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South America magazine for you. 1.- Farewell to FortuneCity ....................... by the Director Shafer. It is with great sadness that we see how it all ends for lack of money, in this case is FortuneCity, who had hosted the pages of Juillet House for many years. Now everything ends on March 30, last date to take what is put there. From now on, only those of North American Saxon can post there, since you have to pay for it, and obviously, from outside Yankeeland will not be possible. -We had there the entire collection of Home Ezine Excellere Juillet. Did that mean? That from the number 1 could be read to the number 111, for March 2012. The good thing was that they could put pictures on the pages, so I read was of better quality. In other places they can post, but with restrictions photographs and even file length. For those who read in FortuneCity, we warn that they can go to these addresses to read the Ezine Juillet House and stories and novels Alfredo Juillet, the writer who has filled the pages of House Juillet from the start. http://eternity-oceanica.blogspot.com http://casajuillet.blogspot.com http://es.groups.yahoo.com/group/CasaJuilletScienceFiction http://es.scribd.com Search for "heliosium" http://www.youtube.com/user/heliosium/videos http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/juillet and until March 30 only: http://juillet.fortunecity.com
llllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 3. - Messrs. ET. of the Sumerians. By Joe Stanton. When in 2003 the World Power invaded Iraq to "democratize" the country, the occupation forces allowed and facilitated the looting that hung on Iraqi cultural heritage. Nothing mattered to the "democrats" violating "Hague Convention" of 1954, invented by themselves, As regards the protection of art treasures in wartime.
This type of resolution, we know that are meant to punish the wicked, but the system that dominates the world sees only those crimes oppose it and never in the servile "democrats" who, faithful to his orders.
80% of the 170,000 objects stored in the National Museum of Antiquities in Baghdad were stolen or destroyed during this criminal action looting and destruction. Página 1
ezine113 april Following the logic of dialectical materialism and rationalism, we could see behind this sacking a mere economic interest. That is, have large archaeological interest and antique collectors in the looting of these goods to market. In fact, archaeologists Archaeological Institute of America have protested against the policy pursued by the occupation forces in Iraq. The president of this institute, Patty Gerstenblith, said: "The agenda of the American Council of Cultural Policy (American Council for Cultural Policy) or ACCP is promote collections of antiquities weakening the laws of countries rich in archaeological remains to eliminate national ownership of their and allow the export antiques. " The world's most influential collectors, advocate less restrictive conditions by the Iraqi government for the ownership and export of antiquities and try to "persuade" the U.S. government to allow the transfer "legal" Iraqi heritage without any limitations.
This is clear and evident. There is an economic interest in the looting of Iraqi antiquities. But is there a hidden agenda behind these seemingly chaotic performances?. Indeed, the translation of some tablets (now out of existence by the World Power), made by prominent linguists and Samuel Noah Kramer and Zecharia Sitchin, show advanced Sumerian civilization. Kramer says that "the Sumerians, with the help of their gods, especially Enlil (the King of Heaven and Earth), transformed a flat land, barren and windswept in a fertile realm flourishing. "
Several authors such as Zecharia Sitchin, have found in Sumerian texts devices like rockets and spacecraft of the gods. Are descriptions of an extraterrestrial civilization that developed in that area of ??the world for over 5000 years?.
Alan Alford tells us that all life revolved around Sumerian gods. These were physical body and eyes of the Sumerians were the An.Unna.Ki literally "those who came from Heaven to Earth." These gods instructed the people in the construction of temples in places chosen. Over time, several armed confrontations took place between the gods. In the Dead Sea region have been found evidence of a nuclear confrontation around 2040 BC This region still retain radioactive anomalies and nuclear particles. The waveform caused a radioactive nuclear cyclone that destroyed the Sumerian civilization. A Sumerian text says: "In the land fell a calamity, a Página 2
ezine113 april unknown to the man, who had not seen before ... a great storm from the sky ... a storm that wiped out all the earth ... a devilish wind raging like a torrent ... accompanied by a scorching heat ... during the day stole the earth from its sun shining, the night the stars did not shine ... People are terrified, I could hardly breathe ... The mouths were filled with blood ... houses are made leave ... Sumer's rivers flowed with bitter waters ... growing pasture grass withers ... The gods evacuated Uruk, hid in the mountains, escaped beyond the distant plains ... ".
The Sumerian stories about "those who came from heaven" is interrupted at this point. The survivors of nuclear Armageddon Anunnaki suffered a setback huge, sinking into chaos and confusion.
Through the efforts of the most conscious elements of humanity, knowledge of the gods survived in the world by way of various forms esoteric and secret societies like the Mystery Schools of Egypt and the school of Pythagoras. But most of the world hung in the shadow of the initiation against ...
The Jewish Bible, according to various authors, is written on historical knowledge and initiation of the past. But the Jewish book would not be the same gnosis, but in him, knowledge would have been perverted and corrupted with evil intent.
In Genesis 6 speaks of God, or Nephilim, their older versions. In fact the Jewish Bible is referring to a version of the Anunnaki Sitchin Sumerian term which translates as "those who descended".
In later books of the Bible we see the Jewish Jewish knowledge extracted from the ancient Egyptians. These, the Egyptians were the knowledge of ancient cultures: Babylon and Sumeria. The ten commandments of the Jewish Bible is a modeled replica of a passage from the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
In short, the archaeological discovery of the ancient world and the translation of his tables, texts and other records, showed us that the Bible Jewish (Old Testament) is a mere carbon copy of much older stories. It was a blow to the Pentateuch (the first five books of Jewish Bible), which was confirmed when in 1880 the German scholar Julius Wellhausen published Prolegomena to the History of Israel. It collected evidence that Moses could not write these texts capitals. Wellhausen even Página 3
ezine113 april defended the hypothesis that these stories that speak of the Elohim or Shining Ones equivalent to the Anunnaki came from older sources, later identified with Sumer.
In 1882, Ignatius Donnelly wrote his masterpiece Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. It speaks of the need to recover the "Ur-Religion" aria, worship prehistoric granting direct experience with the divine (God) through the practices and initiation rites. Also it is the "language of Ur," known as the "language of birds", the original language spoken in Paradise before the expulsion of Adam and Eve.
In these years is when it begins to loom on the horizon of Germany the revival of Aryan man. The Aryan nations awaited the messenger who is to lead man to the reign of the gods of antiquity and, above all, knowledge that turns self in God.
According to the Germanic scholar Samuel Kramer, the word "Nazi" comes from the name of one of the eight gods created by the Sumerian goddess Ninharsug.
The father of the Anunnaki called An (or Anu in Arcadian), lived in heaven (Nibiru) and visited the Earth and elsewhere in our solar system very occasionally, accompanied by his wife Antu. His temple in the city of Ur was called E.Anna, "House of An". The Sumerians demominaban as "The Lower House of Heaven."
Anu had two sons who came to our planet, Enki and Enlil the firstborn.
At first Enki took command on Earth, but soon, in order of his father, was replaced by Enlil. These differences were concerning the rules of succession of the gods, determined by these genetic purity.
Enki was instrumental in the creation of man.
