. drca to be uncovered, projcc<design I have t o w o n d e r w h a t the agenda (,i stating how this is to be drme. It dll those w h o get involved is. A frcc stems to go out the window w h c n a evaluation of a n area which I ~iglibh camera is ncarbv, a n d in York of all I-lcritdgc h a s d w m c d ~ i n t o u c h a b l e ,s o 13STdcFs, w1icr~- dcvclopmci;! is :X?- 2s t o -have a bit of ~ n u s c l cto gel mc)re . tightly controlled that y o u can't build archaeology uncovered a n d niorc brclss a sand-castle without a n archacn\ogical in p o c k e k ? I'rcservation in situ m e a n s assessment. scrapping ovcr w h a t 1 1 e ~ ' d sto 'I'hc search for spcciiic periods in each exposed; h o w useful to get the area was stupefying. York has s o m e of tclevision crvcvs in t o provide frcc the most complex urban archaeology a d v c r t s for the bencfits of extensive in the country, a n d vet with the aid of rcscarch excavations in o n e 01- two the Time Team this w a s disregarded arcas. So t h e '/?me r".,dtn country-widc wholeheartedly. O n n o cxcavalio~i tour of pilldging conLinucs.IkL it won't have I ever encountercd multiple hc long bcforc w e s e e I'hil tlarding medieval floor layers being machind bunging a few t r c ~ i c h c s across away without recording in o r d c r to gct Stonehcngc, w i t h only thrc-c d a v s to to the Viking lavers ("it's O K , we'll work o u t (brcclthy s h o w b i z voice) "just sec. them in section", said CarellLa). w h a t w e n t o n in those distant tirws". An unpardonable act, vet this looked It's fashionable to knock the ' l l n c . a s i f i t had full sanction of the cily r'~w171. think it is also very juslifidble. I archaeologist, J o h n Oxlcy, w h o h a d &';!?g dt.vil'.s dJvocdlt; 1 will h v c . !o obviouslv d u g o u t his best suit a n d snv Ihdl 110 p r q y r d m t m ~navbc. s h a d e s for the telly. Mor[i/ric'r W h c - ~ / ~ r 'rd cjio .sheW ] hij G .s He w a s just o n e of a n u m b e r of donc cts much to promolc. arch~eologv 'eminents' w h o flitted x r o s s o u r d11d [o bring i! ~cro.ss .such A /<jrgc. lo scrtvn, giving u s !heir wonderful insights into this or tiidt asp(:cL, while keeping their best profile. This is s o m e t h i ~ i g which I have ~ioted frequently, mainly with /'/7c Time> 7kn1 but a s m u c h with M c - c ~ f This Al~cc~.slor.sr a n y othcr archaeological o programme you care to mention. Cet an drchacologist in front of the tclly carncras a n d Iiclshe goes all Indiana Joncs o n us, a n d a n v sclnbldnce of professional s t a n d a r d s g o o u t Lhc w i n d o w in favour of ego-massagc a n d goody hunting. 'I'hc television crcw run the excavation and the drchacologist become5 thcir p11ppet, net ( i f wc'rc not o n there already) at: anxious to please by getting things

misses a rather large point. Pay a n d conditions are fundamental to the state we find ourselves in today; shouldn't Inore effort be made to address these problems as well, or is the IFA without teeth when it comes to laying down the law with units? Even the survey Profiling the Prolession, by its au thof S own admission, missed archaeologists at the bottom e n d of the pay scale (Thc Archaeologisl, 34). The future for archaeologists remains the same: no future to speak of."

GB Letters Bombs CI'
Issue 7 was the best one yet. I particularly enjoyed the article on the 'archaeological network scheme' - a fine example of the popular 'anyone can d o it' view of our profession. While I can understand amateurs wanting to 'have a go', that county councils are using them to replace professionals in order to save money is beyond belief. Surely THIS must be a n issue for the IFA? Another amazing scandal unearthed was the appalling conditions at Tees Archaeology. Putting diggers in a DSS hostel? How can THEY sleep at night, never mind their poor staff? What about asking them for an explanation? We have sent thcm copies of the newslettec and as yet have not heard anything. The argument usua/[v follows the 'it's the best we could do, for such a short time with so little funds, and allywa-y, we could NOT provide accommodation! You should be grateful!' line. Yes, mattresses on t7oors in-flophou&. . .if you're lucky. Most grateful, ta, & E As a n older digger (over 4U), I a m 4 now reaching a stage of having done my fair share of mattocking and shovelIing, year round, in all weathers [including -20° in Dresden, Germany the director came u p with the novel idea that w e could work outdoors in these temperalures...by creating a small flame-thrower to blast the ground surface (after excess snow had been shovelled off, of course), thus

