Health Risks

Extreme Tattoos
Some people choose to use their entire body as a canvas. Others use tattoos and surgeries to shift their appearance from human to animal. One example is Stalking Cat Dennis Avner.

Since tattoos involve needles and blood, they carry several risks. These include transmission of diseases like hepatitis, tuberculosis and possibly HIV. When tattoo artists follow all the correct sterilization and sanitation procedures, risks for disease transmission are relatively low. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there has not been a documented case of HIV transmission from a tattoo. However, doctors warn that non-sterile tattooing practices can lead to the transmission of syphilis, hepatitis B and other infectious organisms. Infections can occur in new tattoos, especially without appropriate aftercare. Some people also experience allergic reactions to tattoo inks. Although the pigments used may have U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for other purposes, the FDA does not regulate tattoo inks. Finally, some people experience pain or burning during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations because of metallic pigments. Some doctors have also reported interference and distorted MRI images from permanent makeup pigments. In addition, most states place restrictions on whether people who have tattoos can donate blood. Because of the danger of hepatitis, the American Red Cross will not accept blood from someone who has been tattooed in the past year unless the tattoo parlor is stateregulated. Most states do not regulate tattoo parlors. [Source: American Red Cross] Tattoo professionals use rules known as universal precautions to prevent the spread of illnesses during tattooing. These precautions are part of the Bloodborne Pathogens Rule issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The same rules apply to hospitals and doctors' offices. The CDC is a good resource for information about universal precautions.

Precautions for tattoo parlors include glove use, sterilization and covering bottles and tools.

Other precautions specific to tattooing include:
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Checking gloves for pinhole tears during tattooing, since petroleum-based ointment erodes latex Pouring ink in advance, using clean tissue to open ink bottles during tattooing and preventing nozzles from touching contaminated surfaces Patting tubes dry after rinsing during color changes -- never blowing excess water from them Spraying liquid soap into a tissue, not directly onto bleeding area, since blood can become airborne when the spray hits it Giving pens used for drawing on the skin, which should be medical grade and sterile, to the client

Tattoo History
The word tattoo comes from the Tahitian word tattau, which means "to mark," and was first mentioned in explorer James Cook's records from his 1769 expedition to the South Pacific. Tattoos were also found on Egyptian and Nubian mummies that date back to about 2000 B.C.

Tattoo artists must also take special safety measures regarding their hands. Gloves help prevent disease transmission from bodily fluids, but bacteria thrive in the warm, damp environment they create. This means that artists must:
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Wash hands thoroughly and often Inspect hands for cuts or sores and cover them with bandages Remove hangnails and keep nails short to prevent punctures to gloves Refrain from tattooing when experiencing lesions, dermatitis or allergic reactions

Laws require minors to have a parent's permission to get a tattoo. So, some adolescents get tattoos from friends or amateurs, who use makeshift tools like pens and paper clips with little if any sanitary precautions. This is extremely dangerous, since proper equipment and sanitary measures protect people from disease and infection. A tattoo is a marking made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment for decorative or other reasons. Tattoos on humans are a type of decorative body modification, while tattoos on animals are most commonly used for identification or branding. The term "tattoo" or from Samoa, "Tatau" is first referred to by Joseph Banks, the naturalist aboard Cook's ship the "Endeavour" in 1769 where he mentions it in his journal. To paraphrase. he states, "I shall now mention the way they mark themselves indelibly, each of them is so marked by their humor or disposition". Tattooing has been practiced for centuries worldwide. The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, traditionally wore facial tattoos. Today one can find Berbers of Tamazgha (North Africa), Māori of New Zealand, Arabic people in East-Turkey and Atayal of Taiwan with facial tattoos. Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples and among certain tribal groups in the Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Mentawai Islands, Africa, North

Cambodia. tatu.2 Studio hygiene o 7.[2] . South America. From Polynesian tatau. In Tahitian.1 Traumatic tattoos 12 See also 13 References o 13.2 Identification o 3. the pronunciation being changed to conform to English phonology as "tattoo".[1] Sailors on later voyages introduced both the word and reintroduced the concept of tattooing to Europe.5 Fraternal/Social 4 Prevalence 5 Negative associations 6 Religious perspectives o 6. tattaow. Europe. Mesoamerica.3 Cosmetic o 3. the art continues to be popular in many parts of the world.1 Bibliography o 13.4 Medical o 3.3 Aftercare 8 Health risks 9 Tattoo removal 10 Temporary tattoos 11 Types of tattoos o 11.4 Judaism 7 Procedure o 7. tattow.America. New Zealand and Micronesia. Despite some taboos surrounding tattooing. Japan.1 Dyes and pigments o 7. Contents [hide]              1 Etymology 2 History 3 Purposes o 3.1 Decorative and spiritual uses o 3.2 Mormonism o 6." The word tatau was introduced as a loan word into English.3 Islam o 6.1 Christianity o 6.2 Notes [edit] Etymology The OED gives the etymology of tattoo as "In 18th c.

and keloid. "Tats". Russia Main article: History of tattooing . a Western-style machine. with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs. whose mummy was discovered at Pazyryk. Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as flash. or for that matter. Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers. The most common word used for traditional Japanese tattoo designs is Horimono. and to the tattooists as "Artists". The latter usage is gaining greater support. or "Work".[3] [edit] History A tattoo on the right arm of a Scythian chieftain. any method of tattooing using insertion of ink. "Pieces". "Art". moko. In Taiwan. they are used to demonstrate that an adult man can protect his homeland. cicatrix. a notable instance of industrial design.Tattoo enthusiasts may refer to tattoos as "Ink". Japanese may use the word "tattoo" to mean nonJapanese styles of tattooing. the traditional Japanese hand method. The Japanese word irezumi means "insertion of ink" and can mean tattoos using tebori. and that an adult woman is qualified to weave cloth and perform housekeeping. facial tattoos of the Atayal tribe are named "Badasun".[citation needed] The anthropologist Ling Roth in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names of tatu.