The Sumerian texts speak of the need for workers in the Earth for gold deposits "giving the image of the gods" and enough intelligence to use tools. Enki and his half sister Nin.Har.Sag (Primordial Lady of the Mountain) made several genetic experiments. After several unsuccessful attempts, managed to find a specimen fit for work in the mines. They called Lu.Lu, or "One that has been mixed." It was the first "human". Página 4
These are the "land", the "slaves of Atlantis" that tells Miguel Serrano: "There would be several humanities. Divine Humanity the Hyperboreans, the semi-divine heroes of the mixed descendants of the divine and the animal-men, the Sudra, the pasu, "slaves of Atlantis ", perhaps the" robots "of Atlantis, which somehow survived its collapse" (NOS, Book of the Resurrection. Miguel Serrano). After the collapse of the Altántida, continues Serrano, on the surface of the earth "is strange beings, unrecognizable (¿Evenor, Leucippe, Clitus?). Some of the aliens falls in love with the daughters of men. Lucifer and his forces enter the Earth Hollow interior, where they built cities and Shamballah Agarthi. They hope to redeem those who regressed in semi-divine, mingling with the land. "
The mixture of divine and "human" results in "humanity". A humanity in which we find mixed breeds, mixed, more or less pure. We understand that this is a very delicate and do not intend to provide as definitive an idea without firm foundation, but we note that the Sumerian texts are in addition to historical, the oldest texts of humanity, so we give them a estimable value. This issue addressed by the Sumerian tablets could be an explanation for the radical difference between the different human races. Proceeds from the cross between human and divine elements, we find divine spirits, celestial race, embodied in pieces of clay (Demiurgic matter): "fallen angels". Fallen souls in the world.
It is understood here the interest of Global Power to conceal all this "mystery" of ordinary mortals, and how in 2003, when it invades Iraq, strives to subtract it. It is the same evil power that rules the world centuries ago and burned the Library of Alexandria, where he was saved the man's knowledge and history and prehistory of mankind. The same happened when the Chinese invaded Tibet Marxist seeking out and destroying the sacred texts of ancient stories. Or what happened to the Maya Codices we talked about the history of the world ... and so so many cases.
While the face of World Power is multiple, the hand that is behind these faces is always the same. No one seems too surprised at the alliance Marxist-capitalist World War II. Wow, maybe we had not been told that they were antagonistic movements?. When the truth is see who is behind the diverse modern ideologies such as Marxism, liberalism, Christian Democracy, anarchism ... Página 5
ezine113 april World Power strives to create a world where man lives pointless perfectly ignorant of history, and ignorant of their true nature and himself. For this it is important to destroy the knowledge of the true history of the world, lest the man, know the origin, can come to ask questions "unpleasant" and awaken from the sleep of millennia.
This recalls the story of Paradise in the Jewish Bible. When the man takes the tree of knowledge of good and evil, Jehovah expelled from Garden of Eden: "And Jehovah went on to say:" See that man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Lest shop now that the hand of the tree of life and eating him alive forever. " LORD out of the garden of Eden, to till the soil which had been taken. He drove the man from the Garden of Eden and placed cherubim before him brandishing flaming sword to save the way to the tree of life ". (Genesis 3, 24).
Humanity today would be made on a Luciferian element, "the fire of the gods", the electron of the gods. The recovery of this must restore power in man is by nature divine dignity it deserves.
We have explained how the System, World Power, strives to keep within the parameters of a world pointless, distracting us with a thousand juggling to keep awake to knowledge. However, the more aware of ourselves struggle to restore the state of grace that binds us to the realm of the gods.
For in the depths of ourselves lights the fire old race of the gods. When, on the various circumstances of life, This old fire gets to shine in our lives, the world seems to stop and the perception of time becomes distorted. Retrieve this fire allows us to live and feel like a god, a god. This is the meaning of the Olympic flame from ancient Greece. Like those heroes former, we raise and enarbolemos the torch, the fire of the gods, to become, in truth, free men. As for me, I read the books and watched TV programs and I do all the jargon of the alien community. However, we do it make some good points here and there. For example, I feel a little uncomfortable with our current explanation of the methods and techniques construction used to build cities and ancient monuments. If I understand things right we are to believe people had little more primitive tools to cut, move and build with stones that have multiple Página 6
ezine113 april heavy cranes to move in the world today. Now, I'm not saying it could levitate rocks or had lightsabers to cut the stone, but for my part, could use another theory. The Project size and accuracy with which they are built is perhaps beyond the reach of most peoples understanding. With all our technology and understanding that it is questionable whether we could build the Great Pyramid today. As for the idea of ??Mr. Sitchin, I see the damage. If he can find a real scientist knows what he / she is doing for the test ... let them. How is that an insult to science? Science is defined as the systematic knowledge of the physical world or material obtained through observation and experimentation. I think this qualifies as such. No? In my mind the idea that foreigners came here in the past and became the gods of ancient or even fathered moving us along our evolution is much less absurd than the idea of ??a mythical being who magically built our universelllllllllllllllllllllllllllll oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
4.- Testing objects ..................by Dieter Gundlich.
I think the issue here is that liberals tend to shy away from testing objects that are part of ancient religious mythology, while conservatives tend to divide between those who want their superstitions scientifically confirmed versus those who want their superstitions to retain an air of mystery as tests of faith, as if faith is something good to have without evidence. The Shroud of Turin is one good example. Liberals think testing holy relics like that to demean science because they feel they are so sophisticated and modern that its "obvious" that holy relics are just fakes because it is "obvious" that there is no such thing as holy miracles, God doesnt exist, etc etc etc. So they oppose science getting involved because of a lack of faith in their own convictions OR by a liberal elitism, the sort of snobbery one sees in A Brave New World of the modern people toward those on the reservations. The Shroud was eventually tested, and found to be dated to several centuries after the time of Jesus. Science wins, superstition loses another one of its props, and the modern world gets a little more modern in its thinking, catching our minds up with our technology a little bit more. I personally am all for science testing all sorts of holy relics, including this Puabi person, because I know that science cannot be harmed by the truth. Lets test the bag of bones and be done with it. What can it harm?I think the issue here is that liberals tend to shy away from testing objects that are part of ancient religious mythology, while conservatives tend to divide between those who want their superstitions scientifically confirmed versus those who want their superstitions to retain an air of mystery as tests of faith, as if faith is something good to have without evidence. The Shroud of Turin is one good example. Liberals think testing holy relics like that to demean science because they feel they are so sophisticated and modern that its "obvious" that holy relics are just fakes because it is "obvious" that there is no such thing as holy miracles, God doesnt exist, etc Página 7
ezine113 april etc etc. So they oppose science getting involved because of a lack of faith in their own convictions OR by a liberal elitism, the sort of snobbery one sees in A Brave New World of the modern people toward those on the reservations. The Shroud was eventually tested, and found to be dated to several centuries after the time of Jesus. Science wins, superstition loses another one of its props, and the modern world gets a little more modern in its thinking, catching our minds up with our technology a little bit more. I personally am all for science testing all sorts of holy relics, including this Puabi person, because I know that science cannot be harmed by the truth. Lets test the bag of bones and be done with it. What can it harm? Creo que el problema aquí es que los liberales tienden a alejarse de los objetos de prueba que forman parte de la mitología religiosa antigua, mientras que los conservadores tienden a dividir entre aquellos que quieren que sus supersticiones confirmado científicamente frente a los que quieren que sus supersticiones para mantener un aire de misterio como las pruebas de la fe, como si la fe es algo bueno tener sin pruebas. La Sábana Santa de Turín es un buen ejemplo. Los liberales piensan probar reliquias sagradas, como que para degradar la ciencia porque sienten que son tan sofisticado y moderno que su "evidente" que las sagradas reliquias son falsas, ya que es "obvio" que no hay tal cosa como los milagros santo, Dios no existe, etc, etc, etc Por lo tanto se oponen a la ciencia de participar debido a una falta de fe en sus propias convicciones o por un elitismo liberal, el tipo de esnobismo que uno ve en Un mundo feliz de las personas modernas a los de las reservas. La Sábana Santa ha sido probado con el tiempo, y se comprobó que data de varios siglos después de la época de Jesús. Triunfos de la ciencia, la superstición pierde otro de sus puntales, y el mundo moderno es un poco más moderno en su pensamiento, la captura de nuestra mente con nuestra tecnología un poco más. Yo personalmente estoy a favor de la ciencia pruebas de todo tipo de reliquias, incluyendo a esta persona Puabi, porque sé que la ciencia no puede ser dañado por la verdad. Vamos a probar la bolsa de huesos y puede hacer con ella. ¿Qué puede hacer daño?