facilitating planning. Unfortunately, it worked rather well for sections too. That was the hardest winter I have ever endured]. At this stage in life I decided to wise up a little. Four years ago the Fates led me to doing (finally) an archaeology degree (no previous qualifications - left school early). Having just about recovered from that, 1 a m in the process of going for a driving licence (never wanted t o before). Actually, my 100% mark for the theory test meant more to mc than the degree - as sad a s that is to admit. At my age I & to move up a rung or two. Nowadays, the driving licence is essential, a n d so too seems the membership of the IFA. Look how many jobs prefer it. This is the only reason I would apply. To me it seems to be a game o n e must play - there's n o pretending it's not there. The finer points of membership will have to come later. Too true. German ingenui{y - let's hope no other directors cotton on to this flame-thrower idea' or it could well be a very grim winter indeed!

a lot of my colleagues will be with me on this one. It's a sign of the corruption of the moral fibre and the dysfunctioning of society in general that people don't seem to know their place. For example, I was down on a site of mine the other day, when some young girl, couldn't have been more than thirty, had the impudence to address me on a matter of archaeology, as if I with thirty years of experience needed to be told anything and actually appreciated my very deep and contemplative thoughts being disrupted. Then I heard someone behind my back make some crude comment about the siye of m y M!y. ! didn't see who it was; otherwise 1 would of course have sacked them 7n the spot. I would have just sacked ,~e lot of them if w e didn't need them to that's the dig the bloody site, b ~ ~ t problem these days, a necessary evil I SUppOSC. Anyway, that's all for now. Can't waste my time with this rubbish, have very important things to d o...

A Unit Director writes...

t22 I have seen a number of your
issues and have some comments to make. I have been in archaeology nearly thirty years and have seen a good few changes in my time I can tell you. I am the Director of a unit myself (Archaeological Research Surveying & Excavation), and have been since the late seventies. So I know what you and your contributors are on about. There seems to me to be rather a lot of rxmiyiainf, a b o i ~ tthe sta~idardcif $ay and conditions amongst you digger chaps, but I really don't understand. You people don't seem to know when you're well off; I saw one lad with his own car the other day, and my diggers never seem short of cigarettes, always puffing away, and you know how expensive they are, need I say more? 1 think the underlying proble~ntoday in archaeology is not pay, which seems to me to be quite enough to live on, let alone cars a n d cigarettes all the time; it's a lack of respect, a n d I know

Final Comment
/ w e that this finds you somewhere

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warm and away from the pen70us frosts' nursing a cuppa! This has bee17 a rather larger /hall normal issue; normal service resumes in the new veac in its new format. We would all like to thank those who have made contributior~.rto our scurn70us rag throughout the last year, and Fe that you will continue to do so. //%as -far e~c~>edecr' sliccess W-ehoped it the would have, hendirg the ears of [hose that matter, and with your help will carry on growing. Thank you, thank vou, wherever you are...

Finances
Start balance (this issue) Total contributions Total costs (projected) End balance
+L20

<TheLHgger'is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE.

