UNIVERSITY OF PUNE Syllabus for M.A.
(Semester- System to be implemented from 2008-09 at College Centres)
Paper No. EP 101: EP 102 EP 103: EP 104:
Paper title Cognitive Processes Psychology Practicals: Experiments Psychological Testing Statistical Methods
Paper No. EP 201: EP 202 EP 203: EP 204:
Paper title Learning and Memory Psychology Practicals: Tests Psychological Testing: Applications Research Methodology
transformational grammar and factors affecting comprehension Reading: Perceptual process. perceptual defence. 2. 3. theoretical perspectives. 3. ATTENTION AND PERCEPTION 1. 5. cognitive tasks involved in writing Application: Development in reading ability.
3: LANGUAGE AND RELATED COGNITIVE PHENOMENA 1. 2. Understanding spoken language: Speech perception. Top-Down and Pandemonium Perception: Cross-cultural studies Application: Subliminal perception. vigilance.
. Vygotsky Current paradigms of cognitive psychology – Information processing approach. theories of word recognition. reading and comprehension Speaking: Selecting the content of speech. Attention: (a) Functions of attention: Divided attention. 5. 4. signal detection and search (b) Theories of attention process Perception-approaches: Gestalt. gestures. template matching. 4. constituent structure.Introduction to psychophysics: Basic concepts and methods. and empirical findings in cognitive psychology 1: NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 1. Bottom-Up (feature analysis. 4. To develop insight into one’s own and others’ behaviour and underlying mental processes.SE3MESTER I EP 101:
OBJECTIVES: 1. 2. 3. Sensation . Multilingualism. ecological approach Application: Cognitive style and cognitive map
2: SENSATION. selective attention. and extra-sensory perception. Cognitive Psychology: Definition and domains History and methods of cognitive psychology Theories of cognitive development – Piaget. prototypes). To enrich students’ understanding of major concepts. speech errors. 5. social context of speech Writing: Comparing speaking and writing. 2.
. CREATIVITY AND DECISION MAKING 1. problem solving cycle. Sternberg. Books for Reference1. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth. Borude. Best. types. Solso. Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology. (1998). 2. Cognition. Cognitive development. R. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 3. S. Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory. (1982). Wade. 3. R. USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Cognition: Theory and application (3rd ed). measuring creativity Reasoning and decision making: Types of reasoning – Syllogistic and Conditional. 7. Kellogg. Psychology. Kaplan. California: Brooks/Cole Pub. Human Cognition. C.J. C. (1985). heuristics: means-end & computer simulation. R. Problem: Definition. and Abhyankar. J. (2004). and analogy Definition of creativity. N. 3. B. M. (2007). M. Matlin. Galloti. London: Academic Press 8. 5.(2007). Cohen G. 4. B.H. Sage Publications. S. R. 5. N. (1994). 6. (1998). Company 6. J. Cognitive Psychology. Cognition and environment. obstacles and aids Problem solving approaches – Algorithm. Prayogik manasashastra and sanshodhan paddhati.4: PROBLEM SOLVING. K. (2004). 2.D. Guenther R. Desai. 4. Bodhanik manasashastra. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Reed S. 5. L. Prism Indian Books 2. R.: Praeger Publishers. Delhi: Pearson Education. and factors influencing decision making Application: Artificial intelligence
Books for Reading1. (2007). 2nd ed. Flavell. (2007). Cognitive Psychology.: Prentice-Hall. K. (1983). & Kaplan. and Tavris.Y. Psychology of cognition (2nd ed). Chhaya Prakashan. (1999). 4.J. K. Cognitive Psychology (6th ed).R. Pune: Narendra Prakashan. N. Pearson Education. C.T.
