Fourier analysis

Presentation by: K. MUTHU MEENAKSHI AP/ECE SSN College of Engineering

• To study the concepts of
– fourier representation of periodic signals. – Line Spectra – Gibbs phenomenon

• Change in a short span of time means high frequency. • Change over a long span of time means low frequency.Frequency • Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time. .

• If a signal changes instantaneously. its frequency is infinite. . its frequency is zero.• If a signal does not change at all.

.Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0.


Time domain and frequency domain plots .

.• A complete sine wave in the time domain can be represented by one single spike in the frequency domain.

For example. All can be represented by three spikes in the frequency domain. each with different amplitude and frequency.The frequency domain is more compact and useful when we are dealing with more than one sine wave. the figure given shows three sine waves. .


any composite signal is a combination of simple sine waves with different frequencies. • According to Fourier analysis. and phases. .Signals and Communication •A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communications • We need to send a composite signal. a signal made of many simple sine waves. amplitudes.

• If the composite signal is non periodic. .Composite Signals and Periodicity • If the composite signal is periodic. the decomposition gives a combination of sine waves with continuous frequencies. the decomposition gives a series of signals with discrete frequencies.

A composite periodic signal .


The time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal .

Fourier Analysis • Fourier analysis is used to change a signal from time domain to frequency domain & vice versa. .

. • The functions are integral harmonics of the fundamental frequency “f” of the composite signal.Fourier Series • Every composite periodic signal can be represented with a series of sine and cosine functions. • Using the series we can decompose any periodic signal into its harmonics.

if it is 1. piecewise continuous.Fourier Series Any periodic function. 2. square-integrable in one period. it can be decomposed into a sum of sinusoidal and cosinoidal component functions---Fourier Series .

Trigonometric Fourier Series A Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function f (t) in terms of an infinite sum of cosines and sines a0 ∞ f (t ) = + ∑ (an cos nωt + bn sin nωt ) 2 n =1 2π ω= = Fundemental frequency T 2 a0 = ∫ f (t )dt T 0 T T 2 2 an = ∫ f (t ) cos nωtdt bn = ∫ f (t ) sin nωtdt T 0 T 0 T .

Complex Fourier series .


Conclusion • Fourier series for periodic signals • Dirchlet conditions for the existence of fourier series • Spectrum of periodic signals • Gibbs phenomenon .