Issue No 9 January 2000 PO Box 39 1

Abingdon Oxon OX14 3GS www.archaeo.freesenre.co.ulc/New-S-Views.htm1
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Self Em~lovment. Self Em~owerment..
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(The fdlowing drliclt. was written h y I /he director o l a slnall archac~o/c@a. practice , a rt-spo~~sc. an arlick 01; m to the lack of meril ih h-.in,n sdl: ~ l m p l q publi,shcJ in The nigger 6): v~~ 'Your correspondetit (Issc:e 6 ) i~ correct in his assessment of the relative benefits of self-employment of site staff, in that A T 'THE MOMENT they certainly fall o n the employer, though h e a p p e a r s not to havc recognised that [ h e self-employed should also charge for employers NI tributions, sickness insurance, pensions etc., and that selfemployment offers far more scope for negotiating higher rales. Let's look a h e a d a t w h a t MIGHT BE, rather than moaning a b o u t the presenl. Currently, Archaeology UK Ltd is struggling to a d o p l lhe vestments of professionalism, principally by emulating the construction i n d u s t p w e all feel jolly imporlant in o u r yellow coats don't w e - b u t is hobbled in doing s o by adherence to employment structures developed prePPG16. Yet t h e nature a n d a m o u n t of employment in UK archaeology 1999 is wholly different to w h a t i l w a s e v e n only 10 years ago. There is a h u g e a , 7unl of 'archaeology' being d o n e , mnst of il in tlie form of assessme~its/c.valua tions!waLching briefs of short duration, whilst [here is a national shortage of skilled sitc staff ( w h y you haven't all exploited this simple economic fact, I don't know). However the bulk of the work is still being undertdken by the old Units ;IC:;. naincs a n d (despite !heir corporate logos) w h o pull their hair o u t trying to juggle the conflicling d e m a n d s of [his erratic work profile with the maintenance of large pools of slanding staff. T h e administrative costs of d o i n g s o a n d the necessitv of planning b u d g e t s a n d rates in advance contribute to the generally low pay

rates for site workers, a n d indeed for everyone elsc. Dul look closely a t t h e II'A vcarbook o r C'r~rrc~~~l~ ' h d ~ d o ~'l)irk:ctory Ar ;v Archacvlogy', Lhcrc arc sliiall I'rofcs>,ior~~~l I'racticcs I.;yrir.~giligu p ' ~ i l over the U K exploiting the increasing d e m a n d for archaeological services that the larger units canno1 - o r can't be bothered lo - cope with. T h e s e smaller practices all learn quickly that wage ratcs for smaller projects are larsely irrelevant; for a n evaluation lasting - 5 days, t h e difference between paying a skilled site worker L5 per h o u r a n d Lli) per hour h a s little real impact o n the final price a s far a s the client is concerned they expect to pay a few t h o u s a n d p o u n d s for [heir archilectural a n d planning services, s o a similar bill [or drchaeological cvaluation doesn't raise even a n eyebrow, never mind a query. Furthermore, in o r d e r to get good people a t short notice for short jobs, w e - the Professionals - have to pay well. Good people are exlremely important; the F1 consequences of d n incorreclly interpreted cvalualinn o r watching brief a r e potentially very -xpensive, so thal only t h e most sxpericnced diggcrs should be used o n Lhcse projects. Now, a s a n occasional -~nployer,faced with a choice &lween two good diggers, 1 will c ~ s clhc o n e who already h a s SE status to avoid the hassle of working o u t the tax a n d NI For 5 d a y s in the middle of Lhe tax vear. i foresee, within the next 5-10 ycars, h i the slrcicture c l w h a t w e laughably call 'the profession' will zhange dralnatically. Evcrv market .own will have ils archaeological practice, run by o n e o r [ W O s e a s o ~ i e d m hacologists each with li)-20 years 3xperience a n d a modes1 publication word. They will d o desk-top m e s s ~ n e n t s a n d consultancy work, 3ossibly acting a s Archaeological

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Frojecl Managers to local construction projects; thcv will sub-conlracl small tcams of ecluallv cxpcricnccd diggcrs 10 d o the silc w o r k Tor cvalualions, walching briefs a11d small excavations, .inccryoratil~g lhc.ir r c i : ~ r d ink) Llic ~ resullant reports. 'l'he Learns of diggcrs will negotiate prices o r rates for each job separately, d e p e n d i n g o n work load, Lvpe of site, distance from base, their reputation a n d efficiency etc. The inexpericnccd dnd timid will start Lhcir carccrs with the large unils, gaining experience on set-'iece excavations before being allowed to d o evaluations a n d watching briefs, Lhcn moving to private praclicc a s rR0T:I-SSIONA1.S o r self-employed CONTRACTC>RS, only after they h a d accrued e n o u g h expericncc a n d a reputation for reliabilitv. At that poinl w e will have succeeded in emulaling the conslruction industrv, but not Self-employed s t a t u s s h o u l d nol a l a n n site a n d (.>[her short-term workers, it heralds the start of the next major change in the wav UK archaeology is organised. C h a n g e is good, embrace i t a n d move on.'

