India: Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project | Asian Development Bank | Poverty

KOLKATA ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (KEIP

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The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

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Aims
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Improve the environment in the outer areas of Kolkata Reduce poverty in the low-income areas through access to basic services Facilitate community empowerment through participatory processes Protect the environment from adverse development Develop Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) into a proficient unit

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Resettlement of Canal Bank Dwellers
About 100 km of drainage canals being rehabilitated which require resettlement of 3,365 families including 11% female headed households

Gender Issues in Resettlement 1.Poor hygiene and sanitation 2.Lack of legal entitlements (land tenure and shelter) 3. Limited participation of women in decisionmaking and community affairs 4.Limited employment opportunities for women 5.Social insecurities and break down of social networks

Planning and Design
•Consultations and negotiations with project staff, government officials, civil society, NGOs, communities •Targeting of female-headed, poor and vulnerable households •Community involvement, including women’s involvement in planning, design and implementation

•Emphasis on civil society partnerships
•Employment opportunities for women, poor and vulnerable households •Gender-focused capacity development at all levels

Institutional Arrangements Social Development Unit (SDU) in KEIP •Composition of SDU
• Mix of consultants • KEIP and KMC officials • NGOs
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• SDU has three sub-units
• Public relations and communication cell • Grievance re-dressal cell (project level) • Cell for Implementation of CDP in slums and R&R Plan for canal bank dwellers

Results
-2,880 families living round rehabilitated canals resettled into new flats -11% of resettled households headed by women -Entitlements and Legal Empowerment: Women members of all resettled households are legal title holders of flats -638 candidates trained on livelihood options [women: 621, men: 17]. 125 started their own income generation activities -230 SHGs with a membership of 2,500 women formed; of these 31 SHGs with a membership of 300 women receive group loans worth $2,270 each -Two neighborhood committees formed comprising 39 women led SHGs

Lessons Learned •Gender focused activities restricted to resettlement plans and slum development •Income generation activities need diversification of trades, stronger market linkages, and better lending systems for women •Women’s needs like quality water supply and education for children need greater focus •Challenge of resettling families losing existing social networks •Gender discrimination still persists; focus on household/family level awareness programs on gender dynamics and relations

Engendering Development “I no longer feel deprived and helpless but proud to be part of society. I now have a legal address in Kolkata”

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