before spreading to Western societies generally. and on his right ankle. Julius Caesar described these tattoos in Book V of his Gallic Wars (54 BC). amulets and talismans. marks of status and rank. [19] Other mummies bearing tattoos and dating from the end of the second millennium BC have been discovered. dating from the fourth to fifth millennium BC. Tattoos have served as rites of passage. and in the discovery of tatau by eighteenth century explorers. Ötzi the Iceman. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother/father or daughter/son) or about an unrelated person. pledges of love. according to surviving accounts. to hand-pricking the skin to insert dyes. sexual lures and marks of fertility. ranging from rubbing cuts and other wounds with ashes. protection. decorations for bravery.[5] [edit] Purposes [edit] Decorative and spiritual uses Tattooing is a tradition among many of the indigenous peoples around the world. symbols of religious and spiritual devotion.[4] Pre-Christian Germanic. such as the Mummy of Amunet from Ancient Egypt and the mummies at Pazyryk on the Ukok Plateau. slaves and convicts. behind his left knee. was found in the Ötz valley in the Alps and had approximately 57 carbon tattoos consisting of simple dots and lines on his lower spine. Celtic and other central and northern European tribes were often heavily tattooed. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures.Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice at least since around Neolithic times. punishment. These tattoos were thought to be a form of healing because of their placement which resembles acupuncture. . and as the marks of outcasts. Tattooing in the Western world today has its origins in Polynesia. The Picts were famously tattooed (or scarified) with elaborate dark blue woad (or possibly copper for the blue tone) designs. some ten thousand years ago. Tattooing in Japan is thought to go back to the Paleolithic era. The Polynesian practice became popular among European sailors.[citation needed] Various other cultures have had their own tattoo traditions.

Therefore tattooists often worked in ports where potential customers were numerous. Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition. in the period of early contact between the Māori and Europeans. A well known example is the identification system for inmates in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. Tattoos have also been used for identification in other ways. religious. In Laos. For example.[citation needed] For many centuries seafarers have undergone tattooing for the purpose of enabling identification after drowning. Among Catholic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina. and Thailand. and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups. Māori chiefs sometimes drew their moko (facial tattoo) on documents in place of a signature. The traditional custom continues today in the Royal Navy (Great Britain) and in many others.A memorial tattoo of a deceased loved one's initials Today.[citation needed] . Some Māori still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. [edit] Identification A Nazi concentration camp identification tattoo People have also been forcibly tattooed. Cambodia. Tattoos are sometimes used by forensic pathologists to help them identify burned. and magical reasons. or mutilated bodies. tattoos with Christian symbols would be inked on to protect themselves from the Muslim Turks. sentimental/memorial. including criminal gangs (see criminal tattoos) but also a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture. In the Philippines certain tribal groups believe that tattoos have magical qualities. and help to protect their bearers. the yantra tattoo is used for protection against evil and to increase luck. In this way recovered bodies of such drowned persons could be connected with their family members or friends before burial. Tattoo pigment is buried deep enough in the skin that even severe burns are not likely to destroy a tattoo. Most traditional tattooing in the Philippines is related to the bearer's accomplishments in life or rank in the tribe. people choose to be tattooed for cosmetic. putrefied.

Mark of a deserter from the British Army. Permanent makeup is the use of tattoos to enhance eyebrows. Also. lips (liner and/or lipstick). . for example). show animals. eyes (liner). Tattoos are used in skin tones to cover vitaligo. Displayed at Army Medical Services Museum. but is different from tattooing as no ink or dye is inserted during the process. Tattooing has also been used to convey medical information about the wearer (e. usually with natural colors as the designs are intended to resemble makeup. Branding is used for similar reasons and is often performed without anesthesia. skin pigmentation disorder. Pet dogs and cats are often tattooed with a serial number (usually in the ear. [edit] Medical Main article: Medical tattoo Medical tattoos are used to ensure instruments are properly located for repeated application of radiotherapy and for the areola in some forms of breast reconstruction. Pets. [edit] Cosmetic Main article: Permanent makeup When used as a form of cosmetics. thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattooed with identification and other marks. animals are occasionally tattooed to prevent sunburn (on the nose. and even moles. or on the inner thigh) via which their owners can be identified.g. tattooing includes permanent makeup and hiding or neutralizing skin discolorations. [edit] Fraternal/Social Members of college fraternities and sororities often voluntarily elect to have their fraternity or sorority letters tattooed on their bodies. Such tattoos are often performed by a veterinarian and in most cases the animals are anesthetized during the process. blood group). Tattoos are also placed on animals. though very rarely for decorative reasons. Tattoo on skin and equipment.

