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What is SDLC?

Explain about SDLC
Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) suggests a systematic approach to develop
the software application. SDLC consist different phases, those are

1. Analysis
2. Design
3. Coding
4. Testing
5. Support

1. Analysis: The Requirement gathering processes focused specifically on software.
To understand the nature of programs to be build, the software engineer must
understand the information domain for the software, as well as required function
interface representation, behavior and performance.

2. Design: The Design translates the requirements in to the representation of the
software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins. Design is actually
multistep process that focuses on four distinct attributes of a program. Data
Structure, software Architecture, interface representation and procedural details.

3. Coding: The Design must be translated into a machine readable form and this
transformation is called Coding. If design is performed in a detailed manner,
coding can be done very easily.

4. Testing: Once code has been generated, program, testing begins, This testing
process focus on logical internals of the software ensuring that all statements
have been tested to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce
actual results that agree with the required result that agree with the required
result as stated in SRS.

5. Support: Software will undergo changes after it is delivered to the customer.
Change will occur because errors have been raised. Software must be adapted to
accommodate changes in the external environment.

Which SDLC you are following in your company?
In our company regularly we are following Waterfall Model or V-Model and depending
up on the project we are using different SDLC models.

Explain about Waterfall Model?
In waterfall model once phase starts when the previous phase completes for all
modules/unit. Since the previous model phase’s end determines the start of the next phase
a small delay in one phase may propagate till the end. Such Small delays in each phase
may cause bigger delays or time-over-runs on the project but for proven platforms and
technologies, this model may work fine if the resources are strong.

URS  SRS  HLD  LLD  CODE  UT(Unit Testing)  IT(Integration Testing)
ST(System Testing) 

In the above model testing is postponed to a later stage, until the coding completes, so
only at that time we will come to know whether the solution works properly as we
expect. This may be a risk in certain types of project, where the technology itself is a risk,
also correction at the end of the phase, may involve correcting to previous phases also
and so the rework is more.

Explain about V-model?

User’s
requirement UAT
Specification

SRS ST

HLD IT

LLD UT

CODING

Phase 1: User Requirement Specifications:-
In this phase, the information about the user’s software Requirements shall be
gathered and documented in the qms standard format.

Phase 2: SRS: In this phase the user’s requirements shall be converted to
implementation specific statements. The user interface shall also be detailed here.
The user interface shall also be detailed here. The screen dumps of input/output
interfaces, menus etc. may be included where necessary.

Phase 3: HLD: In this phase, the major modules in the the software shall be
identified and high level design documents shall be prepared for each of the
modules. The interdependencies across the modules shall be documented.

Phase 4: Detailed design document: In this phase, ea h module shall be granulized
to simple units and design specification shall be prepared for each unit, Unit test plan
and unit test cases shall be prepared for each of these units.

Phase 5: Coding and Unit Testing: In this phase coding shall be done following the
programming standards. The coding shall be carried out at each detailed design
document level, code review shall be done and the code shall be unit tested.

Phase 6: Integration Testing: In this phase, the product shall be tested module wise
and the interdependencies among the modules shall be validated.
Phase 7: System Testing: In this phase the functionality of the product shall be
tested as a whole.

Phase 8: Acceptance Testing: The final product shall be validated against the user
requirements, acceptance criteria and acceptance data.

Explain about STLC?

System Study: We need to study Domain, S/W, H/W, FDS, UI, SRS.
Gap Analysis: Finding the difference between the client requirements and the
application Developed.

What are the Kinds of testing?
Or
What are different types of testing?

1. Static Testing
2. Dynamic Testing

Static Testing: Testing the application without execution the program. This can
be done by Inspections and walkthroughs.

Dynamic Testing: Testing the application by executing the software program with
the help of test data.
What is Black Box Testing?
Block box testing all the tests are based on functionality and requirements of the
application. In this type of testing the functionality of the application is only
considered and it does not concentrate on any knowledge of internal design or
code.
“ How well a program meets its requirements’”.
Assume that requirements are already validated.
Look for missing or incorrect functionality. Excurse system with input which the
expected output is known.
Performance, stress, reliability, security.
Advantages:- It ensures functional requirements are met.
It makes no structure assumption.
Limitations:-
Possibility of missing logic error in the software cannot ensure code coverage.