4.- Immediate end to violence against the people in Syria Tuesday, February 14, 2012 Dt. Federal Parliament has sent strong message to Assad's regime To the joint resolution of the Committee for Human Rights and Humanitarian Assistance (without the group THE LEFT.) Explain the Chairperson of the Working Group on Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group, Erika Steinbach, and the deputy chairman of the Committee for Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid, Michael Brand : The Committee on Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid of the German Bundestag from across the group - without the participation of the Left faction. - Sent a clear signal to the Assad regime and its supporters. It was and remains the target of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group, the oppressed people of Syria to stand by and support them in their struggle against the regime morally. There must be an end of the Assad regime. Sticking too much blood on the Página 8
ezine113 april hands of the rulers and too many crimes against his own people, the regime has committed. The international community is urged to jointly prepare this terror to an end as quickly as possible. Russia and China must abandon its blockade against the Syrian people and the Arab League and the United Nations the way for freely make a resolution that compels the Assad regime to stop the murderous doings against civilians. We support the efforts of Chancellor Merkel and Foreign Minister Westerwelle sustainable and keep the date with our political partners for the initiatives taken in the right direction.
German asylum system represents man at the center Thursday, January 26, 2012 Long and thorough process with health checks For today's public technical discussion of the Committee for Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid of the German Bundestag on health checks before deportation explain the Chairperson of the Working Group on Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid Commissioner Erika Steinbach, and the integration of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group Michael Frieser: The German asylum system meets human rights standards. The examination of the case is top priority in the German Asylum Procedure. The individual is the center. The federal regulations are implemented by the authorities of the federal and state with great responsibility. As experts of today's conversation, in addition to medical officials also gave the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, the Lower Saxony Ministry of the Interior and the federal police for information. They told the deputies of the daily work and answered questions about health checks before deportation extremely competent. It was made clear by the experts: the review of fitness to travel is only at the end of a long and thorough process that includes a comprehensive health examination. Post-traumatic stress disorder after the flight and expulsion in the countries of origin or gender violence experiences are only one of the reasons that lead to the fact that refugees be allowed to stay in Germany. The doctors used for this purpose by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees receive special education and regular training. I think the issue here is that liberals tend to shy away from testing objects that are part of ancient religious mythology, while conservatives tend to divide between those who want their superstitions scientifically confirmed versus those who want their superstitions to retain an air of mystery as tests of faith, as if faith is something good to have without evidence. The Shroud of Turin is one good example. Liberals think testing holy relics like that to demean science because they feel they are so sophisticated and modern that its "obvious" that holy relics are just fakes because it is "obvious" that there is no such thing as holy miracles, God doesnt exist, etc etc etc. So they oppose science getting involved because of a lack of faith in their own convictions OR by a liberal elitism, the sort of snobbery one sees in A Brave New World of the modern people toward those on the reservations. The Shroud was eventually tested, and found to be dated to several centuries after the time of Jesus. Science wins, superstition loses another one of its props, and the modern world gets a little more modern in its thinking, catching our minds up with our technology a little bit more. I personally am all for science testing all sorts of holy relics, including this Puabi person, because I know that science cannot be harmed by the truth. Lets test the bag of bones and be done with it. What can it harm? oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Página 9
7.- Looking for alien DNA
By E. E. Evers.
Zecharia Sitchin suggests that the star-shaped symbol and 11 other dots on this Sumerian cylinder seal, known as VA243, represent the sun, moon and 10 planets — including a mysterious world known as Nibiru. He further suggests that beings from Nibiru made alterations in the human genome. Mainstream experts on Sumerian cuneiform texts say Sitchin's interpretation is wrong. Zecharia Sitchin says he's willing to stake everything he's written about alien astronauts on DNA tests that could be performed on the 4,500-year-old remains of a high-ranking Sumerian woman. It's the latest - and possibly the last - cause celebre for a fringe celebrity. The way Sitchin sees it, the long-dead woman's genome could contain the signature of the gods and demigods he's been talking about since 1976. The 90-year-old Sitchin was born in the Soviet Union, grew up in Palestine and now lives in a New York apartment. He has written 14 books about way-out subjects, starting out with claims that a "12th planet" named Nibiru swung past Earth thousands of years ago and dropped off alien visitors who were looked upon as gods by Middle Eastern cultures. Sitchin says these aliens were the Annunaki mentioned in Sumerian scriptures, and the Nephilim mentioned in the Bible. Needless to say, Sitchin's ideas - like those of another ancient-astronaut author, Erich von Däniken - have been roundly scorned by the scientific community. But now Sitchin is asking that very community to help him with the mystery of Queen Puabi. Puabi's remains were unearthed from a tomb in present-day Iraq during the 1920s and 1930s, roughly the same time frame as the discovery and study of Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt. Forensic experts at London's Natural History Museum determined that Puabi was about 40 years old when she died, and probably reigned as queen in her own right during the First Dynasty of Ur. Sitchin contends she was something more than a queen - specifically, that she was a "nin," a Sumerian term which he takes to mean "goddess." He suggests that Puabi was an ancient demigod, genetically related to the visitors from Nibiru. What if these aliens tinkered with our DNA to enhance our intelligence - the biblical tree of knowledge of good and evil - but held back the genetic fruit from the tree of eternal life? Does the story of Adam and Eve actually refer to the aliens' tinkering? The way Sitchin sees it, the ancient myths suggest that "whoever created us deliberately held back from us a certain thing - fruit, genes, DNA, whatever - not to give us health, longevity, and the immortality that they had. So what was it?" Sitchin wants scientists to test the DNA from Puabi's remains, just in case it holds the answer. "Maybe by comparing her genome with ours, we would find out what are those missing genes that they deliberately did not give us," he told me. "Maybe. I cannot guarantee that, but maybe." Zecharia Sitchin says "There Were Giants Upon the Earth" will be his last book. That kind of talk has led Sitchin's critics to label him a pseudo-historian, a fraud or just plain wrong. But that kind of talk has also sold millions of books since the '70s. Sitchin's latest, "There Were Giants Upon the Earth," recaps all the theories he's built up over the years - the unorthodox interpretations of ancient scriptures, the planet Nibiru's eccentric travels and the existence of a superhuman space society that hopped over to our planet and sparked the ancient myths. Sitchin claims that the ultimate fate of all those theories would be decided by the DNA tests he wants done on Queen Puabi's remains. "I'm really risking my life's work on this outcome," he said. Michael Heiser, for one, isn't buying it. He's a scholar in biblical Página 10
ezine113 april languages who maintains the "Sitchin Is Wrong" website, and he thinks Sitchin's DNA challenge to genetic researchers is just a lot of bluster. "He wants them to search for something when they don't know what it looks like," Heiser told me. "It's not as if we have a known sample of alien DNA. How do you know when you sequence something, because junk DNA doesn't qualify. What's a hit? If they find anything where they say, 'Hey, we don't know what this does,' he would latch onto that. ... He would zero in on the gaps and the ambiguities." On his website, Heiser provides in-depth discussions of the objections that have long been raised about Sitchin's writings: that the one-time journalist misreads the ancient texts, that he takes ancient myths as honest-to-goodness history and builds an outlandish cosmology around them, that he indulges in pop-culture paleo-babble. Zecharia Sitchin. Sitchin has a different perspective, of science is proving him right. "In field including some that seemed out of place me. "If you go to my website you'll see discovery has corroborated my claims."