Fantasy Unit League 1999 Awards
After a n incredible first year of lhe league, il's n o w crunch time for [hose units that were enlered by tlie hapless individuals w h o have had to work for them. I f you missed o u t o n gelling your rcsults in, don'l worry. Th? league will continue this year,.as [here arc plcnly more sorry looki~ig cc..ndidates ~ n o c k i n g a r o u n d w h o haven1[ been included. GET

SCRIBHl..INC!
Wc had to havc a bit of a rethink o n the prizes, a s a sliorl discussion with o u r k i ~ i d l ypostal depot revealed Lhal t h e s e n d i n g of offensive malerial through [ h e post (viz rotten eggs) is actually illegal a n d a prosecutable :)[fence; m u c h a s w e would LOVr.! to

Finances
Total contributions Total costs (projected) End balance

'The Digger' is a non-profit making newsletter exislug entirely on donations. A l l donations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Diaer'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Digger'on the web, admirably maintained by Backtrack Archaeology, with extra art and discussion areas. Check it.

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W e would like to apologise for the middle two pages of the ldst issue being bdck-to-front, hence all the stickers. This w a s d u e to an error Wages, Contracb Sick Pay, Holiday during the photocopying; the s h o p IJay, A ccommodation, a n d Respecf concerned has been bombed. For those seemed like the most important w h o didn't actually notice, ignore this aspects, so each O gets 4 points, bit. It never happened, honest... each 0 2 points a n d 0 nulpoints, & Letters Bombs of course. 1 point deducted for twotier wage systems (m); 1 point Dirt versus Gown... I've never understood how deducted for expensive 'academic' archaeologists can profess accommodation (E), 1 point added for free away dccornmodation (c?); to mdke their cdreers o n sites, that but none deducted for waits on sick they cannot offer a n opinion on how and holiday pay (9) a s all units they were excavdted or recorded. That w h o did this got panned in this 3ne facet alone should have becn mough to have had 'dirt' category anyway! archaeologists trained and organised Free Equipmen4 Training and Good Archaeology get maximum to minimum standdrds. Sorry, I marks of 2 points for each O, 1 graduated in History - s o I'm not a point for each 0, a n d again, nowt 'true' archaeologist. The transition to academically fer yer 0. 'qualified' only field staff has led to a The grand total, therefore, should a d d quite shocking drop in field project u p to 30 points (plus a n y additional standards. Examples include - 'we points as previously detailed). Maths Aodt clean sections any more', 'why was never my strong point, but here A w e have to clean the site first?', o a re the results (fanfareddrum- 7aving to prompt supervisors to draw mlldthunder and lightning etc.): jections - and then they had to be guided, no questions (the what, why, where, when, how?) of the actuai Aeposits. That w a s on my l d s t 'circuit' jite, which I only got onto a s a U NAA 19 1 'ostgraduate archaeological student. I was the only person to have redd a n d issimilated the site brief - during the ea breaks. The other non-graduate was the oidy person qualified to drive he 1.5 tonne dumper! Interestingly,

d o it, I'm not doing time for dodgy oeufs. So as a coinpromise w e arc going to knock u p some immensely tasteful certificates for the winning and losing units to proudly display in their entrance-halls/offices/torture chambers. They'll most likely get binned, but keep your eyes peeled and let u s b l o w if [hey appear. The awarding of points has proved a bit of a headache, a s when w e set this daft caper u p w e didn't think i t through (as per usual). However, after musing for ten long minutes whilst o n the loo, I think the following should just about work:

So the clear winner is Bedford, dn oasis of niceness in dn otherwise bdrren desert of organisationdl complacency. As for Tees, well what cdn I say? Certificates winging their way to them both. If you disagree with the results, then re-enter dny unit already mentioned for the next bash, and we'il see if the the picture changes for 2000. We dwait with baited breath ...

out of the twelve others on site, 1 was the only digger producing any finds...

