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Written and Compiled by Charles Bwalya Chisanga, BSc Natural Resources March 2003

Water Conservation

Chapter 1 Introduction Water Conservation means the preservation, control and development of water resources (surface and groundwater) whether by storage, including natural ground storage, prevention of pollution or other means so as to ensure that adequate and reliable for all purposes in the most suitable and economic way against whilst safeguarding legitimate interests. Water Conservation Guidelines can be developed for Agriculture, Commercial, Industrial, Municipal, Residential and Landscaping. Water conservation measures include such things as metering, improved water accounting, leak detection, water-use audits, retrofits, reuse and recycling, and landscape improvements, reducing evaporation through mulching, delaying runoff, recirculating cooling or other water, water to enable it to be re-used, reducing waste water to enable it to be re-used, rainwater harvesting, changing crop varieties, changing farming methods and irrigation type. Surface Storage: Both impounding and storage reservoirs are filled as required when river flow exceeds a minimum which must be allowed to continue downstream. There is no discrimination on the type of runoff collected. Runoff has two components, direct runoff (surface) and indirect runoff (springs). Water for Cooling Purposes: The Minister may grant licenses to water users for cooling purposes from groundwater provided the same is returned ton the aquifer after use. Water Pollution: the law should govern the pollution of water. In practice, the law is very difficult to operate. The power to make bylaws for the protection of the source from pollution within defined area should be given, whether on the surface or groundwater. The section should also make it an offence to be guilty of any act or neglect whereby any springs, well or audit the water from which is used or likely to be used for human consumption or domestic purposes or manufacturing food or drink for human consumption, is polluted or likely to be contaminated Water quality conservation: Various measures are being undertaken for conservation of water quality on bodies of inland water such as rivers and lakes, including the establishment of environmental quality standards, effluent control at factories and other places of work, construction of sewerage systems and implementation of purification measures on rivers. Power of the Minister to enforce conservation: Sections of the Water Act should give power to the Minister {MEWD) the duty to promote the conservation and proper use of water resources and the provision of water supplies and to ensure the effective execution by water undertakers under his control and direction, of a national policy relating to water.

Catchment Council: It shall be the duty of the catchment council or board in exercising the functions conferred on or transferred to them by or under this Act, to conserve so far as practicable the water resources of their area. Measurement of precipitation: Precipitation measurements shall be made to determine the level of water use in a given year. The Minister shall have power to direct that this shall be so. Groundwater - Public property: Until recently, underground water was regarded as the absolute property of the land owner on which was situated a well or borehole from which it was obtained, a land could use it to any extent and manner, limited only by the quantity one could get, not withstanding any effect it had on his neighbours. As regards surface water including water flowing in a known and defined channel the common law, as generally understood is that a riparian owner, that is the one owning land abutting on a river, is entitled, subject to any prescriptive rights which may have been acquired, to receive the natural flow of the river and he must pass this on, together with any accretion there may be on his land, to his neighbours downstream. He has, however, the right to use the water of the river to a reasonable extent for the purposes of his property. What may be reasonable in any particular case may be a matter for the courts. In the absence of prescriptive rights, therefore, no one can abstract water from a river or stream or materially alter the conditions of flow except by statutory authority and in granting this authority Parliament or the appropriate Government Department will have regard to all existing uses and the character of the river and will prescribe limits of abstraction and if that is substantial in relation to the particular river, a minimum quantity bellow which the flow shall not be reduced. Compensation: If a river is impounded the abstracting authority will come under the obligation of discharging from the reservoir a specified daily quantity known as Compensation Water, which usually has to be accepted all persons interested as full compensation for all water impounded by the authorized works The undertakers shall make full compensation to all parties interested for all damage sustained by them through construction works on the water source. In any case where no express provision with respect to the compensation is made by the special Act, the undertakers shall pay to the owners and occupiers of, and other persons interested in any lands or streams taken or used for the purposes of that Act, or injuriously affected. Compensation for the value of the lands or streams so taken or used, and for all damage sustained by the owners, etc. Parliament has, therefore, always had regard to existing rights in rivers but nevertheless recognized that they must under certain circumstances be subordinated to the public

interest, subject to compensation for actual damage, such compensation being either in money or in water. Construction of New Boreholes: A provision to control the introduction of new boreholes and wells and to some extent further abstraction from existing ones should be made. The provision applies only in an area generally known as a conservation area within which the Minister is satisfied that special measures are necessary in the public interest and has made an order defining the area in question. License: Within such an area, no person shall, without first obtaining from the Minister a license which can and usually does contain limitations and conditions a) b) Unless c) d) e) The water is required solely and to the extent necessary for the domestic requirements of his household, The construction or extension is expressly authorized by any enactment, or, The boring, etc., is experimental. Construct any well, borehole or other work for the purpose of abstracting underground water, or, Extend any existing well, borehole or other work for the purpose of abstracting additional quantities of additional water,

The section should also make it an offence within such an area to cause or allow underground water to run to waste or to abstract water in excess of reasonable requirements. Conservation Orders should be made, defining most areas in which they may be considered necessary at the present time, and within these areas the previous unlimited right of the owner of the land to abstract water has gone. The general types of conservation pricing options are: Repeal of volume discounts; increasing block rates; seasonal rates; and excess loading or excess use charges.

Chapter 2 Water Supply Provision of water for domestic use: Water undertakers shall provide in their mains and communication pipes a supply of wholesome water sufficient for domestic purposes of all owners and occupiers of premises within the limits of supply who under the special Act are entitled to demand a supply for those purposes. Domestic preference shall be given to domestic water use. The user shall have the right to apply to the concerned Minister where a supply for non-domestic purposes is refused or is offered on unacceptable terms. Water undertakers have a statutory liability to provide water for domestic purposes with the liability to financial penalties if in default also a liability to supply water for nondomestic purposes subject to the direction of the appropriate central authority in cases of dispute. Additional water requirements: In general terms and irrespective of the procedure adopted, proposals by Water Undertakers to develop additional sources of supply or acquire further water rights are subject to the giving of statutory and public notices so that any interested parties who may consider themselves prejudiced by the proposals may enter objections. In the cases of procedure by Ministerial Order objections are heard at public inquiries and under parliamentary committees. Any order proposed by the Minister is subject to confirmation by parliament if objections are sustained after a public enquiry has been held and a provision order made. Protective measures to surf-guard reservoirs against pollution should be carefully chosen. Water must be treated to meet the acceptable World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for drinking water. The public water suppliers should be prepared to take appropriate action in a timely manner, whenever the monthly or bi-monthly records indicate that a water conservation problem needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that many water utilities will want to go beyond this level of detail and closely examine daily and even hourly water use figures. The water utility should prepare separate subsections for long-term water conservation practices related to each of the following three areas: (a) education, (b) management and (c) regulation. For each of these three water conservation areas, the water utility should: (a) prepare a summary of historical and current water use efficiency practices undertaken by the water utility, with special attention to the specific water use efficiency practices; (b) provide a list of specific water use efficiency practices that the water utility will be doing on a long-term basis; and (c) indicate the target date for beginning each specific water use efficiency practice listed by the water utility.

