Digital Trends



PREFAC E This white paper is intended to describe the technology trends in
digital libraries, discuss key issues involved in digital library implementation, and provide profiles of some of today’s leading digital library programs. As one of the leading technology providers to libraries, museums, and the educational community, Sun Microsystems has played a key role in the evolution of digital libraries around the world and is pleased to support their continued development. Sun Microsystems will continue to support the library and museum communities as they explore new and evolving information technology (IT) architectures. Sun is also committed to fostering the sharing of best practices among institutions and increasing the crossfertilization of commercial and library/museum-specific solutions. We hope that this white paper — together with the Digital Library Toolkit, which is available on the website — will offer guidance and useful information to our Education, Library, and Museum customers. Thank you for your continued support!

Art Pasquinelli, Manager Global Education and Research Sun Microsystems, Inc. August, 2002
Digital Trends Library Technology


Preface inside front cover Introductio n Part 1 – What is a Digital Library? 1 Evolution of Digital Collections 1 Defining the Digital Library 3 Goals Key Components 5 Link to e-Learning and the Campus Enterprise 6 Part 2 – The Open Digital Library 8 Technology Platform Requirements 8 The Sun Platform 8 Education Portal 9 The Evolution to Web Services 10 Part 3 – Digital Library Development 12 Fundin g Custom Development vs. Packaged Solutions 13 Packaged Solutions 14 Metadata Identity and Rights Management 19 Preservation Portals Part 4 – Digital Library Program Profiles 25 Museum Image Consortium Art 25 University of California at Berkeley 25 Cornell University 27 Harvard University 28 JSTO R University of Maryland 30 Stanford University 31 Part 5 – Future Directions 34 Appendix - Sun™ Open Network Environment 36 (Sun ONE) i


1 2 16 20 23


Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Unlike previous eras, ours is an age of lifelong learning. Society expects that people will continually gain new skills and knowledge. Economically, continuing education is critical for one’s ability to maintain earnings potential. Sociologically, education has become increasingly important as the core of professional and personal success. Evening degree programs are making way for Internet universities as students from all walks of life seek more flexible ways to learn. The library, historically a cornerstone of scholarly endeavor, is reinventing itself in today’s networked society to meet these new demands. Instead of a building that holds books, the library is evolving into an electronic portal to a growing global collection of digital content. The doors to this virtual library are now open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and the library’s holdings come to the user when needed. Today’s library includes sophisticated tools that make it easy to find the best information resources, delivering them to one’s desktop or mobile computing device at the push of a button. While there are still many challenges to realizing the potential of digital information, digital library technologies and practices have developed enough so they are within reach of every type and size of educational institution. To that end, this publication is intended to provide executives of learning organizations with a vision from Sun Microsystems of what the digital library can be, practical direction on how to approach development of a digital library, and insight into what library industry leaders have learned from their experiences. Cheryl D. Wright Digital Library Consultant


Digital Trends



digital imaging technology has advanced. Audio record.Part 1 – What is a Digital Library? Evolution of Digital Collections One of the most precious treasures of the British Library is the irreplaceable 11th century manuscript of “Beowulf. Today. and exposure to the elements. video clippings from televised news proings of grams. many important advances in digital library techniques came about Sun Microsystems.quality images of page of the Gutenberg Bible to a digital likeness of the Mona Lisa—right at each the desktop or other Web-enabled device. so have opportunities for As of preservation artifacts. both to preserve them for future generations and to make them more accessible to our own. Although the degradation was halted in the mid-1800s by mounting each manuscript leaf in a protective frame. 1 . As shown in Figure 1. and archives are digitizing the important documents and images of our culture. students. digital library projects were largely experimental activities. written as early as the second irreplaceable century discovered fifty years ago. at any time and from any location. Inc. much damage had already been sustained and sections of this great work can now only be known through historical transcripts. Thanks to the creation of digital libraries.” an epic poem describing the heroic adventures of a Scandinavian warrior. information professionals. and the general public can directly access many of the world’s rarest artifacts—from high.historic speeches or exotic birdcalls. The manuscript was donated to the British Museum in 1700was nearly destroyed in a fire 30 years later. obscuring the text and causing parts of writing to transfer to adjacent parts of the scroll. enhance. were considerably degraded by their centuries of B.This is only one example of how. researchers. capture. by scholars. the allowing researchers to reconstruct new parts of the text. throughout the world.C. and more are being delivered directly to the desks of students and researchers. A specialized camera and the filters developed by Eastman Kodak for the space program were used to image fragments of scrolls and reveal new characters previously invisible in normal light. and preserve forever this cultural artifact in digital form. The Dead Sea Scrolls. museums where. Not only has the manuscript been captured in its current form. With scorched edges and and brittle the manuscript continued to deteriorate over the next century of handling pages. the British Library initiated the “Electronic Beowulf Project” to In 1993. Through the 1990s. scholarly research is accelerating dramatically without the limitations of physical access. but it is now available for study any. libraries. barriers of space and time in the search for knowledge are also being elimiThe nated. geospacial data. Conditions in the caves where they were discovered had caused the parchment scrolls to deteriorate.

the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). size. including the European Union. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). resulting in the JISC-NSF International Initiative. 2002–2007 NSF-JISC Digital Libraries in Classroom Projects the 1999–2001: NSF-JISC Digital Library Projects 1993–1996: JISC eLIB 1 Projects Phase 1996–1997: JISC eLIB 2 Projects Phase 1997–2000: JISC eLIB Phase 2 Projects 1994–1999 NSF Phase 1 Projects 1999–2004 NSF Phase 2 Projects 1991: World Wide Web released 1995: Commercial Internet access providers emerge 1990 2000: Web size 1 exceeds indexable billion pages 2005 Figure 1. These products are aimed at educa-institutions that seek easy-to-install and easy-to-maintain solutions based tional on industry standards and best practices to date. distance. and exploit such uted information. • Evaluate the impact of this new technology and its international benefits. and the Digital Library Federation (DLF). The objectives of this three-year program were Digital Library to: • Assemble collections of information that were not otherwise accessible or usable because of technical barriers. In 1999 these projects began U. many other groups have become involved in the expansion of digital library technologies and techniques. Key U. • Create new technology and the understanding to make it possible for a distrib. or other limits. 2 Digital Trends Library Technology .through research sponsored by the U.S.K. expanding internationally when NSF linked its digital library research program with similar activities being undertaken by JISC. Digital Library Research Initiatives Since then.S. the American Library Association (ALA). system fragmentation./U. the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA).set of users to find. National S cience Foundation (NS F) and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). deliver.K. Library automation software vendors have also introduced the first commercial products developed from the experimental work. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

of library activities are technology-supported and have been for years. and digital preservation. access to. maintenance. sometimes government grants. former director of the Digital Library Federation and now head of the California Digital Library.C. stored in multimedia repos. Berkeley and other large research libraries as content. and preservation of digital He sees the work by U.” exploring new Sun Microsystems.” the generation of digital library development. Inc. Goals Digital libraries began to appear on the campus in the early 1990s as research and development projects centered within computer science departments. to support the creation. 3 . Thomas Hickerson. the Director for Library Technologies at U. Bernie Hurley. digital mirrors the growth of e-learning (or distance learning) as the virtual library alterna-traditional school attendance. Campus librarians were often uninvolved in these funded by early projects. As the student population increasingly turns tive to to off-campus alternatives for lifelong learning. any niently time. characterizes this experimental period as the “second-generation digital library. Sun Microsystems defines a digital library the electronic extension of functions as typically perform and the resources they access in a traditional library users . These information resources can be translated into digital form.” Hickerson says. Cornell University’s Associate University Librarian for Information Technologies & Special Collections.and made available through Web-based services. H. The tion Internet an incredible is time to erase the line between physical and digital libraries. data management techniques. metadata schemes. library use over the past decade. be. “Once the specifications settle out.locate information resources anywhere. first the commercial vendors can more successfully enter the market with competitive products. draws the distinction between traditional library automation and digital Hurley notes that “digital libraries are different in that they are designed libraries. There are many definitions.C. there has been tremendous progress in adapting new technologies to Still. Dan Greenstein. “A major lieves por.” Hurley says.Defining the Digital Library Debate rages among librarians and knowledge professionals as to what constitutes a digital library. the library must evolve to fit this new educational paradigm or become obsolete as students search for other ways to conve. Berkeley. The emergence of the itories. but libraries have a history of managing large has had systems and using technology to deliver bibliographic information. ranging from the electronic catalog that describes physical items in a “ brick and mortar” library to advanced multimedia environments housing all-digital collections. which focused on digitization technology. management.