course. The way he sees it, modern after field, all my conclusions - are being corroborated," he told entry after entry about how a new
For example, astronomers have found that distant worlds can trace orbits far more eccentric and skewed than they expected. There's even talk that an unseen giant planet may be lurking on the edge of our own solar system. All this has made Sitchin feel more confident in claiming that the planet Nibiru, home of the Annunaki, really does exist. You won't find any top-drawer scientists willing to pick up on Sitchin's suggestions, but that's exactly the kind of person he's looking for right now. The Natural History Museum says that any request to conduct DNA tests on Puabi's remains would have to come from "a researcher with recognized experience and skills in this field, or with access to the necessary facilities required to undertake ancient DNA analysis." Sitchin told me he's checking with various research groups, including some of the researchers behind last month's Neanderthal DNA findings and the DNA analysis conducted on 4,000-year-old human hair from Greenland. "I'm offering from my minuscule family foundation to fund this, by the way, so I'm not asking them for money," Sitchin told me. "And I'm not asking them to say Sitchin is right or wrong. I'm asking them to tell the museum in London this is too important not to do it. And that's where it stands." It probably wouldn't be right for researchers to take Sitchin's money - but a TV documentary about the glittering riches of ancient Ur, climaxing with experts doing forensic tests on the remains of ancient royalty? Hey, if it worked for the Discovery Channel with "Secrets of Egypt's Lost Queen," ... for the History Channel with "Coroners Report: King Tut" ... and for the National Geographic Channel with "The Real Cleopatra" ... well, it should work with Queen Puabi as well. Here are ed excerpts from my interview with Sitchin, followed by the statement I received via e-mail from the Natural History Museum: Cosmic Log: Studying Puabi's remains would be important whether or not something extremely peculiar is found. But if something extremely peculiar is not found? If they find that the DNA sequence for these remains is pretty ordinary? Zecharia Sitchin: Then I will look foolish. I’m really risking my life’s work on this outcome. Q: So you feel as if this is something that would definitely disprove your view of who these Sumerians were? A: Well you can't really "disprove." If somebody says "I did not see so-and-so," it doesn't disprove. But probably many will say it disproves my Página 11
ezine113 april whole life's thesis. I'm so convinced that when you find the skeletal remains of this female with three cylinder seals, one of which specifically names her as "Nin" … there’s no doubt in my mind. I’m willing to risk everything from 40 years of writing and publishing on this. Now whether I could be proven right, I don’t know. Gold jewelry that was found next to the head of Queen Puabi was apparently assembled into an ornate headdress, as shown on this mannequin. The results may say, we don’t find anything interesting. Maybe a difference here and there, but it looks like our DNA. I’m sure people will then say, 'OK, Sitchin’s stature has collapsed.' Whether this means so or not, I don’t know. But listen, I’m 90 years old, so what the heck. This is my final book. This is really my challenge to the scientific community. ... I’m really challenging science to corroborate the bibles. If you want it stated in one sentence, that’s what I’m doing. Science, with its ability to do whole-genome comparisons, now has the unique opportunity to test those ancient bones. Maybe Sitchin is right. I’m not asking them to undertake it to prove me right. But I think maybe if I am right, it opens such vistas of understanding in religion, in history, in genetics, in every field, that it ought to be done. Q: A lot of people have talked about how you’re a pseudo-historian, or you have an incorrect understanding of how the Sumerian language, how the cuneiform inscriptions should be interpreted. Does this sort of criticism make you rethink some of the things you’ve said? A: Absolutely not. First of all, I think anybody has the right to disagree with me. If I say that this sentence means this and that, you may say, ‘No, it does not say this and that.' There is one classic instance where I was going to the meeting of the American Oriental Society. ... I was shocked, because there was an assertion about this and that, I don't know, Sumeria and Mesopotamia. The speaker had 10 minutes, and then there are five or 10 minutes with questions and answers. Well, the speaker gets up and asserts that a certain Sumerian word may have another meaning in addition to the accepted usual meaning. The guy is afraid to overstep boundaries, so he qualifies what he says. "Well, maybe I'm suggesting..." He qualifies in 10 different ways. He has his 10 minutes, and then there are questions and answers. Somebody gets up and calls the speaker by his first name, so they must know each other. "Jim, I'm amazed at your stupidity. How could you even come up with this notion that this word has this second meaning that you're talking about?" And he runs down the poor fellow, insulting him, and that's it. The guy doesn't have a chance to answer because there's one more question and his time is up. So what's the point? One guy thinks the word may have a second meaning, and the other guy calls him names for it. So what's one to do? Q: Are there areas where you see that new evidence has come out and the view that you’ve had has changed through the years? A: No, on the contrary, because of the evidence that is coming mostly from other fields. Let me give you an example. ... The planet Nibiru is listed in countless astronomical texts from Mesopotamia. The question was debated by scholars already in the 19th century, what planet is it? One school said, it’s another name for Mars. And another school said, it’s another name for Jupiter. Each group had their reasons to say it wasn’t Jupiter, or it wasn’t Mars. And I basically agreed with both of them: those who said it could not be Mars and those who said it could not be Jupiter. So finally I came up with my solution, that it’s one more planet with a great elliptical orbit, etc., etc. So one of the criticisms that came out when “The 12th Planet,” my first book, was published in 1976 was that such an elliptical orbit is not possible, because in time, either the orbit would become more rounded and the planet would orbit closer to the sun, or it would be thrown out of the solar system. But to continue in an elliptical orbit, Página 12
ezine113 april orbit after orbit after orbit, is not possible. Now, I subscribe to all the magazines – Nature, Science, Archaeology – I’m keeping myself up to date on scientific discoveries. So now that we know about so-called extrasolar planets, the verdict is that an elliptical orbit is the norm. So a few months ago, there was a program [on TV] titled "Curse of the Yo-Yo Planet." I’m watching it, and the guy is talking about my planet! No doubt about it. He describes it, and calls it the "yo-yo planet" because it goes farther out and comes back. And when the program is over, there’s not one word mentioned about Sitchin! Q: Yes, people have renewed the search for planets that may be out in the Oort cloud. For example, Sedna is a world that is between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud. People wonder how it got there. There is a sense that the sun may have been born in a cluster with other stars, and that gravitational attraction may have disrupted a lot of orbits. There was a study just a couple of days ago suggesting that as many as 90 percent of the comets in our solar system were actually stolen from neighboring star systems during the early stage of solar system development. A: This is the whole reason for orbiting in the opposite direction … it comes from those very findings you’re talking about. How does one explain why not only Nibiru but some of the comets have retrograde orbits? If the solar system was just by itself created because of this swirling cloud, then how come not everything orbits in the same direction? All these findings keep corroborating what I have said. Q: But I think some people have interpreted those remarks to suggest that a companion star or a dark planet may once