Chapter 3 Use of Water in Agriculture Irrigation: Of major significance for the consideration of water conservation is the need for water usage in irrigation particularly the irrigation of crops grown on a farm scale. The judicious use of irrigation in agriculture and horticulture should be encouraged because of a number of benefits which result especially in lowering of the unit cost of production and stabilization of crop yields. Water in agriculture is used for livestock watering, aquaculture and irrigation. Development of reservoirs: Some consideration will be provided to the development of reservoirs and economic aspects; farmers will be assisted by government grants to conserve water in small private reservoirs. Small user groups of farms combining in private conservation works would also be considered. If resources are to be developed as far as is practicable, this development will require co-ordination and wider methods of conservations will need to be considered. Wastewater Reusing: Wastewater comes in two forms, graywater, which comes from showers laundry machines, and dishwashers; and blackwater, which is the sewage from toilets. Reusing graywater for flush toilets and landscaping can provide enormous savings of potable water. Buildings can be designed or retrofitted to allow for separate drain lines to accommodate this strategy. Increasing wastewater is seen as a resource, and it is often reused for productive uses since it contains nutrients that have the potential for use in agriculture, aquaculture, and other activities. The water and nutrient content in particular can be very useful for agriculture purposes - for example through irrigation of fodder, fibre and other seed crops and, to a limited extent for the irrigation of orchards, vineyards, and other crops. The wastewater can be treated and reused for irrigation in potable purposes through biological wastewater treatment such as wetlands. This serves two purposes, it serves water, and it recycles the pollutants in the waste as food for biological treatment systems. Water Harvesting: It is defined as the collection of runoff for its productive use. Water harvesting supports a flourishing agriculture in many dry areas where rainfall is erratic in distribution. It is practiced in the drier areas where crops cannot grow depending only on rainfall. Rainwater Collection: It is a technology used for the collection and storing rainwater for human use from rooftops, land surfaces or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as engineered technique. Collected rainwater from cisterns and catch basins can be used to provide for landscaping needs and can be treated and used as potable water.

Changing Plant Varieties and Reusing of water Switching to crops with lower irrigation requirements and minimising irrigation demand (require support from extension services, access to capital and to markets); Reuse of drainage water (require awareness by farmers and minor investment in building bunds and digging diversion channels); Mulching to retain soil moisture (require awareness by farmers and availability of plant material); Running irrigation systems at their maximum designed capacity to reduce water stealing and simplify operations; Storm-water Retention is a system provides a more environmental and aesthetic alternative to conventional drainage system. The storm water can be retained in a pond for reuse in the dry season.

Water conservation can also be achieved by carrying out specific water Conservation projects. Water conservation projects are those projects that reduce water loss or water consumption through activities such as, but not limited to, the following: Canal lining Improving/rehabilitating canals or waterways Piping of canals Constructing control structures Improving/rehabilitating structures (pump stations) Installing pressurized irrigation systems Repairing sprinkler systems Installing moisture barriers Reducing water consumption through changes in irrigation practices (drip irrigation, aspersion, micro-aspersion, etc.) Constructing facilities for desalination, water reclamation and recharge Improving/rehabilitating structures (lining of regulating reservoir) Installing/improving metering systems/devices (metering) Installing/improving control and distribution structures and the operation of these devices (automation, new installation, improvements to operational roads) Land compaction and land levelling for purposes of water conservation Installing fertilizer application systems (in pressured systems) Improving operations that reduce the time and complexity of irrigation Installing plot remote moisture sensors.

Irrigation Requirements Automatic irrigation systems should comply with the following guidelines. These guidelines should be noted on a plan drawn by the Government (Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives).

1. Adjustable flow controls valves on circuit remote control valves. Pressure regulation component(s) shall be required where static pressure exceeds manufacturers recommended operating range (30-60 psi). 2. Valves and circuits shall be separated based on water use, (hydro-zoned) so that turf and shrub areas, sun and shade areas, as well as high and low runoff areas may be watered separately. 3. The minimum precipitation rate that can be applied by any zone of conventional irrigation should be in accordance with Conservation Plans. Sprinkler heads shall have matched precipitation rates within each control valve circuit. 4. Serviceable check valves shall be required where elevation differential may cause low head drainage adjacent to paving areas. 5. Sprinkler head spacing shall be designed for head-to-head coverage or heads shall be spaced as per manufacturers recommendations and adjusted for prevailing winds. The system shall be designed for minimum run-off. There shall be no direct over spray onto impervious areas. 6. All automatic irrigation systems shall be equipped with a controller capable of dual or multiple programming. Controllers should have multiple cycles start capacity and flexible calendar program, including the capability of day of week or day interval watering. All automatic irrigation systems shall be equipped with a rain sensor shut-off device. 7. Irrigation construction plans shall include a water budget. A water budget should include: a) Estimated monthly water use (in litre or cubic meters per application) and the area (in square meters or hectare) irrigated. b) Precipitation rates for each valve circuit. c) Monthly irrigation schedule for the plant establishment period (first three months) and recommended yearly watering schedule, including seasonal adjustments. d) Location of emergency irrigation system shut-off valve. 8. All in-ground irrigation systems shall have backflow prevention device installed that meet local code. Where available, reclaimed water will be used for all purposes allowed by rules established by the Government of Zambia, if the reclaimed water is less costly than potable water or other water currently being used by the purposes that reclaimed water can be use.

Water Conservation Plan Guidelines

CONTENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE WATER CONSERVATION PLAN SPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALS List of conservation planning goals and their relationship to supply-side planning Description of community involvement in the goals-development process DEVELOP A WATER SYSTEM PROFILE Inventory of existing facilities, production characteristics, and water use Overview of conditions that might affect the water system and conservation planning PREPARE A DEMAND FORECAST Forecast of anticipated water demand for future time periods Adjustments to demand based on known and measurable factors Discussion of uncertainties and what if (sensitivity) analysis DESCRIBE PLANNED FACILITIES Improvements planned for the water system over a reasonable planning horizon Estimates of the total, annualised, and unit cost (per litre) of planned supply-side improvements and additions Preliminary forecast of total installed water capacity over the planning period based on anticipated improvements and additions IDENTIFY WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES Review of conservation measures that have been implemented or that are planned for implementation Discussion of legal or other barriers to implementing recommended measures Identification of measures for further analysis ANALYZE BENEFITS AND COSTS Estimate of total implementation costs and anticipated water savings Cost effectiveness assessment for recommended conservation measures Comparison of implementation costs to avoided supply-side costs SELECT CONSERVATION MEASURES Selection criteria for choosing conservation measures Identification of selected measures Explanation for why recommended measures will not be implemented Strategy and timetable for implementing conservation measures

INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTS Modification of water demand and supply capacity forecasts to reflect anticipated effects of conservation Discussion of the effects of conservation on planned water purchases, improvements, and additions Discussion of the effects of planned conservation measures on water utility revenues PRESENT IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION STRATEGY

SPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALS Planning Goals The planning goals can be developed from different perspective. The planning guidelines include the analysis of the benefits and cost of conservation activities. Specify conservation planning goals in terms of anticipated benefits for the water system and its customers. To the extent practical, involve affected members of the community in the development of conservation planning goals and throughout the implementation process. The value of conservation is defined in terms of avoiding supply-side costs to the water system. Lowering the level of water demand can help water suppliers avoid, downsize, or postpone the construction and operation of costly supply side facilities. Planner should plan on revisiting the goals section before finalizing the conservation plan and periodically thereafter, because goals and the means to achieving them will evolve. As the water system accomplishes certain conservation goals, new objectives may come into focus. Community Involvement in water Conservation The process of developing goals can involve representatives of various groups in the community or stakeholders who may be concerned about water system and its future. Modern resources planning (such as integrated resources planning) emphasizes as an open process that involves all affected groups so that they can have an opportunity to express their interests and concerns. Involving the community in goal development serves an important public education function. Moreover, it is widely believed that involving the community in developing goals, as well as in the implementation process, can greatly enhance the success of conservation programmes. Members of the community who mighty be interested in water conservation include: Residential water consumers; Commercial water consumers; Industrial water consumers; Wholesale consumers; Environmental groups; Civil right groups; Business and commerce group; Recreational water users; Agricultural users; Education institutions; Government agencies or ministries; Labour groups.

In addition assisting the water system specify planning goals, community participants also can have an ongoing role in a systems conservation system. Ongoing involvement

can help maintain and build support for achieving conservation goals and get the word out about conservation effort. Participants can act as a focus group for exploring specific conservation measures. Participants also provide valuable linkages to key groups consumers, business and institutions-who might be involved in implementing certain conservation measures. For many water systems, involving the community in water-system planning will be a new experience. However, most system managers will find that involving members of the community in developing goals, implementing programmes, and evaluating results in a very worthwhile investment.