Methods:- 1. Equivalence portioning
2. Boundary value analysis.
3. Error guessing
4. cause effect graphing.

Equivalence portioning explain it?

Dividing input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived. If
input has range of values then it has one valid and two invalid classes are defined.
If input is Boolean then one valid and one invalid classes are defined. It is performed
to reduce no. of test cases while uncovering most of errors.

The aim of equivalence testing is to select values that have equivalent processing,
one that we can assuming if a test passes with the representative value, it should
pass with all other values in the same partition. That is we assume that similar some
equivalence partitions may be include combinations such as
Valid vs. invalid input and output values.
Numeric values with negative, +ve and zero values.
Strings that are empty or non-empty.
Data files that exist or not. Are readable or not. Date, years that are pre-zero or post
2000,leap years or non-leap years. Dates that are in 28,29,30, or 31 days months,
Days on workdays/ out side office-hours.
Type of data file e.g., hard drive , flop drive, cd-rom, network.
Equivalence partition is a set of test cases where the successful execution of any test
case in the clause guarantees the success of all the test cases. In an equivalence
partition for 1 set of correct test cases 2 sets of incorrect test cases are taken. In
order to verify that the system behaves correctly for the correct test cases and
wrongly for the incorrect test cases.

What is boundary value analysis?

It extends equivalence portioning to include values around the edges of the
partitions. As with Equivalence partitioning, we assume that sets of values are
treated similarly be components. How ever developers are prone to making errors in
the treatment of values on the boundaries of these partitions.
For example elements of a list may be processed similarly and they may be grouped
into a single equivalence partition, however, in processing the elements, the
developer may not have correct processing for either the first or last element of the
list.
Boundary values are usually the limits of the equivalence classes,

EX:- min,min-1,max,max-1, min+1,max+1.
Monday and Sunday for weekdays
January and December for months.
32768and -32768 for 16-bit integers
top left and button-right cursor position screen
first line and last line of a printed report.
January 2000 for two digit year processing
Strings of one character and max, length strings.

White box Testing?
All the tests are based on knowledge of internal logic of the application code and
tests are based on branches, paths, conditions, and code coverage statements.
White box testing is to reveal problems with the internal structure of a program.
Internal structural of a program.
Required detailed knowledge of structure.
Common goal is path coverage.
We can test structure even when software specification is incomplete.

Advantages:- tests the software structure logic.
Code coverage is ensured.

Limitations:- white box does not ensure that functional requirements are met.
Tests may not mimic real world situations.

Methods: 1. Statement testing
2. Branch testing
3. conditional testing
4. path testing
5. loop testing
What is unit testing? who is doing unit testing?
It is a white box testing methodologies which more concentrate on internal logic of
the program. This type of testing ensures that internal logic of the program is
working as per the requirements and it ensures that source code statements should
follow company coding and guidelines.
Our company developers are doing unit testing.

What is integration Testing?
Testing the combined parts of the application. To determine these combined parts
can be functioning together as per our requirements or not and to ensures that the
data interface between these components are error free. In integration testing
having “data dependencies between the modules.

What is importance of stub and drivers?
In integration testing some modules may depend another module. Some times some
of the modules are not available. In such cases we may need to develop the stubs
and drivers.
Stub:- a test stub is dummy component. Which simulates the behavior of the real
component.
Driver:- test driver simulates the parts of the system that calls the component under
test.

What is system testing?
Testing the entire system for functionality and requirements of the client as stated in
SRS. Here the entire system means all the modules are completed in coding and
integrated.

Difference b/w integration testing and system testing?
In system testing all the modules should be integrated.
In integration testing we have only available modules are integrated.

What is the order of testing?
Unit testingintegration testing  system testing  User acceptance testing.