and then wait days or weeks for the item to physical arrive building where it was requested. the user can customize his or her information request so that search results reflect individual needs and preferences. This is the objective that the digital library is any fulfilling. and all from device. more valuable and richer user experience in the digital library creating a environment .paralleled the development of heightened student requirements for access opment to library resources. Greenstein suggests that the third-generation digital library abandoned this experimentation and the “build it and they will come” philosophy that characterized early collections. With this new knowledge in hand. Additionally.opportunities and developing new competencies. request the item. and library collections. simultaneously databases. With the advent of the Internet. commercial • Save search results and conduct additional processing to narrow or qualify results. focusing instead on fully integrating digital material into the digital library’ s collections through a modular systems architecture. Digital library use shifted to a large and diverse campus audience. Sun considers personalization the next killer application. search the Internet. Patrons increasingly expect instant access at the to the information resources they require. “This modular approach is fundamentally liberating since it permits libraries to think creatively about how to build upon services supplied by others. 4 Digital Trends Library Technology . an individual With can: • Gain access to the holdings of libraries worldwide through automated catalogs. Library are not satisfied to locate an item of interest that is housed at yet patrons another location. the library began to take a more central role. individuals’ expectations for access to information have increased dramatically. • Optimize searches. click through to access the digitized content or locate additional items of interest. from any location. capabilities are available from the desktop or other Web-enabled All of these device such as a personal digital assistant or cellular telephone. It is no longer considered practical or acceptable to travel to a specific location during certain hours to locate needed information. both physical and digitized versions of scholarly articles and • Locate libraries.” As these projects matured and led the way toward more practical digital library implementations. at any time. • From search results. and information technology (IT) groups began to partner with the library to develop campus-wide standards for the deployment and operation of digital libraries as an integral part of the education enterprise. This devel.

management. Initial conversion of content from physical to digital form.Key Components As shown in figure 2. if required. E-commerce functionality may also be present if needed to handle accounting and 4. Functional Components of a Digital Library Sun Microsystems. and tural 3. Patron access through a browser or dedicated client. services for the browser. Content media. The repository will include rights management capabilities to enforce intellectual property rights. billing. 5 . private or public 7. The thecontent to facilitate searching and discovery. as well as administrative and struc. preservation. 6./ E-Commerce 5 Multimedi a Content Metadata Conten Delivery t Repository Figure 2.metadata to assist in object viewing. extraction or creation of metadata or indexing information describing 2. digital content and metadata in an appropriate multimedia Storage of repository. delivery via file transfer or streaming 5. Conten digitization/ t acquisition Network Metadata Extractio n 2 1 Patron’s Browser or Client 6 7 4 Client Services 3 Rights Mgmt. a fully developed digital library environment involves the following elements: 1. A network. including repository querying and Client workflow. Inc.

the past decade steep declines in the cost of commodity components. a consistent issue cited by digital library integration developers. “I think we will see a continued evolution from thinking about digital collections to thinking about networked information services. The digital library is experience a core component of this VLE. these digital library components must also be tailored to capture.that transformed corporate enterprises. education organizations are now ade viewing themselves in a new light. some standards are concrete and others are emerging. The term “digital library” is often used to describe any multi. invent themselves. analysis. During combined with the availability of high bandwidth networks. and distribution tools that facilitate the reuse and repurposing of digital content. have made sophisticated IT applications for education affordable. To interoperate with the existing library infrastructure. and changing the relationships between the library and other parts of the academic enterprise. A mix of sophisticated digital and Internetbased and rapidly expanding global digital content have made possible a services “virtual environment” (VLE) that delivers the capability to enhance the learning classroom or conduct learning apart from a physical campus. but this does not mean media it will deliver true library application functionality. New types of students and changing student expectationsthe integration of core campus functions and deployment of student are driving ser. Link to e-Learning and the Campus Enterprise The development of digital libraries must be considered in the overall context of initiatives to unify the IT structures of the campus and to transform the learning process through innovative technology. which will integrate authoring. system holding digitized information. As in the business process re-engineering activities of the last dec. Thus. social.on the Web. Fragmented. the digital library must be designed to work with existing library catalogs and incorporate industry standards. “These developments are extending the role of the library. and deliver information according to standard practices adopted by the library industry.” according Lynch. In almost all cases. Because of the rapid pace the of technological change.These components might not all be part of a discrete digital library system. Director of the Coalition for Networked Resources and a noted to Clifford authority on digital libraries. and cultural pressures are forcing schools and universities to reEconomic. Accordingly. monolithic approaches are falling away as vices educators need to link learning and administrative resources in a more effective realize the way to become a “knowledge enterprise. the collections and services must 6 Digital Trends Library Technology . but becould provided by other related or multi-purpose systems or environments. and protocols.” the 21st century version of the traditional campus.

distributed digital content and advanced networking technologies for learning. integrated into the institutional. 7 .” This program will promote the use of large-scale. Running from 2002 to 2007. national. the sponsored projects are expected to demonstrate how integrating recent technical developments with digital content improves the learning experience of students and provides new models for classroom instruction. and on institutional structures and practices will be important elements of the initiative. Evaluating the impact of these projects on student achievement. Sun Microsystems. and worldwide fabric of research and teaching. Inc.” The NSF in the United States has joined with the JISC in the United Kingdom to sponsor a major research program called “Digital Libraries and the Classroom: Testbeds for Transforming Teaching and Learning. retention.

The Sun™ Platform The use of new Internet and portal computing models. online.and scalability of open platforms have made them the most popular choice ability of professionals for Internet computing. intensive. capacity also must be scalable to adapt to rapid growth in demand. it is critical for the As underlying technology platform to deliver the performance and reliability required. • Audio. and the growing need to better manage heterogeneous. • Graphics. because cost is a foremost concern. digital libraries scale in size and functionality. a wide variety of hardware and software was cally oriented totally around Internet protocols and stresses the role of ture that Web for a vast and diverse array of services that follow a utility sites model. An open systems architecture provides both a robust platform and the best selection of digital media management solutions and development tools. lifelong learners.000 desktop computers with 20. scalability and effiare not ciency with a low total cost of ownership are also key requirements. availability. which is relatively compact.small and experimental. and serviceability (RAS) features.of these collections include millions of digital objects. which is highly dynamic. and Storage bemust adapted to the mix of media types that may be stored in a digital library. The inherent reli. such as: • Text.expect high service levels. collections are Some being that will require storage measured in petabytes—the equivalent of more planned than 50. This computing model features an IT architec. the leading digital library developers are putting substantial collections Today. when collections were typi. libraries pa.gigabyte hard drives. Many digital are considered “mission critical” to the overall institution. Sun Microsystems™ 8 Digital Trends Library Technology . digital collection development requires extensive use of technological resources. In addition. roundtheclock IT environments has fueled the move to Sun technologies. This type of digital library implementation requires a scalable enterprise-level technology solution with built-in reliability. which is highly dynamic and data • Video.Part 2 – The Open Digital Library Technology Platform Requirements By its nature. In the early days of digital library development. which means that downtime and poor response trons time tolerable. Storage capacity should be expandable in economical increments and should not require redesign or re-engineering of the system design as requirements grow. the explosion of offcampus. Moreover. which can be dataintensive.