DEVELOP A WATER SYSTEM PROFILE System Profile Taking inventory of existing resources and conditions is an important step in the planning process. A water system profile can help systems assess their present circumstances and design strategies to meet emerging needs. Most water systems should maintain the data and information necessary for building a system profile Summarize the services and operating characteristics of the water system. Provide an overview of conditions and a description of climate, water availability, or other factors that might affect water conservation planning. System Conditions The checklist provided suggests the need for water conservation planning. While all water systems can benefit from efficient improvements, water conservation can be especially beneficial for systems experiencing water shortages or rapid increases in demand. For example, water system facing one or more of the following conditions are strongly urged to consider the fullest range of conservation measures available to them in accordance with the guidelines: Systems in state-designated critical water or stressed areas; Systems experiencing frequent droughts, emergencies, or safe yield problem; Systems with excessive unaccounted-for water or water losses; Systems anticipating rapid growth in water demand; Systems entering into major construction cycles.

In addition to the summary worksheet, planners should prepare a brief written discussion of the significant conditions affecting their systems. Particular attention can be paid to climate and water availability, but other factors affecting the system can be considered as well. This information can be used to help systems identify problems and opportunities through the planning process. Current Conservation efforts Worksheet 3 is provided so that water systems can describe their current water conservation activities and programme. For each conservation measure implemented, planner can indicate the approximate annual water savings achieved, when implementation for the measure began, and whether continued implementation is planned. Any other pertinent information on current efforts and their effectiveness can be provided in the plan as well.


A 1 2 3 4 5 6 B SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS Estimated service population Estimated service area (Square Kilometres) Kilometres of mains Number of treatment plants Number of separate water systems Interconnection with other systems ANNUAL WATER SUPPLY Number

Annual volume

Number of intakes or sources points

Percent metered % % % % %

7 8 9 10 11 C 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 D 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 E 27 28 29 F 30 31 32 G 33 34 35

Groundwater Surface water Purchases: raw Purchases: treated Total annual water supply SERVICE CONNECTIONS Residential single-family Residential multi-family Commercial Industrial Public or government Wholesale Other Total connections WATER DEMAND Residential sale Non-residential sale Wholesale sale Other sales Non-account water: authorized uses Non-account water unauthorized uses Total system demand AVERAGE & PEAK DEMAND Average-day demand Maximum-day demand Maximum-hour demand PRICING Residential rate Non-residential rate Other rate PLANNING Capital, facility, or supply plan Drought or emergency rate Water conservation plan


Water sales

Percent metered % % % % % % % %

Annual volume

Percent total

Per connection


Total supply capacity

Rate structure

Metering frequency

Percent of total capacity % % % Billing frequency

Prepared a plan


Filed with government


Increasing need for conservation Line A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 C 20 21 22 23 24 25 D 26 27 28 29 Conditions Check applicable description (Tick) CLIMATE AND WATER AVAILABILITY Average precipitation High Moderate Average temperature Low Moderate Critical supply areas No At risk Competing water users No Possibly Environmental constraint No Possibly Quality/quantity concern No Possibly Seasonal variation in climate Low Moderate Instream flow problems Low Moderate Shortage or emergence frequency Low Moderate INFRASTRUCTURE CONDITIONS Age of system Newer Middle General condition of system Good Fair Water losses and leaks Low Moderate Uncounted-for water Low Moderate Safe yield of supply exceeded No At risk Wastewater discharge exceeded No At risk Wastewater capacity exceeded No At risk Potential for recycling and reuse Low Moderate Improvement plans Low Moderate Anticipated investment Low Moderate SYSTEM DEMOGRAPHICS Rate of population growth per year Low Moderate Rate of demand growth per year Low Moderate Rate of economic growth per year Low Moderate Per capita water use (by class) Low Moderate Ration of peak of average demand Low Moderate Presence of large-volume users Low Moderate OTHER FACTORS Dont Know (Tick)

Low High Yes Yes Yes Yes High High High Older Poor High High Yes Yes yes High High High High High High High High High


Summarize the systems current water conservation activities:

Water conservation measures

Approximate annual water saving (if known)

Implemented since (Date)

Is continued implementatio n planned?

PREPARE A DEMAND FORECAST Demand Forecasting Forecasting water use or water demand is a critical part of the planning process. Forecasting can range from simple projections based on anticipated growth in the population to complex models using several variables to explain variation in water use. Forecasting can either be made for a water system as a whole or forecasts can be considered more accurately for separate classification of water use or sectors. Prepare a forecast of anticipated water demand for selected time periods. To the extent practical, the planner should take into account variations in demand based on type of water usage, as well as perform a what if analysis. The guidelines suggest that planners prepare forecasts for 5-year, 10-year and 20-year intervals. The longer the forecast the greater the uncertainty and forecasts should be revisited and updated on a regular basis. The forecast should recognize the effects of conservation measures already implemented or being implemented. Forecasting method Worksheet 4 separates (at a minimum) residential and non-residential customers. The forecast can be made per capita or per connection basis. For non-residential sector, planners should use employees, jobs, or another appropriate explanatory variable.

Worksheet 4 Preliminary Water Demand Forecast [a]

Line A 1 2 3 4 5 B 6 7 8 9 10 C 11 D 12 13 14 15 16 17 Item Current year 5-year forecast 10-year forecast 20-year forecast RESIDENTIAL DEMAND Current annual water residential sales (total litres) Current population served [b] Residential sales per capita (line 1 divided by line 2) [b] Projected population [b] Projected annual residential water demand (line 3 multiplied by line 3) NONRESISENTIAL DEMAND (C) Current annual water non-residential sales (total litres) Current number of employees or jobs [c] Water use per employee or job (line 6 divided by line 7) Projected number of employees or jobs Projected annual non-residential water demand (line 8 multiplied by line 9) NON-ACCOUNT WATER (WATER NOT SOLD TO CUSTOMERS Current and forecast amount [d] WATER SYSTEM TOTAL DEMAND Current total annual water demand (add lines 1, 6, and 11) Projected total annual water demand (add lines 5, 10, and 11) Adjustment to forecast (+ or -) Current (line 12) and adjusted total annual water demand forecast (add line13 and 14) Current and projected annual supply capacity [f] Difference between total use and total supply capacity (+ or -) (subtract line 12 from line 15) AVERAGE-DAY AND MAXIMUM-DAY DEMAND Average-day demand (line 15 divided by 365) Current maximum-day demand Maximum-day to average-day demand ratio (line 20 divided by line 19) Projected maximum-day demand (line 18 multiplied by line 20 for all forecast years) Adjustment to maximum-day demand forecast [e] Current (line 19) and adjusted maximum-day demand forecast (add lines 21 and 22) Daily supply capacity (divide line 16 by 365) Ration of maximum-day demand to daily supply capacity (divide line 23 by line 24) Separate forecasts should be prepared for large-volume users. Planners can choose to use serve connections or households instead of population and perconnection water use instead of per-capita water use.

E 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 [a] [b]


[d] [e] [f]

Explanatory variable other than employees or jobs can be used as appropriate. The forecast should be disaggregated by sector of water use to the greatest extent possible (for example, commercial and industrial water use and non-account water) and a qualitative sensitivity analysis (what if) should be performed for each sectors forecast. Please provide an explanation of the forecast of non-account water, including all relevant assumptions. Please provide an explanation of adjustment to your forecasts, including all relevant assumptions. Supply capacity should take into account available supplies (permits), treatment capacity, and distribution system capacity and reflect the practical total supply capacity of the system, including purchased water.