Which approach of integration testing u r following?
Top-down integration testing approach.

What is load testing?
Load testing evaluates system performance with predefined load level conditions,.
Load testing measures how long it take a system to perform various tasks and
functions under normal or pre defined conditions.

What is Performance testing?
Performance testing is system performance at various load levels, performance
testing is designed to test the runtime performance of software. Within the context
of integrated system. Performance measured by the response time and throughput.

What is response time and throughput?
Response time :- the amount of time, user must wait for a web system to react a
request.
Throughput:- The amount of data transmitted during client server interaction.
This is measured by kilobytes/sec.

How do you rate your self in testing?
7-8
How many test cases u can prepare a day?
60-70 and depending on the functionality of the application.

How many test cases execute in a day?
70-90

Which tool u r using for defect management?
Issue Tracker and Test director.

What is your bug –clearance ratio?
The ratio between valid and invalid bugs(96:100)

Why you are using high level or low level documents?
To better understand the application flow.

What are the input documents for testing?
SRS document
Detailed design document
Test plan document
Test case document
What are the input documents for test case preparation?
SRS Document
Detailed design document
High level design document.

What is configuration Item?
The item which is eligible for configuration. That is uploaded item in to the
configuration management.

Ex:- visual source safe. (VSS)

What are the configurable items in Testing?
Test plan
Test case document
Review report
Test report.

What is review?
Reviews are ensuring that the work product and under review meets its
requirements.

What is entry criteria for testing?
Or
What you start testing?
Test Environment
Application under test
Base line Test cases
Unit test sign of sheet.

What is exit criteria for testing?
Or
When do you stop testing?
All the test cases should be executed on the test bed environment.
All the defects reported in the test report should be closed.
They should not be any high severity and medium severity bugs.
Low severity should be tracked to closure.

How do you write test cases?
First I will concentrate on functionality of the application test cases.
Then I will write validation test cases.
And at last I will write Gui test cases.

What is verification?
Verification refers to set of activities that ensures that software correctly implements
a specific function. Verification involves reviews and meetings to evaluate
documents, plans, code, requirement and specifications. This can be done by check
lists, walkthroughs and inspections.

What is walkthroughs?
A walkthroughs is an informal meeting for evaluation or information purpose. For this
preparation is not required.

What is inspection?
Inspection is formalized meeting. It is evaluating a document such as requirement
specifications or testplan and the purpose is to findout the problem and see what is
missing but not to fix anything. The result of the inspection meeting should be
written report.

What is validation?
Validation refers to set of activities that ensures that software that has been built is
traceable to customer requirements. Validation involves actual testing and takes
place after verifications are completed.

What is peer review?
In our company we are reviewing documents, like test cases documents of other
colleagues. Here we are not giving any written report, but we will communicate with
each other informally.

What is workproduct or deliverable?
Workproduct is a deliverable work product in software.

What are the workproducts or deliverables in testing?
Test plan
Test case document
Review report
Test report

What is software Quality?
Quality software is reasonable bug free, delivered on time and within the budget,
meets its requirements and it is maintainable.

What are the attributes of Quality?
Or
What re measurements of Quality?
Correctness: A program must operate correctly, correctness is the degree to which
the software perform required functions.
Maintainability: Effort require to create and fix an error in the program, adapted if
environmental changes.
Usability: Usability is an attempt to quantify user friendliness.
Integrity: Integrity extents of control of accidental modifications or access.
Formability: Effort require to transfer software between platforms.
Reusability: Extend to which software modules can be used in different application.

What is software configuration management?
The software configuration management activity involves the entire software
development process.
Configuration management is the art of identifying, organizing, controlling and
modifications of the software. That is being built by the programming team.
Software configuration management activates are developed to:
Identify changes
Control changes
Ensures that changes are being properly implemented.
Reporting changes to others who may here interest.
The goal is to maximize the productivity by minimizing the
productivity.

Who is responsible for Quality in your company?
In a company each and every employee responsible for quality.