[7] Formal interest in the art of the tattoo has become prominent in the 1990s through the beginning of the 21st century. Japan. many of whom have technical and fine arts training. by the San Francisco tattoo artist Lyle Tuttle. this has led to an improvement in the quality of tattoos being produced. The decoration of blues singer Janis Joplin with a wristlet and a small heart on her left breast. the presence of tattoos became evident within pop culture. particularly in North and South America. a decline in traditional tribal tattooing in Europe occurred with the spread of Christianity. and Europe. Historically. inspiring television shows such as A&E's Inked and TLC's Miami Ink and LA Ink. sported tattoos to show their allegiance.[8] Woman with Tattoo In many traditional cultures tattooing has also enjoyed a resurgence. such as the Knights of St. has been called a seminal moment in the popular acceptance of tattoos as art. Contemporary art exhibitions and visual art institutions have featured tattoos as art through such means as displaying tattoo flash. partially in deference to cultural heritage.[6] During the first decade of the 21st century. examining the works of tattoo artists.[edit] Prevalence Tattoos have experienced a resurgence in popularity in many parts of the world. Coupled with advancements in tattoo pigments and the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for tattooing. John of Malta. However. some Christian groups. A decline often occurred in other cultures following European efforts to convert aboriginal and . or otherwise incorporating examples of body art into mainstream exhibits. One such 2009 Chicago exhibition Freaks & Flash featured both examples of historic body art as well as the tattoo artists which produced it. The growth in tattoo culture has seen an influx of new artists into the industry.

a prohibition that stood for 70 years before being repealed in 1948. a survey conducted online by Harris Interactive estimated that 14% of all adults in the United States have a tattoo.[13] .[9] In September 2006.indigenous people to Western religious and cultural practices that held tattooing to be a "pagan" or "heathen" activity. Many studies have been done of the tattooed population and society's view of tattoos. It found that 36% of Americans ages 18–29. the Pew Research Center conducted a telephone survey which found that 36% of Americans ages 18–25. just slightly down from 2003. Many public Japanese bathhouses (sentō) and gymnasiums often openly ban those bearing large or graphic tattoos in an attempt to prevent Yakuza from entering. lesbian and bisexual population (25%) and people living in the West (20%).[10] In January 2008. Among age groups. 32% of those 25-29. 25% of those 30-39 and 12% of those 40-49 have tattoos. as do 8% of those 50-64. tattoos are strongly associated with a particular organized crime organization known as the yakuza.[12] The Government of Meiji Japan had outlawed tattoos in the 19th century. In June 2006 the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology published the results of a telephone survey which took place in 2004. 9% of those ages 18–24. tattooing takes place within the context of a rite of passage between adolescence and adulthood. 24% of those 30-40 and 15% of those 41-51 had a tattoo. when 16% had a tattoo. Men are just slightly more likely to have a tattoo than women (15% versus 13%)[11] [edit] Negative associations Conspicuous tattoos and other body modification can make gainful employment difficult in many fields. The highest incidence of tattoos was found among the gay. 40% of those 26-40 and 10% of those 41-64 had a tattoo. particularly full body tattoos done the traditional Japanese way (Tebori). Within some traditional indigenous cultures. In Japan.

kills.In the United States many prisoners and criminal gangs use distinctive tattoos to indicate facts about their criminal behavior. and consisted mostly of Christian crosses on hands. fingers.[16][17][18] Coptic Christians who live in Egypt tattoo themselves with the symbols of Coptic crosses on their right wrists. prison sentences. When on pilgrimage. they still carry a heavy stigma among certain social groups. tattoos are still associated with criminality. members of the U. . This is usually done on the forearm. Tattoos of Christian symbols are common. etc. also illustrating a strong motive for body-modification as the search for "self and attempts to attain mastery and control over the body in an age of increasing alienation."[15] [edit] Religious perspectives [edit] Christianity See also: Religious Tattoos among Croatians in Bosnia and Herzegovina There is no consistent Christian position on tattooing. This form of tattooing continued long past its original motivation. Joseph. for perceived protection against forced conversion to Islam during Turkish occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1463-1878). forearms.S. and below the neck and on the chest. The prevalence of women in the tattoo industry. especially of children. At the same time. Tattooing was performed during spring time or during special religious celebrations such as the Feast of St. Although the general acceptance of tattoos is on the rise in Western society. Catholic Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina used tattooing. The majority of Christians do not take issue with the practice. with each tear representing the death of a friend. along with larger numbers of women bearing tattoos. and organizational affiliation. Tattooing is also common in the British Armed Forces. Tattooing was also used by the Nazi regime in Nazi concentration camps to tag prisoners.. Insofar as this cultural or subcultural use of tattoos predates the widespread popularity of tattoos in the general population. for example. military have an equally well established and longstanding history of tattooing to indicate military units. however. appears to be changing negative perceptions with the exception of so called "tramp-stamp". some Christians get a small tatoo dating the year and a small cross. though it was forbidden during Yugoslavian communism. Tattoos are generally considered an important part of the culture of the Russian mafia. A study of "at-risk" (as defined by school absenteeism and truancy) adolescent girls showed a positive correlation between bodymodification and negative feelings towards the body and self-esteem. battles. an association which remains widespread among older Americans. while a minority uphold the Hebrew view against tattoos (see below) based on Leviticus 19:28.a lower back tattoo. can be symbolic of murder.[14] A tear tattoo.

According to the book of Sunni traditions. "The Prophet forbade [. explains the prohibition against tattoos as a Jewish response to paganism. and because the Prophet cursed the one who does tattoos and the one for whom that is done.[21] and that they should keep it clean. which the church interprets as forbidding tattoos. or incise any marks on yourselves: I am the Lord. In modern times. with some Shi'a pointing to a ruling by Ayatollah Sistani stating they are permitted. [edit] Islam Tattoos are usually considered forbidden in Sunni Islam.] mutilation (or maiming) of bodies. difference of scholarly Sunni Muslim opinion as to the reason why tattoos are forbidden. however. the church believes that the body is a sacred temple as preached in the New Testament. Maimonides. Judaism prohibited tattoos entirely in order to disassociate from other religions." The prohibition is explained by contemporary rabbis as part of a general prohibition on body modification that does not serve a medical purpose (such as to correct a deformity). even among many otherwise fairly secular Jews.[19] In the Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints it states that the Latter-day Saints accept the Bible to be the word of God[20] Therefore.[23] There is. the association of tattoos with Nazi concentration camps and the Holocaust has given an additional level for revulsion to the practice of tattooing. . Sahih Bukhari.."[22] Sunni Muslims believe tattooing is forbidden because it involves changing the creation of God.[24] The use of temporary tattoo made with henna is very common in Muslim North-Africa.[edit] Mormonism Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (often referred to as "Latterday Saints" or "Mormons") have been advised by their church leaders to not tattoo their bodies.. inside and out. The permissibility of tattoos is debated in Shi'a Islam.[25] [edit] Judaism Tattoos are forbidden in Judaism[26] based on the Torah (Leviticus 19:28): "You shall not make gashes in your flesh for the dead. a leading 12th century scholar of Jewish law and thought. Since it was common practice for ancient pagan worshipers to tattoo themselves with religious iconography and names of gods.