DESCRIBE PLANNED FACILITIES Supply Forecasting In this conservation plan, planners are asked to prepare an estimate of supply costs based on meeting the level of water demand specified in the unadjusted demand forecast. This is a critical part of the analysis because it establishes the anticipated cost of supply-side improvements and additions and this cost estimate will be used to represent the value of conservation or demand-side activities. Describe improvements planned for the water system over a reasonable planning horizon; identify the types of improvements proposed, and unit cost of the improvements. Prepare a preliminary forecast of installed capacity. The benefits of conservation extend into the future it is important to take a forwardlooking approach to supply costs. The concept of marginal or incremental cost captures the idea that the true value of a supply resource can be measured in terms of the cost of the next increment of supply. If only high-cost supplies are available, the marginal or incremental cost will be high. For many communities, future increments of supply will be very costly. The value of a conserved amount of water at a future point, because that is the supply option being displaced by conservation. Cost Analysis A reasonable accounting of anticipated supply costs is needed in order to compare the cost of supply-side measures to the cost of demand side or conservation measures (on a cost-per-gallon basis). Planners should choose an appropriate time horizon; a twentyyear or other suitable period can be used. The choice of time frame should be consistent with the demand forecast, as well as the other planning considerations. Planners should begin by preparing an estimate of major improvements and additions that will be required over the planning horizon in order to meet anticipated demand (including a safe reserve margin). Detailed cost estimates may be available from facility plans or other planning documents. Worksheet 5 can be used to summarize improvements and additions, which are disaggregated into three categories: source of supply, transmission and treatment, and distribution. (Additional categories can be used as needed.) Planners should consider all capital facility improvements and additions. Improvements include renovations and expansions needed to maintain or enhance safety or reliability within existing facilities. Additions consist of new facilities. Routine maintenance improvements should not be included. Anticipated water purchases and costs also should be recorded on Worksheet 5. For this part of the analysis, the effects of conservation measures currently being implemented should be considered, but the effects of new conservation measures on the need for supply capacity or water purchases should be excluded.

If no capital improvements and additions are planned, 0 values can be entered and the estimate of supply costs can be based on operating costs (including the cost of energy, chemicals, and purchased water). Estimating Incremental Supply Costs Worksheet 6 provides a method for placing a value on supply-side improvements and additions. Improvements and additions are separated into categories: source of supply, water treatment facilities, treated water storage, and major transmission lines. Water purchases are separately recorded. Capital costs over the useful life of the anticipated projects (including financing costs) are annualised and reported on a per-gallon basis. Financing costs can be incorporated into the calculation of annualised cost by using the expected interest rate for financing the project(s) or the systems overall cost of capital. Supply-side facilities are designed to meet different types of water demand (as summarized in Table below; similarly, different conservation measures affect different types of water demand. Planners should identify, as reasonably possible, the extent to which improvements and additions are needed to meet average and/or peak demand. Capital-cost reductions associated with conservation will depend on the extent to which supply-side facilities can be eliminated, postponed, or downsized. The effect of conservation on the need for facilities will depend on the demand pattern of the individual utility, as well as its construction cycle (that is, the timing of facilities currently under development). Conservation can be particularly beneficial for systems that have a sufficient planning horizon to integrate conservation with conventional resource options. In some cases, capital costs cannot be avoided but conservation can still yield savings in operating expenditures. A degree of analyst judgment is required in order to evaluate incremental costs and to integrate supply-side and demand-side resources.

Table 1: Relationship of Water Demand to Supply Facilities

Type of Water Demand Average-day Type of Water Supply Facility Source of supply facilities, including raw water Storage facilities such as reservoirs Maximum-day (peak) Water treatment plants Major transmission lines Maximum-hour [a] Treated water storage facilities Distribution mains [b] Pumping stations [b] Source: Adapted from Charles W. Howe and F. Linaweaver, The Impact of price on Residential Water Demand and its Relationship to system Design and price Structure, Water Resources Research 3 (First Quarter 1967): 13-32 [a] [b] Maximum-day demand plus fire-flow requirements. These facilities should be considered in the analysis if they could be affected by such conservation measures as leak detection and repair, pressure management, or integrated resources management.

This approach produces a very rough estimate of the value of supply-side options. Costs are not escalated (to account for the increasing value of water-supply resources over time), discounted (to account for the time and value of money), or adjusted for inflation.

Preliminary Supply-Capacity Forecast Based on the anticipated improvements and additions, planners also can present a preliminary forecast of total supply capacity over the planning period. Worksheet 4-7 is provided for this purpose. The forecast, which can be presented in a table or graph, can be used to indicate when changes to capacity are expected to occur. The total supply forecast should reflect both additions to capacity and retirements. Improvements that allow the system to maintain capacity can be indicated with entries under both additions (to reflect the improvement) and retirements (to reflect the facilities taken out of service). A similar analysis can be used for wastewater facilities. The supply forecast is preliminary because it can and will be revised later in the plan to reflect the effect of conservation on water supply needs.

Worksheet 5: Anticipated Improvements and Additions

Describe the planned improvements and additions: . ..... . . . . Describe time frame for planned improvements and additions: .... . . . . Improvement

Type of project [a] Source of supply Water treatment facilities Treated water storage Major transmission lines Others ...


State date Notes

End date

Needs for Project (s) (check all that apply) Enhance compliance with regulations Replace older equipment or facilities Meet average-day demand Meet maximum-day demand Meet future growth needs Others ... Funding Cost of financing Overall cost of capital (if known) Water purchase Anticipated future water purchase Cost of water purchase [a]

. .. Interest rate

. (Litres per year) . (Kwachas per year)

Comprehensive plans can include wastewater facilities.

Worksheet 6: Cost of Supply-Side Facilities

Line Item Facilities for metering average-day demand Sources of supply Water purchases needed to meet demand [b] Estimate of simple incremental supply cost (K/litre)

A 1

3 4

B 5




Water Treated Major treatment water transmission facilities storage lines SUPPLY CAPACITY IN ANNUAL LITRES [C] Current installed capacity or water purchases Planned improvements and additions Planned retirements Future installed capacity or purchases (line 1 plus line 2 less line 3) COST OF PLANNED IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS Approximate total cost of planned improvements and additions identified in line 2 (including financing costs) Expected life of new facilities (years) Estimated annual operating costs [d] Estimated annual operating costs [d] Estimated total annual cost (line 7 plus line 8) [e] Per unit cost of new facilities (line 9 divided by line 2) Simple incremental supply cost (add all entries from line 10) Additional facilities or capital equipment can be included as appropriate.

[b] [c] [d] [e]

The plan should indicate whether purchases are needed to meet average-day or maximum-day demand or both. Planners should select a reasonable planning horizon for supply facilities and use the same time frame for all facilities Annual variable operating cost (including energy, chemicals, and water purchase). This calculation of simplified value does not include a discount rate, an escalation rate, or an adjustment for inflation. This analysis also can be extended to include the incremental cost of wastewater collection and treatment.

Worksheet 7: Preliminary Supply-Capacity Forecast

Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Additions (+) Retirements (-) Total supply capacity for the system (annual or daily)

IDENTIFY CONSERVATION MEASURES Levels and Measures Measures include both supply-side and demand-side management techniques for saving water and range from relatively simple educational tools to the promotion of advanced water-efficiency technologies. Use of any particular measure depends on whether it meets cost-effectiveness and other planning criteria and whether its use complies with applicable laws and regulations, including state and plumbing principles. Identifying Conservation Measures Worksheet 8 summarizes all measures and highlights the minimum set of measures recommended for consideration in the Intermediate Guidelines. Systems should use the checklist to review and summarize the measures that are currently implemented, planned, or not planned at this time. Planners also can identify additional measures and practices as they develop their conservation plans. Water systems following the Intermediate Guidelines are expected to implement the very fundamental and widely accepted practices highlighted under Level 1. if Level 1 measures are not in place and not planned for implementation, planners should submit a strong justification, including a cost-effectiveness analysis if it is the basis for not implementing the measure. Planners can screen the measures in terms of general feasibility. In some cases, it may not be possible for a system to implement a measure because of legal restrictions or for other compelling reasons. The conservation plan should provide an explanation if a measure cannot be implemented for the period of time covered by the plan. It is not necessary to prepare a cost effectiveness analysis for measures that cannot be implemented.