Watching the Wardens... '? I t seems like the Leicester scheme (sct. The Dimer, Lssue 7) is an
excellent idea in theory, a formal way of getting local dlnateurs involved, except- for the bit when they start doing the professionals' jobs for them, instead of merely being helpers to the professioi~als.Them gathering info o n sites, visiting them to check u p on them and suggesting new ones all seem OK, but watching briefs no way! I've been digging for 2 years, have worked o n a number of sites, and 1 still wouldn't feel 1-00 confident .ng a watching brief on my own without more experienced back-up to hand. And i t doesn't sound like the back-up will be there for the Wardens. Also, how well will they be able to stdnd their ground if they don't have the -xperience, when a developer is not being a s co-operative as they might in facilitating the watching brief. And that would have knock on effects of :he type of "well, they only sent an 3mateur s o there can't be anything ~orthwhile here". Dodgy way to start. 3 I hope w e won't be seeing any n o r e of the 'Archaeological Warden' schemes u p here [Scotland]. O u r Zouncil Archaeologist thought it was a good idea to let the local he "3ge group carry out their own wat~n'ing xief on their new centre. Both the p u p and the Council Archaeologist 'ailed to appreciate the significance of :he 0.75m of 'top soil - in an area where it is normally 75mm! Even worse, they seem to have removed arge parts of a n early medieval iron melting a n d working- site ...( think Zoppergate) which I ended u p digging IS a o n e day watching brief mvself!

An Apology (sorry)

Apathy in the UK
1 was delighted to read Chri: ; Can~bian's aptly titled piece ( L h z ' A.Iua7, Orgmjst,, in Issue 7) but wa: concerned by the cornmmts whiclfollowed i t . As a n IPMS rcprescntativc ill srnall unit, rccruitmcr~i has becl. one of I I I ~ major headaches dnd I anstill not entirely sure why. I'br thosc. w h o d o no1 have idc:ological reason> against joining a 'Trade Union - why Lhc reluctance? S o many times l havt heard colleagues cry 'If only thcre wa> a r organisation that reprcscr?ted us'. 1r ' ,e : is, but you have to join it tc make a diffcrencc a n d the more whc join, thc bigger the difference will be. Some of the main reasons why arcl~~icologists reluctant L join arc: are o 1. I .ack of U r g c a a - many pcoplc only gcl round to joining a Union when Lhcy lccl threatened by redundancy, changes to working conditions, disciplinary action, etc. Joining before you reach crisis point means you can influence cvcnls to the point w h e w Lhc crisis is averled, noi just for yourself but I your colleagues a s well. 2. Indifference - After years o f watching the IFA never quite getting k o doing anylhing, round an-haeologists often sewn to fcel pc- aless to influence their o w n working lives. They don't believe joining a Trade Union will rnakc a difference. Believe me, i t does - not just to the big things like k i n g able to negotiate better pay a n d condilions, but also a s a source of information, advice a n d support. 3. Lovalty - Joining a Trade Union isn't a n indication of disloyalty to your employers a n d it shouldn't be seen a s such. Many enlightened employers these days welcome, o r even positively encourage, Trade Union membership amongst their employees. Membership gives you the ability to influence dnd enhance your working lifc a n d the

I desire to d o so is not o n e that I would
regard a s particularly subversive. 4. I.ack of. continuity ol employment - Although individual membership of IPMS has many haicfits, official recognition by your cmployer cnables you to start influencing your working conditions and for this, you need your colleagues to join up as well. Thc situation is complicated when, as in archaeology, people arc moving between contracts a n d organisations all the time. However, if you have individual membership a n d you work for a n organisation which has officially recognised II'MS, you are included, no maticr how short your contract. So, the more n i e m k ~ r s ,the mare likely it is you arc going to end u p represented by arl officially recognised Union W herever you work. 5. 1.ack of Money - not much I can say about Lhis one! For some people, the subscription will be just o n e demand too many o n a n already overstretched budget. FIawever, if you can afford it - join. If your circurnslances change (i.e. you're laid off) you can change your subscripkion right away and unemployed membership is free for the first year. 6. Apathy - this seems to be the most common obstacle to joining up, and the most difficult to deal with. All I can say is - if you're not preparded to even try to change things then you deserve the ~ o n d i t i o n syou get. The whole point is that nobody has to d o it by themselves. At the e n d of the d a y it doesn't matter why you join - whether its the credit zard a n d cheaper insurance deals, the need to protect yourself from unscrupulous employers, fear of -edundancy, belief in Trade Unionism l r simply a concern for the profession you have chosen a n d the way it is w a d e d . As a member, you can get a s nvolved a s you like or sit back a n d let