again disrupt the solar system as early as 2012. A: Don’t link me to 2012. Nothing will happen in 2012. The last time that Nibiru was in our vicinity was in the 6th century B.C. I provide information about this and sky maps and anything you want in my book “The End of Days.” But don’t link me to 2012. Another aspect, by the way, is that if you do a search on “Annunaki” you get a million and a half websites. People use my writings and make up their own stories … I’m responsible for what I say, but not for what others say and their interpretations. In general I think there’s a whole industry that has grown up in the media, mostly in the movies, for creating panic and fear. Who knows? “Something will happen, it’s coming.” I don’t think so. Nothing will return. But I think ["gods" visited Earth] because of all the biblical prophecies. They created us, they gave us knowledge, but what they kept from us … I’m trying to find out through the DNA tests. Maybe it has to do with health, immortality, maybe cancer and such. We are their children, many of us are the result of their intermarriage. If Noah was like the Sumerian hero, a demigod, then we are all demigods. So they are not coming back to destroy us. They are not coming back to use us as food. I’m really shocked, shocked by this fearmongering, which is unjustified. I do what I do and say what I say, and now I’m throwing down the gauntlet to the scientific community. You don’t have to do my genome, you have to do the genome of Nin Puabi. Q: Another thing that people say is that you’re trying to read too much literal, actual history into something that was intended more as a myth, a story about the spiritual world. It would be as if someone was looking back from the future at our different cultures, and saying, “Well, God had to be like this because all these different cultures are telling the same story.” Whereas actually it’s the case that a common theme – for example, the Gilgamesh story or the story of a great flood – made its way into different cultures and doesn’t necessarily reflect historical reality. A: Well, if that is the criticism, then it’s true. My answer to that is, so what? I take it literally, and others say I shouldn’t, so … I plead guilty. Página 13
ezine113 april Now, let me tell you, I think it was November or December of last year, a documentary filmmaker came by with a camera crew, and for three days he really pestered me to the extent that he camped outside my home. I told him, listen, leave me alone. What did he want? He was making a film about the 10 most important people alive today in the world. And I’m one of them, according to him. So I said to him, "Why do you think I’m one of them? Why give me the honor?" He said, "Because you have demythologized mythology. You have done a tremendous thing, You took the mythologies of all the peoples, you showed where they stem from. And you show step by step that this is based on a series of actual events." So I plead guilty. That’s why mythology is so similar all over the world. Not necessarily detail by detail, name by name, event by event, but basically it reflects human recollection of past events. Now, here's the e-mail I received from Sam Roberts, media relations manager at London's Natural History Museum: "First, as background to the collections, The Natural History Museum holds a collection of approximately 20,000 human remains dating back to prehistoric times. Over half is from the UK and has been collected by the museum from when we were founded in 1881. They range from a single tooth, hair sample, single bones to complete skeletons and come from a variety of sources - for example, by transfer from other institutions such as Royal College of Surgeons or archaeological digs. "The human remains in the collection are used by both NHM researchers and visiting researchers in studies to form comparative samples in a wide variety of studies including human evolution, human variation, forensic and medical studies among many more. "I have been in touch with the relevant team and they confirmed that Zecharia Sitchin has contacted the Museum to request that it collect comparative samples from the remains of Nin Puabi (Queen Shubad). The Museum has a responsibility to safeguard and maintain its collections for scientific research. It does not routinely conduct ad hoc analysis of its collections, and requests for DNA analysis would need to be part of recognised research project. To date the Museum has not received a request from a researcher with recognised experience and skills in this field or with access to the necessary facilities required to undertake ancient DNA analysis. All research and loan requests involving human remains in the collection are subject to the relevant Museum policy and procedures, which are based on guidance set out by the UK Government’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport." In the days leading up to my interview, I heard from some Cosmic Log correspondents who thought Sitchin was totally bogus, and others who thought he just might be on to something. (The latter category probably overlaps with the estimated 32 percent of Americans who believe in UFOs.) Myself, I don't believe any of Sitchin's tales about alien astronauts or ancient demigods from the planet Nibiru. But I am intrigued by tales of Ur and its riches. In the right hands, I think the story of Queen Puabi could be as gripping as the stories of Queen Hatshepsut or even King Tut. What do you think? Zecharia Sitchin suggests that the star-shaped symbol and 11 other dots on this Sumerian cylinder seal, known as VA243, represent the sun, moon and 10 planets — including a mysterious world known as Nibiru. He further suggests that beings from Nibiru made alterations in the human genome. Mainstream experts on Sumerian cuneiform texts say Sitchin's interpretation is wrong. Zecharia Sitchin says he's willing to stake everything he's written about alien astronauts on DNA tests that could be performed on the 4,500-year-old remains of a high-ranking Sumerian woman. It's the latest - and possibly the last - cause celebre for a fringe celebrity. The way Sitchin sees it, the long-dead woman's genome could contain the signature of the gods and demigods he's been talking about since 1976. The 90-year-old Sitchin was born in the Soviet Union, grew up in Palestine and now lives in a New York apartment. He has written 14 books about way-out Página 14
ezine113 april subjects, starting out with claims that a "12th planet" past Earth thousands of years ago and dropped off alien looked upon as gods by Middle Eastern cultures. Sitchin were the Annunaki mentioned in Sumerian scriptures, and mentioned in the Bible.
named Nibiru swung visitors who were says these aliens the Nephilim
Needless to say, Sitchin's ideas - like those of another ancient-astronaut author, Erich von Däniken - have been roundly scorned by the scientific community. But now Sitchin is asking that very community to help him with the mystery of Queen Puabi. Puabi's remains were unearthed from a tomb in present-day Iraq during the 1920s and 1930s, roughly the same time frame as the discovery and study of Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt. Forensic experts at London's Natural History Museum determined that Puabi was about 40 years old when she died, and probably reigned as queen in her own right during the First Dynasty of Ur. Sitchin contends she was something more than a queen - specifically, that she was a "nin," a Sumerian term which he takes to mean "goddess." He suggests that Puabi was an ancient demigod, genetically related to the visitors from Nibiru. What if these aliens tinkered with our DNA to enhance our intelligence - the biblical tree of knowledge of good and evil - but held back the genetic fruit from the tree of eternal life? Does the story of Adam and Eve actually refer to the aliens' tinkering? The way Sitchin sees it, the ancient myths suggest that "whoever created us deliberately held back from us a certain thing - fruit, genes, DNA, whatever - not to give us health, longevity, and the immortality that they had. So what was it?" Sitchin wants scientists to test the DNA from Puabi's remains, just in case it holds the answer. "Maybe by comparing her genome with ours, we would find out what are those missing genes that they deliberately did not give us," he told me. "Maybe. I cannot guarantee that, but maybe."