4. 3. 6. Short Term Memory Effect of Mnemonic Strategy on Memory Immediate Memory Span: Meaningful Vs. To create interest in psychological phenomena 2. 2. 5. Zeigarnik Effect Effect of Anxiety on Performance Feedback / KoR Goal Setting Level of Aspiration
. 6. Signal Detection . 2. Learning by Insight (Bolt Head Maze) Interference Paired Associate Learning Comparison of Serial Position Effect in Free Recall and Serial Learning Verbal Conditioning Transfer of Training (Stylus maze)
3: MEMORY (ANY 2): 1. 1: COGNITIVE PROCESSES (ANY 3): 1. 3. 4. 2. 3.ROC Perceptual Defence Concept Formation Problem Solving Study of Mental Imagery Peterson’s Test of Rational Learning Stroop Effect in Visual Perception
2: LEARNING (ANY 3): 1. To nurture the skill of observation. To develop awareness of psychological tools and techniques 3. Meaningless Material Organization in Memory Memory for Unattended Material Memory for Associated and Un-associated Pairs of Words
4: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION (ANY 2): 1. 6. 4. 4. 5. 7. 2. 7. 3.EP 102: PSYCHOLOGY PRACTICALS: EXPERIMENTS
OBJECTIVES: 1. 5.
K. D. Experiments in psychology. Human Experimental Psychology. W. E.A.W. Academic Press. (2004). USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Experimental Psychology: with Advanced Experiments. Bombay: Lalvani Publishing House. 2. Appleton – Century Crofts. Ltd. Jalota. Experiments in psychology. 6. Holt Rinehart & Winston. G. (1975). C. 3. 5. Prentice-Hall. Debold. M. 7. Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory. R. & Russell.A. T. New York: Oxford University Press. (1952). Hyden (1985). Mohanthy. (1930). Manual of experimental psychology. Oxford Univ. (1960). L. Laboratory experiments in general psychology.Books for Reading: 1. Parameshwaran. Asia Publishing House. Snodgrass J. Orient Longman. E.M. & Taylor. 5. Levy-Berger. 2. Rajamanickam. Advanced experimental social psychology. (1968). Mohsin.
. Motivation: An experimental approach... S. (1968). Books for Reference: 1. Berkowitz. S. Experiments in psychology. 4. Experimental Psychology. & Drever. M. 7. B. M.C. (1962). M. 6. M. M. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. G. Press. (1974). Galloti. (1976). 3. Manual of contemporary experiments in psychology. 4. J. Tinker. Fergusson. & Rao. Weisiger. London: Oxford University Press. Elementary Experiments in Psychology. London: Methuen & Co. Baker. Kuppuswamy. B. (2005). Collins. Volume 1 & 2. Introduction to methods in experimental psychology. L.
statistical significance. 3. Basic statistical concepts in psychological testing Developmental norms Within-group norms.EP 103: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
OBJECTIVES: 1. 3. 5. bias. To acquaint the students with the characteristics of standardised tests. the Deviation IQ Relativity of norms Computers and the interpretation of test scores
3: RELIABILITY 1. situational variables and test-taker’s perspective
2: NORMS AND THE MEANING OF TEST SCORES 1. Validity: Definition and evolving concepts Content-description validation procedures Criterion-prediction procedures Construct-identification procedures Test validity and decision theory
. 4. reliability coefficient Definition and types of reliability Reliability of speeded tests Dependence of reliability on the sample tested Using reliability information
4: VALIDITY 1. 3.Percentiles. 5. 1: NATURE AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING 1. 2. Definition and characteristics of psychological tests Classification and uses of psychological tests General steps in test construction Item analysis [A] Issues in test administration: Ethics. To familiarise them with the principles of test construction. 4. 2. standard scores. 5. 4. 2. 2. 3.Examiner. 2. 5. 4. cultural fairness [B] Factors influencing test performance. Correlation coefficient: Meaning.