What is version control(about vss)?
Vss is used to version controlling we can keep all related documents like functional
spects, technical spect, test plan, test case, test results etc.,
The SEM coordinator updates the new versions of the documents. In the vss he will
communicate with all team members regarding added documents.

Version control: It combines procedures and tools to manage different versions of
configuration object that are created during the software engineering process.
Configuration management allows a user to specify alternative configurations of the
software system through the selection of appropriate versions.

Change control: change control combines human procedures and automated tools to
provide a mechanism for the control of change. The “check-in” and “check-out”
presses implement. Two implements of change control access control and
synchronization control.

Access control: It governs which software engineers have the authority to access and
modify a particular configuration object.

Synchronization control: control helps to ensure that parallel changes, performed by
two different people, don’t overwrite one another.

What are the activates of QA?
Assist in monitoring the implementation of metric process.
Assist in conducting reviews, audits and base lining of artifacts.
Implementing vss for configuration management.
Assist in performing function point analysis, estimating cost, schedule, effort
accordingly.
Assist in taking training and orientation sessions, on cmm for team members for the
business system of the organization.

What is software Quality Assurance?
Quality Assurance involves in the entire software development process, monitoring
and improving the process and making sure that any agreed upon standards and
making sure that any agreed upon standards and procedures are followed.
It is software quality assurance oriented to prevention, quality assurance consists of
auditing and reporting functions to managements.

What is Quality Control?
Quality control is the series of inspections, reviews and tests used through out the
software development process to ensure each work product meets a requirement
placed upon it and it is oriented to detention.

Difference between QA and QC?
Quality control:
Checking at end of development process (e.g. Design activity)
Qc is like testing a module against requirement specification or design doc,
measuring response time, throughput etc.
Quality control check that methods are in place and to discover where they are not
then correction are to be made.
Qc define features and levels define feature check procedure.
Carrying out the check procedure.
Record result take and record
Qc is best carried out on products.
Qc should take place at every stage of SDLC.

Quality Assurance (QA)
It is about having an overall development management process that provides right
environment for ensuring quality to the final product.
QA gives us added assurance that the whole producing or checking process is
properly planned and executed and thus maintaining high quality.
QA checking process is being properly planned and executed and hence keeping high
our chances of producing software of required quality.
Determines of quality policy through QMS.
Checking that predetermined QC activates are being properly taken care off.
QA is best carried out on process.
QA should be done at end of every SDLC i.e., when product building is complete

Difference between verification and validation?
Verification:
Verification is a static testing procedure.
It involves verifying the requirements, detailed design docs., test plans,
walkthroughs, and inspections.
It is a preventive procedure.
It involves more than 2 to 3 persons and is a group activity.
It requires cooperation and scheduling of meetings and discussion.
Are we building the product right?
It is also called human testing, since it involves finding the errors by persons
participating in a review or walkthrough.
Verification occurs on requirements, design and code.
Verification is made both in the executable and non executable forms of a work
product.
An effective tool for verification tool is a checklist.
Verification tasks include: planning, exaction
Verification activates include: requirement verification, functional design verification,
internal design verification, code verification
Verification deliverables (work products) are: verification test plan, inspection report,
verification test report.
Verification finds errors in the SDLC and hence reduces the cost of errors.

Validation:
Validation is dynamic testing procedure
Validations involves actual testing of the product as per the test plan. (UI, IT, ST and
UAT)
Are we building the right product?
It is a corrective procedure
It involves the tester and user (some times)
It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is accepted by the user.
It is also called computer testing, since errors are found out by testing the software
on a computer.
Validation occurs only code and the executable application.
Validation is only on executable forms of a work product.
Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence cost of errors reduced
is less than verification.
Various manual and automated tools are available for validation.
Validation tasks include: planning, test case development, test execution, test ware
maintenance.
Validation activities include: ut, usability testing, function testing, system testing,
and acceptance testing.
Validation deliverables are: test plan, test design specification, test case
specification, test procedure specification, test log, test incident report.