someone else d o all the work. Whatever your reasons a n d whatever you want to get o u t of it, a s a member you will be part of a n organisation thai looks after you, supports a n d advises you a n d represents you, a t local level in your day-to-day working life a n d at national level, influencing government policy that affects you. Mow many more reasons d o vou need?

IFA Pro-active Shocker!
In what can only be described a s a moment of extreme motivation by the Institute, moves are afoot to set u p a Special Interest Group for diggers. Matthew Reynolds, a digger currently serving on the IFA Council, is COordinating the exercise. H e needs the names of a minimum 15 members (including Affiliates) w h o wish to become members of the group, a n d 5 members (excluding Affiliates) w h o wish to act a s thc organising cornmittce. 'This will be a n excellent opportunity to get issucs across to the IFA, s o GET AC'TIVE! Contact Matthew at the IFA for more details. The annual conference is also likely to be interesting, a s Wednesday's session consists of full day discussing short contracts, poor terms a n d conditions and poor pay for diggers. RAOs are being encouraged to pay for their diggers to go, s o badger your boss now! If anyone fancies reporting o n the conference for us, w e may be able to swing a small donation to the fees :oo. You don't need to be a member to p, SO NO EXCUSES! Brighton 4-6 April; details from the IFA.

T d e s From The Other Side
N e have heard of Lhe plight of the jigger, now hear tales froni the other side, o r should I say the other half. -or reasons of kindness the digger in juestion shall remain nameless, but his story is true. When I met him a .ew years ago I had my work cut out o repair the damage of 15 years in