8. R. (1990). Psychological Testing. 2. Davidshofer.K. & Saccuzzo. Aiken L. Pvt. Desai. & Urbina. Anastasi. Pune: Narendra Prakashan. R. N. C. Ghiselli. --------------
. J. Tests.J. Anastasi A.: New Age International Ltd. 3. N. R. principles and applications. Prayogik manasashastra and sanshodhan paddhati. S. Psychological testing: History.: Pearson Education. E. B. (2007). F. L. (1996).R. (1996) Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behavior. A. D. Patna: Bharati Bhavan. K.H. Essentials of psychological testing. 2. E. (1981). S. New York: McMillan 4. Cronbach. 4. Singh. J. and Issues. K. W. Chadha. 5th ed. (1988). P. Psychological Testing: Principles. Psychological testing. N. Books for Reference1. Kaplan. Freeman.. Campbell. Personality and Attitudes. Murphy. and Abhyankar. S. A.Books for Reading1.. 3rd ed. 5.M. R. Measurements and Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences.P. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. (2006). New Delhi: Pearson Education. 6. Measurement theory for the behavioural sciences. Gregory. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Freeman. (2005). (1997). (1965). (2007). Theory and practice of psychometry.D.S. Psychological testing. D. Applications. & Zedek. Ltd. K. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth. New York: Harper Collins Publishers: 3. (1988): Psychological testing: Principles and applications. 7.
4.Rank Difference Correlation. Non-parametric tests for correlated data. project work. 2: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1. Assumptions of Analysis of Variance. percentile ranks and standard scores 3. To develop computational skills in students. STATPAL.
4: NON-PARAMETRIC STATISTICS 1. and principles 4. Significance of difference between means (t test) 3. 1: OVERVIEW OF DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 1. Sign Test.Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis Test 5. Chi Square tests 3. curves and graphs 2.Independent. 5. and to enable them to analyze the data of practical. Repeated: Concept 4. Inferences: Standard error of mean and other statistics 2. 2. variability. 3: CORRELATION & REGRESSION 1. Probability: Concept. and dissertation. Difference between Parametric & Non-parametric statistics 2. 2. 3. Percentiles. Excel
. Characteristics of normal distribution curve 5.EP 104: STATISTICAL METHODS
OBJECTIVES: 1. Concept and meaning of correlation Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Point – Biserial Correlation & Phi-coefficient Partial and Multiple Correlation [A] Simple Linear Regression: Concept & uses [B] Significance testing in correlation and regression. Analysis of Covariance (conceptual level). Two-way ANOVA . Wilcoxon Signed Rank test 4. Repeated: Conceptual level 5. To acquaint the students and make them understand the different statistical methods with their uses and interpretations. definition. Non-parametric tests for uncorrelated data . Statistical software: An introduction – SPSS. and One-way ANOVAIndependent. Applications of normal distribution curve. Overview of measures of Central tendency.
(1998). and Fruchter B. Statistics in psychology and education. 5. Percentile. Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education (6th ed) McGraw . J.S. A. Prentice-Hall. R. Kurtz. t-test 6.C. J. 3. One-way and Two-way ANOVA 7. Guilford J. Statistical analysis in psychology and education.T. (2001) Statistic Made Simple : Do it Yourself on PC 5. B. V. (1985).: Lawrence Erlbaum Asso. M. K. Narosa. Mangal. Statistical methods in education and psychology. Product Moment Correlation 4. Percentile Ranks and Standard Scores 2. N. Inc. 4. Statistical methods in education and psychology. R.: Prentice-Hall 6. Levin. & Stanley. Bear G. Elementary statistics in social research. G.. J. A. N.J. G. Glass.Y. Introductory statistics for the behavioural sciences (3rd ed. (1976). (1997).K.
. and Cohen. 2) Calculation exercises in the question paper shall be restricted to the following: 1. J. N. Chi-square Tests Books for Reading1. Sarma K. (1982).). Lomax.V. Scatter-Diagram 5. (2006). & Mayo.Hill 3.. & Fox. S. Welkowitz. Howell D. (1979). (1970).W. Statistical concepts: A second course for education and behavioural sciences. A. G. C.D.: Academic Press. (2006). Books for Reference1.IMPORTANT NOTE1) Students can use non-scientific calculator during examination. P. 2. Fergusson. King B.. Statistical Methods for Psychology (4th Ed) 4. J. Application of Normal Probability Curve 3. Delhi: Pearson Education. (1995). McGraw-Hill. S. Emen. Statistical Reasoning in Psychology and Education 2. Minium E.
