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The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Md. Saidur Rahman

Project Director, STIFPP-II, BWDB
Sub-Regional Workshop: Gender and Urban Poverty in South Asia, 27 March 2012, Colombo, Sri Lanka


Flood & Drainage

Urban Environment

Urban Poverty

Urban Governance


Urban Flood

Project Objectives: The primary objective of the project is to promote economic growth and alleviate poverty in 9 selected Towns in Bangladesh by providing a flood free and secure living environment within the framework of integrated approach


Urban Drainage

River Protection

Urban Poor


Executing Agencies: Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) & Local Government Engineering Department (LGED)

Project Features
Integrated approach combining with town protection works, drainage works, sanitation services, slum upgrading activities, improvement of SWM. Municipality should implement UGIAP activities to improve their Governance system Kushtia Rajshahi Gaibandha Jamalpur Mymensingh Manikganj Munshiganj Brahmanbaria Sunamganj

Total Project Cost: 128.88 Million ADB loan: $80 million (62.1%) The OPEC Fund loan: $15.0 million (11.6%) GoB Fund: $33.79 million Project beneficiaries: $0.1 million

The Project actually started in 2006 and scheduled for completion in June 2012

Major Components of the Project and Executing Agency

Components A Flood Protection Works

Type of works

Executing Agency

Flood Protection Flood Projection works Reinforced concrete flood walls Drainage regulators River training or bank protection Urban Drainage Improvement
Existing drainage improvement Construction of large lined and open unlined drainage outfalls Small structures culverts/bridges required for drainage system Slabs covering existing concrete drains or railing along drains Out side the town

Components B Urban Drainage System Improvement


In side the town

LGED & Municipali ties

Components C Urban Environmental Improvement including Solid Waste Management, Sanitation & Slum Improvement

Urban Environmental Improvement Solid Waste Management Sanitation Improvement Slum Improvement Road Improvement works Capacity Building & Implementation Assistance

LGED & Municipa lities

Components D Capacity Building & Implementation Assistance

Consulting services

Individual Consultants/ Facilitators for UGIAP implementation


Capacity building, UGIAP implementation, Training of Municipalities


The integrated approach combines river protection works with drainage and basic sanitation and solid waste services. UGIAP framework: Each town is required to: form town-level coordination committees with citizen participation; develop a participatory municipal infrastructure development plan, strengthen role of elected female ward commissioners; implement a slum improvement program; and run a community-level fund for income generation and infrastructure improvement Community Driven Approaches for Urban Poor: Community Contracting System: Contract between Community Development Committees (CDCs) and Municipality for slum improvement work (Physical facilities like access road, drain, tube well, dustbin, street light, hygienic toilet etc.). Contract with women labor contracting societies (LCS) for construction and O&M of infrastructure, tree plantation and infrastructure maintenance etc.


generation: during construction and operation and maintenance of infrastructure and facilities; Improved access to basic services (sanitation, solid waste management, and drainage) and living conditions in slums and shanty-towns; Better protection from flooding causing loss of homes, assets, livestock and livelihoods; and Income generation and poverty reduction initiatives in slums through community development committees.

Employment opportunities are limited to the informal sector, mostly as unskilled labor, and a bias toward men; Lower wages women are generally paid at lower rates, and the disparity is even greater during floods, when men work below regular rates and women are reduced to work for payments in kind or in exchange for a meal; High work burdens womens household responsibilities are more difficult in the absence of basic services, and unsanitary conditions also increase illness and the burden of family care so womens time is limited for productive activities for income generation;


GAP for STIFPP II addressed how gender issues could be addressed in all project components:

Flood protection works Urban drainage improvement system Urban environmental improvement Capacity building


GAPs were then developed within UGIAP framework

Empowering women through implementation of UGIAP and GAP

Ability to influence in decision making Participation of decision making process Leadership Improving the position Capacity building/ Training
Develop in IGAs or Access to economy




Citizen Awareness and Participation Administrative Transparency and Accountability Orientation to Chairman, M/F Ward Commissioners on GAP Increase efficiency of women by Training/ Capacity Building activities

Involvement of women in other specific components of UGIAP

Access to resources Knowledge

Integration of the Urban Poor

Environmental Sanitation


1. Flood Protection Works: Consult with women for land acquisition and settlement and providing special compensation packages for women; Include FWCs and citizens in resettlement activities; and, Provide employment opportunities for poor women in flood protection earthworks (target 25% women by government policy) 2. Urban Drainage Improvement System Promote wage parity between men and women in construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure; Provide skills training for men and women in construction and operations and maintenance works; Organize labor contracting societies with female membership; Employ 100% women in tree planting and routine maintenance work