What is quality?
Quality is defined as meeting the customer’s requirements in the first time and
every time. Quality can only seen through the eyes of the customers. An
understanding of the customer’s exceptions is the first step then executing those
exceptions is required and the main prospective of the quality are possesses desired
features, fitness for use, confirmation to requirements at an acceptable cost.

What is quality management system?
Or
What is QMS or what is corporate policy?
It is the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, activities, capabilities
and resources that together aim to ensure that product, process or services will
satisfied stated needs.

What is test data?
A set of input data for a particular aspect of a test cases.

Test strategy or testing process?
In our company QC is involved from the project initiation meeting along with the
development team, testers also participated in all knowledge transfer discussion,
with the help of design documents and SRS, test plan preparation is started. After
test plan is prepared it will send to project leads, team leads for review purpose.

The review comments are given in review report, all those comments are
incorporated in the test plan. Re-review is conducted if required.

QA people conducts audit and the test plan is baseline. With the information of test
plan, SRS, detail design documents, test case preparation is started.

After test case preparation completed it will send to peer-review within the team and
again it also sent to development team, they will check whether these test cases are
sufficient for the application functionality. If the test cases are not covered then they
will give review report. All these review comments are incorporated in test case
document.

Before test execution starts test bed environment is steeped. When a test build is
ready of testing development team clearly specify the scope of test module. Testers
will start the execution of test cases. Testers will post the bugs into the defect
management tool. Regression testing will be conducted after the fixes, test report is
prepared with the results of test cases on the build and test cases are also updated if
need. If completion criteria is satisfied then all deliverables are submitted to test
lead.

What is bug life cycle?
Or
Explain about defect tracking?
Or
What is your company bug life cycle?
Or
What is life cycle of defects?
Or
Explain about bug status?
Once a bug is found testing team will assign the same bug to the development team
using defect management tool called “Issue Tracker”.
While posting the bug first time the status of bug will be set to as “Open”
automatically.
After fixing the bug, development team will re-assign to the testing team by
changing the status as “Fixed”.
During the regression testing, testing team checks for the same bug, if the bug is fix
they will “close” the bug by changing the status as “Closed”.
Otherwise once again they will re-assign to the development team by changing the
status as “Re-opened”.
Like that the bug life cycle is works.

Who is finding the bugs?
Testers will finding the bugs.

Who is fixing the bugs?
Developers will fixes the bugs.

Who is changing the bug status as “Closed” in regression testing?
Testers.

How will u keep track of the bugs
Or
How many times you are checking the bug status in a day?
Or
How you are using Issue Tracker?
In the Issue Tracker iam checking the bug status for every 5min. if the bug status is
fixed then I will do regression testing immediately. According to that results I will
give the bug status as “closed” or “re-opened”.

An issue tracker will give a mail to the concerned persons automatically.

In the development team raised any bugs in the Issue tracker?
Or
Is development team raises bugs in your company?
Yes. The developer team also raises the bugs like Design queries.
Who will raise design issues or design defects?
Development team.
If the bug is closed in 10 days back or previous version, but when your are
doing regression testing now, you got again some problems, then what is
the bug status?
Bug status is “re-opened’
How do you reports the bugs and to whom to report your bugs?
Through issure tracker we are reporting all the bugs by assigning group name as
development team lead id and concerned.
TestersTest leadProject leadProject Manager

Why does software have bugs?
Software has bugs due to:
Miscommunications.
Software Complexity.
Changing Requirements.
Time Pressure.
Fully Documented code.

What should you do after bug is found?
we are posting the bugs through issue tracker with necessary information.

How do you found duplicate bugs?
In our company when we are posting the bug, we are following a bug template.
Our bug template starts with scenario-id, scenario-name, and short description. So
whenver we want to found the bugs related to scenario. In short description field we
are giving scenario-id, scenario-name and we need to click on search button, then
issue tracker will displays all the defects related to that scenario.

What is residual defect?
The defect found after system testing or in the released product.