Zecharia Sitchin says "There Were Giants Upon the Earth" will be his last book. That kind of talk has led Sitchin's critics to label him a pseudo-historian, a fraud or just plain wrong. But that kind of talk has also sold millions of books since the '70s. Sitchin's latest, "There Were Giants Upon the Earth," recaps all the theories he's built up over the years - the unorthodox interpretations of ancient scriptures, the planet Nibiru's eccentric travels and the existence of a superhuman space society that hopped over to our planet and sparked the ancient myths. Sitchin claims that the ultimate fate of all those theories would be decided by the DNA tests he wants done on Queen Puabi's remains. "I'm really risking my life's work on this outcome," he said. Michael Heiser, for one, isn't buying it. He's a scholar in biblical languages who maintains the "Sitchin Is Wrong" website, and he thinks Sitchin's DNA challenge to genetic researchers is just a lot of bluster. "He wants them to search for something when they don't know what it looks like," Heiser told me. "It's not as if we have a known sample of alien DNA. How do you know when you sequence something, because junk DNA doesn't qualify. What's a hit? If they find anything where they say, 'Hey, we don't know what this does,' he would latch onto that. ... He would zero in on the gaps and the ambiguities." On his website, Heiser provides in-depth discussions of the objections that have long been raised about Sitchin's writings: that the one-time journalist misreads the ancient texts, that he takes ancient myths as honest-to-goodness history and builds an outlandish cosmology around them, that he indulges in pop-culture paleo-babble.
Sitchin has a different perspective, of course. The way he sees it, modern Página 15
ezine113 april science is proving him right. "In field after field, all my conclusions including some that seemed out of place - are being corroborated," he told me. "If you go to my website you'll see entry after entry about how a new discovery has corroborated my claims." For example, astronomers have found that distant worlds can trace orbits far more eccentric and skewed than they expected. There's even talk that an unseen giant planet may be lurking on the edge of our own solar system. All this has made Sitchin feel more confident in claiming that the planet Nibiru, home of the Annunaki, really does exist. You won't find any top-drawer scientists willing to pick up on Sitchin's suggestions, but that's exactly the kind of person he's looking for right now. The Natural History Museum says that any request to conduct DNA tests on Puabi's remains would have to come from "a researcher with recognized experience and skills in this field, or with access to the necessary facilities required to undertake ancient DNA analysis." Sitchin told me he's checking with various research groups, including some of the researchers behind last month's Neanderthal DNA findings and the DNA analysis conducted on 4,000-year-old human hair from Greenland. "I'm offering from my minuscule family foundation to fund this, by the way, so I'm not asking them for money," Sitchin told me. "And I'm not asking them to say Sitchin is right or wrong. I'm asking them to tell the museum in London this is too important not to do it. And that's where it stands." It probably wouldn't be right for researchers to take Sitchin's money - but a TV documentary about the glittering riches of ancient Ur, climaxing with experts doing forensic tests on the remains of ancient royalty? Hey, if it worked for the Discovery Channel with "Secrets of Egypt's Lost Queen," ... for the History Channel with "Coroners Report: King Tut" ... and for the National Geographic Channel with "The Real Cleopatra" ... well, it should work with Queen Puabi as well. Here are ed excerpts from my interview with Sitchin, followed by the statement I received via e-mail from the Natural History Museum: Cosmic Log: Studying Puabi's remains would be important whether or not something extremely peculiar is found. But if something extremely peculiar is not found? If they find that the DNA sequence for these remains is pretty ordinary? Zecharia Sitchin: Then I will look foolish. I’m really risking my life’s work on this outcome. Q: So you feel as if this is something that would definitely disprove your view of who these Sumerians were? A: Well you can't really "disprove." If somebody says "I did not see so-and-so," it doesn't disprove. But probably many will say it disproves my whole life's thesis. I'm so convinced that when you find the skeletal remains of this female with three cylinder seals, one of which specifically names her as "Nin" … there’s no doubt in my mind. I’m willing to risk everything from 40 years of writing and publishing on this. Now whether I could be proven right, I don’t know. First and foremost, there are certain people very much inclined to defend the status quo about religion, so when there is someone looking at the groundfloor and realize that there is none, then they try to shoo him out of existence. With Sitchin translating the Sumerian clay tablets it´s the same: they said nothing when religious translators in the nineteen century translate the tablets speaking of myths of ancient Mesopotamia, with lascivious gods impregnating women, and a bad translation of gods fighting each others instead of planets going bersek. But when Sitchin said: No, guys! Those translated "gods" are planets, the Gods are only Lords, and the Humans were the ancient Workers (Lulus) of the ones that from the sky to the Earth come... it´s a difference. They saw planets colliding, Earth reborn from an ancient collision, Extraterrestrial people trying to extract gold from the Página 16
ezine113 april sea, then working at the African mines (they had found evidence of it) and then the Man who was created from the Mud from Jahve was only a homo erectus genetically modified to THINK better... the Bible adorers shakes as leaves in the storm because a) they could loose the job and B) they don´t want to change his ideas c) The bond among families and neighbors could end just like this (snap).
9-- Sitchin in 2 words,...................pby the DOCTOR FARTHON CLIMBOR. The Sumerian legends are very clear: man was made to bear the yoke of the gods. Man was separate from the gods, like a domesticated animal, and there was a great cultural taboo amongst the gods against sharing any of their sacred information with humanity, even things such as writing and mathematics. These gods ruled directly over Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley, and their rule is recorded in the histories of all three civilizations. The ancient Anunnaki themselves had their own monarchy, with laws of succession similar to our own, and they built a global empire upon the Earth, with great cities, temples and monuments, and mighty nations established on several continents. They altered and used mankind as a slave race to work on their farms and in their gold mines, among other things.
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 13.- The Cretaceous nap..............by ANA MARIA VENEGAS.