offer. Brown Associates. fast I/O. Inc. • The Solaris™ Operating Environment was declared the Best Server Operating Environment in 2001 Network Computing . midrange. industry’ viding modular storage capacity that can pro. Exceptional performance is achieved through fast processors.cannot ings match. real-world performance capa.Brown Associates. Sun leads its competitors in both unit shipments and revenue in the entry. fault-isolated dynamic system domains. Near-linear performance achieved as processors are added to servers. a common operating environment. and complete binary compatibility. storage Sun StorEdge™ arrays incorporate hot-swappable. Sun also offers one of the s most economical storage environments. The same application can scale from a single CPU to hundreds of CPUs. concurrent maintenance. and linear outstanding scalability.end server Thesegments. According to the results 2001 Unix Function Review of the performed by D. it was also ranked as the top by UNIX® Operating System by industry analyst firm D. Operating Environment includes many features that deliver the Solaris™ scalability and RAS required for the digital library environment. • In UNIX markets. Spindle products limits. 9 . For example. setting a standard that other technology platform bilities. IT specialists are implementing campus portals.H. redundant components and dual controllers.and cost of ownership. and high. spanning generations of product releases without the need for modifications or recompilations. Sun midrange and high-end servers also offer high-availability features such as full hardware redundancy. The Education Portal Increasingly.continues to lead the way in RAS. In a portal environment. s enterprise Sun’ products are designed to have no single point of failure. built-in backup systems and easy providing serviceability. capacity. and bandwidth can be increased with a simple upgrade. the client connects to a portal server via a browser or other device. Total investment protection is achieved through Sun’s reliance on a common chip architecture. The portal Sun Microsystems. Sun’s flexible be storage enable the user to purchase precisely the increments needed. system interconnect performance. and high-reliability clusincreases are tering is supported for extremely high uptime environments. H. Solaris 8 Operating Environment is the highest rated operating system among five leading UNIX-based operating systems.added incrementally. Among other achievements: • Sun’s 64-bit UltraSPARC® III processor received MicroDesign Resources (MDR) Microprocessor Report 2001 Analysts Choice Award in the Best Server/Workstation processor category. resource management. and clustering support.

server presents an authentication screen to the user (whether student.without user intervention. The digital library of the future will deliver “smart media services”. having the services run in the backend. that faculty sees only applications (via a Faculty Portal). It ensures that student information stays with students (via a Student Portal). Evolution to Web Services Software is evolving from local desktop and client-server software applications to Web applications. the portal server can then read all dynamic attributes for the cus. All of this functionality can create a management nightmare. it is very common for organizations to move their local appli. The next time the user connects. Once the portal server has been configured and tailored initially.applications and content (via an Administrative Portal).entries to the portal. the portal server establishes connections to the back-end application servers while waiting for the customer to choose where all to next. A Web application offers a service that requires the intervention of a user.from the directory services and start to build the primary screen. or staff). which is go why it is important to support a scalable management and policy base mechanism. Open Net Environment (Sun ONE) product set (see Appendix) provides The Sun™ this functionality by administering access based on community. the connection running https. If the user name and password is accepted and verified within ted in the directory services. This tomer screen will include all services and applications that the customer has permissions to access —including library services. and in some cases to subscribe to additional application cations services Web from external service providers. Web services are functional components that action can combine with other services dynamically to create a more useful or powerful application. while a Web service facilitates direct program-to-program inter. and then adding the access the Web. an application or service needs to be added it is simply a matter of whenever adding the resources. This provides the flexibility to dynamically modify the customer environment. supporting thousands to tens of thousands of devices or more. Each portal is vant customized to the community. that is. addition. an easily integrated Sun ONE product set provides modular In directory and security services. all username and password information is With encryp-transport. and campus-wide messaging and calendar services for a total campus infrastructure solution. the service will be trol available. faculty. Meanwhile. Today. e-commerce functionality. The next phase of this evolution is over the the development of true Web services. Web services that can match “media content” to user “context” in a way that provides a 10 Digital Trends Library Technology . and that administrative personnel view only for the faculty rele.

• Electronic Business XML (ebXML). XML is a standard for describing other languages.applications. The primary standards powering Web services are XML-based. describing thousands of different document types in many of human activity.of the tion user. predefined markup language and can be This differs considered one application of XML . These today include: • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). personalized experience.customized. which is a single. • Universal Description. written fields in SGML. Inc. While not all are fully defined standards. Media content is digital content that includes of interactivity. 11 . Sun Microsystems. XML allows the design of customized markup languages for limitless types of documents. providing a very flexible and simple way to write Web-based applications. These standards are emerging as the basis for the new Web services model.from HTML. Context includes such information as the identity and elements loca. they are maturing quickly with broad industry support. Discovery and Integration (UDDI). Services Description Language • Web (WSDL). Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Standard General Markup Language (SGML) are important standards influencing our ability to create broadly interoperable Web. SGML is an international standard for text markup systems and based is very large and complex. Several key technologies must interact to allow Web services to work in this way.

Thomas Hickerson. managing. Funding The funding issue is probably the single largest barrier to digital library development. Some institutions like Harvard University have been able to generate startup funding with the philosophy of “ build it and they will come. the next group of digital library adopters must reach a “make versus buy” decision.preservation can be daunting to libraries already struggling to pay for term existing activities. this is why most existing collections are essentially pilot projects or R&D activi. The first organizations to build large-scale digital libraries encountered many challenges in organizing.” Cornell has sought initial seed money for digitization projects. and making a commitment to long. emerge. 12 Digital Trends Library Technology . The objective of this section is to discuss some of the these challenges and share experiences of the early adopters.challenge of mounting a large-scale digitization effort. Some resources are “ born digital” while others originate in physical form and require transformation into digital a process that can be difficult and costly. but as packaged library solutions are ments now available. Much of the utility and long-term ease of maintenance of digital collections is dependent upon the types and quality of metadata that is stored with the digital but agreed-upon standards for metadata are only beginning to objects. encoding appropriate ties.Part 3 – Development Digital Library An educational institution’s digital library environment will likely encompass both local collections and externally provided resources from such sources as subscription services and other libraries. “It’s hard to changeyou’re doing when you have to achieve that change by moving existing what funds one spot to another. but establishes cost recovery models that will eventually allow the digital programs to become self-funding.” Most will have to shift funding from existing programs or activities—never an easy task. and ensuring the long-term maintenance of digital library environment. with a single gateway and a comprehensive set of support services. s digital library environtoday’ are the result of custom development. from “Not all library leaders have been willing to do that. Some of these experiences may others avoid pitfalls and take advantage of evolving best help practices.” comments Cornell University’s H. funding. The metadata to ensure ease of discovery and use. There is often a desire to structure this blend of internal and external resources as a unified collection from the user’s point of view. Most of form.

least four library automation companies now offer digital library solutions. consistently of commercially available solutions that met their requirements as cite the lack the reason for developing custom systems. commenting on one particularly well-funded project: “Even library a million dollars doesn’t go very far in developing this kind of a system. at least) no competing communities with different needs or opinions about the best way of accomplishing a cer. but the wait may be over.” Another expe. Don’t write code or try to be leading Keller’s edge you have strong support from your computer science department. The up-front cost of development can be spread over a long period of tain use. On the other hand. Inc. since there are (theoretically. no further license fees or charges to be paid as time goes on. “If you’re going to do it by yourself. Stanford University Librarian the Michael advice is: “Don’t reinvent the wheel. the cost of developing and availability maintaining multimedia management environment is very high. Says a veteran a complex digital implementer..” shelf Sun Microsystems. The continuing needs at force market will exert pressure for improvement and evolution of the product of the to continue to meet users’ requirements. On the There plus side. Buy off unless the from reliable suppliers.. The nature of marketplace will dictate that the system for sale will meet a majority of the the buyers’ a more reasonable price than developing unique systems. nor do they have any interest in staffing to maintain a complex digital library system. protecting the buyers’ long-term interests. These arguments in favor of commercial systems have motivated many would-be digital librarians to wait. Packaged Solutions Custom development has been the predominant means of constructing digital libraries simply because off-the-shelf solutions have only become available relatively Leading digital library implementers who have gone this route recently. At and other general multimedia management technology companies are starting to targeteducational institution/library library developer says. Future with development controllable and predictable. 13 . Many simply do not have access to the types of technologists required to develop libraries and maintain these systems.Custom Development vs.task. and there is no doubt about is completely continued of the system.” There is also the threat that evolving standards would result in oneoff systems that lack interoperability with other digital environments. there is a high degree of assurance that the completed system will closely fit the specific user requirements. of thought advocating the development of commercial digital library The school solutions revolves around the value of a large number of buyers supporting the research and development required to bring a robust “turn-key” solution to market. are both benefits and drawbacks to doing custom development. bring rienced your checkbook.

