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University Of Karachi Fuel and Combustion

VIVA RELATED

Syed Saad Ahmed B-0933040 B.E 3rd Year Chemical Engineering

Submitted To: Sir Fassiullah Sir Saqib

Fuel and Combustion 2012


MOISTURE CONTENT
Moisture Free water may exist in the coal as adsorbed on the surface, condensed inside fine capillary network and as bound to the coal molecule. Water may be present in free or emulsified form and can cause damage to the inside surfaces of the furnace during combustion especially if it contains dissolved salts. It can also cause spluttering of the flame at the burner tip, possibly extinguishing the flame, reducing the flame temperature or lengthening the flame. In general, the moisture content increases with decreasing rank of coal. The moisture content influences the physical properties of a substance such as weight, density, viscosity, refractive index, electrical conductivity and many more. Moisture: o Increases heat loss, due to evaporation and superheating of vapour o Helps to a certain extent with binding fines o Aids radiation heat transfer "Free Moisture" = "Surface Moisture" is the moisture that is lost by the coal or coke in attaining equilibrium. "Inherent Moisture" is also used to mean "Equilibrium Moisture" = "Bed Moisture" = "In-situ Moisture", which is an ASTM test for moisture retained after the sample has attained equilibrium with an atmosphere of controlled humidity and temperature. We calculate moisture content because moisture content decreases the heating value of coal.

VOLATILE MATTER
A volatile product obtained by the pyrolysis of coal in the absence of air is known as volatile matter. The product may contain hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, higher hydrocarbons, tar, water vapors, nitrogen, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide etc. Volatile matter increases with decreasing rank. The yield of volatile can be taken as a measure of its rank. Volatile matter does not contain the moisture of coal but it contains water that is formed from the hydrogen and oxygen of coal during the decomposition. Volatile matters are the methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and incombustible gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen found in coal. Thus the volatile matter is an index of the gaseous fuels present. Volatile matter: o Proportionately increases flame length, and helps in easier ignition of coal o Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume o Influences secondary air requirement and distribution aspects o Influences secondary oil support

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012

ASH CONTENT
The ash content in coal is the noncombustible residue that remains when coal is burned. Ash Coals are associated with certain mineral or inorganic matter, which gets deposited along with vegetable matter or gets into coal by subsequent infiltration. The ash consists mainly of silica, alumina, iron oxide and lime. At high temperatures, coal ash becomes sticky (i.e., sinters) and eventually forms molten slag. The slag then becomes a hard, crystalline material upon cooling. Ash: o o o o Reduces handling and burning capacity Increases handling costs Affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency Causes clinkering and slagging

CALORIFIC VALUE
Calorific value of the fuel is the quantity of heat liberated when unit quantity of fuel is burned completely. Calorific value is the amount of chemical energy stored in a coal that is released as thermal energy upon combustion. The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced, and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value. The difference is determined by the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour produced during the combustion process. Gross calorific value (GCV) assumes all vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed. Net calorific value (NCV) assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. Fuels should be compared based on the net calorific value. Heating value is the calorific value. Calorific value for solid and liquid fuels is the gross calorific value at constant volume and for gaseous fuels it is the gross calorific value at constant pressure. Net calorific value = Gross calorific value latent heat of condensation The heating value is dependent on the phase of water/steam in the combustion products. If H2O is in liquid form, heating value is called HHV (higher Heating Value). When H2O is in vapor form, heating value is called LHV (Lower Heating Value). HHV=Gross calorific value LHV= Net calorific value 3

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012


OPEN CUP AND CLOSE CUP
The flash point of a combustible liquid is the temperature at which a vapor is given off that will ignite in air when a flame is passed over it. The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a lubricant must be heated before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn. Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and combustible materials. Flash point can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable materials in a relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable material. Products with a flash point less than 38 C (100F) will usually require special precautions for safe handling. The fire point is the temperature at which lubricant combustion will be sustained. The fire point for a lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point. The flash and fire points are useful in determining a lubricants volatility and fire resistance.

POUR POINT AND CLOUD POINT


The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled under prescribed conditions. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is ready to be pumped. We have to ensure that the pour point is at least 10C (20F) lower than the lowest anticipated ambient temperature. The cloud point is the temperature at which dissolved solids in the oil, such as paraffin wax, begin to form and separate from the oil. As the temperature drops, wax crystallizes and becomes visible. Certain oils must be maintained at temperatures above the cloud point to prevent clogging of filters.

CARBON RESIDUE
Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface, such as a burner or injection nozzle, when its vaporizable constituents evaporate. Residual oil contains carbon residue of 1 percent or more.

Storage of Fuel oil


It can be potentially hazardous to store furnace oil in barrels. A better practice is to store it in cylindrical tanks, either above or below the ground. Furnace oil that is delivered may contain dust, water and other contaminants. Industrial heating fuel storage tanks are generally vertical mild steel tanks mounted above the ground. It is prudent for safety and environmental reasons to build bund walls around tanks to contain accidental spillages. As a certain amount of settlement of solids and sludge will occur in tanks over time, tanks should be cleaned at regular intervals: annually for heavy fuels and every two years for light fuels. 4

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012


Fuel oil should be free from possible contaminants such as dirt, sludge and water before it is fed to the combustion system.