the ink is inserted beneath the skin using nonelectrical. the layer of dermal tissue underlying the epidermis.[edit] Procedure Modern tattoo machine in use: here outfitted with a 5-needle setup. where pigment remains trapped within fibroblasts. but in the long term (decades) the pigment tends to migrate deeper into the dermis. ashes or other agents. pigment is dispersed throughout a homogenized damaged layer down through the epidermis and upper dermis. As healing proceeds. needles. Tattooing involves the placement of pigment into the skin's dermis. hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel." that is. Some cultures create tattooed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones (made like needles) with clay formed disks or. . ultimately concentrating in a layer just below the dermis/epidermis boundary. the damaged epidermis flakes away (eliminating surface pigment) while deeper in the skin granulation tissue forms. After initial injection. which is later converted to connective tissue by collagen growth.[27] Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink. accounting for the degraded detail of old tattoos. but number of needles depends on size and shading desired. This mends the upper dermis. which may be an adjunct to scarification. in both of which the presence of foreign material activates the immune system's phagocytes to engulf the pigment particles. This method is known as tebori. some cultures continue this practice. in modern times. Its presence there is stable. Traditional Japanese tattoos (Horimono) are still "hand-poked.

etc. The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin. Modern tattoo machines use electromagnetic coils. the costs of running a business. the predecessor of the modern configuration. The needles are single-use needles that come packaged individually. O'Reilly's machine was based on the rotary technology of the electric engraving device invented by Thomas Edison.Traditional two coil tattoo machine The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electric tattoo machine. [edit] Dyes and pigments Main article: Tattoo ink Early tattoo inks were obtained directly from nature and were extremely limited in pigment variety. The modern electric tattoo machine is far removed from the machine invented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891. . The tattoo artist must wash not only his or her hands. an almost unlimited number of colors and shades of tattoo ink are mass-produced and sold to parlors worldwide. usually 80 to 150 times a second. The first coil machine was patented by Thomas Riley in London. the attitude of the customer. but they must also wash the area that will be tattooed. Today. Gloves must be worn at all times and the wound must be wiped frequently with a wet disposable towel of some kind. in 1899. which is attached to an oscillating unit. The time it takes to get a tattoo is in proportion with its size and complexity. whereas an elaborate sleeve tattoo or back piece requires multiple sessions of several hours each. Prices for this service vary widely globally and locally. Alfred Charles South of London. Tattoo artists commonly mix these inks to create their own unique pigments. the economics of supply and demand. which inserts ink into the skin via a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar. The first twin coil machine. This modern procedure is ordinarily sanitary. the skill and expertise of the artist. 1891 using a single coil. depending on the complexity of the tattoo. A small one of simple design might take fifteen minutes. was invented by another Englishman.

Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil.A wide range of dyes and pigments can be used in tattoos. phthalocyanine and naphthol derivates. the magnetic fields produced by MRI machines could interact with these metal particles.[30] Certain jurisdictions also require studios by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water. and (except in the case of medical tattoos) it is usually not allowed to tattoo impaired persons. The FDA expects local authorities to legislate and test tattoo pigments and inks made for the use of permanent cosmetics. some of which contain trace metals. sharps containers for old needles. and found a slight interaction between commonly used tattoo inks and MRI. the state prohibits certain ingredients and pursues companies who fail to notify the consumer of the contents of tattoo pigments. The interaction was stronger with inks containing high levels of iron oxide. and fresh ink for each session (loaded into disposable ink caps which are discarded after . potentially causing burns or distortions in the image. The use of single use disposable gloves is also mandatory. but these inks often contain impurities and toxins which can lead to illness or infection. azo dyes. and at any other time where cross contamination can occur. After approval is given the artist will open new.[28][29] Professional tattooists rely primarily on the same pigment base found in cosmetics. and cleaning the tattoo. Allegedly. from inorganic materials like titanium dioxide and iron oxides to carbon black. and an autoclave for sterilizing tools. quinoline. In some states and countries it is illegal to tattoo a minor even with parental consent. sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies. disposable gloves should be taken off after each stage of tattooing. Also. Modern tattooing inks are carbon based pigments that have uses outside of commercial tattoo applications. and acridine. people with contraindicated skin conditions. Before the tattooing begins the client is asked to approve the final position of the applied stencil. dyes made from ash. In 2005 at Northern Arizona University a study characterized the makeup of tattoo inks (Finley-Jones and Wagner). The tattoo artist should be changing their disposable glove at each stage. The same gloves should be not be used to clean the tattoo station. In California. and always use new. and other mixtures. Iron oxide pigments are used in greater extent in cosmetic tattooing. The television show MythBusters tested the hypothesis. Amateurs will often use drawing inks such as low grade India ink. between clients. those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity or those under the influence of alcohol or drugs. tattoo the client. those who are pregnant or nursing. [edit] Studio hygiene The properly equipped tattoo studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids. sterile needle packages in front of the client. There has been concern expressed about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo pigments.