• Linking. and the University of Pennsylvania. Libris program actively fosters participation in This Ex development. supported by a hardware grant from Sun Microsystems.endinfosys. • Data content of pages in TIFF.The following section introduces several commercial entries from Sun software partners in this emerging digital library software market. Computerized Interchange of Museum ual Infor. Kansas State University. Ex Libris describes DigiTool as a means of ensuring that digital data can be acquired.50. Cornell University. digital library market with “DigiTool. the vendor of the integrated library system Systems “Voyager. product. The first commercial release of ENCompass was in March Endeavor is currently working on the third release of this 2001.. 2001 the University of Maryland Libraries was announced as a Premier to further development of the DigiTool digital asset management Partner software. text in SGML. and testing of new features within the ongoing design. Future support is planned for (TEI).” Ex Libris has also taken the approach of involving users. In October. became the first co-developer. Information about ENCompass products can be found at Endeavor’s Web site. provider of the integrated library system ” has entered Libris “ALEPH. the DigiTool. Packaged Solutions These products are available from established library automation vendors: Endeavor Information . HTML. Ex . 14 Digital Trends Library Technology . • Search • Object management. searched. and distributed in conformance with industry standards: • Data structures such as Dublin Core (DC). XML. HTML. MAB. Inc.” has introduced its digital library offering “ENCompass. and Open Archive Initiative. • License and rights management. or PDF formats. JPEG. Other codevelopers now include the Getty Research Institute. SQL. and Records Export for Art and Cultural Heritage mation (REACH).com . Collection • management. Dienst. manipulated. shared. HTTP. Endeavor describes ENCompass functionality as including:and discovery. GIF. MARC21. and Resource Description Framework [RDF]). or XML formats.” Endeavor involved a small group of customers as product co-developers. Vis. www. • Information industry syntaxes (SGML. • Data interchange via Z39. Text Encoding Initiative and Electronic Archive Description (EAD).(CIMI).Resources Association (VRA).

The Visual MIS services address all aspects of the digitization process and from collection analysis to database creation and interface has a slightly different S proach. syndication.” The Hyperion Digital Media Archive is a tool building.exlibrisusa. More information is available at www. and other fields in the humanities available for subscription.exlibris. product. developer of the “Virtua” integrated library system. Inc. Its flagship Inc. tarArtesia’s “TEAMS™” product is being used by Stanford Uni. the basis for its digital library initiative. TEAMS product information can be viewed at slides. has a digital library Sirs . i offering called “Hyperion™ Digital Media Archive. MuseSearch™. multimedia presentations. architecture. and often movieHyperion can also serve as a repository for computer-generated material such as clips. or share content with other institutions.for digitizing and making available a variety of materials such as vices documents. . TEAMS integrates with other asset-intensive applications mation like content management. staff time. and engineering drawings. professional is a broadcast search technology that allows unlimited numbers and of information sources to be searched simultaneously with a single user query. The following offerings are examples of products from mainstream multimedia vendors who are targeting the education market: Technologies Artesia is a generalized multimedia management system vendor geting the library market.artesia. drawings. digital rights management. a new independent. catalog cards. vendor of the “Unicorn” integrated library system. Luna ’s “Insight®” high-resolution digital imaging software is used to Imaging digitize image collections.DigiTool product information can be found at Ex Libris’ Web site. license digital images from existing image collections.vtls. plates.organization that will make a large body of digital resources for the study of profit art. and microfilm. MuseGlobal. artwork. Mellon Foundation is adopting Luna’s software as the platform to distribute ArtSTOR. or www. glass believes that outsourcing the digitization process ensures high-quality. technical documents. 15 .il www. customer relationship Web management.sirsi. apoffering “Visual MIS” (Multimedia and Imaging Solutions). VTLS maps. maps.related to them. sound. VTL . types It Sun Microsystems. The Andrew W. and maintaining collections of digitally captured material— for most scanned documents. For more information. More information on Sirsi’s Hyperion Digital Media Archive can be found at www. VTLS Web site at see the www. and e-learning.lunaimaging. notInsight for. photographs. professional scanning results without the necessity for a long-term investment in equipment. specializes in information connectivity solutions. Artesia describes TEAMS as a versity digital asset warehouse that serves as the hub for media files as well as for the vital infor.

or structured data about digital objects and collections. When collections become large or when searching what has been multiple collections (such as over the Internet) the discovery of objects of interest becomes a “needle in a haystack” exercise. important emerging descriptive metadata standard for images and other An multimedia objects is Dublin Core. Dublin Core was designed to provide a very widely accepted to allow discovery. 1.of capturing and storing appropriate descriptive pline smallest digital collections would be useless. www. Figure 3 describes the elements of the Dublin Core metadata standard.also incorporates linking features to take users from record results to category indices. is located. cessful all essential to ensure the usability and preservation of the collection over time.books and other publications.museglobal. and references. a group of 15 items of information designed to be simple to understand and use. loging but not designed for describing images.the scope. when it was created. At the collection level. the same base standard can be used for a wide variety of munity. but would include such things as its title. Descriptive Metadata This metadata provides information that a) allows discovery of collections or objects through the use of search tools. who created it.In this way. using. metadata. content. Without agreed-upon metadata standards and the disci.due to inadequate metadata. MARC has served the traditional library well. and other important mine characteristics that would assist in understanding the collection. and b) provides sufficient context for understanding what it is. purposes and business models. contributors. Many digitization efforts have been unsuc. the subject. 16 Digital Trends Library Technology . and other new media was types. language. ownership. More information is available at Metadata The key to locating. but with the option for different communities of mechanism users to adapt and customize it by adding more fields of particular importance to the com. Probably the best-known descriptivestandard for libraries is MARC (MAchine-Readable Catalog) used for metadata cata. and preserving digital content is metadata. all but the Metadata for individual objects varies by the type of object. sound files. etc. any access restrictions. There are three different types of metadata. users should be able to where it deter.

functions. genres.Name Identifier Definition Comment Title Title A name given to the Typically a Title will be a name by resource the resource is formally known. Examples to of dimensions include size and Recommended best practice is to select a duration. responsible for making organization. Typically. the working draft list of Core Types [DCT1]). but is not of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary formal classification scheme. or general aggregation levels for content. or classification as codes that describe a topic of the resource. the content of the name of a Contributor should be used resource. Date Date A date associated with an Typically. indicate the to entity. the an the content of the name of a Creator should be used resource. categories. or a service. key phrases. display or operate the resource. Inc. the list of Internet Media [MIME] defining computer media Types formats). table of contents. media resource. or a service. person. or a service. Publisher Publisher An entity responsible for Examples of a Publisher include a making the resource an organization. Typically. limited to a graphical representation of content reference a or free-text account of the content. may be used to determine the Format hardware or other equipment needed software. to: an abstract. available. name of a Publisher should be used the indicate the to entity. 17 . Date will be associated with event in the life cycle of creation or availability of the the the resource. Contributor Contributor An entity responsible for Examples of a Contributor include a making contributions to an organization. the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF] and follows YYYY-MM-DD the format. To describe the physical Dublin or digital manifestation of the resource. Format Format The physical or digital Typically. Format may include the manifestation of the type or dimensions of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example. Figure (continued on following page) 3. keywords. Typically. Recommended best practice for encoding resource. use the Format element. person. Sun Microsystems. indicate the to entity. or Description Description An account of the content Description may include. Resource Type Type The nature or genre of the Type includes terms describing content of the resource. value from a controlled vocabulary (for example. a Subject will be expressed Keywords of the resource. which Creator Creator An entity primarily Examples of a Creator include a person. Subject and Subject The topic of the content Typically.