Mean atmospheric O2 content over period duration ca. 30 Vol % (150 % of modern level) Mean atmospheric CO2 content over period duration ca. 1700 ppm (6 times pre-industrial level) Mean surface temperature over period duration ca. 18 °C (4 °C above modern level)
The Cretaceous derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from circa 145.5 ± 4 to 65.5 ± 0.3 million years (Ma) ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the Cenozoic era. It is the youngest period of the Mesozoic era, and at 80 million years long, the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The end of the Cretaceous defines the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. In many languages this period is known as "chalk period". The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels and creating numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists; and the land by dinosaurs. At the same time, new groups of mammals and birds as well as flowering plants appeared. The Cretaceous ended with one of the largest mass extinctions in Earth history, the K–T extinction, when many species, including non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and large marine reptiles, disappeared. Página 17
ezine113 april Although the first representatives of leafy trees and true grasses emerged in the Cretaceous, the flora was still dominated by conifers like Auracaria (Here: Modern Araucaria araucana in Chile). PaleogeographyDuring the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into present day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. As the Atlantic Ocean widened, the convergent-margin orogenies that had begun during the Jurassic continued in the North American Cordillera, as the Nevadan orogeny was followed by the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. Geography of the Contiguous US in the late Cretaceous periodThough Gondwana was still intact in the beginning of the Cretaceous, it broke up as South America, Antarctica and Australia rifted away from Africa (though India and Madagascar remained attached to each other); thus, the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans were newly formed. Such active rifting lifted great undersea mountain chains along the welts, raising eustatic sea levels worldwide. To the north of Africa the Tethys Sea continued to narrow. Broad shallow seas advanced across central North America (the Western Interior Seaway) and Europe, then receded late in the period, leaving thick marine deposits sandwiched between coal beds. At the peak of the Cretaceous transgression, one-third of Earth's present land area was submerged. The Cretaceous is justly famous for its chalk; indeed, more chalk formed in the Cretaceous than in any other period in the Phanerozoic. Mid-ocean ridge activity—or rather, the circulation of seawater through the enlarged ridges—enriched the oceans in calcium; this made the oceans more saturated, as well as increased the bioavailability of the element for calcareous nanoplankton. These widespread carbonates and other sedimentary deposits make the Cretaceous rock record especially fine. Famous formations from North America include the rich marine fossils of Kansas's Smoky Hill Chalk Member and the terrestrial fauna of the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation. Other important Cretaceous exposures occur in Europe (e.g., the Weald) and China (the Yixian Formation). In the area that is now India, massive lava beds called the Deccan Traps were erupted in the very late Cretaceous and early Paleocene. climate The Berriasian epoch showed a cooling trend that had been seen in the last epoch of the Jurassic. There is evidence that snowfalls were common in the higher latitudes and the tropics became wetter than during the Triassic and Jurassic. Glaciation was however restricted to alpine glaciers on some high-latitude mountains, though seasonal snow may have existed farther south. Rafting by ice of stones into marine environments occurred during much of the Cretaceous but evidence of deposition directly from glaciers is limited to the Early Cretaceous of the Eromanga Basin in southern Australia. After the end of the Berriasian, however, temperatures increased again, and these conditions were almost constant until the end of the period.This trend was due to intense volcanic activity which produced large quantities of carbon dioxide. The production of large quantities of magma, variously attributed to mantle plumes or to extensional tectonics, further pushed sea levels up, so that large areas of the continental crust were covered with shallow seas. The Tethys Sea connecting the tropical oceans east to west also helped in warming the global climate. Warm-adapted plant fossils are known from localities as far north as Alaska and Greenland, while dinosaur fossils have been found within 15 degrees of the Cretaceous south pole. A very gentle temperature gradient from the equator to the poles meant weaker global winds, contributing to less upwelling and more stagnant oceans than today. This is evidenced by widespread black shale deposition and frequent anoxic events. Sediment cores show that tropical sea surface temperatures may have briefly been as warm as 42 °C (107 °F), 17 °C (31 °F) warmer than at present, and that they averaged around 37 °C (99 °F). Meanwhile deep ocean temperatures were as much as 15 to 20 °C (27 to 36 °F) higher than today's. Further information: Cool tropics paradox GeologyKey events in the Cretaceous Página 18
ezine113 april Mesozoic Cenozoic An approximate timescale of key Cretaceous events. Axis scale: millions of years ago. Research historyThe Cretaceous as a separate period was first defined by a Belgian geologist Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1822, using strata in the Paris Basin and named for the extensive beds of chalk (calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of western Europe. The name Cretaceous was derived from Latin creta, meaning chalk. The name of the island Crete has the same origin. Stratigraphic subdivisionsThe Cretaceous is divided into Early and Late Cretaceous epochs or Lower and Upper Cretaceous series. In older literature the Cretaceous is sometimes divided into three series: Neocomian (lower/early), Gallic (middle) and Senonian (upper/late). A subdivision in eleven stages, all originating from European stratigraphy, is now used worldwide. In many parts of the world, alternative local subdivisions are still in use. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds of the Cretaceous are well identified but the exact ages of the system's top and base are uncertain by a few million years. No great extinction or burst of diversity separates the Cretaceous from the Jurassic. However, the top of the system is sharply defined, being placed at an iridium-rich layer found worldwide that is believed to be associated with the Chicxulub impact crater in Yucatan and the Gulf of Mexico. This layer has been tightly dated at 65.5 Ma. Rock formations Drawing of fossil jaws of Mosasaurus hoffmanni, from the Maastrichtian of Dutch Limburg, by Dutch geologist Pieter Harting (1866).The high eustatic sea level and warm climate of the Cretaceous meant a large area of the continents was covered by warm shallow seas. The Cretaceous was named for the extensive chalk deposits of this age in Europe, but in many parts of the world, the Cretaceous system consists for a major part of marine limestone, a rock type that is formed under warm, shallow marine circumstances. Due to the high sea level there was extensive accommodation space for sedimentation so that thick deposits could form. Because of the relatively young age and great thickness of the system, Cretaceous rocks crop out in many areas worldwide. Chalk is a rock type characteristic for (but not restricted to) the Cretaceous. It consists of coccoliths, microscopically small calcite skeletons of coccolithophores, a type of algae that prospered in the Cretaceous seas. In northwestern Europe, chalk deposits from the Upper Cretaceous are characteristic for the Chalk Group, which forms the white cliffs of Dover on the south coast of England and similar cliffs on the French Normandian coast. The group is found in England, northern France, the low countries, northern Germany, Denmark and in the subsurface of the southern part of the North Sea. Chalk is not easily consolidated and the Chalk Group still consists of loose sediments in many places. The group also has other limestones and arenites. Among the fossils it contains are sea urchins, belemnites, ammonites and sea reptiles such as Mosasaurus. In southern Europe, the Cretaceous is usually a marine system consisting of competent limestone beds or incompetent marls. Because the Alpine mountain chains did not yet exist in the Cretaceous, these deposits formed on the southern edge of the European continental shelf, at the margin of the Tethys Ocean. Stagnation of deep sea currents in middle Cretaceous times caused anoxic conditions in the sea water. In many places around the world, dark anoxic shales were formed during this interval. These shales are an important source rock for oil and gas, for example in the subsurface of the North Sea.  Life PlantsFlowering plants (angiosperms) spread during this period, although they did not become predominant until the Campanian stage near the Página 19