both of these can contribute to fading of the image.[33] and in Massachusetts and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2006. [edit] Aftercare Tattoo specific salves have become prevalent in recent years. all areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. For example.[32] Tattooing was legalized in New York City in 1997. salves. Tattoo artists. burns and scrapes. generally helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. lanolin. tattoo artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions. as well as the current state regulations.[31] Membership in professional organizations. many mandate only formal training in bloodborne pathogens.each client). Furthermore. and avoiding exposing one's tattoo to the sun for extended periods. hemp. Performing a tattoo in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is a felony offense. machines. it is agreed that a new tattoo needs to be kept clean. Various products may be recommended for application to the skin. other artists suggest that a new tattoo be bathed in very hot water early and often. vary widely in their preferred methods of caring for new tattoos. according to the health departments in Oregon and Hawaii. This is to prevent the tattoo ink from washing out or fading due to over-hydration and to avoid infection from exposure to bacteria and chlorine. While specific requirements to become a tattooist vary between jurisdictions. General consensus for care advises against removing the scab that forms on a new tattoo. and cross contamination. and furniture) will be wiped with an approved disinfectant. Oil based ointments are almost always recommended . to cocoa butter. or soaking in a tub for the first two weeks. and people with tattoos. The local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many jurisdictions. However. A&D or Aquaphor. Some artists recommend keeping a new tattoo wrapped for the first twenty-four hours. Also. In contrast. Many tattooists advise against allowing too much contact with hot tub or pool water. or certificates of appreciation/achievement. many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. ranging from those intended for the treatment of cuts. while others suggest removing temporary bandaging after two hours or less. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved (such as counter tops.

Although opinions about these products vary. how robust the final tattoo will look. staph. then the ink will not be properly fixed in the skin and the final image will be negatively affected. if it absorbs too much water and sloughs off early or is picked or scraped off). tetanus. If a tattoo becomes infected (uncommon but possible if one neglects to properly clean their tattoo) or if the scab falls off too soon (e. fungal infections. such as is provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. and sterilizing their equipment after each use. [edit] Health risks Main article: Tattoo medical issues Modern tattoo artist's nitrile gloves and sterilized equipment Because it requires breaking the skin barrier.. however. and HIV. there is an elevated risk of infection.[34] Ultimately. including infection and allergic reactions. tuberculosis. Modern tattooists reduce such risks by following universal precautions. some forms of hepatitis. the amount of ink that remains in the skin throughout the healing process determines.[36] .[35] In the United States there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted via commercially-applied tattooing process. In recent years. working with single-use items.to be used in very thin layers due to their inability to evaporate and therefore overhydrate the already perforated skin. Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin. soap and warm water work well to keep a tattoo clean and free from infection. in large part. such as those applied in prisons. there is near total agreement that either alone or in addition to some other product. specific commercial products have been developed for tattoo aftercare. In amateur tattoos. tattooing may carry health risks.g. Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have blood-borne pathogen training. herpes simplex virus.

black and darker colored inks can be removed more completely. [edit] Temporary tattoos Temporary tattoo being applied to a human ankle Main article: Temporary tattoo Temporary tattoos are popular with models and children as they involve no permanent alteration of the skin but produce a similar appearance that can last anywhere from a few . it is sometimes possible to remove them with laser treatments. spontaneous bleeding primarily from the joints. Occasionally. Typically. can result in exsanguination. which will be exacerbated by the steatohepatitis that alcohol induces. Some jurisdictions will pay for the voluntary removal of gang tattoos. Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion. though the risk will still not have completely diminished. furthermore. The expense and pain of removing tattoos will typically be greater than the expense and pain of applying them. particularly certain colors. Tattoo inks have been described as "remarkably nonreactive histologically".Tattoos increase the risk of hepatic disease.[37][38] [edit] Tattoo removal Main article: Tattoo removal While tattoos are considered permanent.[27] However. when a blood vessel is punctured during the tattooing procedure a bruise/hematoma may appear. the yellowing appearance of the skin. fully or partially. have been medically documented. and coupled with hepatic disease. Therefore it has been highly recommended not to drink for at least two months after getting a tattoo. An ink trademarked as InfinitInk is designed to be removed in a single laser treatment. and excision which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos. which is a common metal allergy. cryosurgery. salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt). This is sometimes due to nickel in an ink pigment. cases of allergic reactions to tattoo inks.[citation needed] Hepatic disease is a serious condition frequently involving jaundicing—to be exact. Risk of infections is also increased.

However. FDA has not attempted to regulate the use of tattoo inks and the . Originally inserted as a prize in bubble gum packages. Although the design is waterproof. Professional tattoos. both via traditional methods and modern tattoo machines. Amateur tattoos. Medical tattoos. This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. Today's vegetable dye temporaries can look extremely realistic and adhere up to 3 weeks due to a layer of glue similar to that found on an adhesive bandage. that result from injuries. especially asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead. [edit] Types of tattoos The American Academy of Dermatology distinguishes 5 types of tattoos:[39] Traumatic tattoos. coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds. also known as "permanent makeup". Cosmetic tattoos. also called "natural tattoos". Temporary airbrush tattoos (TATs) are applied by covering the skin with a stencil and spraying the skin with ink. With the newest inks. tattooing of the gingiva from implantation of amalgam particles during dental filling placement and removal is possible and not uncommon.days to several weeks. [edit] Traumatic tattoos This section does not cite any references or sources. tattoos can reasonably last for up to two weeks. and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. The most common style is a type of body sticker similar to a decal. which is typically transferred to the skin using water. In addition. A common example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen. In the past. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Henna tattoos (Mehndi) and silver nitrate stains that appear when exposed to ultraviolet light can take up to two weeks to fade from the skin. (March 2010) Find sources: "Tattoo" – news · books · scholar · images According to George Orwell. a traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. it can be removed easily with oil-based creams. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several different layers of skin. Similarly. they consisted of a poor quality ink transfer that would easily come off with water or rubbing. Tattoo Health Risks Official FDA tattoo and permanenet makeup page Information: The inks used in tattoos and permanent makeup (also known as micropigmentation) and the pigments in these inks are subject to FDA regulation as cosmetics and color additives. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin. this form of tattoo only lasted about a week.