and various Rights Rights. a Rights element will contain M a anagement held in and over the rights management statement for resource. 18 Digital Trends Library Technology . followed optionally. ‘fr’ for French. the resource by means of a string or reference conforming to a formal identification number system. See the Dublin Home Core Page ( for further information concerning the Dublin Core Metadata Element set.1 of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. Rights information encompasses Intellectual Proper ty often (IPR). the Digital Identifier (DOI) and the Object Standard Number International Book (ISBN). PropertyIf the Rights element is absent. Copyright. 639 a bytwo-letter Country Code (taken from ISO 3166 standard [ISO3166]). the Thesaurus of Names [TGN]). location (a place name or geographic spatial coordinates). Language Language A language of the Recommended best practice for the intellectual content of of the Language element is defined by values the resource. date. Dublin Core Metadata Element 1 Set 1 This is the reference description. Cove rage Cove rage The extent or scope of the Cove rage will typically include content of the resource. Rights Rights Information about rights Typically. or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative Recommended best practice is to select a entity). 1766 [RFC1766] which includes a twoRFC Language Code (taken from the ISO letter standard [ISO639]). where Geographic named places appropriate. English used in the United Kingdom. resource. conforming to a formal number system. Relation Relation A reference to a related Recommended best practice is to resource. value from a controlled vocabulary (for example. Example formal identification systems include the Uniform identification Identifier Resource (URI) (including the Resource Uniform Locator (URL)). version 1. Recommended best practice is to reference part. or time periods be used in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of coordinates or date ranges. and that. or reference a service providing the such information.Name Identifier Definition Comment Resource Identifier An unambiguous reference Recommended best practice is to Identifier to the resource within a the resource by means of a string or identify given context. temporal period (a period label. For the ‘en’ for English. or ‘en-uk’ for example. assumptions can be made about the no of these and other rights with respect status the to resource. Source Source A reference to a resource The present resource may be derived from which the present the Source resource in whole or in from resource is derived. the resource by means of a string or conforming to a formal identification number system. Figure 3.

Structural metadata aids the user in navigating among of indi. Supported by the Digital Li. administrative. is one of the most straightforward examples of structural metadata. and how chapters make up the book. brary It provides a format for encoding metadata necessary for both management of digital objects within a repository and exchange of such objects between library repositories repositories and their users). or audio sampling rate. An important emerging standard for interoperability of digital collections is the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS).” says the a California Digital Library’s Dan Greenstein. This describes the associations within or among related individual information objects. The structural metadata would explain how individual page images make up individual chapters. management. It can provide a record of how and when an object was created as well as archival and rights management information. the digital library is known less for the extent and nature of the collections it owns than for the networked information space Sun Microsystems. METS builds upon the work of MOA2.Federation and the Library of Congress. the library becomes responsible for configuring access library to world of information of which it owns or manages only a part. 3. “Accordingly. automatically opening that viewer or player when a user selects that resource. The Making of America framework II project (MOA2) developed an encoding format for descriptive.objects that comprise a compound vidual object. 19 .2. and preservation of the digital resource. Administrative Metadata Administrative metadata facilitates access. which consists of pages and chapters. other management becomes a major concern. Leading academic and research libraries are (or between citing METS as an important standard for digital library interoperability. and structural metadata for textual and image-based works. and structural metadata could also relate these to chapters or to a listall figures in the book. Identity and Rights Management As libraries increasingly focus on building gateways that direct patrons both to the library’ s own content and to networked digital resources owned or controlled by entities. Structural Metadata The second type of metadata is structural metadata. “In constructing a rights digital service environment. which provides a uniform for managing and transmitting digital objects. file size. A book. Inc. and seem to be rallying behind this standard. There could also be individually imaged figures. It can describe the viewer or player necessary to access the object. It can describe attributes such as image resolution.

linking that user to groups of other users with access requirements. making the historical and cultural artifacts of our civilization available for future generations. Debates about preservation of scholarly publications are tremendously important.” Fire prevention systems. bilities of In 2001. video. and other copyrighted content in digital form. common authentication/authorization process would be capable of Ideally. the ability to positively identify library patrons and their associated access privileges is required to assure that materials are being accessed and used by the appropriate parties. In environment where individuals can use a common facility for a “single viding sign.the library profession for preserving access to information of all forms. sell. images. Stanford University’s Michael Keller comments.identification process shared with other campus computing on” applications. Even the move from acid to alkaline publishing has worked for long-term retention of printed items.” In this type of cooperative resourcesharing environment. mechanisms for identifying information users and their access privileges are essential. With increased use of the Internet to buy. and delivering this seamless ability to give students access to all resources to which they are defines through a range of online services. or license the use of documents. available to all campus computing applications. that policy was updated to reflect changes brought about by the Internet. The Sun ONE framework discussed in Appendix A provides these common identity and policy facilities—deployed to an open directory. A student enrolled inparticular class should be able to seamlessly access reserve materials in digital form a (held in the digital library system) as well as online course materials available through the curriculum management system. paper in the American Library Association published a preservation policy outlining the responsi. Accordingly. From a more practical perspective. The preamble of the revised policy states: 20 Digital Trends Library Technology . environmental controls. and passing the user’ similar s identity and access profile to all campus computing applications that require such intelligence. Digital content is very easy to copy and disseminate with little or no loss of quality. a positively identifying any computer user. Preservation Libraries place high value on preserving the irreplaceable contents of their collections. pro. and microfilming initiatives guard against catastrophic loss of irreplaceable items. comes the need to protect that content from unauthorized use once it is outside the control of the publisher or distributor.“Libraries are communications devices from preceding generations to succeeding generations. the student’s enrollment in the course being verifiable through the course registration system. it is also useful to integrate these identification and authorization mechanisms with other campus requirements.

The by applications and operating systems software also changes over time. rendering older versions obsolete. all requiring different physical disk drives and reader software. Revised 2001.“Librarians must be committed to preserving their collections through appropriate and non-damaging storage. director than the of Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO). not all digital resources have the same preservation requirements. most likely before deterioration of obsolete the actual storage media occurs. appropriate security measures.have seen an evolution from 5-1/4” floppy disks to higher density 3we 1/2” diskettes to high-density zip disks. Any information stored in a given software/hardware environment will eventually be rendered through technological obsolescence. Evolution in type and format of media. use-life of today’s digital media to between 5 and 50 years. of processing results. Optical storage technology is next. a number of issues that complicate the vidual maintenance of digital objects over long periods of time: • Deterioration of media. remedial treatment of damaged and fragile items. course. Stone tablets have a considerable advantage over digital media for long-term today’ The problem of deterioration limits the storage. Today. Sun Microsystems. locating a system capable of reading 20year-old Visicalc spreadsheet files or Multimate word processing files is a difficult proposition. while librarians ful s debate retain the artifacts of our civilization for thousands of years to how to • come. we must be aware of the challenges posed by changes in media type and format. replacement or reformatting materials. and life-cycle management of of deteriorated 2 digital publications to assure their usefulness for future generations.object. however. In the relatively recent history of personal computer use. Changes in New software constantly ap. “We are more concerned about persistence and authenticity of the collection of images long-term preservation of the surrogate. Preservation of such resources requires operating environment in maintenance of the program and the surrounding operable Of form. preservation of materials in their original format when possible. There are. “Museums are in the business of the pre2 American Library Association Preservation Policy. Preservation Some digital resources exist only fleetingly as a program runs and cannot be preserved as static objects. in 50 years’ time it will likely be • impossible. 21 .” explains David Bearman. Inc. especially since an unlimited number of copies can be created of the indi. In addition to the concerns of physical deterioration of media. and there will undoubtedly be continual change in storage • technologies. applications and operating systems.hardware required pears on the horizon.” With digitized resources. it would seem that preservation would be much easier to achieve.

