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From Chinese Original Domicile to Taiwanese Ethnicity:


An Analysis of Census Category Transformation in Taiwan
Fu-chang Wang
Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica
The two purposes of this article are to a) identify the historical, social, and political processes behind the formation and transformation of ethnic categorization in
Taiwans population census procedures, and b) to locate the position of ethnic categorization in the political and social systems of postwar Taiwan. The author describes how ethnic characteristics in the general population were categorized by the
Republic of China (ROC) government across seven censuses conducted between
1956 and 2000, then uses the data to propose a four-stage transformation. An explanatory framework of political institution re-construction by Mainland Chinese in
Taiwan during the postwar era is offered to position the role and function of ethnic
categorization. The author argues that categorizing people in terms of their geographic origins in China or Taiwan was institutionalized by the ROC government under
the banner of Chinese national imagination to meet the political goals of unifying
people and claiming legitimacy for its efforts to retake the mainland. Categorization
played an important role in the temporary political institutions that were established
by the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) regime to claim that it was still the legitimate ruler of China. However, categorization also revealed the regimes lack of trust in the
Taiwanese people to show loyalty to the Chinese nation, which the government suggested was the result of five decades of Japanese colonial rule. The end result was
an institution in which Taiwanese were under-represented both politically and culturally. After 1971 (when international support for the KMT regime declined),
Chinese national ideology came under intense internal challenge, with the emerging
opposition advocating an alternative Taiwanese national imagination. According to
demands for ethnic equality, temporary political arrangements were interpreted by
opposition groups as institutions of ethnic discrimination against Taiwanese. The
transformation of categorization from Chinese original domicile to Taiwanese
ethnicity entailed not only a change in imagined societal boundaries, but also in
ideal patterns of inter-group relations within the society. The original domicile categorization system was eventually abolished after major institutional changes occurred in the early 1990s. The author addresses the circumstances under which the
ethnicity concept became salient in Taiwan, and how it was used to counteract a nationalist discourse rather than an explicit racist ideology. Thus, ethnic relations in
Taiwan developed concurrently with a dispute over national identity, rather than
within a less controversial national boundary.
Keywords: population census, original domicile, ethnicity, ethnic categorization
Taiwanese Sociology Number 9 (June 2005): 59-117

61

1992

1947

1992

1992
1

(1)(2)

62

1954

1970

1980

63

1956-2000

(race)(ethnic groups)

original domicile 4
5

4
5

1980 1990
1956 1966 1970 nativitybirthplace1975 domicileoriginal domicile1980

64

1931

1945 1949
1992

6 1948

1984: 123-144

6
7

1980
1980 10 17 3

65

1956-2000

1956

34 12

359
49 34 12
359
69
12 49 33
12
12

1966

359
10
21

359
49 34
12 21

10

1970 20 21

34 12
21

1975 20
21

34 12
21

1980

19
34 12
359
19
33 12
10

66

1956-2000

1990

23
21
34 12
359
21
33 12
10

2000

1. 1956 1966

2. 1970 1975

3. 1980 1990

4. 2000

(1) 19561966

(2) 19801990
(3) 2000

67

1956 9 16

1947 1948
1950
1956 19561956

1928
1935194019451947

1946
8
1934 1945
1940

68

1946

69

1.

2. (817,614)(1,450,384)(74,409)
3.
4.

5. (8,719,055)
6.

(1946: 1-2)

70

1930 1950
9
24
3

1.
12

2.
3.

4.

10
1933 1942
9

10

(1)
(2)

71

1950

1933

1934

1940

1941

1942

1931

1932

1935

1935

1935

1935

1935

1936

1937

1937

1937

389

46
1

1939

1939

1945

1946

1946

1946

1946

1949

3
57

b
c 1.2.3.4.
5.6.7.8.9.

72

1940 1942

1940

1940

11
11

1925

(divide and rule) 1994


[1980]: 192-199

73

1905 1935
1926

1905-1935

1905
38

1915
4

1920
9


1925
14

1930

1935

10

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

74

1928
1972

1946

1946a: 88-91 51, 52

12

1956
12

1928: 3 1972: 87

75


1946:
94-95 53

1956
1956

1.