Worksheet 8: Checklist of Conservation Measures [a]

Al re ad y i m pl e m en te d (T ic k) Pla n to im ple me nt (Ti ck)

Measure [a]

Comment [b]

LEVEL MEASURES Universal metering [B] Source-water metering Service-connection metering Meter public-use water Fixed-interval meter reading Meter-accuracy analysis Test, calibrate, repair, and replace meters Water accounting and loss control [A] Account for water Repair known leaks Analysis of nonaccount water Water system audit Leak detection and repair strategy Automated sensors/telemetry Loss-prevention programme Costing and pricing [B] Cost-of-service accounting User charges Metered rates Cost analysis Nonpromotional rates Advanced pricing methods Information and education [B] Understandable water bill Information available Informative bill Water-bill inserts School program Public-education program Workshops Advisory committee [Worksheet continue. See footnotes at end of worksheet.]

Worksheet 8 (continued) Al re ad y i m pl e m en te d (T ic k) Pla n to im ple me nt (Ti ck)

Measure [a]

Comment [b]

LEVEL 2 MEASURES Water-use audits [B] Audits of large-volume users Large-landscape audits Selective end-use audits Retrofits [B] Retrofit kits available Distribution of retrofit kits Targeted programs Pressure management [A] System-wide pressure regulation Selective use of pressure-reducing valves Landscape efficiency [P] Promotion of landscape efficiency Landscape planning and renovation Selective irrigation sub-metering Irrigation management LEVEL 3 MEASURES Replacements and promotion [B] Rebates and incentives {non-residential} Rebates and incentives {residential} Promotion of new technologies Reuse and recycling [B] Industrial applications Large-volume irrigation applications Selective residential applications

Water-use regulation [B] Water-use standards and regulations Requirements for new developments Integrated resource management [B] Supply-side technologies Demand-side technologies [a]

For more information about measures see Appendix A. Non-italicized measures should be considered at a minimum [b] Note special issues related to the measure, including legal or other obstacles precluding implementation. Note: Measures can affect average-day demand [A], maximum-day {peak} demand [p], or both [B], as indicated.

Water Savings Worksheet 9 should be completed for each conservation measure identifies. In some cases planners may want to combine measures based on the conservation program they envision. All interrelated measures that are expected to result in an identifiable amount of water savings should be combined and treated as one measure in order to avoid counting the planned water savings more than once in the analysis The worksheet begins with an open-ended description of the measure and an estimate of water savings. The anticipated life span for the measure should be indicated. Planners also should indicate whether the measure is targeted toward reduction in average-day demand, maximum-day demand, or both. Estimates of potential water savings should be as realistic as possible, based on system and regional considerations. For some measures, particularly those dependent on customer responses (such as information and education programs), the estimation will reflect a high degree of uncertainty. Planners can choose to use a range of estimates under these circumstances. The plan should indicate typical water savings from the measure, the number of planned installations, and the anticipated life span for the measure, as well as whether the measure is expected to reduce average-day or maximum-day demand (or both) Implementation Costs Worksheet 9 includes a method for summing the total costs of implementing the measures. All costs associated with implementation should be included. Planner should obtain reasonable cost estimates and these include: Materials, labour, rebates or other payments, marketing and advertising, administration, consulting or contracting and others. A realistic implementation schedule should be considered. Cost-Effectiveness The analysis of cost-effectiveness for each measure builds on the identification of supplyside costs. Using this analysis, the cost of conservation can be compared to the simple

incremental cost of supply. The difference between the per-litre cost of conservation and the per-litre cost of supply is a simple indicator of the potential benefits (or cost savings) from conservation. Net Benefits The net benefit from implementing the measure is shown by subtracting total programme costs from total programme benefits. When benefits exceed costs, a measure is considered reasonably efficient and a good candidate for implementation. Worksheet 9: Analysis of Each Conservation Measure or Group Measures
Describe conservation measure: Typical water savings from the measure: per Number of planned installations: .. Anticipated life span for the measure: ..Years The measure is designed to reduce: Average-day demand Maximum-day demand Both average-day and maximum-day demand Line Item A COST OF THE CONSERVATION MEASURE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B 9 10 11 12 13 C 14 15 16 D 17 18 Materials Labour Rebates or other payments Marketing and advertising Administration Consulting or contracting

Amount Per unit [b] Kwacha

Amount Total cost measure Kwacha


Other Total programme costs for the life of the measure (Add line 1 through 7) [c] ESTIMATE SAVINGS Number of units to be installed [d] Estimated annual water savings for the measure in litres [e] Total estimated annual savings for the measure in litres (multiply line 9 by line 10) Expected life span for the measure in years Total life span estimated savings for the measure in litres (multiply line 11 by line 12) ANALYSIS OF COST EFFECTIVENESS Cost of water saved by the measure (line 8 divided by line 13) Simple incremental cost of water supply [f] Cost comparison (line 15 less line 14) NET BENEFIT OF CONSERVATION Estimated value of water saved by the measure based on incremental supply cost (line 13 multiplied by line 15) Net value of water saved by each measure (line 17 less line 18)

Amount /litre /litre /litre Amount K K


[c] [d] [e] [f]

[a] This analysis is used to aid the comparison and selection of measures. Planners will estimate actual effects of conservation on planned capital facilities. A separate analysis should be performed for each conservation measure, but measures can be combined if they jointly produce water savings. Examples of a unit are a toilet, a retrofit kit, and an audit. A unit estimate may not be appropriate for each measure, in which can total programme water savings and costs for the measure can be used. Include all recurring operation and maintenances costs over the life of the measure. Units can be individual product units (such as toilet) or groups of products (such as household retrofits), as long as the analysis is consistent. Leave blank if values do not apply. Foe example, water savings per retrofit. Leave blank if unit values do not apply. From Worksheet 6, line 11

Worksheet 10: Comparison of Benefits and Costs of the Conservation Measures

Line Conservation measure [a] Total programme cost for the measure [b] Anticipated annual water savings in litres [c] Cost of water saved by the measure (K/Litre) [d] Net benefit of implementing the measure [e]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 [a] [b] [c] [d] [e] = Combines measures that produce joint conservation savings should be treated as one measure to avoid duplicate counting. = From Worksheet 9 line 8 = From Worksheet 9 line 11. = From Worksheet 9 line 14. = From Worksheet 9 line 18. This estimate of net benefit does not consider societal benefit and costs.

SELECT CONSERVATION MEASURES Selection Criteria Describe the process by which conservations were selected for implementation, including identification of the selection criteria. Summarise the selected measure and total anticipated programme costs for implementation. Criteria that can be used in selecting conservation measures for implementation include: Programme cost Cost-effectiveness Ease of implementation Budgetary consideration Staff resources and capability Ratepayer impacts Environmental and social justice Water right and permits Legal issues or constraints Regulatory approvals Public acceptance Timelines of savings Consistency with other programmes

Worksheet 11 provides a simple format for summarising the selection of measures. For each measure, planners should indicate whether the measure was selected for implementation. Planners also should identify the primary reason or reasons for selecting or rejecting the measure. Special conditions or actions that are required before selection measure can be implemented (such as an approval from regulator) should be noted. The selected conservation measures should allow the planners to estimate the expected reductions in average-day and maximum-day demand.