ASTM D86
ASTM D86 standard is the test method for atmospheric distillation of Petroleum products. Distillation curves provide a breadth of information about the crude oil or the petroleum fuel. In certain respects, the boiling point distribution is representative of the composition of the petroleum fraction. This type of distillation curve is used however on a routine basis for plant and product quality control. Petroleum is evaluated mainly in terms of its ASTM distillation curve, what makes possible to investigate the yields of the products that will be obtained in the refineries, as well as to establish operational strategies and process optimization. The properties of natural petroleum and petroleum products make use of the ASTM distillation analyses very useful for petroleum characterization, design and operation of refinery units, the classification of petroleum, the development of petroleum property correlations and it has been used worldwide. The components that have a low number of carbon atoms vaporize first. As the vapors rise in the column, cooling causes condensation. The volatile components may be separated into fractions that fall within particular boiling point ranges. In general, compounds with the lowest boiling points have the fewest carbon atoms and compounds with the highest boiling points have the greatest number of carbon atoms. Gasoline contains some undesirable unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds. It has boiling range of 40-120oC.

VISCOSITY INDEX
The viscosity of oil is a measure of the oils resistance to shear. Viscosity varies inversely with temperature. Viscosity is also affected by pressure; higher pressure causes the viscosity to increase. This property enables use of thin oils to lubricate heavy machinery. The viscosity index, commonly designated VI, is an arbitrary numbering scale that indicates the changes in oil viscosity with changes in temperature. Viscosity index can be classified as follows: low VI - below 35; medium VI - 35 to 80; high VI - 80 to 110; very high VI - above 110. A high viscosity index indicates small oil viscosity changes with temperature. A low viscosity index indicates high viscosity changes with temperature. Therefore, a fluid that has a high viscosity index can be expected to undergo very little change in viscosity with temperature extremes and is considered to have a stable viscosity. A fluid with a low viscosity index can be expected to undergo a significant change in viscosity as the temperature fluctuates. 5

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012


Knowing the viscosity index of oil is crucial when selecting a lubricant for an application, and is especially critical in extremely hot or cold climates.

Coal classification

Coal is classified into three major types namely anthracite, bituminous, and lignite. However, there is no clear demarcation between them. Coal is further classified as semi-anthracite, semibituminous, and sub-bituminous. Anthracite is the oldest coal from a geological perspective. It is a hard coal composed mainly of carbon with little volatile content and practically no moisture. Lignite is the youngest coal from a geological perspective. It is a soft coal composed mainly of volatile matter and moisture content with low fixed carbon. Fixed carbon refers to carbon in its free state, not combined with other elements. Volatile matter refers to those combustible constituents of coal that vaporize when coal is heated. Physical properties of coal include the heating value, moisture content, volatile matter and ash. The chemical properties of coal refer to the various elemental chemical constituents such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Anthracite coal is a high-ranking coal with more fixed carbon and less volatile matter than bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite varieties. Anthracite also has higher ignition and ash fusion temperatures. Analysis of coal There are two methods to analyze coal: ultimate analysis and proximate analysis. The ultimate analysis determines all coal component elements, solid or gaseous and the proximate analysis determines only the fixed carbon, volatile matter, and moisture and ash percentages. Proximate Analysis This analysis of coal gives good indication about heating and burning properties of coal. High volatile matter is desirable in gas making, while low volatile matter for manufacturing of metallurgical coke. Ultimate analysis is useful in determining the quantity of air required for. This information is required for the calculation of flame temperature and the flue duct design etc. combustion and the volume and composition of the combustion gases This analysis of coal is more precise way to find the chemical composition of coal Fixed carbon: Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off. It consists mostly of carbon but also contains some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. Fixed carbon Fixed carbon is obtained by deducting the sum of moisture, ash and volatile matter percentage from 100.

Liquid Fuels
Liquid fuels like furnace oil and LSHS (low sulphur heavy stock) are predominantly used in industrial applications. The various properties of liquid fuels are given below. Density Specific gravity Viscosity 6

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012


Flash Point Pour Point Specific Heat Calorific Value Sulphur Ash Content Carbon Residue Water Content Storage of Fuel oil Advantages (a) They posses higher calorific value per unit mass than solid fuels. (b) They burn without dust, ash, clinkers, etc. (c) Their firing is easier and also fire can be extinguished easily by stopping liquid fuel supply. (d) They are easy to transport through pipes. (e) They can be stored indefinitely without any loss. (f) They are clean in use and economic to handle. (g) Loss of heat in chimney is very low due to greater cleanliness. (h) They require less excess air for complete combustion. (i) They require less furnace space for combustion. Disadvantages (a) The cost of liquid fuel is relatively much higher as compared to solid fuel. (b) Costly special storage tanks are required for storing liquid fuels. (c) There is a greater risk of five hazards, particularly, in case of highly inflammable and volatile liquid fuels. (d) They give bad odour. (e) For efficient burning of liquid fuels, specially constructed burners and spraying apparatus are required.

Types of gaseous fuel


The following is a list of the types of gaseous fuel: Fuels naturally found in nature: Natural gas Methane from coal mines Fuel gases made from solid fuel Gases derived from coal Gases derived from waste and biomass From other industrial processes (blast furnace gas) Gases made from petroleum Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) Refinery gases Gases from oil gasification Gases from some fermentation process

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering