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( 2009 6 7 2010 5 18 )

54

Banzhuo: Banquets and Han Society in Qing Taiwan


Ping-tsang Tzeng
Department of History, National Cheng-Kung University

Banzhuo in Mandarin or pntok in Hokkien, literally means managing


the tables, referring to banquets in homes or private venues. In contrast to
holding banquets in commercial venues like restaurants, which became
popular during the Japanese colonial period, banzhuo was the dominant
custom of the Han people in Taiwan to treat guests with feasting during the
Qing Dynasty. Focusing on the tradition of banzhuo in Qing Taiwan, this
article examines the cultural rules and social significance of such banquets
in Han society. This article divides these banquets at private venues into the
following categories according their different occasions and social contexts:
life-cycle ritual banquets, reunion banquets, religious banquets, reconciliatory
banquets, and consolatory banquets. As the occasions and social contexts
varied, so did the rules and presentations of banquets. For example, dishes
and dining manners of the life-circle ritual banquets were largely dominated
by specific rituals and embedded with symbolic meanings. Both the hosts
and guests in such banquets were thus restricted by these rituals and
manners, putting their mutual relationship in a rational framework and
shouldering corresponding responsibilities of treating and paying back. By
contrast, religious banquets were characterized with gestures that

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transgressed normal behavior patterns, subverting accepted etiquette.


However, in spite of various rules for different categories of banquets,
all kinds of banzhuo enjoyed the common feature of significant collective
mobilization. By holding and attending banquets, hosts and guests could
expand their social networks and improve their reputations. Among other
strategies, reunion banquets and religious banquets were an effective
means by which the Han people in Taiwan could strengthen their collective
consciousness and advance social consolidation. Furthermore, banzhuo
also had other social functions concerning religion, entertainment, and
nutrition.
In addition to above categories of banzhuo, a new form of banquet
emerged in Taiwan by the mid-Qing with the formation of a local gentry
class. Gentry tended to hold banquets in their private dining rooms, with
dishes made by professional private chefs. As the characteristics of
collective mobilization and wide-participation of guests were lost on these
occasions, such banquets were basically different from banzhuo, marking a
new form of banquets of the Han people in Taiwan.
Keywords: banzhuo, banquets, feasts, extravagance, Qing Taiwan