Worksheet 11: Selection of Conservation Measures and Estimate of Water Savings

Line S e l e c t e d ( T i c k ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total [a] Based on Worksheet 9 line 11. Planners will need to convert estimates of annual water savings to estimates of reductions in average-day and maximum-day demand for each measure or group of measures. Primary criteria for selecting or rejecting the conservation measure for implementation Estimated reduction in demand for selected measures (Cubic Meters per day) [a] Average-day demand Maximum-day demand


INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTS Modify water demand and supply-capacity forecasts to reflect the anticipated effects of conservation. Indicate whether and how water savings from conservation will allow systems to eliminate, downsize, or postpone supply-side projects or water purchases. Planners should use Worksheet 12 to collate information from previous worksheets and analyses in order to revise the demand forecasts made in Worksheet 4. Revisions should reflect changes based on the introduction of new conservation measures. The effects of measures already being implemented should be included in the original demand forecast. Planners should identify the anticipated effects of conservation on planned supply-side improvements and additions. Worksheet 13 is provided for this purpose.

The supply-capacity forecast is revised in Worksheet 14. The revision to the supplycapacity forecast should be based on Worksheet 13 and consistent with accepted supplycapacity planning practices. Worksheet 14 also provides a method of summarising savings in capital and operating costs, based on reductions in supply capacity. Planners should also estimates reductions operating costs at existing facilities that will occur with demand reduction. The total programme cost of conservation can be compared with the savings in total capital and annual operating costs.

Worksheet 12: Modified Demand Forecast

Line 1 2 Item Average-day demand before conservation [a] Reduction in average-day demand (line 1 less Current year Year 5 Year 10 Year 20

3 4 5 6 7 8 [a] [b]

line 2)[b] Average-day demand after conservation Maximum-day demand before conservation [a] Reduction in maximum-day demand (line4 less line 5) [b] Maximum-day demand after conservation Ratio maximum-day to average-day demand before conservation (line 4 divided by line 1) Ratio maximum-day to average-day demand after conservation (line 6 divided by line 3) From Worksheet 4, line 6. Based on Worksheet 11

Worksheet 13: Project-Specific Savings

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT [a] Describe the supply-side project(s): . .. Project was scheduled to begin: . Purpose of the project: The project is designed to meet:

Improvement Average-day demand

Addition Maximum-day demand

Type of project

Source of supply Water treatment facilities Treated water storage Major transmission lines Purchase water Other


Project supply capacity (daily)

Project costs Total capital costs (K) Annual operating costs (K)

CAPITAL PROJECT IS ELIMINATED A 1 2 B 3 Original project Savings from elimination (equal line 1) CAPITAL PROJECT DOWN SIZED Original project

4 5 C 6 7 8

Downsized project Savings from downsizing (line 3 less line 4) CAPITAL PROJECT POSTPONED Present value of original project Present value of postponed project Savings from postponement (line 6 less line 7) NEED FOR PURCAHSE WATER IS REDUCED [c] Original estimates of purchases Revised estimate of purchases (can be 0) Savings from reduced purchases (line 9 less line 10) Comprehensive plans can include wastewater facilities. Based on Worksheet 12 estimates of reduction in demand. For purchased water, report only annual operating costs and include costs associated with take-orpay contract provisions. Transmission facilities needed to transport purchased water should include capital and operating costs associated with such facilities and reported as capital projects.

D 9 10 11 [a] [b] [c]

Worksheet 14: Modified Supply Forecast and Estimated Total Saving

MODIFIED SUPPLY FORECAST Line Item A 1 2 3 B 4 Forecast Supply Capacity (daily) Current year Year 5 Year 10 Year 20

Capacity Reserve

ESTIMATED TOTAL SAVINGS Supply Capacity (daily) Line C 1 2 3 D 4 5 6 E Item Total Estimated Savings from Changes to Supply Projects [c] Cost of supply projects before conservation Cost of supply projects after conservation Savings (line 1 less line 2) Total Estimated Savings from Reduced Operating Costs at Existing Facilities [d] Operating costs before conservation Operating costs after conservation Savings (line4 less line 4) Conservation Programme Costs Total programme cost (K) Project cost Total Annual capital operating costs costs (K) (K)

7 [a] [b] [c] [d] [e]

Total cost of implementing selected conservation measures [e] From Worksheet 7. Based on Worksheet(s) 13. Based on Worksheet(s) 13 Based on annual variable operating cost (including energy, chemicals, and water purchase). Based on Worksheet 10

PRESENT IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION STRATEGY Implementation Here present a strategy and timetable for implementing conservation measures and other elements of the conservation plan. Describe proposed approaches for implementing and evaluating planned conservation measures. Implementation Measures Worksheet 15 is a simple template for summarising the water systems implementation and evaluation schedule for the conservation measures. For instance, the schedule can identify significant implementation actions, a beginning date and a completion date. Implementation and evaluation Worksheet 16 provides a very summary of the water systems general implementation and evaluation strategy for the conservation plan. There areas are highlighted and these are, public involvement, monitoring and evaluation and updates and revisions.

Worksheet 15: Implementation Schedule for Measures

Measure Line 1 Required action Beginning date Completion date Notes




Worksheet 16: Implementation Strategy

A. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT Describe plan for public involvement:

B. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Describe plan for monitoring and evaluation:

Describe plan to collect water demand data:

C. PLAN UPDATES Describe plan for updates and revisions:


Date plan completed: Date plan approved:


Approved by [governing body]: .. Signature: ...



Level 1 measure Universal metering; water accounting and loss control; costing and pricing; information and education Level 2 measures

Water-use audits; Retrofits; Pressure management; Landscape effeicient Level 3 measure Replacement and promotion; Reuse and Recycling; Water-use regulation; integrated resources management

Table 1: Guidelines and Associated Conservation Measures [a]

Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines LEVEL 1 MEASURES Universal metering Source-water metering Fixed-interval meter Test, calibrate, repair, and [B] reading replace meters Service-connection Meter-accuracy analysis metering and reading Meter public-use water Water accounting Account for water Analyse nonaccount water Loss-prevention program and loss control Repair known leaks Water system audit [A] Leak detection and repair strategy Costing and pricing Cost-of-service Cost analysis Advanced pricing methods [B] accounting Nonpromotional rates User charges Metered rates Information and Understandable water Informative water bill Workshops education bill Water-bill inserts Advisory committee [B] Information available School program Public-education program LEVEL 2 MEASURES Water-use audits Audits of large-volume Selective end-use audits [B] users Large-landscape audits Retrofits Retrofit kits available Distribution of retrofit kits [A] Targeted programs Pressure System wide pressure Selective use of pressuremanagement management reducing valves [A] Landscape Promotion of landscape efficiency Landscape planning and efficiency Measures

[P] LEVEL 3 MEASURES Replacements and promotions [B]

Selective irrigation submetering

renovation Irrigation management Rebates and incentives (nonresidential) Rebates and incentives (residential) Promotion of new technologies Industrial applications Large-volume irrigation applications Selective residential applications Water-use standards and regulations Requirements for new developments Supply-side technologies Demand-side technologies

Reuse and recycling [B]

Water-use regulation [B] Integrated resource management [B] [a] [A] [P] [B]

See Appendix A for a description of the measures. Water systems should consider at least the measures listed under the guidelines applying to them. Measure affects average-day demand Measure affects maximum-day (peak) demand) Measure affects both average and peak demand

Universal Metering [B]

Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines Source-water Fixed-interval meter Test, calibrate, repair, and metering reading replace meters Service-connection Meter-accuracy analysis metering and reading Meter public-use water

Universal metering [B]

Metering is a very fundamental tool of water system management and conservation. Source-water metering: Both the supplier and the customer benefit from metering. Source metering is essential for water accounting purposes. Service connection metering: Service-connection metering is needed to inform customers about how much water they are using; suppliers use metering data to more accurately track water usage and bill customers for the usage. Public-use water metering: All water provided free of charge for public use should be metered and read at regular intervals. This will allow the utility to more accurately account for water. Lack of control undermines loss control, costing and pricing, and other conservation measures. Fixed-interval water metering: A programme of fixed-interval meter reading is essential to determine the amount of nonrevenue-producing water. Sources meters and service

connection meters should be read at the same relative time in order to facilitate accurate comparison and analysis. Meter accuracy: Water meters can be damages and deteriorate with age, thus producing inaccurate readings. Water Accounting and Loss control [A]
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines Account for water Analyse nonaccount water Loss-prevention program Repair known Water system audit leaks Leak detection and repair strategy