If you are prone to developing keloids -.. Occasionally.such as hepatitis.N. particularly of the face or breast. Complete removal without scarring may be impossible. R. usually involving several treatments and considerable expense. Nevertheless. There have been reports of people with tattoos or permanent makeup who experienced swelling or burning in the affected areas when they underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). tattooing or micropigmentation is a form of trauma. For some. Mascara may produce a similar effect.. such matters have been handled through local laws and by local jurisdictions. Even if the needles are sterilized or never have been used.pigments used in them and does not control the actual practice of tattooing. Despite advances in laser technology.D.  .  Granulomas. M. such as particles of tattoo pigment. Among the issues under consideration are tattoo removal. none is approved for injection into the skin. Micropigmentation: State of the Art. it is important to understand that in some cases the equipment that holds the needles cannot be sterilized reliably due to its design.. while people with vitiligo (a lack of pigmentation in areas of the skin) may try tattooing to help camouflage the condition. M. it is an aesthetic choice or an initiation rite. many individuals choose to undergo tattooing in its various forms. There also have been reports of tattoo pigments interfering with the quality of the image. The risk of infection is the reason the American Association of Blood Banks requires a one-year wait between getting a tattoo and donating blood.  Keloid formation. This seems to occur mainly when a person with permanent eyeliner undergoes MRI of the eyes. Although a number of color additives are approved for use in cosmetics.more than fifty different pigments and shades. Rather.scars that grow beyond normal boundaries -. a book written by Charles Zwerling. to simulate natural pigmentation. Unsterile tattooing equipment and needles can transmit infectious diseases.D. People who have lost their eyebrows due to alopecia (a form of hair loss) may choose to have "eyebrows" tattooed on. adverse reactions to tattoo colors..you are at risk of keloid formation from a tattoo. states that keloids occur more frequently as a consequence of tattoo removal. temporary makeup.D. But with the growth in popularity of tattooing and permanent makeup. and the list continues to grow. For others.Although allergic reactions to tattoo pigments are rare." below. It is extremely important to make sure that all tattooing equipment is clean and sterilized before use. when they happen they may be particularly troublesome because the pigments can be hard to remove. Using an unapproved color additive in a tattoo ink makes the ink adulterated. consumers should be aware of the risks involved in order to make an informed decision.These are nodules that may form around material that the body perceives as foreign. people may develop an allergic reaction to tattoos they have had for years. FDA has begun taking a closer look at related safety questions. In addition. Annette Walker. Removal problems. Some are industrial grade colors that are suitable for printers' ink or automobile paint. Keloids may form any time you injure or traumatize your skin.  MRI complications. Some choose permanent makeup as a time saver or because they have physical difficulty applying regular. Many pigments used in tattoo inks are not approved for skin contact at all. This seems to occur only rarely and apparently without lasting effects.  Allergic reactions. the person who receives a tattoo must be sure to care for the tattooed area properly during the first week or so after the pigments are injected. M. removing a tattoo is a painstaking process. See "The Most Common Problem: Dissatisfaction" and "Removal Techniques. and according to Office of Cosmetics and Colors (OCAC) dermatologist Ella Toombs. What Risks Are Involved in Tattooing? The following are the primary complications that can result from tattooing:  Infection. and Norman Goldstein. tattooing is an adjunct to reconstructive surgery. Whatever their reason. and infections that result from tattooing. Another concern is the increasing variety of pigments and diluents being used in tattooing -. The difference is that mascara is easily removable.

knowing what pigments are in your tattoo or permanent makeup has always been difficult and has become more so as the variety of tattoo inks has multiplied.M. abrasion. because manufacturers may consider the identity and grade of their pigments "proprietary. Although tattoos may be satisfactory at first. Barsky. The permanent makeup that may have looked flattering when first injected may later clash with changing skin tones and facial or body contours. and assure the best results. Bronson in the June 1999 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. and styles change with the season. not on a retail basis to consumers.in the affected area. The tattoo that seemed stylish at first may become dated and embarrassing. Skill levels vary widely among people who perform tattooing. Removal Techniques Methods for removing tattoos include laser treatments. apparently because the laser caused allergenic substances in the tattoo ink to be released into the body. Some people attempt to camouflage an objectionable tattoo with a new one. According to an article by J.  Scarification involves removing the tattoo with an acid solution and creating a scar in its place. People who plan to have facial cosmetic surgery are advised that the appearance of their permanent makeup may become distorted. scarification.The cause of these complications is uncertain.  Surgical removal sometimes involves the use of tissue expanders (balloons inserted under the skin. so that when the tattoo is cut away. S. but has become less common. several visits are necessary over a span or weeks or months. Another cause of dissatisfaction is that the human body changes over time. There also have been reports of individuals suffering allergic reactions after laser treatments to remove tattoos. Chiang. in which a salt solution is used to remove the pigment. Furthermore. there is less scarring). resulting in a blurred appearance. Generally. Instead of avoiding an MRI. is sometimes used in conjunction with dermabrasion. The Most Common Problem: Dissatisfaction According to Dr. if the tattooist injects the pigments too deeply into the skin. the risks of avoiding an MRI when your doctor has recommended one are likely to be much greater than the risks of complications from an interaction between the MRI and tattoo or permanent makeup. they sometimes fade.  . not by chemical composition. Some individuals experience hypopigmentation -. Also. You may want to ask the person performing the procedure for references and ask yourself how willing you are to risk permanently wearing someone else's mistake. Laser treatments also can cause some tattoo pigments to change to a less desirable shade. some more easily and effectively than others. Removing tattoos and permanent makeup can be very difficult. and surgery. And changing tattoos or permanent makeup is not as easy as changing your mind. Because the pigments are sold to tattoo parlors and salons.K." neither the tattooist nor the customer may be able to obtain this information.a lightening of the natural skin coloring -. and the treatments can be expensive. Inks are often sold by brand name only. This process itself may leave a scar. the main complication with eyelid tattooing is improperly placed pigment. Larger tattoos may require repeated surgery for complete removal. Dermabrasion involves abrading layers of skin with a wire brush or diamond fraise (a type of sanding disc). Some have theorized that they result from an interaction with the metallic components of some pigments. Unfortunately.  Salabrasion. However. individuals who have tattoos or permanent makeup should inform the radiologist or technician of this fact in order to take appropriate precautions. Each approach has drawbacks:  Laser treatments can lighten many tattoos. avoid complications. manufacturers are not required by law to list the ingredients on the labels. Toombs. and D. the most common problem that develops with tattoos is the desire to remove them. the pigments may migrate beyond the original sites.