staff have left the profession in droves various stales of decay themselves. Archaeology. Whcrc do I start? Is it so bad to want good Food, a nice and we have failed in our attempt to Physical: Bad back a n d knackered knees, so who i b Lhe lucky one who house, a crap cat and security for the replace hard knowledge with cheap to look after him whcn hc is future? Not to mention the lurv of a labour. In our haste to slit each others brnken? Add to that a dodgy stomach good wuman ...... after all a partner is throats to win contracts, we have seriously undervalued ourselves to that had expanded to fill half my flat for life, not just between digs. our multi-million pound turnover (all that lovely I.orry driver type food), Letters Bombs &,' zlients and carried out excavations that let's IIOL forgct ~ h smoker's cough, the c Another Unit Director Writes... are often farcical. h e r belly (hidden the fat) and For sometime now I have been Somebody somewhere has to buck the grinding tecth..JusL where do I reading your publication. I enjoy the trend, and I believe we at Winnits start.... Fie must have had hidden debate it has started - it has certainly Archaeology can lead the way. For a depths, I hear you say. made some of us think about a few start, we will no longer be a PLC - I I1ot.s thi5 person r e m i ~ ~ d you of uncomfortable truths that we have am turning the company into a someone yet? preferred to sweep under the carpet in worker's co-operative. Profits will be Mcntal: Stressed and jc~~npy, wlth the the past. shared equally among staff and there attention span of a three-year-old, 1 have begun to realise just how out of will be no more casual hiring and deep in thought about obscure Middle touch we in the upper echelons of firing. We will no longer sell ourselves Rronzc Age feaLurcs, but an inability archaeological management have down the river when bidding for sites, to deal wlth anything more complex become. My own large income, private or encroach on others territory. '.ir than o p e n ~ n ga tin of beans, - REAL pension, comfortable house and clean, database of knowledge will be shafed WORLII rHORIA. Hc explained it to well-scrubbed children are in stark amongst our former competitors. rnc as being a h111 time archaeologist \ contrast to the lives of many of my Laugh if you like, but please part time human. current and former employees - I have remember my selfless gesture when Stdl not remind you n f someonc? never had to sign on or do secretarial you pass me, holding my tin of Super 1.lnancial: Pass m e my laughing corset As temping - and until recently I never outside the shopping centre. as I have just split my sides. realised that my own comfort could someone who had their own thc flat, a Fantasy Unit League I1 never have been obtained unless at permanent job and a car, imagine my Round 1 their expense. dclight at flnding somconc who As the director of one of the more thought negat~vc eqc~itywas a good thing. ItitermitLerit pay\no pay makes hawkish practitioners of competitive life interesting don't you think? tendering I should not be having these ; Sick pay ? @<L> ; I'specially when you must find money thoughts - it is madness a n d Holidav nav? 1 for that ~nortgagc, bills, shopping, professional suicide. It never bothered I Accolnmoda tion? l @ : council Lax, pctrol, ctc. etc. etc..... Oh me before that I could be making my ; Free equipment? 0 i he did manage to buy the odd bottle of employees homeless by laying them ! Anv available trainine? 1 0 off, or that I kept them on a scale of vodka from time to time. Feel free to Contracts 1 month-t? Q I apologise to your partncr anytimc in pay comparable to unskilled labour, or f Level of respect for staff O _I that they had to spend long hours the ncxt few days. I Good archaeolo~y? -----J I have now come to terms with life travelling to and from my sites. I t was only when one of my exwith a freelance archaeologist, with a Key: fcw major modifications. He-looks a employees c hanged his name to 0 GreaVyes o~~ as& @ lot better now (slim and innit its ~ r c h a e o l PLC Passabletyes Badho sexy. .... honestly) and his mental state Bastards" after I laid him off without @ notice a week before Christmas that I is nearly that of a nomial human Two tier depending on experience being. As to thc old bug bear - money x g a n to have doubts. The press had a Free for 'away' sites only. 'ield day, colleagues began sniggering 3 No. of months wait. - he is not bad now and manages to pay half of everything (which is nice). x h i n d my back, my wife refused to E Costs a bit! When he started to change, his fellow ;peak to me and Winnits Archaeology @ Self employed only. archaeologists trcated him with ?LC lost clients. Sleepless nights Finances suspicion (1 of course got the blame for 3ecame the norm. this a ~ p a l l i n g state of affairs) a s it was : now realise that my love for Mrs. a threat to the belief in the immortal Thatcher a n d her economies has had Total contributions consequences for Total costs (projected) BLI secretly maybe they Aisastrous t digger!! End bdance wanted the same; as they are in L~rchaeology.Experienced and talented 'The Digger'is a non-profit making newsletter existing entirely on donations. All dlonations welcome, cheques should be made out to The Digger'. Any contributions of material positively encouraged. Back-issues available, please send SAE. 'The Digger' on the web, admirably maintained by Backtrack Archaeology, with extra a r - d discussion areas. Check it.

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Issue No 1 March 2000 1 PO Box 391 Abingdon Oxon OX14 3 G S m.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk/News-Views.html

Profili.

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Last year, Kenr~eth Aitchison wrote tc us d i n his hrthcoming publication Profilirrg the Frofessioar. Ifi his letter, he said there wa> informatio~~ which didn't mdke it ink the 'official' report which he was kmfi to disseminate, On the 7th Movemfm; with the publication now free@ a vailable, we wrote to -him with the following questions: 1 - .'he survey claims to be a n accurate representation of the archaeological workforce. Ye1 the original premise of the survey was to contact any organisation employing archaeological staff and to get a responsc from the organisation or_llv, rather than Lhe workforce itself. The survey therefore is e~;tirely skewcd tc a n employers perspective of the siiuation, rather than getting to the employees il sl&s to profile. 'The survey t o ~ ~ l d perhaps have encouraged the d i ~ t r i ition of b~ questionnaires to a!l staff interested in replying so as to get a Iu!.ier picture. Why was this not done? 2. The questionnaire asks for t h e number of paid stall employed by each or-misation, yet does rmt stipulate tk,staff should 'be includeci. it is therefore feasible that those staff who are on temporary (:ontracts and employed perhaps I'or c r d y a s h r t time will not have been cunslderx! .:>S 'paid staff' (as opposed to, say, a project officer on a 6 rnontln coniract) during summation. Simi!arIy, anydiscussion of benefits may only have related to those considered more 'permanent' by the respondent rather than perhaps those wore 'temporary r, (diggers often don't receive siclaess or holiday pay). How much of i: factor would this be in distorting the results? 3. The geographical distribution of the workfcrce presented sonre surprises; according to the results, there arc no excavators or site assistants working in Scotland or Wales, yet there are a number of contracting units in both

