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Unicellular Amoeba sp.

(species) Amoeba live in freshwater Constantly changing shape in response to stimuli Adverse stimuli like acidic water and bright light causes it to run away Moves by extending pseudopodia (false feet), sticking it to the ground and flowing cytoplasm into the foot Cytoplasm is 2 layers, inner (endoplasm) and outer (ectoplasm) Pseudopodia also used for eating, surrounding food (phagocytosis), packaging it in a food vacuole and digests it with lysozyme (lysosome enzyme) Exchange of substances through plasma membrane by diffusion Water goes into the cell by osmosis and fills the contractile vacuole, when full, blows out the water from time to time(osmoregulation) Amoeba sp. reproduces by binary fission, but produces spores when cannot do binary fission Multicellular Cells grow, change shape and differentiate in multicellular organisms. Mature cells carry out different functions, like different medical specialists are experts in their field, like a cardiologist in the heart, the neurologist in the brain, etc. They undergo specialization to carry out their functions more efficiently. Organisation is in this form: Cells that carry out a function are grouped intotissu es. Differentt iss u es that carry out a function are grouped into an organ. Several organ s that contribute to one section of an organisms functions (circulatory, muscular) are grouped into a system. Severalsy stems make up anorganism. Animals There are 4 main types of tissue in an animal: Epithelial tissue (Lining and Protection) o Consists of 1 or more layers of cells o Epithelium cells are tightly interconnected, form continuous layer over body surfaces (skin + mouth) and inner cavity linings (digestive tracts and lungs) o Some have glands (exocrine and endocrine) o Skin epithelium forms a barrier against infections, mechanical injury and dehydration o Intestine epithelium has goblet cells which secrete mucus into the digestive tract o Trachea epithelium has small, hairlike projections called cilia Muscle tissue (Movement) o Composed of muscle fibres o 3 types of muscle tissue: Smooth muscle (intestine, blood vessels, urinary and reproductive tract) Involuntary movements

Contract slowly, for a long time Skeletal muscle (arms and legs) On Demand Voluntary movements Contract, relax to move bones Cardiac muscle (heart walls) Work, Work, Work, 24/7, 365 days a year Blood pumping to body parts, involuntary Nerve tissue (Information Transfer) o Composed of neurones or nerve cells o Neurone has a cell body and nerve fibres (dendrites and axons) o Neuroens detect stimuli and transmit electrical signals (impulses) to muscles/glands o Directs and coordinates body activities Connective tissue (Multiple Uses) o Consists of various cells and fibres separated by extracellular matrix o Types of connective tissue: Loose connective tissue Most widespread Binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs Dense fibrous connective tissue A lot of closelypacked collagenous fibres Found in tendons (musclebone connection) and ligaments (bonebone connection/joints) Cartilage Strong and flexible Support to nose, ears and covers bone ends at joints Cartilage discs between vertebrae absorb pressure Bone Cells embedded in collagen matrix, hardened by calcium Harder than cartilage, protects organs, supports body

Blood cells Produced in bone marrow (ends of long bones) Regulating, transporting and protective functions Adipose tissue Tightly packed cells, storing fat Found in skin dermis and around major organs Energy reserve, insulation and protection Each cell has an oil droplet, energy used up, the droplet shrinks Tissues work together to perform a specific function. These are called organs. Examples are lungs, heart, kidneys, brain etc. Example: The skin: Consist of various tissues joined together 2 main layers, the epidermis and the dermis Epidermis is made of epithelial tissue, which constantly divides Dermis is made of connective, nerve, epithelial and muscle tissue

Blood is supplied through blood capillary network Nerve endings are scattered throughout the skin, transmit impulses to nervous system Epithelial cells produce hair follicles, sweat glands and oil glands Plants Two main types of tissue in plants: Meristematic tissue o Consists of small cells with thin walls, large nuclei, dense cytoplasm and no vacuoles o Young, actively dividing cells, undifferentiated, located at root tips and shoot buds Permanent tissue o Differentiated/partly differentiated mature tissues o Threee types of permanent tissue: Epidermal tissue Outermost layer, covering stems, leaves and roots of young plants Flat, with large vacuoles Walls that are exposed to air covered with waxy waterproof cuticle Cuticle reduces water loss, mechanical injury and infection Root cells have root hairs to increase water absorption Guard cells, containing chloroplasts, open and close stomata Ground tissue Consists of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissue Form the bulk of a plant o Parenchyma Least specialized cells Thin primary walls, large vacuoles Store sugar and starch Turgid, gives support and shape to herbaceous plants o Collenchyma Uneven cell walls Supports herbaceous plants, young stems and petioles (leaf branches) o Sclerenchyma Uniform cell walls with Thickening Lignin, may be dead Support + mechanical strength to mature places Vascular tissue Continuous throughout the plant Consists of: o Xylem Consists of xylem vessels joined end to end from root to leaf No cytoplasm, easy water, mineral transport Cell walls with Thickening Lignin for support n strength o Phloem Sieve tubes end to end, forming tubelike structures

Transports organic compounds (carbohydrates, amino acids) Organs in plants are leaf, stem, root and flower. Systems are root and shoot systems. Root system all plant roots. Shoot system stem, leaf, bud, flower and fruit. Stem, branch for support system. Leaf for photosynthesis. Flowers for pollination.