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Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project (KSUDP)

ADB Loan No. 2226-IND Mr. Ajit Kumar Project Director 27 March 2012
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Project Objectives
Objective is to improve urban environment, economy, and living conditions of the people.
The project lays emphasis on rehabilitation, improvement, and expansion of: water supply; sewerage and sanitation; drainage; solid waste management; and roads and transportation. Further, the project also directly supports poor communities in livelihood enhancement through Poverty Social Fund (PSF); and in improving facilities and amenities through Community Infrastructure Fund (CIF).

Brief Project Description

Project Element Desired Impact Description Increased growth potential and lower poverty in the project cities Improved Quality of Life of Urban Residents including the poor and other disadvantaged people Improved urban infrastructure and services in the five project cities



(Source: PAM)

Kerala Poverty & Gender

Kerala IMR (yr 2010) Sex Ratio 2001 Sex Ratio 2011 Rural Poverty Head Count Ratio (2004-05) Urban Poverty Head Count Ratio (2004-05) Total Poverty Head Count Ratio (2004-05) 13 1058 1084 All India 47 933 940

18.4 19.7

25.7 37.2

Decadal growth rate 2001-2011

Density per Literacy rate Male literacy rate Female literacy rate
Source: Registrar General of India, 2011 & Planning Commission of India, 2009

859 93.91 96.02 91.98

382 74.04 82.14 65.46

Partnership with Local Bodies/CBOs

Identification and prioritisation of subprojects are done by local bodies (Municipal Corporations through a council resolution)
Project Implementation including disbursement done by local bodies Consultants (DPR/supervision) report to local bodies PSF beneficiaries are identified by Kudumbashree prior to sanction

Gender Approach
Aligned with Kudumbashree launched by Govt. of Kerala in 1998 for woman oriented poverty eradication

State Poverty Eradication Mission

Concerted community action under the leadership of local government
Women empowerment initiatives Micro finance operations Micro enterprise promotion Associated training, action

Community Infrastructure Fund (CIF) and Poverty Social Fund (PSF)

Women led Kudumbashree Teams
Identifying critical investment needs Participatory Planning of interventions

Participatory Monitoring of investment projects Technical support to microenterprises

PSF provides: credit for micro-enterprise for poor women skill development for women CIF provides: quality amenities / infrastructure to slums access to basic services CIF approach need assessment, prioritisation and execution by the community CIF - Exit Protocol ownership transferred to local body beneficiary up keeping and management protocol (BUMP) for maintenance

CIF Physical Achievements

276 internal roads in slums (1 lakh meter) 312 drains (52349m) 62 anganwadis 36 bio-gas plants 1857 individual toilets for slum households

Moving-around during rains made possible due to the footpath built under CIF at Thirumunbu Nilancheri. KZD Individual Toilet - TSR

CIF Physical Achievements (cont.)

Water supply, Street lighting, Children play area, Geriatric clubs, Health centres (provision for homeopathy clinic), Community halls, Library cum reading room, etc
221 works completed, 63 ongoing Expenditure INR 385.34 million

Library cum reading room in Pope Colony, TSR

A Beneficiary of KSUDP Anganwadi at Kannankulangara Colony, TSR

PSF Physical Achievements

302 women groups provided credit for microenterprises
INR 4.59 million Individual enterprises INR 0.19 million

Skill development
2500 women beneficiaries INR 5.66 million

Capacity building and training

6860 women beneficiaries INR 1.93 million

PSF Success Stories

Tailoring shop and restaurant supported under PSF has improved the standard of living of poor households
Women beneficiaries Group activity Loan amount INR 0.14 million Subsidy component of Rs.62,500/- provided under PSF Restaurant has repaid bank loan fully Marginal sum to be repaid by Tailoring shop
Tailoring shop Trichur - SDO in the foreground

Restaurant in Trichur

Women involved in decision making process Mayors of 3 project towns (KLM, TVM, KZD) are women 2 other project town have Women Deputy Mayor (KCH, TSR) 50% of local body members are women All CIF / PSF were identified by women beneficiaries Beneficiaries of individual toilet were women of the household
Equal wages for equal pay were built into contract conditions