 Camouflaging a tattoo entails the injection of new pigments either to form a new pattern or cover a tattoo with skin-toned pigments. including color additives. problems with removal. Toombs notes. How tattoos are done A tattoo is a permanent mark or design made on your skin with pigments inserted through pricks into the skin's top layer. In a similar action. Know the risks . By Mayo Clinic staff You could be the proud owner of a new tattoo in a matter of hours — but don't let the ease of getting tattoos stop you from making a thoughtful decision about permanent body art. Dr. Most contain color additives approved for cosmetic use on the skin. or adverse reactions to temporary tattoos. The agency operates the Cosmetics Adverse Reaction Monitoring (CARM) system to monitor problems consumers experience with cosmetic products and ingredients. According to OCAC Consumer Safety Officer Allen Halper. raising questions about what ingredients are added to produce the varieties of colors labeled as "henna. What About Temporary Tattoos? Temporary tattoos. the tattoo artist uses a hand-held machine that acts much like a sewing machine. Consumers and healthcare providers can register complaints by contacting their FDA district office (see the blue pages of your local phone directory) or by sending written reports of adverse reactions to: Tattoos: Understand risks and precautions Tattoos may be more common than ever. what seems like a cool idea now is less likely to turn into a source of regret later. but don't take tattooing lightly. with one or more needles piercing the skin repeatedly." such as "black henna" and "blue henna. Know the risks and understand basic safety precautions and aftercare steps." Reporting Adverse Reactions FDA urges consumers and healthcare providers to report adverse reactions to tattoos and permanent makeup. However. not for direct application to the skin. FDA has issued an import alert for henna intended for use on the skin. the temporary tattoos subject to the import alert are not allowed into the United States because they don't carry the FDA-mandated ingredient labels or they contain colors not permitted by FDA for use in cosmetics applied to the skin. Henna is approved only for use as a hair dye. however. FDA has received reports of allergic reactions to temporary tattoos. such as those applied to the skin with a moistened wad of cotton. the agency has issued an import alert for several foreign-made temporary tattoos. the needles insert tiny ink droplets. The process — which is done without anesthetics and may last up to several hours for a large tattoo — causes a small amount of bleeding and slight to potentially significant pain. fade several days after application. henna typically produces a reddish brown tint. Also. Typically. that injected pigments tend not to look natural because they lack the skin's natural translucence. With every puncture. If you first take steps to protect yourself from possible risks.

In some cases.  Other skin problems. Specific risks include:  Allergic reactions. If the equipment used to create your tattoo is contaminated with infected blood. Medication or other treatment may be needed if you develop an allergic reaction. pain and a pus-like drainage. tattoos or permanent makeup may cause swelling or burning in the affected areas during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. . answer these questions:  Who does the tattooing? Go to a reputable tattooing studio that employs only properly trained employees.  Bloodborne diseases. Keep in mind that regulation requirements and licensing standards vary from state to state. so they aren't regulated or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). swelling. In some cases — such as when a person with permanent eyeliner has an MRI of the eye — tattoo pigments may interfere with the quality of the image.  Skin infections. which means that skin infections and other complications are possible. Rarely. This may occur even years after you get the tattoo. resulting in an itchy rash at the tattoo site. infection or other skin problem. Check with your city. Sometimes bumps called granulomas form around tattoo ink — especially red ink. characterized by redness. Tattoo dyes — especially red dye — can cause allergic skin reactions. tetanus and HIV — the virus that causes AIDS.  MRI complications. the tattoo may need to be removed. including hepatitis B. Insist on safety precautions To make sure your tattoo will be applied safely. Tattoos can lead to local bacterial infections. Keep in mind that tattoo inks are classified as cosmetics. hepatitis C. Tattooing can also lead to raised areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue (keloids).Granuloma Allergic reaction to red ink Tattoos breach the skin. you can contract various bloodborne diseases.  Does the tattoo artist wear gloves? Make sure the tattoo artist washes his or her hands and wears a fresh pair of protective gloves for each procedure. county or state health department for information on local licensing and regulations.