What is severity and priority of a bug? What is the difference between
them?
Severity: Severity indicates the impact of each defect on testing effort. The effect
level of the detected bug on the application, this can be decided by tester only.

Levels:- Critical(show stopper): An item that prevents further testing of the
application.
There is a functionality block. The application is not be able to proceed any further.
Ex: Missing menu option
Security permissions required to access a function under test.
An installation process which doesn’t load a component.

High: The application is not working as desired. An item that doesn’t function as
expected ordesigned
Ex: Inaccurate calculations.
Slow system
Turn around performance
Wrong fields being updated
An updated operation that fails to complete.

Medium: There are failure reported due to the defect but certainly needs to be
rectified. “An item that doesn’t confirm to standards and conventions”.
Ex: In correct not key operations.
An error condition which is not trapped.
Matching visual and test links which leads to different end points.
Low: Defects in the user interface/navigation. “Cosmetic issues which are not crucial
to the operation of the system”.
Ex: Misspelled or grammatical text.
Inappropriate, Inconsistence, incorrect formatting such as text, font size,
alignment, color, etc.,

Priority: Assign a priority to the defect which determines the order in which defects
should be fixed.
The importance of the bug that has to be cleared.
We are putting time bounding for the defect.
This will decide the test lead.

Levels: Immediate: Resolve defect with immediate effect.
At the Earliest: On priority at the second level.
Normal: Resolve the defect.
Later: Could be resolved at the later stages.

What is the baseline for performance testing?
Functional and performance testing or the SRS document.

What is a use case?
A use case is a scenario that describes how software is to be used in a given
situation.

What is baseline?
A work product has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, there after serves as
the basis for further development and can be changed only. Through formal change
control procedures.

What is Traceability Matrix (RTM)?
Traceability is to mapping from requirement elements to design elements, design
elements to code elements, code elements to test cases.
This mapping is maintain any basic format of traceability matrix.

R. No. Requirement id Design Code Test case

The benefit of traceability matrix is that it help to identify which test case result from
a specific set of requirements, so that the test can easily determine which test cases
are affected by the change in the requirements.
When a test has failed, tracing the test case back to its source requirement may be
necessary to determine whether the test case was defined correctly.
As the size of test specifications grows quickly into large sets test documentation
being able to easily determine which tests execute which conditions becomes imp.
This is accomplished with a traceability matrix.
By mapping the test requirement to the test that exercise that specific condition one
can quickly determine which test to execute, which test to modify should a
requirement change and which condition has no associated test.
When testing should occur?
Or
In SDLC when testing should occur?
Testing should occur through out all the phases of a project.

Requirement phase: to determine the test strategy.
Determine the adequacy of requirements.
Generate functional test conditions.

Design phase: Determine consistency of design with requirements
Determine adequacy of design.
Generate functional and structural test conditions.

Coding phase: determine constancy with design.
Determine adequacy of implementation.
Generate structural and functional test conditions for program.

Testing phase: determine adequacy of test plan.
Testing the application system.

Support: modifications and re-test for the application.

What are Entrance criteria and exit criteria?
All requirements must be met to more from one test phase to another.
A phase can’t be left until its exit criteria are met.
A new phase can’t be entered until its entrance criteria are met.

Explain about change control management?
Or
How to handling change requests?
Our business client sends a formal mail to the project manager, to change his
requirements, then project manager will discuss with the project board members and
he will fill up the change request form. Project manager will analyze the expected
benefits, nature of changes, and analyze the impact assessment on cost, size,
schedule, effort, estimated time, then project manager will send this report to the
client. If the client is agreed the change request is accepted.

What is requirement?
A requirement is defined as a description of a condition or capability of a system.

What is the cost of quality?
Cost of quality is used to quantify the total cost of failure, appraisal and prevention
cost associated with the production of software.

What are deliverables we are submitting to the client?
Test plan, test case, test report, test script as per SLA (Service Level Agreement) we
need to submitting the docs that are demanded by the client.