Ensured that labour camps have toilets exclusively for women and creche

Gender (cont.)
Consultations resulted in commissioning of a Girl Friendly Toilet in School TVM Lack of proper toilet is one of the factors that result in drop-out

Constructed at Govt.Girls HSS Cottonhill, TVM - About 4000 Students Studying (5th to 12th classes) benefited - Total 86 units in 6 blocks

Community Scorecard
Community Scorecards introduced in 2010 to measure satisfaction of community with social assets Since scorecards are based on weightage given to factors of satisfaction Community had to be included in planning for social assets Emphasis shifted from Technical approval to Social approval

Key Learning - Scorecards







1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Correct Identification of Needs People's Participation Plan & Design Stakeholder Interaction Quality of Works General Satisfaction Impact on Quality of Life T O T A L =>

0.16 0.17 0.10 0.15 0.12 0.15 0.15 1.00

90.00 80.00 85.00 85.00 90.00 100.00 95.00 625.00

14.40 13.60 8.50 12.75 10.80 15.00 14.25 89.30

Key Learning: Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation

The Women of Chadayantara, Kollam agreed to plan, monitor and evaluate the construction of a raised road through a waterlogged area Not the Councillors idea, our long-felt need We took care of contractor Vijayans labourers and supervised the work On 28 Dec 2009, contractor was honoured at a public meeting and given a cloth of honour We got more than Rs.45 lakhs worth of value from this contract. No leakages as in a typical project.

New Road, Chadayantara, Kollam

Key Learning: Micro Enterprise

Four women tailors of Kollam Corporation started a textile shop with a loan from KSUDP In business we have to learn to get and give credit. This was new to us Before we spent our lives in our kitchens. Now we are out of the house by 0900 hrs

If shop is not opened on time, people ask why

We now have an identity and status in the community

Micro-enterprise: Textiles and Garments Shop, Kollam

Women entrepreneurs, Kollam

Poverty Reduction Planning

Workshop on Strategic Plan for Poverty Reduction in Kochi, 17 Sep 2010 Participants: ADS and CDS Executives of Kudumbashree, Corporation Social Workers, Community Workers, SDO Six important questions:
What is meant by poverty? Where is the poverty? Baseline measurement Participatory Needs Assessment Transparent Delivery System

Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation

Lessons Learned : Factors of Poverty

Factor of Poverty 3. Awareness 1. Health 4. Steady Income 2. Infrastructure 5. Domestic Violence 6. Psychological Poverty 7. Vulnerability

Eigen Vector 0.2996 0.2133 0.1667 0.1296 0.0810 0.0572 0.0525 1.0000

Rank 1 2 3 4 6 7 5

Intensity-1 5.71 4.06 3.18 2.47 1.54 1.09 1.00

Ranking done using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) proposed by Saaty, T.L. The Logic of Priorities, 1982, Kluwer-Nijhoff

Lessons Learned: Interventions in Urban Poverty

Poverty is Multidimensional (vulnerability, voicelessness, powerlessness) Poverty Reduction (welfare programmes, food subsidies etc.) Inclusive Growth (Improving access for the poor to participate in the market either as employees or entrepreneurs) Key Enablers: Education, Health, Sanitation, ICT

Key Factors of Poverty

Awareness: Knowledge and Skills Health: Poor health perceived as important factor of poverty

In urban situation, many diseases are endemic due to poor infrastructure and unhygienic practices
Rapid transmission due to congestion and crowding

Link between Infrastructure and Public Health - Thiruvananthapuram

Major Health Threats Leptospirosis Typhoid Hepatitis-A Dengue Chikunguniya Gastroenteritis Mode of Transmission Rodents (Garbage, Drains) Salmonella (Water Supply) HA Virus (Food & Water) Mosquitoes (Drainage, Garbage) Mosquitoes (Drainage, Garbage) Water Supply

Data from DMO, Thiruvananthapuram

Lessons Learned: Project Implementation

Projects implemented based on need assessment and prioritisation, involving those who are actually concerned about such urban services/amenities/infrastructure, have very good acceptance Quality of works and O&M are guranteed

Way Forward
Sewerage and water supply sub-projects will be commissioned shortly and the beneficiaries of the project cities, in particular the women and poor, will have access to quality services
KSUDP Phase-II is likely to be gender focused/mainstream