historical societies. the National Science Foundation.” In early 1998. In addition to the metadata necessary for resource other sorts of metadata. many libraries also convert the objects over time to maintain Specific preservation policies and best practices. including museums and independent research collections. most digital libraries follow a schedule of copying archived digital resources Today. national libraries. archives. the software. 5. hardware and management requirements material. of the digital Sun Microsystems has teamed with Stanford University. Mellon Foundation to develop an approach to preserving 3 See the PADI website at www.” The skill set of the archivist. has been proposed by a number of researchers as a useful strategy in conjunction with other digital preservation methods. well standards will assist in preserving access to digital Adherence information. and the Andrew W. to address the issue of media deterioration. It is universally agreed that documentation is an important tool to assist in preserving digital material. The migration of digital information from one hardware/software configuration or from one generation of computer technology to a later one to another offers method of dealing with technological one 2. obsolescence. 22 Digital Trends Library Technology . Library of Australia sponsors an initiative called “Preserving Access The National to Digital Information” (PADI) with the goal of providing mechanisms that help ensure that digital information is managed with appropriate consideration for preservation access. As organizational standards for formats and applications evolve. funded a study by Dr. Margaret Hedstrom and Sheon Montgomery to RLG determine of digital archiving among 54 of its member institutions. The Research Libraries Group (RLG) is an international member alliance. universities and colleges. Technology thefunctionality and integrity of digital 4. describing discovery. Only 13 the state institu-reported they had established methods in place for digital tions preservation. 3 will provide essential information for preservation. emulation potentially offers substantial benefits in preserving 3. including preservation metadata. and public libraries dedicated to “improving access to information that supports research and learning. Encapsulation. a technique of grouping together a digital object and anything else necessary to provide access to that for additional information. PADI recommends these strategies for long-term preservation and future of digital collections: 1. are not readability. objects. will become even more essential as the amount of of content digital content expands.serving the real thing. establishing criteria for selection to be preserved.

(“Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe”). depends upon cooperation among LOCKSS™ mul. portals are unified views into a set of disparate information sources and research tools. Components Library Portal Sun Microsystems. the need for an easy-to-use interface becomes increasingly important . available at Portals Deployment of portal technology has occurred side-by-side with digital collection development and access. the content is automatically replaced from the publisher or other caches. with the goal of providing users a simple way to locate and access all the information content they need and have authority to tiple A LOCKSS system run by each organization manages multiple web caches of the content and continuously compares the copies. license. • • • • • Patron information Favorite subjects Saved searches Personalized alerts Course materials M Library y Local Resources • • • • Books Journal s Databases Digital collections • Ask a Librarian • Online reference tools • Search tools Virtual Reference Desk Remote Resources • Other libraries • Subscriptio n databases • Econtent Library Information Online Communities Figure 4. The resulting technology.stanford. A beta test is being conducted by more than 50 libraries worldwide. If any cache appears to have been lost or has suffered disruption. As libraries create. or negotiate access to more and more digital content.organizations with a common goal of maintaining access to the same content.web-published materials (with a focus on electronic journals). More information is http://lockss. 23 . with a revised version of this software expected to be available through open source late in 2002. Inc. As seen in Figure 4.

Enriched con.” says s Clifford Lynch. and jacket tent.” custom intelligent searches). images provided to supplement the online catalog.” It must be about recog. who is using them.Library portals typically include an online catalog of materials as well as gateways to collections of digital resources accessible to the user. Some libraries have built can be interactiveinto their portals. Portals may include electronic reference services (“ask a librarian”).however that concern about access to personal information continues to nized. personalization features (“my bookshelf. tables of contents.“We still Portals also know very little about how many of the new systems are being used. growany plan to capture data about individuals’ activities must assure them and adequate pr ivacy. and is not using them. and will also allow you to contribute to the collective knowledge base how to best design and engineer such systems in the future. Broadcast search tools allow library users to search all of these sources simultaneously with a single query. allowing development of virtual features communities. provide an excellent opportunity to capture use statistics. “Good instrumentation will help who CNI’ you to refine the systems that you develop over time to be more responsive to your user community.such as author biographies and book reviews. and other research tools. 24 Digital Trends Library Technology .

the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) now includes profit more 35 major museums in the United States.for encoding electronic finding aids that are used to access special collections fications and archives. The resulting non. Sun Microsystems. and the than UK. the museums grew their digital collections and usage increased. and other related multimedia for many of works. not discovery. AMICO provides a more efficient means of dealing with the work of rights management and access by clearing a licensed set of rights and delivering access to the consolidated collections through a variety of distribution mechanisms. the AMICO maintains the half-terabyte master repository in a custom-developed relational database that is growing by In 1997 a group of museum directors agreed to collaborate on making more museum collections available to educational institutions through digitization. but also find detailed provenance Library information.organization. scholarly use of digitized works of art. The AMICO Library™ includes multimedia objects portraying about 100. Clearing digital rights for works sought for inclu. University of California at Berkeley http://elib. as well as encouraging the inclusion of more multimedia items in the collection. multiple views. These specifications later evolved into the XML-based Encoded Archival Description (EAD).berkeley. 25 .edu http://sunsite.000 works per year.” he the AMICO Library also remains a continuing sion challenge. Current challenges include expanding the multilingual capabilities of the user interface to encourage more internationalization of membership and use. More than three million data AMICOsubscribers access not only the The University of California at Berkeley has been in the forefront of digital library innovation for many years. AMICO’s Director of Strategy and Research. you need to maintain a lot “To make more than what is needed for mere discovery.berkeley. curatorial text. Inc.000 fully documented works of art from member museums. they found As that the task of dealing with requests by students and faculty took increasing amounts of time. “Museums are focused on use. Projects begun at Berkeley included the creation of speci. Canada.cs.Part 4 – Digital Library Program Profiles Art Museum Image Consortium www.” according to David Bearman.

the digital content is managed to ensure its integrity and where longevity. and structural meta-is created and linked to digitized or born-digital content. structural metadata). called GenDL (for “Generic Digital Library”). • Links to significant digital collections.C. 26 Digital Trends Library Technology . administrative. Berkeley SunS ITE has that provided: • Catalogs and indices to electronic content. and navigate objects that may have complex internal organizations (i. This project has since evolved into the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS). which is used to discover.The Making of America II project. • The access system. U. on tools used to build digital • Information and libraries. U.e. was also lead by Berkeley. GenDL includes three components that be thought of as three separate can systems: Web-based content management system. Figure 5 shows the general architecture of GenDL. • Digital library information resources. In 1996. display. Berkeley created a SunSITE (Sun Software. to significant digital library research • Links development. Information. Descriptive. Berkeley has also become a significant resource for digital library researchers and developers worldwide. with the support of Sun Microsystems. where creation and maintenance • The of the digital content is controlled.C. • The preservation repository (a joint project with the California Digital Library).C. and Technology Exchange). The resulting data digi-library objects are then encoded to the METS tal standard.. Current work involves development of a modular object management environment. Since time the U. which proposed a standard encoding for digital objects.