Take good care of your tattoo How you care for your new tattoo depends on the type and extent of work done. Don't pick at any scabs.  Does the tattoo artist sterilize nondisposable equipment? Make sure the tattoo artist uses a heat sterilization machine (autoclave) to sterilize all nondisposable equipment after each customer. Use plain soap and water and a gentle touch. If you think your tattoo may be infected or you're concerned that your tattoo isn't healing properly. trays and containers should be unused as well. Does the tattoo artist use proper equipment? Make sure the tattoo artist removes a needle and tubes from sealed packages before your procedure begins.  Avoid sun exposure. Pat — don't rub — the area dry. Allow up to 2 weeks for healing. Also ask yourself whether you truly want to invest in permanent body art. Don't get a tattoo if you're under the influence of alcohol or drugs or worry that you might regret the tattoo later. which increases the risk of infection and can damage the design and cause scarring.  Keep the tattooed skin clean. however. Any pigments. you'll need to:  Remove the bandage after 24 hours. Don't wear anything that would stick to the tattoo. Choose the location of the tattoo carefully. Apply a mild moisturizer to the tattooed skin several times a day.  Use moisturizer.   Choose clothing carefully. If you're interested in tattoo removal. Typically. Instruments and supplies that can't be sterilized with an autoclave — including drawer handles. Keep the tattooed area out of the sun for at least a few weeks. tables and sinks — should be disinfected with a commercial disinfectant or bleach solution after each use. ask your dermatologist about laser surgery or other options for tattoo removal. Apply an antibiotic ointment to the tattooed skin while it's healing. contact your doctor. Tattoos Contents  History .

except if it is done for a medical reason by a doctor or someone supervised by a doctor. Note: In South Australia it is an offence for young people under the age of 18 years to be tattooed. An early example was found on a frozen body 9000 years old! Tattooing has become a part of the culture of almost all societies. Early Christians used tattoos as symbols of recognition. Reasons people get tattoos There are many reasons why people choose to have a tattoo on their body. Since the early 90s. however.      Reasons people get tattoos Health risks Things to consider If you get a tattoo Resources References In Western culture tattoos are often seen as something associated with people on the edge of society. In the early 19th century. tattooing has become more common and socially acceptable in Australia. Tattooing retained this negative image until its recent revival as a mainstream symbol of individuality as well as defiance. hence the association of tattoos with people on the fringes of society. tattooing became very popular with criminals and the working class in Britain and the US. including: . Western sailors then began to adopt tattooing. History Tattooing has been around for nearly as long as humans have been around. until they were banned by Papal edict. The word ‗tattoo‘ was first brought to the English language after Captain Cook‘s voyages to Tahiti. Although more people these days seem to have tattoos. getting one still carries some risks.

Health risks Getting a tattoo at an accredited professional tattoo parlor is relatively risk-free. Actually there haven‘t been any cases of tattoo causing serious illness. Tattoo is one form of art which is permanent. People have been known to get tattoos as an impulsive act.this has been identified as one of the main problems after getting a tattoo.        Cultural reasons – i. but getting a tattoo still puts you at risk of the following:        serious infectious diseases such as hepatitis C. One should consider carefully before deciding to get a tattoo. Wednesday (3/3/2010). Nowadays tattoo had become some kind of a trend amongst teenagers. While the risk of infection can occur when creating a tattoo with a non-sterile needles or ink that contains dangerous substances. hepatitis B or HIV (which are passed on via infected blood or other body fluids). or tetanus skin infections such as impetigo (‘school sores’) dermatitis flare ups of existing eczema allergic reactions thick scars called keloids (you are more likely to get these if you have dark skin) distress due to regret after the procedure . there are some advantages and disadvantages of having a permanent tattoo. As quoted from Hubpages. Having a tattoo could cause various risks. coming of age or rites of passage To express individuality To indicate membership of a particular group or way of life To make a statement To establish a permanent reminder of an event – such as the death of a loved one To reclaim the body after an event – for example.and they may or may not regret it later when they are sober. depending on your view. a sexual assault To make the body more pleasing to their eye To annoy parents? It seems that getting a tattoo can make someone look like an individual or a conformist. namely: Disadvantages have a permanent tattoo . perhaps when they were intoxicated . until today there has been no single technique which can completely remove tattoos.e. the worst effect that could happen is probably an irritation.

and be quite ancient the next few years. but the skin color can also be a critical success factor.howstuffworks. ―There is a risk scars or loss of natural skin pigment when using laser techniques. 6. The average treatment takes a few times to remove it. 2.cyh. Roy Geronemus.com www. Benefits have permanent tattoos 1. Maybe the tattoo will look attractive at the age of 20. After years. www. There are certain satisfaction if you have something different to anyone else. you could have a trendy tattoo now. if there is no much difference it is difficult to remove tattoos. Until now laser technique is more effective than other methods. but may damage the skin).net . There is risk of infection from each tattoo. Tattoo is permanent and can not be removed easily. 3.com www. but it would be a strange thing after the age of 50. The pain we feel when making a tattoo. if you want to erase it.‖ Geronemus said.org www. 2. 3. Tattoos can be a characteristic of a person. 5. such as from non-sterile needles or ink that contain dangerous substances. 7. The high cost of making a tattoo.com www. especially for people who have dark skin. Fashion and trends always changes. 4. director of the Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New York tells us there are several ways you can do to remove the tattoo on the body such as the use of laser light. it does not always work 100 percent and the price is very expensive. Because the laser works by distinguishing between skin color and the color of the tattoo.everytattoo. artistic or meaningful messages for the owner of the body. Dr. excision techniques (tattoos and remove all the skin layers underneath to leave a prominent scar) and dermabrasion (remove the skin layer by means such as sanding.1.wikipedia.medicmagic.com www. the color can fade or appear fault lines of the drawing.mayoclinic. rubbing cream into the existing body tattoo. Tattoos can express personal.

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