Water accounting and loss control [A]

All water systems may benefit from a water accounting system. The first step in implementing a water accounting is by developing strategies for loss control. Account for water: All water systems, even smaller systems, should implement a basic system of water accounting. Repair known leaks: The cost of water leakages in terms of operating costs associated with water supply, treatment, and delivery; water lost produces no revenues for the utility. Repairing larger leaks can be costly, but it also can produce substantial savings in water and expenditure over the long run. Analysis of nonaccount water: Nonaccount water use should be analyzed to identify potential revenue-producing opportunities, as well as recoverable losses and leaks. System audit: A system audit can provide information needed to make a more accurate analysis of nonaccount water. Leak detection and repair strategy: Systems should also institute a comprehensive leak detection and repair strategy. Divers can be used to inspect and clean storage tank interiors. Loss-prevention programme: This may include pipe inspection, cleaning, lining and other maintenance efforts to improve the distribution system and prevent leaks and ruptures from occurring. Costing and Pricing [B]
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines Cost-of-service Cost analysis Advanced pricing methods accounting Nonpromotional rates

Costing and pricing


User charges Metered rates

Cost-of-service accounting: Water systems should use cost-of-service accounting, consistent with generally accepted practices User charges: Once costs are established, systems can develop more accurate user charges. Metered rates: Metered rates should be used so that the customers water bill corresponds to their water usage. The regulator must approve change of rates. It is important for water systems to communicate with the regulator about the costs and need for cost-based pricing. Cost analysis; Systems should conduct a cost analysis to understand what types of usage drive system costs. Non-promotional rates: Systems also should consider whether their current rates structures promote water usage over conservation, nonpromotion rates should be implemented whenever possible in order to enhance the conservation signal rates. Systems seeking to encourage conservation through their rates should consider various issues: the allocation between fixed and variable charges, usage blocks and breakpoints, minimum bills and whether water is provided in the minimum bill, seasonal pricing options, and pricing by customer class. Advanced pricing methods: Advanced pricing methods generally allocate costs by customer class and/ or type of water use. Advanced pricing might consider seasonal variation or other methods for pricing indoor and outdoor usage based on differing contributions to system peaks. Considering the elasticity factors for different classes of water use can enhance the conservation orientation of the rate structure. Marginal-cost pricing, which considers the value of water relative to the cost of the next increment of supply, can be considered as well. Systems also consider special ratemaking provisions (such as cost-recovery or lost-revenue mechanisms). Potential revenue instability can be addressed with additional rate structure modifications (such as revenue-adjustment mechanisms). Information and Education [B]
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines Understandable water Informative water bill Workshops bill Water-bill inserts Advisory committee Information available School program Public-education program

Measures Information and education

Information and education are critical to the success of any conservation programme. Information and education measures can directly produce water conservations, as when

customers change their water-use habits. These saving can be difficult to estimate. Also public education may not produce the same amount of sustained water savings as other, more direct approaches (such as leak repair and retrofits). But education measures also can enhance the effectiveness of other conservation measures. Understandable water bill: Customers should be able to read and understand their water bills. An understandable water bill should identify volume of usage, rates and charges, and other relevant information. Information available: Water systems should be prepared provides information pamphlets to customers on request. Public information and education are important components of every water conservation plan. Customers are willing to participate in sound water management practices if provided with accurate information. Information water bill: Comparison to previous bills and tips on water conservation can help consumers make informed choices about water use. Water bill insert: Systems can include inserts in their customers water bills that can provide information on water use and costs. Insert also can be used to disseminate tips for home water conservation. School programme: Systems can provide information on water conservation and encourage the of water conservation practices through a variety of school programmes. Contacts through schools can help socialise young people about the value of water conservation techniques. Public education programme: Utilities can use a variety of methods to disseminate information and educate the public on water conservation. Outreach methods include things such as posters etc. Workshops: Utilities can hold workshops for industries that might contribute to water conservation efforts. This might include workshops for plumbers, plumbing fixture suppliers and builders for landscape and irrigation service providers. Advisory committee: This may involve the public in the conservation process; potential committee members include elected officials, local business people, interested citizens, agency representatives, and representatives of concerned local groups. The committee can provide feedback to the utility concerning its conservation plan and develop material and ideas about public information and support for conservation in the community. Water-Use Audit
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Water-use audit

Audit of large-volume users Large-landscape audits

Selective end-use audit

Water-use or end-use audits can provide water systems and their customers with invaluable information about how water is used and how usage might be reduced through specific conservation strategies. Audit of large-volume users: Utilities can facilitate water audits for large-volume users, both commercial and industrial. Water audits should begin by identifying the categories of water use for large-volume user. These may include process, sanitary, domestic, heating, cooling, outdoor, and other water uses. Second, a water audit should identify areas in which overall water use efficiency can be improved through alternative technologies or practices. Large-landscape audits: Water audits can be used for outdoor usage, as well as for indoor processes. Audits of irrigation practices can provide large-volume commercial, industrial, and public users with information about usage-reduction techniques. These audits can be used in conjunction with irrigation sub-metering and other landscaping efficiency practices. Selective end-user audit: Water audits can be widened to include selective end-use audits by customer class, focusing on typical water-use practices within each class. An audit programme can be selective in terms of targeting customer groups that have particular needs or for which water conservation could be particularly beneficial. Audits targeted to older housing, for example, can be particularly beneficial in terms of identifying and fixing plumbing leaks. End-use audits also can be tailored to the usage practices within user groups. For example, residential water audit may focus on plumbing fixtures, lawn and garden water practices, and customer behaviour. Residential water audits can be used to make immediate repairs and retrofits. Worksheet 6 summarizes the components of a residential water audit. All water audits should include written report to the customer that includes specific ideas for conservation. Water audits can be planned and implemented in conjunction with electric power companies or others interested in promoting conservation practices. Retrofits
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Retrofits

Retrofit kit available

Distribution of kits Targeted programmes

Water systems can promote conservation through a retrofit programme. Retrofitting involves making an improvement to an existing fixture or appliance (versus replacement) in order to increase water-use efficiency. Retrofit programmes usually target-plumbing fixtures.

Retrofit kit available: A basic retrofit kit may include low-flow faucet aerators, low-flow showerheads, leak detection tablets, and replacement flapper valves. Retrofit kite may be made available free or at a cost. Calculating the savings from a retrofit programme requires planners to make a number of assumptions about water use and savings. Distribution of retrofit kits: Water systems can actively distribute retrofit kits directly or through community organizations e.g. CBOs, RDCs etc. retrofit kits can be distributed in conjunction with audit programmes. Targeted programmes: Utilities might institute target programmes for different customers classes (residential, commercial, industrial, public buildings and so on). Retrofits of industrial premises can include facilities used by the public and employees, as well facilities used for production purposes. A programme to retrofit low-income housing units may conserve considerable water in older residential housing units with inefficient plumbing fixtures. Targeted programmes also could be designed in cooperation with community organizations. An active retrofit programme might be part of a residential water-use audit programme. It is important that planners ensure that retrofit programme conform to local plumbing guidelines and ordinances. Pressure Management
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Pressure management

System-wide management


Selective use of pressurereducing valves

Reducing excessive pressure in the distribution system can save a significant quantity of water. Reducing water pressure can decrease leakage, amount of flow through open tapes/faucets, and stresses on pipes and joints, which may result in leaks. Lower water pressure may also decrease deteriorations, reducing the need for repairs and extending the life span of existing facilities. Furthermore, lower pressures can help reduce wear on end-use fixtures and appliances. System-wide pressure management: For residential areas, pressure exceeding 80 psi should be assessed for reduction. Pressure management and reduction strategies must be consistent with government and local regulations and standards, as well as take into account system conditions and needs. Obviously, reduction in pressure should not compromise the integrity of the water system or service quality for customers. Pressure-reducing valves: A more aggressive plan may include the purchase and installation of pressure-reducing in individual buildings. Utilities might also insert flow restrictors on services at the meter. Restrictor can be sized to allow for service length, system pressure, and site elevation. Utilities can consider providing technical assistance to customers to address their pressure problems and install pressure-reducing valves to

lower customers water pressure. This may be especially beneficial for large-use customers. Landscape Efficiency
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Landscape efficiency