The Repository: GenRep GenDB METS objects (Tamino) GenWhateve Digital Content r Repository Figure 5. Architecture GenDL The research and development thrust at U.cornell. Cornell University http://campusgw.library. Server & Search Logic GenView Server Repository & Object Nav.that need to be supported in a digital library system. 27 . Bernie Hurley. Cornell provides advanced information technol. & (DOM) Edit Logic Object Middleware Repositories Registry GenSearch Rep. C. dures Berkeley Director of Library Technologies. keep that from happening. “A largeof what we do in our initial development is to define the requirements and part proce. C.CMS: GenCat UC Berkeley Library Architecture GenDB Access System: – GenDL Browser Browser Browser GenDB UI Servlet Creation/Maintenance – GenSearch User Interface – Search Servlet GenView UI Servlet Viewing/Navigation – GenReg Distributed (RMI/CORBA) GenDB Server “An article in Chronicle of Education has claimed that the libraries are the That isn’t true at Cornell.” comments U. Sun Microsystems.” according to H. We’re working very empty. Berkeley does not discount the byefforts software vendors to develop commercial tools that tackle these problems. at the same timeare supporting greater ranges of use of library space. Thomas we Hickerson. Inc. pointing out that this Library’s allows commercial vendors to focus on introducing successful products. Associate University Librarian and head of Cornell University’s digital library programs. hard to Although we are aggressively building digital collections and services.sets to students and supports faculty innovations in using technology to ogy tool aid in teaching. Through the library.

and Harvard University has a very large and decentralized library system including more than 100 libraries and 35 major research collections. Accordingly. including the information to the libraries.” says Hickerson. to provide a common technology 28 Digital Trends Library Technology . drawn from Cornell University’s Rare Book Collection. To date. Cornell has been a developer of best practices and a leader in the field of digital libraries.000 pages. The repository’s aim is to support the total lifecycle of those materials. including popular magazines culture and Harper’s. this university also recognizes the value of off-the-shelf library products. and guidance issues to all of the Harvard libraries.developer with Endeavor Information Systems for the product “ products-n-solutions/edu/success/cornell. consulting assistance. Harvard University’s Librarian reports to University President with a mission to provide services. a multiinstitutional digitization initiative making available primary sources of 19th century American history. The goal of centrally funding this initiative to serve Harvard University http:// lib. There is no hierarchy tying these libraries into a single organizational group. One is to establish a central There are repository for all information resources deemed worthy of long-term maintenance. Harvard has established major funding to support the development of a comprehensive infrastructure for digital libraries.Having undertaken one of the world’s most aggressive digitization programs.sun. more than 900.” a specially tailored multi. several strategic digital library priorities. Cornell has served as a co. on policy Unlike many universities. are in the collection. A Sun case study on s digital library Cornell’ http://www.harvard. 5-year program is called the “Library Digital Initiative. Although media Cornell has gained international recognition for its computer science advances in digital technology. One of the best known is the “Making of America” collection. program is available at .management system intended for library implementations. We don’t want to maintain our own system any more than we have to. Harvard’s digital library activities are designed technology. The $12 million. “We would rather have this product supported by someone else. Atlantic Monthly like Scientific American . More than 40 other digital collections have been established. ranging from audio recordings of rare birdcalls to digital facsimiles of essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology.” deliberately emphasizing the library orientation of the program. which are full-text and freely accessible searchable over the Internet. has attained recognition for the substantial digital collections it has Cornell developed. As a Sun Center of Excellence for Digital Libraries.

The central Oracle repository supports all types of multimedia objects and a set of catalogs. Harvard Architecture University Digital Library Sun Microsystems. etc. “We are tackling new and hard issues. and migration of objects. Harvard University Library Associate Director all for Planning and Systems.” says Dale Flecker. a program of internal born digital grants been established to foster additions to the collection. Although information is at the heart of the program. metadata creation. allowing cross-catalog searching. reformatting. Inc. A C C E S S ILS SGML/XML OLIVIA editors Other Cataloging Tools PORTAL Outside (OCLC. etc. 29 . and common practices for digitizing. anddeveloping this locus of expertise. Figure 6 gives a has also graphic representation of Harvard’s digital library architecture. digital licensing.standardized solution featuring a robust production IT environment mon. A portal sits over the catalogs. setting up digital collections becomes easier by for the libraries.the decentralized network of libraries is to create incentive for participation in a com. ICPSR. preservation.) CATALOG DATA SOURCE S Multi-Catalog Access OPAC VIA OASIS Geodesy VDC BIL A & I Other Databases Catalogs Collection Web Sites Searc h COMMON SERVICES C O L L E C T I O N Single Image Page Turne r ACCESS MANAGEMENT NAMIN G MultiMedia GI S Interface Stat Dataset Interface Audio Streamin g DELIVER SERVICE Y S REPOSITORIE S CONTENT SOURCEs HUD Repository Geodesy VDC Audio Other · Harvard Image Service Conversion s Audio Conversion Service Digital” and non-Harvard Outside Service s “Born Figure 6.

reducing the of accessing these materials. case study on J STOR is available at http ://www.sun. More than five million requests per month are satisfied through three at Princeton.100 user institutions worldwide access to 169 journals. JSTOR cost now provides 1. were Target 30 Digital Trends Library Technology .lib. University of Maryland http:// The University of Maryland has opportunistically grown its unique digital collections. Usage has been growing at a rate of 50% per Sun solutions/ edu/libraries/JSTOR-ss. JSTOR was born. Mellon Foundation in 1990.Table of contents indices were developed as well. s object-oriented approach makes it Java’ for J STOR’s geographically distributed developers to quickly write small pieces of easier reusable code.umd. JSTOR began as a pilot project sponsored by the archive of Andrew W. and assuring their long-term preservation. to provide search and retrieval ware. There is also increasing emphasis on allowing access to among the JSTOR archive by secondary schools and public libraries.pdf. High-resolution images of each page were initially.jstor. the University of Michigan. sites The JSTOR archive requires 2.2 terabytes of storage for more than eight million entire pages of journal content. with rapid growth international users. When five test libraries showed enthusiasm about the savings and ease of access. Both highly motivated to make their holdings more accessible and usable. captured and linked to a text file generated with optical character recognition soft. and the University of Manchester.There are active discussions under way with learning management groups about how to make digital library resources more directly relevant to learning and teaching. the Web interface has been ported to Java. Ten journals in economics and history were selected and all back issues were digitized. beginning with the Performing Arts Library and the Broadcasting Archives. There will also be increased emphasis on scholarly systems communication and the libraries’ role in capturing the s intellectual university’ output. JSTOR http:// The problems associated with storing back issues of printed journals and locating articles of interest in those back issues led to the creation of JSTOR. It is expected that there will be a lot of activity devoted to the interface with learning in the future. Originally written in Perl. an electronic scholarly journals. space In 1995 JSTOR was established as an independent non-profit organization with the goals of providing a trustwor thy archive of important scholarly journals. of journal content of interest.

asset devel. Inc. so users can ac. Advanced object management technologies are envisioned to assist users in accessing the Performing Arts Library audio collections. provided online publishing services to nearly 100 scholarly developed extensive digital Stanford University is well known for its pioneering work in digital library development and electronic publishing.of Libraries Dr. Charles Lowry.collections range from original piano roll recordings of early 20th century concert to a complete wire-recorded collection of the Arthur Godfrey Hour a single individual at Stanford. Other commercial products don’t necessarily map to the library business. The implementation will emphasize streaming audio and opment. 31 . radio broadcasts. “It’ good to have a vendor who works with library problems as a mainline s business. Lowry also cites the ability to integrate sity Dean the digital library software into the Web-based user interface as a benefit. An example of an enhanced digital servicecapability of displaying sheet music images simultaneous with the music is the being played. Stanford has participated in both phases of the NSF Digital Library Initiative. and is currently implementing societies. video. The university’s goal is an environment that handles all types as well of digital objects.” says Univer.the physical collection catalog in the same way as the digital collections.and testing. This assignment has fostered puting functional synergy that has integrated many information management activities across these Sun Microsystems. due to the difficulty of integrating the product into the existing environment and the lack of specific library functionality.stanford. The University of Maryland has taken a different approach. an advanced digital repository. Publisher of the University Press. as images. as well as ongoing participation in product http:// highwire. This involves full implementation of the Ex Libris digitalmanagement product.and Technology (NIST) standards and protocols dards Stanford University http:// www-sul.stanford. and Director of Academic Com. to early rock ’n’ roll recordings. becoming an Ex Libris “Premier Partner” for the since Ex Libris “DigiTool” product. Publisher of the HighWire Press. Stanford has entrusted the responsibilities of University Librarian. A 1996 implementation of a commercial multimedia management platform had mixed results. It is cess also important to the University of Maryland that the digital library software supports Information Standards Organization (NISO) and National Institute of National Stan. entity. and make them available to all them different applications on campus.” says University Librarian Michael Keller. Architecture Stanford Digital Repository 32 Digital Trends Library Technology .) Figure 7. Figure 7 cates illustrates the architecture of Stanford’s Digital Repository.disciplines and facilitated coordination between related activities such as digital repository and learning management system development. “METS is tremendous. Stanford Digital Repository User Community Digital Library Programs • content projects • metadata creation • content selection/capture – METS • metadata creation • ingestion workflows • general user community • access via rights mgmt meta data assets Digital Repository Discovery & Deliver y • asset mgmt • versioning • screen stand ins (thumb.developed systems. late any encode using different descriptive metadata. and it will utilize the METS standard for managing multimedia objects. the Stanford Libraries have selected the “TEAMS” multimedia management software from Technologies as the base for its new digital repository. an XMLimplemented generalized metadata environment that lets you describe and interre.” explains Stanford Libraries’ Chief Information types of Architect Jerry Persons. The repository will handle authentication using Kerberos certifi-and will include rights management and charging mechanisms. It is also utilizing Artesia Luna Imaging’ s “Insight” software for managing high-resolution images. medium res) • metadata capture at ingestion • data transformations • rights mgmt • access from desktop via web TEAM ArtesiaS Technologies • content owners • access to their content when rights mgmt precludes general user community access • repository managers • metadata & content UNI Oracle (metadata) (content X ) Tape ? (massive objects) (backup) • disk vendors looking at all manner of ways to get tape off the table (total cost of ownership + mgmt overhead. We’ll be able to store objects one time in one repository. “We don’t need to invent a separate digital library program at Stanford because the digital aspects are an accepted and pervasive part of library support for research and teaching. After putting up many digital collections on custom.