Application: Prevention of AIDS and HIV. types. 2: TYPES OF MEMORY 1. Sensory memory. Retrograde). schedules of reinforcement. Operant Conditioning: Reinforcement. and applications 4. shaping and applications 3. 2. 3. Brain areas associated with learning and memory Types of Amnesia. Studies on role of brain in learning and conditioning 4. 4. Craik & Lockhart Connectionist model: Rumelhart & McClelland Theories of forgetting: Psychoanalytical. 2. To acquaint the students with major theories of learning and memory.SEMESTER II EP 201:
OBJECTIVES: 1.Amnesia after concussion (Anterograde. 5. Unitary and dual process view: Waugh and Norman Multi-process view: Atkinson & Shiffrin. Korsakoff.Iconic and echoic Short Term Memory Long Term Memory: Types Determinants of memory Applications: Memory improvement techniques
LEARNING AND MEMORY
3: MODELS AND THEORIES OF MEMORY 1. 2. 4. Cultural influences on learning 5. observational learning. and neurological basis of learning and memory. and awareness of media and violence. Trace Decay and Interference Application: Distortion of memory
4: NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY 1. Cognitive approaches to learning: Latent learning. types and applications 2. To enhance students’ knowledge about the various applications of learning and memory 1: LEARNING: THEORIES AND APPLICATIONS 1. Alzheimer’s disease 3. Synaptic mechanisms and synaptic plasticity of learning and memory
. Trace. Classical Conditioning: Concepts. 3. 5.
Prayogik manasashastra and sanshodhan paddhati. (1994). (1985). Cognition. 4. USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology. 2. Cognitive Psychology (6th ed. Prism Indian Books 2. J.). 7.J. and Tavris. (1999). Pinel. 4. M. (1994). J. Application: Neuro-linguistic programming. 8.).: Pearson Edu. (2007). Biopsychology. Cognitive processes.Y. Cognitive development. (1998). (2007).J. Psychology of cognition (2nd ed. Matlin. 8. T. K. N. 3. R. Books for Reference1. Delhi: Pearson Education. 5. 2nd ed. B.R.: Pearson Edu. (1983). Guenther R. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kellogg. S. London: MacMillan. Desai. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth. & Kaplan. Pearson Education. Bodhanik manasashastra.: Prentice-Hall. N. (2007). Foundations of physiological psychology. Books for Reading1. Human Cognition. Flavell. Cognition and environment. B. Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory. N. Sternberg. J. 3. and Abhyankar. (1998). R. C. Reed S. R. Cohen G. K. C. Wade.: Praeger Publishers. California: Brooks/Cole Pub. Chhaya Prakashan.D. (2007). J. Carlson. 7. Solso. 9. Sage Publications. Borude. (2007).P. London: Academic Press. Malim. (2004). 5. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. N. L. Pune: Narendra Prakashan. N. 6.5. Cognitive Psychology. R. S. Cognitive Psychology. Cognition: Theory and application (3rd ed). R.D. Galloti. (2004). Psychology. (2007).D. T. M. Company 6. C. (1982). Kaplan. K.H.
. Best. R. N.
8. 5. interpretation of scores and reportwriting. 3. 6. 5. 2. Self-report inventory Projective test: Verbal Projective test: Pictorial Interest inventory Adjustment inventory Attitude / Values
4: OTHER TESTS (any three): 1. 2. Multiple Aptitude Test (any one) 2. 1: GENERAL ABILITY TESTS (any two): 1. The administration of psychological tests. 2. 2. 4. 6. Special Aptitude Test (any one) 3: PERSONALITY TESTS (any three): 1. Stress / Frustration Environmental Assessment Development Assessment Achievement Test Cognitive Style Self Concept Neuropsychological Assessment Social Skill / Behavioural Skill
* Note: Only standardized tests should be used. 3. Certain skills of psychological counselling on the basis of psychological test results. 7.
. 3. 4. 4.EP 202: PSYCHOLOGY PRACTICALS: TESTS
OBJECTIVES: To acquaint the students with: 1. The evaluation procedures and evaluation of psychological tests. 5. 3. Intelligence tests: Verbal Test Intelligence tests: Performance Test Creativity Thinking Judgment and Reasoning
2: SPECIAL ABILITY TESTS (any two): 1.