countries who employ staff (e.g. SUA?' in Scotland; CPA'T in Wales). Similarly, there are no excavation staff listed in the North-East, the NorthWest and Mersey, the West Midlands and London (all also home to a number of units - MOLAS, PCA, UMAU, NAA etc.). Is this a n indication of non-response by units to the sai-~eyin these areas, or has this category of staff been excluded by those supplying Lhe information? If so, can the survey really accurately represent a picture of British archaeology without these statistics? 4. The survey states that two thirds of archaeo1ogis:s are on permanent contracts, and that the average contracl. l w g t h is 13 ~nollths.Further si:a tiskics s:.ate !hat 72% of staff wxlting ::)I- at-chaeo!ogkal contractors have a'c thelr place of work for more t h k t i l a year. In view of the (uncertain) nurnber of archaeologists working a t the iowcst levels of the profession, .c)fter~ a very temporary on basis, do you not consider that this lig~i'e map be slightly inaccurate, and is indicative that these people may have been overiooked in the survey? (NB. stdndard contracts offered to zca-$3tors/sil:e assistants average 1 month).. r 5. -i h e averclge salary for full-time 3rchaeologists is P,'17,079 according to :he survey. By your own admission: " h e r e may be a sample bias against bhe poore" paid (temporary) staff. Not 311 oiganisalions responding gave details or these employees" :Aitc hison, P.rofiiing the Pmfession) . 5 o w cou!d this have been avoided? Do you believe these figures on a ~ e r s c n a level? l ; The survey asks whether there is . nvolvement of volunteers within a n ~rganiscilinn,statistics for which are riuly provided. However, there is no nei~ticm of the roles which the mluntcers actually perform within an

specifically asked on the questionnaire. Were employers generally cagey about replying to this section, and to what extent are volunteers employed in the active - contracting areas of archaeology? 7. It could be argued that there is a statistical gulf in the result-s, and that those at the very rawest edges of the profession have not been represented. Do you consider that the survey has been a success, in view of this factor, and that the 'profile' is a full picture? How could this problem have been overcome? Should a further, more in depth, survey be carried out, now that the limitations of this exercise have been revealed? As yet/ our questions haven't been answeed. Wonder why?

Digging Jobs ONLINE!
A new free service is being provided to all diggers (Rc archaeological staff generally) which will help those seeking w o ~ k ,and those seeking workers, find each other. The ~ r i t i s h Archaeological Jobs Resource is an internet service. designed to provide a searchable list of available archaeological staff for excavations/other positions, as well as a bulletin board detailing up to the minute news of forthcoming vacancies within the archaeological community. The service, run by Backtrack Archaeology, is free for all entrants, whether units or archaeologists. The searchable CV database requires archaeologists to submit a shortened svnopsis of their CVs which employers can search for required characteristics. The information required is as foIlows: Name; Address; Phone numbers [minzinm7 of one reqznkd; E-mail , address [optiona4; S i l kl [digger, osteologist, researcher, surveyor etc... any combination of terms c7llowab,le]; Years experience; Other information [only acceptable in dipg7taI form - send disks]

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the F A , unions, or anyone else who will use the stairs! That night in the disco bal listen. Anyone interested should write to (eek!), tlu-pugh a lavish sea of dry ice, 'Class Action' at our address and we will happenedlto pass comment to the samc MU about my absolute abhorrence o; forward any mail. 70's PAP (music). "Hey, now just holc L&Letters Bombs 4 F on a moment young man!" said the I was about toss my copy of The clearly hurt MAA, "this happens to be Archaeologist (36) into the Tesco carrier my era! It's before your t&e so yoc bag (special file!) that hangs on my ddn't appreciate it". At that p i n t we kitchen door, when at another quick flick struck a friendly conversation ... through it, I noticed your article and l leased to meet you. And you are?".. o decided L rescue it. A refreshing change and you can guess-the rest ... amidst this small world of blinkered, in- The IFA might see CPDs and PAPS a s a house back-slappers! h