Java allowed HighWire programmers to develop application code much faster and more effectively.Another well-known Stanford venture is HighWire Press. Small not-forprofit publishers are able to take advantage of economies of scale in making the transition to online delivery. • How to do data mining across all the different formats of digital information they have to improve the research process. particularly featuring Toll-Free Linking. thus giving them parity with for-profit publishers. Perfor. HighWire’s web site serves Sun nsolutions/edu/success/paperless. Originally written in Perl and C++. and managing the teaching process.and availability is critical. allows readers of an article also to read the full text of other articles which cited first without charge. (including more articles) than can be physically published in • More content hardcopy. • How to make it possible for students and faculty to customize their views and take them wherever they go. a very successful electronic co-publisher of more than 300 scholarly journals. HighWire migrated to Java in 1998. HighWire Press was started in early its goal was to assist scientific societies in the transition to new technologies 1995. Interactive • images and functionality. With the challenge of rapidly scaling the number of publishers supported.nine million hits ages weekly. high-resolution multimedia. is known for its advanced functionality. whether or not that reader has subscription rights by the to journals in which the cited articles the • appear. Sun Microsystems. through: • Links among authors. Future concerns at Stanford include: to improve the digital environment for teaching online. case study on HighWire Press is available at http://www. 33 . Inc. articles and citations. creating value beyond what HighWire bewould available in a physical publication. for scholarly communication by providing a common infrastructure.sun. Advanced searching capabilities. • How supplementing the teaching.000 users and mance aver.

Referring to the user-provided book reviews and evaluations CNI’ s Clifford Lynch comments. rights management. the next generation of back to digital development and deployment will focus on standardization. metadata encoding. mature and spread. and other key digital library processes. As library industry thought leaders work through existing standards organiza-agree on common approaches. bandwidth becomes more economical and streaming As technologies improve. trends are emerging and will continue to gain Several key momentum: • The shift from text and image-based systems to audio and video will continue. The charter of library consortia will enlarge to accommodate development of mass 34 Digital Trends Library Technology . library and productization—providing greater usability for library patrons. • Standards will move from the discussion and trial stage to widespread adoption. “Recommender systems and of sources. • Growing dependence on digital information resources will create market pressure for the creation of cooperative solutions for long-term preservation. and more cost-effective choices for institutions just beginning digitization programs. The library discipline is highly collaborative and has a history of sharing successful Debate about these issues will recede as proven techniques approaches. which instantly created an expert their panel that became an authoritative source for those interested in keeping current with most important developments in life the science. preservation. • New technology services will enhance the scholarly communication process just they have assisted consumers in making purchases from online as merchants and auction houses. software vendors focusing on the tions to library will incorporate these agreed-upon standards into their product market lines. increased interoperability among digital collections.” tools for He an initiative where a thousand highly rated life scientists were asked to cites post recommendations on new articles. • Broadly accepted best practices will emerge for digitization. increasing numbers of institutions will have access to the practicality of full multimedia solutions. reputation management systems allow us to augment traditional information review approaches with new methods that mimic social practices and offer additional helping users to deal with the ever growing flood of information. • As the center of digital library activity shifts from computer science experiments mainstream library implementations.Part 5 – Future Directions in digital library technology and its applications has accelerated The pace of change in recent years as the focus has begun to shift from R&D to full-scale deployment.

administrative systems to provide a one-stop virtual campus. This will be more costeffective and more reliable than individual solutions. As more texts are published electronically. Sun facilities serving a range of institutions. In fact. E-learning will continue to blur the lines content between course content. one recent posting to a digital library e-mail list commented that the “digital library” is starting to sound as anachronistic as “horseless carriage. and reserve materials provided by libraries as these all become digital content managed in common repositories or through common Digital libraries will be routinely linked to campus e-learning and gateways. textbooks. In time. this linkage will become stronger. It is clear that digital library technology is becoming an essential enabler of library services. It is certain that all libraries of the future willcharacterized by technology-based information services that extend and be enhance the traditional mission of libraries in our society.” term Just as the term “electronic banking” lost favor and was subsumed by the more generic “banking. repurposing the same digital content as both will be course and reference material.” so we will see “digital libraries” discussed less and less often as employment of these technologies becomes universal. digital libraries and learning management systems routinely integrated. 35 . Inc. course management systems providers and textbook publishers arestarting to work together. • Even now.

The Sun™ Open Net Environment (Sun ONE) provides an ideal model for deploying the rich media services that comprise the digital library functionality. privacy. and permissions requirements that allow the delivery of smart media within the overall context of the organization’s IT environment.APPENDI X Appendi S x un™ Open Net Environment (Sun ONE) Based on these industry standards. Components of the Sun ONE Smart Web Services Architecture 36 Digital Trends Library Technology . role. and location as well as secu’ rity. Figure services 8 summarizes the components of the Sun ONE smart Web services architecture. Service Creation & Assembly Applications & Web Services Service Delivery Service Container Service Integration Identity & Policy Platform Figure 8. Sun ONE provides an open framework information about a device user for deriving s identity. Sun has defined an open software architecture to support interoperable services on demand across diverse devices.

The capability of a Web service to understand “context” or the situation it is in it allows this information with other services in order to perform as requested. and maintain a Web service for interservice registration. The Web-based Sun ONE platform extends the life through of existing IT investments while making it easy to add new application services through the re-use services. website Sun Microsystems. and roles. • Service container is the runtime environment for the service and provides persis. an integrated infrastructure. standards-based approach of Sun ONE is allowing the educational community to achieve continuous access to its information resources.APPENDI X The Web services architecture includes these elements: creation and assembly facilities create discrete micro services and assemble • Service them into composite services. customize. monitor. open. 37 . context. and communication functionality. as well as process management tence facilities that manage service workflow and event processing. • Applications and Web services are the Web services that can be deployed on any type of platform or intelligent device. and legacy applications. and personalizeresults based on context in the digital library of the service future. to share Smart services operate within the Sun ONE architecture in four Web facilities: • Smart delivery facilities will be able to • Service delivery facilities provide basic connection. and policy. • Smart management facilities manage. discovery. security. • Smart policy facilities coordinate activities according to policies associated with identity. files. location. the See of components and for more information at Sun ONE www. directories. • Identity and policy facilities are deployed to an open directory that manages identity.on. • Service integration facilities enable the service to access other Web services and resources such as databases. service provisioning. or macro services. and management and runtime Thepolicies. and connectivity to disparate campus information systems a single user sign.and state management services. • Smart process facilities use context to affect business service workflow.sun. modular. Inc. pay-per-use and subscription agreements.

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