New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New York: McMillan 4. P.D. Patna: Bharati Bhavan.
. principles and applications. Psychological testing. Psychological testing: History. Gregory. Applications. & Zedek.K. Tests. (1988): Psychological testing: Principles and applications. Davidshofer. (1996). D. N. Murphy. N.P. Cronbach L. J. 3. Singh. K. F. Aiken L. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. S. (1981). (1996) Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behavior. Anastasi. & Urbina. R.. (2005). 4. 5. E. Test manuals of respective tests. Freeman.: New Age International Ltd. (1988). K. R. N. Measurements and Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences. A. D. & Saccuzzo.Books for Reading1. W. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth. Campbell. Theory and practice of psychometry.M. Pvt. 2. 3rd ed. Psychological Testing. Psychological Testing: Principles. and Issues. Ltd. J.J. (2007). New Delhi: Pearson Education. Measurement theory for the behavioural sciences. Books for Reference1. R. R.S. S. Freeman. (1965).: Pearson Education. Essentials of Psychological Testing (4th Ed) 3. 2. A. Ghiselli. K.H. (2006). (1997). E.R. 7. Psychological testing. 5. (1984). Kaplan. Personality and Attitudes 6. Chadha.. Anastasi A.
teachers are supposed to acquaint the students with their applications in other areas.Kamath test. General mental ability tests: Individual tests. Dexterity tests . Mooney Problem Checklist 2. Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test. Mechanical Reasoning Test 4. Personality tests used for personnel selection. too. CAT.EPPS. role play) and in-basket exercises 5. Personality and interest inventories.CPQ.Woodworth Personal Data Sheet. Projective and neuropsychological testing 3: TESTING IN INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS SETTING 1. WISC. Measuring interpersonal relationship – FIRO-B and leadership assessment. Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) 4. HSPQ. Taylor Russell tables.O’Conner Finger Dexterity Test. Bhatia’s Battery of Intelligence Tests 3.EP 203: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING: APPLICATIONS
OBJECTIVES: 1.MBTI. Teachers are supposed to familiarize the students with Indian adaptation of tests and indigenous tests. 2.SAT. EPQ-R 4. California Psychological Inventory 3. Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC).
. Utility theory and decision analysis.Binet . Cattell’s Culture-fair Test of Intelligence 2. General mental ability tests: Group tests – SPM. Jackson Personality Inventory 5. While teaching these tests in the context of the specified area. Bennett Hand-Tool Dexterity Test. Tests based on the Factor-Analytic Strategy.g. 16 PF). self concept inventories. incremental validity. 16 PF 3. SVIB 5.16 PF. 1: TESTING IN EDUCATIONAL SETTING 1. NEO-PI R. School and college entrance tests.MMPI.Concepts of base rates and hit rates. Tests based on the Criterion-Group Strategy. Situational testing (games. Testing based on the logical-content strategy. GRE 2: TESTING IN CLINICAL SETTING 1. To train students in various psychological assessment techniques 2. To impart skills for applying different tests in practical situations
Important Note:Some of the tests in this paper are common to two or more specialization areas (e. Tests based on the Theoretical Strategy. The selection of employees.
: New Age International Ltd. Bell’s Adjustment Inventory. New Delhi: Pearson Education. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Chadha. Campbell. Multiple aptitude tests . Pvt. (2005). Australia: Thomson Wadsworth.
. Psychological testing. K. Anastasi A. (1996) Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behavior.. Freeman. New York: Harper Collins Publishers: 3. & Zedek.. (1988): Psychological testing: Principles and applications. Essentials of psychological testing. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. & Saccuzzo. Moos’ Family Environment Scale (FES) 5. D. STAXI. S. Ltd. & Urbina.STAI. Gregory. R. 2. Psychological Testing. Psychological Testing: Principles. Freeman. Murphy. Cronbach. Theory and practice of psychometry. Psychological testing. N. S. A. (1997). Davidshofer. F. NVIT. R. (2007). L. and group tests (SPM. J. 3rd ed. Sack’s Sentence Completion Test Books for Reading1. 2. P. 5th ed.D. W. N. Psychological testing: History. R. (1990). N. (1965). Measurement theory for the behavioural sciences.J. Aiken L. New York: McMillan 4. Passi Creativity Tests) 2. Ghiselli. J.4: TESTING IN COUNSELING SETTING 1. Kaplan. (1981). (1996). K. General ability testing: Individual tests (Bhatia’s Battery of Performance Tests of Intelligence).M. (1988). K.R. Personality and Attitudes 6. Applications.H.: Pearson Education. 5. D. Anxiety and adjustment test. E. and Issues. 3.S. principles and applications. Anastasi. E. Books for Reference1.DAT. 7.P. R. Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) 4. GATB 3.