1946

13

1956

13

1946 10

1946b: 61946 12
1947 1949 5

1949: 14

76

2.

1956

1959: 169

1956

1956a:
31

1956b: 73

77

1956b: 109-111

1943 62,119 14
15 1956

16

17

14
15

16
17

161,961
1969 1971

1981: i 1960-1970
1988: 172-173 1965
130

1956

1956: 3

78

1956: 3

1956: 4

1955

18

18

17 191
1959: 170-171

79

49 356

19
69
12
49
12

1956:
4
1945

19

49 36 13 356
3

80

20

200221 1947

22

20
21

22

1944

1990: 53

(Lai et al. 1991: 4-5)

81

23

1966
1966
1956

24

49 359

69

10 1956

23

24

1966

82

1966
1970
1975
1980
1980
1966 (1)
(2)

1970 1975

1970
1975 1980

1966

1970 1975
1980
1966
1980

1982: 9-11

83

1980

25
1966 1980

1971
1971 7 7
26

1971: 379

1971: 378-379

25
26

84

1971

27

28 1972

1972a: 5-6

1972a:
629

1971

30

27

28
29
30

1971 7 9 2
1971 7 19
1971 7 27
1971 7
23 3
1971 7 25 2
1971 7 18 2
1971 7 21 2

1971 7 25 2

85

1970

1972-1973
1972 12 20

31

1972a: 5

31

1972b: 19

86

1972a: 6

12

13 1973
6 16

1973a: 43-44

1973b: 10

87

21
32

33

1950

34

1960
35

36
32
33

34

35
36

1973 6 29
175 18 1973c: 36-37
1971 20 26
18

1973 21

1959
1(1): 20, 1
(9): 225, 1(11): 693, 2(18): 788, 2(23): 964-965
1961 1 6
2 6 20 2

1961 3 14 2
64% 36%1968 10 27 2
77%
80%1979 10 14 2

88

1970

1973

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1973d: 19-20

89

1948
1948 8 1969
11 37 1972 29
38 40

1970

1975

39

19961977

37
38

39

1961
11
1972

1984a: 608
1975

90

1978 1979

1980 2 28

1975
1980 1982

1956 1966 1959 1969


1980 1982

1970
1975

5%

1970 birthplace
nativity1975 original domicile domicile

91

1980

1956
1970
1971

1928
1972 1972: 86

12

1972:
187-188

1998
5,900
1940 1950 8 34 1960
462 1970 828
1980 1,371 1990 3,122
1998: 34 1970

1978

1978: 115
1978:

92

116-118 1956

1978: 126

1980

1994 [1980]: 200-201


1970

1950

93

1980

1980 1990
1980

2000 1992

1991-1992
1991 3 13

1991a: 198

1991b: 2740 6 25
67

40

94

1991c: 2141
1991 6 26 21

1991d: 13-1442

1991 11 23
12 7

1992 6 19

6 23
1992a,
b

1973
1980 1980 3
43 1982 3

41
42
43

67 4 19

21
1975
2 28 1980:
145

95

44 1983
45 1984 2
26

1991-1992

1991

1992

1980

46
1990

44

45
46

1982: 24, 38
3
4 16 1983: 104

1989 1 1

96

47 1990 6 21

1991 12 31
1990
3 1991 1

1990 3

1990 5 4

1990:
4-5

1990 6
1991 3

47

97

1992c: 232
48

49

1992c: 235
1992a: 84-85

1986

1990

200450

48
49
50

1982

1990

98

1990 7 12 7

1990 7

1990.7.19 42 34

1990.7.20 4023 221a

1990.7.21 172

1990.7.21 ?
42 18
1990.7.22 78599
596 81 1: 8

1990.7.23 831 875


4 7
1990.7.26 294
10

1990.7.30 203
42 13
4 15

a 160
92 4023

99

51
1988

52 1991
64.7%
1991: 49-51
1991: 203

1991: 7-28
1991 5 7

1991: 91-95 1991 3 13

1991

51
52

1987 3 24

1992

1992a: 88-89

100

1970

1949
1949

1954

1953, 1954

101

53

1970

1992 1995 19971956

1980

1967

1970
53

(1986: 148-153)

102

1.