What is Test plan?
Test plan is a document that describes the objective, scope, approach, focus of
software, hardware requirements, kinds of testing, effort, deliverables, risk factors,
automation, assumption and exit criteria.
Or
Test plan is a document that serves as the basis for all testing activities, throughout
the testing life cycle. Its contents are entry criteria, objectives, scope, software,
hardware requirements, kinds of testing, effort, deliverables, risk factors,
automation, assumption and exit criteria.

Have you prepared test plan?
No, but I involved in the test plan preparation.

What is test case?
Test case is a document that describes an input, action or event and expected
response to determine the functionality of the application. Test case should contain
particulars such as test case-id, description, test data, expected result.

From where you getting expected results?
SRS document.

What is a test report?
A test report is document that describes all the test cases that was conducted on the
build by the testers.
Its contents are test case-id, description, test data, expected result, actual result
(pass/fail), severity, priority of the bug and remarks.

When we write the actual result?
After executing the program with the help f test data then we can write the actual
results in test report.

What is bug report?
Bug report is a document that describes all the bugs. Its contents are bug-id, short
description, severity, priority, assigned group, bug status.

Abbreviations:-
ISO: International Organization for Standards
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
SEI: Software Engineering Institute
CMM: Capability Maturity Model
CMMI: CMM-Integration
PCMM: People-CMM
KPA: Key Process Area.
SLA: Service Level Agreement.

What is the difference between CMM and ISO?
ISO: Generic standards.
Applicable for all kinds of organizations.
Contains 20 clauses.
Documentation called QS manual.
Certification Audit is like an examination.
Certification is a pass/fail outcome.

CMM: Maturity Model.
Applicable only for software organizations.
Contains 18 key process area.
Documentation called work product or artifacts.
Final assessment is collaborated.
The result of the assessment is a quantitative score of the maturity of software
development process

What is test scenario?
Test scenario is the group of test cases are called test scenario related to particular
functionality.

What is web testing?
Web testing is a testing of either internet or intranet web applications where the
client interface is an internet browser. The browser can be any thing like internet
explorer, Netscape navigator and opera.
For web testing key focus area are like compatibility, navigation, user interaction,
performance, scalability, reliability, and availability etc.

What is the difference between client-server testing and web bases testing?
Client-server testing:
It is plat form dependent
Client server transactions are limited.
User behavior is predictable and controllable.
Failures are noticed internally
System variables are LAN, Centralized s/w, h/w.

Web based testing:
It is plat form independent.
Web transactions are unpredicted and unlimited.
User behavior is unpredictable and uncontrollable.
Failures are noticed externally.
Firewalls, routers, hosting company coding systems

What is recovery testing?
Testing how well the system recovers from crashes, H/W failures, and other
unexpected software failures, network errors.

What is security testing?
Testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access
and will fall damages.
Security testing attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system
will infect, protect it from improper penetration during security testing password
cracking, unauthorized entry into the software, network security are all taken into
consideration.

What is Regression testing?
Re-testing of the application after bug fixing or enhancement to ensure that changes
have not propagated unintended side effects and additional errors.

What is Re-testing?
Re-execution of a test on same application build with different inputs values (test
data) is called Re-testing.
In automation this is called Data Driven test.

What is sanity or smoke testing?
This the initial testing performed when the new build is evaluated in order to
checkout whether the build is ready for further or major testing.
What is user interface testing?
This testing is done to checkout the user interface or cosmetic errors. This is
intended to the look and feel of the application as specified in the user interface
design.

What is user acceptance testing (UAT)?
This is a system level testing generally done at the client’s environment. This is done
with the realistic data of the client to find out errors. A series of acceptance tests are
conducted to enable the customer to validate all requirements. The objective of the
acceptance testing is to test whether the system has been developed as per the
requirements of the user or not.

What is Alpha test?
Alpha test is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer to check the application
meets the customer requirements.

What is Beta testing?
Beta test is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-use r of the
software to validate all the requirements of the client.

What is Ad-hoc testing?
This is test is done randomly without executing any test cases with the intend of the
finding errors.