Observation. 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROCESS AND SURVEY RESEARCH 1. Sampling techniques 3. and path analysis 5. issues. Between-group designs: Randomised group designs. regression discontinuity design. Overview of basic research concepts. mail surveys (questionnaires). overview of extraction methods Overview of rotation methods. 2. Survey research designs. 3. discriminant functions analysis. and applications of survey research 2: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 1. b) Multiple group designs. 4. 1. higher order factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis Multiple regression.EP 204: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVES: To acquaint the students with: 1. telephone interviews. time series designs 3. canonical correlations multivariate analysis of variance. Problems. successive independent samples. longitudinal 5. Non-equivalent control group designs. and characteristics and uses of surveys 2. APA style of preparing research proposal and writing research report. Matched group designs / randomised block design – a) Two group designs. Likert-type scales and Semantic Differential scales 4: MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS AND REPORT WRITING Factor analysis: Basic terms. Mixed designs (Applications only) 3: QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS AND SCALING 1.
. Characteristics and types of quasi-experimental designs: Single-group designs. 2. pre test-post test designs 2. Research designs: Definition. cohort designs. Scaling: Purpose. Application of quasi-experimental designs in program evaluation research. internet surveys 4. 4. Types of factorial designs: Simple design 4. psychophysical and psychological scaling. 3. The basic research concepts. Some commonly used research designs and the APA style of preparing research proposal and writing research report. and Thurstonetype scales 5.Cross-sectional. Survey methods. principles and functions 2. Within-group designs 5. personal interviews.
D. S. Feffer & Simons.S. Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology. Tabachnick B.R. Ranjit Kumar (2006). Edwards. & Hatt. C. (2001). Goode. Howitt. (2007). 7. New Delhi: Excel Books. 11.. Kothari.N. Vakil. (1985). Tests. Mason E. Research methodology: Methods and techniques. Christensen. Harper & Row. Experimental designs in psychological research.
. Fundamentals of experimental psychology. Books for Reference1. R. Borude. & Shaughnessy J. Prayogik manasashastra and sanshodhan paddhati. D. 8. Bhattacharya. Gursuch R. Methods in social research. and Fidell L. 5. (2005). 10.J.L. Research Methods in Psychology (4th ed) 2. (1989). Pune: Pune Vidyarthi Gruha 4. Essentials of research methods in psychology. Zechmeister J. 6.: Pearson Education. Sanshodhan Paddhatishastra.L. (2001).B. 5.J. Understanding and conducting research: Applications in education and behavioral sciences (2nd ed) 3. Kerlinger F. C. (1985). (2003). and Crammer. Wiley Eastern. Pearson Education.J. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. D.L. Robinson. Edwards. Techniques of attitude scale construction. Research Methodology. (2006). P.J. Experimental design in behavioural research.D. and Abhyankar. Psychometric Theory 9. (1981).D. N. R. Using Multivariable statistics (4th ed) 7. (1989). and Zechmeister E. Desai. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd. 4. Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed) 3. P. Experimental methodology. Broota.Books for Reading1. 2. Shaughnessy J. (1952). Singh A. PrenticeHall.K.W.C. (1976).J. Measurement and Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences. (1969).K. 6. Factor analysis (2nd ed) 8. A. (1997). Zechmeister E. and Bramble W. A. (1983). (1994). (2005). Patna: Bharati Bhavan. 12.G. 5th ed. B. K.J. Pune: Narendra Prakashan. W. K. Nunnaly J.B.