2.

1.

2.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.

3.

1.
2.

3.

1954 1955
1954: 1700-17021955: 158054

55

54
55

1960
2001: 140-271
1959 6 12 1960 8
2001: 177-178, 183-184

103

1966
1969

1948

1970

1989

1970

2002, 2003

104

1970 1980

1970

1996

1980
1979

1996
1980
56
1986
12

56

1969 11 1972 29 1975 37


1980 64 1983 65 1986 73 1989 101

105

1987
12
40
57

1989: 80-85, 334-350

1987
3 24

1987a: 20

57

106

1987a: 28

13.6%14% 4.3%
58

1987

(1)
(2)
1993

(3)
58

1990 7

1987
1987 11 (1987)(1987)

2002

107

1993

1.

2.

1993: 76-79

1987
59

59

1987 4 4

1987b: 18

1986: 19

108

1990

1987
1991

60

1980

60

(1993)

109

1970 ethnic groupsethnicityGates


1981; Appleton 1973: 759

1980

110

1950

(racist ideology)
1980

(ethnic assimilation)

(ethnic pluralism)
1987

111

61 1991

62 1995

1995: 51

NSC91-2414H-001-020

61
62

1987-1989 1988

1989

1989 4 19 2

112

1982 13(12): 2-51


(1987) 25(1): 1-202
(1986) 23(2): 19-25
(1991)
(1996)
1: 129-210
(1998a)
2: 1-45
(1998b)
143-232

(2002)
233-274
(2003)
(2004) 1970s1990s
535-590
(1989) 2(1): 71-116
(1956) 12(2): 2-3
(1989)

(1993)

(1998)

(1972a) 62(21): 1-7


(1972b) 62(18): 18-24
(1973a) 62(45): 16-49
(1973b) 62(46): 4-28
(1973c) 62(49): 36-39
(1973d) 62(50): 17-28
(1980) 69(41): 153-159

113

(1983) 72(34): 104


(1987a) 76(24): 18-2127-31
(1987b) 76(27): 17-20
(1990) 79(36): 2-16
(1991a) 80(96): 198-213
(1991b) 80(22): 27-28
(1991c) 80(51): 20-24
(1991d) 80(52): 13-14
(1992a) 81(50): 59-96
(1992b) 81(51): 49-57
(1992c) 80(100): 232-243
(1984)

(1956a) 12(2): 26-35


(1956b)
(1982)

(2002)
4: 75-118
(1986)
(1956) 11(6): 13-16
(1975) 2: 14-21
(1995) (1945-1987)

(1993)
233-278
(1987)
25(1): 34-53
(1990)
53-55

(1988)

(1987) 25(1): 22-31

114

(1972) :

(1978)
(1972) 23(1): 85-104
(2002) :
9(2): 145-201
(2001)

(1995)
(1992) :

(1984a)
(1984b)
(1959)

(1946a)

(1946b)

(1949)

(1954) ()

(1955)

(1967) 16 (19): 919


(1971) 25 (11): 378-379
(1928)
(1987) 13: 14-32
(1956) 12(3): 2-6
(1981)
(2002)
9(1): 181-239
(2003) 1970

115

5: 195-250
(1993)

(1980) 294
(1994)
179-204
(1953)
430 1953 9 25
(1954)
467 1954 2 2
(1971) 1971 7 25
(1997) (1945-1997)

(1956)
2-4
Appleton, Sheldon (1973) Regime Support among Taiwan High School Students. Asian
Survey 13(8): 750-760.
Gates, Hill (1981) Ethnicity and Social Class. Pp. 241-281 in Emily Martin Ahern and
Hill Gates (eds.) The Anthropology of the Taiwanese Society, Stanford: Stanford
University Press.
Lai, Tse-han, Ramon H. Myers, and Wei wou (1991) A Tragic Beginning: The Taiwan
Uprising of February 28, 1947, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

116

1990

1
2

1980

117

1987

1980