Promotion of landscape efficiency Selective irrigation

Landscape planning and renovation Irrigation management

Outdoor water usage drives maximum-day demand, which in turn drives requirements for transmission and treatment facilities. Reducing outdoor usage can thus be very effective conservation strategy. Outdoor water use can reduce through efficient-oriented landscaping principles. Promotion of landscape efficiency: Utilities can promote the development of water conservation principles into planning, development and management of new landscape projects such as public parks, building grounds, and golf courses. Utilities can also promote low water-use landscaping by residential and nonresidential customers, especially those with large properties. Utilities can cooperate with local nurseries to ensure the availability of water conserving plants. Water systems may promote Xeriscaping; an efficiency-oriented approach to landscaping that encompasses seven essential principles: Planning and design; Limited turf areas; Efficient irrigation; Soil improvement; Mulching; Use of lower water demand plants; Appropriate maintenance. Apply irrigation water at critical stages of the plant growth such as flowering etc.

Selective irrigation sub-metering: Selective sub-metering for irrigation water can be used to improve irrigation management, as well as to introduce irrigation pricing. Landscape planning and renovation: Existing landscapes can be renovated to incorporate water conservation practices. Public parks, for example, could be managed to incorporate water-efficient landscaping and reduce or eliminate irrigation. Utilities can work with commercial and industrial customers to plan and renovate landscaping in accordance with water conservation practices.

Irrigation management: Irrigation management systems, using metering, timing, and water-sensing devices, also can be promoted by water utility for large-volume customers. Replacement and Promotions
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Replacement and promotion

Rebates and incentives [nonresidential] Rebates and incentives [residential] Promotion of new technologies

Rebate and incentives: In order to accelerate the replacement of older fixtures, utilities can offer rebates and other incentives. Utilities can install water efficient fixtures by providing fixtures at no cost, giving rebate for consumer purchased fixtures, or arranging suppliers to provide fixtures at a reduced price. Utilities can design incentive rebate programmes that are targeted to the nonresidential and residential sectors, and to indoor and outdoor uses. The feasibility and effectiveness of replacement depends on state and local plumbing. A programme to accelerate replacement, coupled with high-efficiency standards, can yield substantial water saving. Promotion of New Technologies: Utilities also can get involved with promoting new technologies by manufactures and distributors of fixtures and appliances. Demonstration and pilot programmes, and even contests, can be used to introduce and promote new product e.g. high-efficiency washing machines, dont use a hosepipe to wash your car, use a bucket etc. Reusing and recycling
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Reuse and recycling

Industrial applications Large-volume irrigation applications Selective residential application

Industrial application: An alternative water sources for some systems is graywater, or treated wastewater for non-potable water uses. Water reuse and recycling practices reduces production demands on water system. Water utilities should work with their nonresidential customers to identify potential areas for reuse or recycling. Some industries can substantially reduce water demand through water reuse (or multiple use) in manufacturing processes. Recycled wastewater can be used for some industrial purposes, agricultural purposes such as aquaculture, groundwater recharge, and direct reuse to water golf courses

Large-volume irrigation application: Reuse and recycling can encourage for large volume irrigation. Selective residential applications: In some areas, reuse and recycling can be used in residential applications. Water systems will need to check with local plumbing and ordinances for possible conditions and restrictions.

Water-Use regulation
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Water-use regulation

Water-use standards and regulations Requirements for new developments

Water-use standards and regulations: Regulations should be in place to manage water use during droughts or other water-supply emergencies. In some cases, utilities may find it desirable to extend water-use regulations to promote conservation during nonemergency situations. Examples of water-use regulations: Restrictions on nonessential uses, such as lawn watering, car washing, filling swimming pools, washing sidewalks, and irrigating golf courses; Restrictions on commercial car washes, nurseries, hotels, and restaurants; Standards for water-using fixtures and appliances; Bans or restrictions on once-through cooling; Bans on non-recirculating car washes, laundries, and decorative fountains; Bans on certain types of water use practices.

Requirements for new developments: Another type of regulation is to impose standards on new developments with regard to landscaping, drainage, and irrigation practices. Many water systems, including privately owned systems, lack authority to implement this measure. Systems that have authority must exercise it carefully. In general restriction on water use should be justified by the systems circumstances and should not unduly compromise the customers rights or quality of service. Integrate Resources Management
Advanced guidelines Intermediate Guidelines Basic Guidelines

Measures Integrated resources management

Supply-side technologies Demand-side technologies

Supply-side technology: The idea of integrated resources management is that water often is used jointly with other resources. Water may be accomplished with the conservation of other resources. On the supply-side, the utility can institute operating practices (including various automation methods, strategic use of storage, and other practices) that achieve energy, chemical, and water saving. Sources-water protection strategies, including landuse management methods, can be used to conserve water resources and avoid costly new supplies. Water and wastewater utilities can jointly plan and implement conservation programmes to realize savings and share in the benefits. Demand-side technology: Integrative practices can also be accomplished on the demand side. Water and energy utilities can conduct comprehensive end-use audits and jointly promote conservation practices by end-users. Large-volume users can work with the utility to make adjustments to processes that reduce water and energy usage and wastewater flows, while saving other sources as well. Utilities that provide wholesale water can work with wholesale customers to design a water conservation programme that will be mutually beneficial.

References Charles W. Howe and F. Linaweaver, The Impact of price on Residential Water Demand and its Relationship to system Design and price Structure, Water Resources Research 3 (First Quarter 1967): 13-32 Conservation Pricing of Water and Wastewater, Holly Stallworth, Ph.D. 4/10/00 Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. Water Conservation Plan Guidelines. EPA-832-D-98-001, 1998. Hussain I., Raschid L., Hanjra A. H., Marikar F. and Wim van der Hoek (2002), Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Review of Impacts and Methodology Issues in Valuing Impacts, Working Paper 37. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. Idelovitch E and Ringskog K (1997), Wastewater treatment in Latin America, Old and New Options, World Bank, Washington DC IWMI Research Updates, News of the Progress and Impact of International Water Management Institute Research, June 2002 Julia Russell, Xeriscape, ed. Bob Walter, and Lois Arkin. Sustainable Cities (EcoHome Media. Los Angeles CA, 192) pp 140. Larry Stammer, Sewage Forced Closure of 2000 Beaches in 1991 (Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1992) NADB WATER CONSERVATION INVESTMENT FUND GUIDELINES FEBRUARY 10, 2003, Guidelines for Water Conservation Investment Fund Nyambe I. A. (2002), Institutional Implications, Issues and Necessities for Effective Water Demand Management in Zambia, Lusaka Oweis, T., Hachum A., and Kijne J., (1999), Water Harvesting and Supplemental Irrigation for Improved Water Use Efficiency in Dry Areas, SWIM Paper 7, Colombo, Sri Lank: International Water Management Institute. Sakthivadivel R., Loeve R., Amarasinghe U. A., and Hemakumara M., (2001), Water Scarcity and Managing Seasonal Water Crises: Lessions from the Kirindi Oya Project in Sri Lank, Research Report 55, Colombo, Sri Lank: International Water Management Institute. SECO/CPA (2002), State Energy Conservation Office Suggested Water Efficiency Guidelines for Buildings and Equipment at Texas State Facilities, Texas State Energy Conservation Office.

UNEP-DTIE- IETC (2001), Rainwater Harvesting and Utilization: An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management, An Introductory Guide for Decision-makers, Sumida