3. Urban Environmental Improvement-- providing Solid Waste Management, Sanitation & Slum Improvement

Raise awareness amongst women and other stakeholders in their roles in solid waste management. Organize Town/Ward based rallies for awareness on environment, sanitation & hygiene; Promote women's participation in sanitation programs as motivators; Allow sanitation program completion certificates to be signed by women; Ensure locations of public toilets suit women's needs; Include clause in lease deeds for public facilities to include women in both maintenance (paid) and management

4. Capacity Building Ensure womens representation in all decision-making committees; Provide for womens access to the poverty reduction fund, slum infrastructure and community empowerment activities and provide skills training for women; Raise awareness among displaced, migrant, and floating people about the risks of human trafficking and child labor; Advocate environmental sanitation and womens health; Involve women in motivational activities for tax collection and resource mobilization

Social constraints exist to womens participation in construction of latrines, river embankments, community water points, drainage, etc. Different types of labor required in construction and maintenance of infrastructure. Women generally work in light construction work, earthwork, maintenance, tree plantation. Technically skilled construction. women are not available in

Wage differential exists: based on type of work and men and women laborer under contractors and mixed LCS group On an average 20 - 25 percent lower wages for women. Basic facilities are not often ensured as per core labor standards.

Compliance with all applicable labor laws and core labor standards including safety gears and safe working place and working time limits No child labor for construction and maintenance Provide daycare facilities for children of women laborers in construction campsites. Use local unskilled labor and create employment opportunities for poor & vulnerable people, especially women. Employment of women labor (subject to availability) will not be less than 25% of their male counterparts (Average 25%) Compliance on timely payment and equal wage for equal work between men & women to be strictly monitored during implementation. Ensure separate toilet facilities, labor shade for men and women laborers

Participation of women citizens encouraged by Gender Committee led by a woman Ward Commissioner:
Leaflets, posters etc. distributed in the town by Gender Committee Arranging regular rallies at town and ward levels with participation of local womens groups, poor peoples group, Poura parishad, NGOs and elite people of the town. Gender Committee discussions on issues related to solid waste collection and contributions made to improve the environmental condition in town raised awareness.

Liaison established with Government and NGOs on gender related issues

Employment opportunities created for women as laborers (27% in BWDB part and 30% in LGED part). 100% unskilled women are employed in tree plantation and routine maintenance activities.


of Community Development Committees (CDCs) led by women members/leaders to implement slum improvement works. CDC/Municipality partnerships. Community infrastructure planning, implementation and maintenance and overall management through CDC led by women leaders. CDCs identified their leaders later on approved by Municipalities. Income generation activities (such as tailoring, block and batik, poultry, etc) through their own savings. Skills development through different trainings. To date 462 women members participated in income generation training program from five different towns totaling 15,244 training days.

Anchoring the gender focused activities in the mainstream of development process of the LGI is the biggest challenge. Availability of technically skilled women infrastructure related work is insufficient. for

Diversity of knowledge, skills and attitude of different stakeholders on promoting gender equality requires continuous orientation and gender awareness raising.

Linking poor women with skills training and financing opportunities is critical for entrepreneurship and economic empowerment.

There are promising employment and leadership opportunities for women in solid waste management, sanitation and slum improvement in urban areas especially in planning, construction, O&M, and management positions. The change of mindset of all stakeholders in Local Government Institutes is necessary for womens involvement and participation. The demand driven community development approach of the project impacted positively on women in poor communities. Institutional support and set up at municipal level to execute gender inclusive infrastructure programs is necessary.

Staff motivation on promoting gender equality is crucial.

Gender training and orientation of contractors, field staff and local government is necessary .

Government initiatives including legal measures to safeguard personal safety of poor women is important.


a Social Development Unit with staff at the municipal level to execute gender and social mobilization programs. gender awareness raising activities at all levels and encourage men to work together with women in promoting gender equality.



and supervise contractors work continuously by using MIS to ensure women are given job opportunities with decent working conditions and wage parity. interventions at all levels (Individual, Households, Community, Regional and National) to promote gender mainstreaming in municipal infrastructure.
linkages with NGOs, banks, training institutes, womens associations to provide skills training and financial services to enhance womens employment and entrepreneurship in urban environmental improvement.