ezine113 april end of the epoch. Their evolution was aided by the appearance of bees; in fact angiosperms and insects are a good example of coevolution. The first representatives of many leafy trees, including figs, planes and magnolias, appeared in the Cretaceous. At the same time, some earlier Mesozoic gymnosperms like Conifers continued to thrive; pehuéns (Monkey Puzzle trees, Araucaria) and other conifers being notably plentiful and widespread. Some fern orders such as Gleicheniales appeared as early in the fossil record as the Cretaceous, and achieved an early broad distribution. Gymnosperm taxa like Bennettitales died out before the end of the period.  Terrestrial faunaTyrannosaurus rex, one of the largest land predators of all time, lived during the late Cretaceous. Up to 2 m-long Velociraptor was likely feathered and roamed the late Cretaceous. Triceratops is one of the most recognizable genera of the Cretaceous. Mammals were a minor part of the Cretacean fauna with Eomaia being the first Eutherian. A pterosaur, Anhanguera piscator On land, mammals were a small and still relatively minor component of the fauna. Early marsupial mammals evolved in the Early Cretaceous, with true placentals emerging in the Late Cretaceous period. The fauna was dominated by archosaurian reptiles, especially dinosaurs, which were at their most diverse stage. Pterosaurs were common in the early and middle Cretaceous, but as the Cretaceous proceeded they faced growing competition from the adaptive radiation of birds, and by the end of the period only two highly specialized families remained. The Liaoning lagerstätte (Chaomidianzi formation) in China provides a glimpse of life in the Early Cretaceous, where preserved remains of numerous types of small dinosaurs, birds, and mammals have been found. The coelurosaur dinosaurs found there represent types of the group Maniraptora, which is transitional between dinosaurs and birds, and are notable for the presence of hair-like feathers. During the Cretaceous, insects began to diversify, and the oldest known ants, termites and some lepidopterans, akin to butterflies and moths, appeared. Aphids, grasshoppers, and gall wasps appeared. Marine faunaA scene from the early Cretaceous: A Woolungasaurus is attacked by a Kronosaurus. Tylosaurus was the largest known mosasaur, carnivorous marine reptiles that emerged in the late Cretaceous. Strong-swimming and toothed predatory waterbird Hesperornis roamed late Cretacean oceans. Discoscaphites iris, Owl Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Ripley, Mississippi. A plate with Nematonotus sp. , Pseudostacus sp., and a partial Dercetis triqueter from Cretaceous found in Hakel, Lebanon In the seas, rays, modern sharks and teleosts became common. Marine reptiles included ichthyosaurs in the early and middle of the Cretaceous, becoming extinct during the late Cretaceous, plesiosaurs throughout the entire period, and mosasaurs appearing in the Late Cretaceous. Baculites, an ammonite genus with a straight shell, flourished in the seas along with reef-building rudist clams. The Hesperornithiformes were flightless, marine diving birds that swam like grebes. Globotruncanid Foraminifera and echinoderms such as sea urchins and starfish (sea stars) thrived. The first radiation of the diatoms (generally siliceous, rather than calcareous) in the oceans occurred during the Cretaceous; freshwater diatoms did not appear until the Miocene. The Cretaceous was also an important interval in the evolution of bioerosion, the production of borings and scrapings in rocks, hardgrounds and shells (Taylor and Wilson, 2003) Extinction The impact of a meteorite or comet is today widely accepted as the main reason for the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event.Main article: Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event There was a progressive decline in biodiversity during the Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous period prior to the suggested ecological crisis induced by events at the K–T boundary. Furthermore, biodiversity required a Página 20
ezine113 april substantial amount of time to recover from the K–T event, despite the probable existence of an abundance of vacant ecological niches. Despite the severity of this boundary event, there was significant variability in the rate of extinction between and within different clades. Species which depended on photosynthesis declined or became extinct because of the reduction in solar energy reaching the Earth's surface due to atmospheric particles blocking the sunlight. As is the case today, photosynthesizing organisms, such as phytoplankton and land plants, formed the primary part of the food chain in the late Cretaceous. Evidence suggests that herbivorous animals, which depended on plants and plankton as their food, died out as their food sources became scarce; consequently, top predators such as Tyrannosaurus rex also perished. Coccolithophorids and molluscs, including ammonites, rudists, freshwater snails and mussels, as well as organisms whose food chain included these shell builders, became extinct or suffered heavy losses. For example, it is thought that ammonites were the principal food of mosasaurs, a group of giant marine reptiles that became extinct at the boundary. Omnivores, insectivores and carrion-eaters survived the extinction event, perhaps because of the increased availability of their food sources. At the end of the Cretaceous there seem to have been no purely herbivorous or carnivorous mammals. Mammals and birds which survived the extinction fed on insects, larvae, worms, and snails, which in turn fed on dead plant and animal matter. Scientists theorise that these organisms survived the collapse of plant-based food chains because they fed on detritus. In stream communities, few groups of animals became extinct. Stream communities rely less on food from living plants and more on detritus that washes in from land. This particular ecological niche buffered them from extinction. Similar, but more complex patterns have been found in the oceans. Extinction was more severe among animals living in the water column, than among animals living on or in the sea floor. Animals in the water column are almost entirely dependent on primary production from living phytoplankton, while animals living on or in the ocean floor feed on detritus or can switch to detritus feeding. The largest air-breathing survivors of the event, crocodilians and champsosaurs, were semi-aquatic and had access to detritus. Modern crocodilians can live as scavengers and can survive for months without food and go into hibernation when conditions are unfavourable, and their young are small, grow slowly, and feed largely on invertebrates and dead organisms or fragments of organisms for their first few years. These characteristics have been linked to crocodilian survival at the end of the Cretaceo.
4.- The news on Biology..............by Liebe Gundlich. Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Geoscience Hazy shades of life on early Earth When microbes ruled the world -- new research provides evidence of the key role played by microorganisms in the creation of our atmosphere and the development of complex life on Earth. Contact: Dr. Aubrey Zerkle firstname.lastname@example.org 44-191-222-6916 Newcastle University Página 21
ezine113 april Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Bone marrow transplant arrests symptoms in model of Rett syndrome A paper published today in Nature describes the results of using bone marrow transplant to replace faulty immune system cells in models of Rett syndrome. The procedure arrested many severe symptoms of the childhood disorder, including abnormal breathing and movement, and extended the lifespan of Rett mouse models. Exploring the function of microglia deficient in the Rett protein principal investigator Jonathan Kipnis. at the University of Virginia uncovered a completely novel approach to this devastating neurological syndrome. Rett Syndrome Research Trust, Rett Syndrome Research Trust UK Contact: Monica Coenraads email@example.com 203-445-0041 Rett Syndrome Research Trust Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Medicine Genetic variation in East Asians found to explain resistance to cancer drugs A multi-national research team led by scientists at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School has identified the reason why some patients fail to respond to some of the most successful cancer drugs. National Medical Research Council of Singapore, Biomedical Research Councilof A*STAR, Singapore, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore General Hospital Contact: Mary Jane Gore firstname.lastname@example.org 919-660-1309 Duke University Medical Center Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Chemistry A surprising new kind of proton transfer Common wisdom has it that protons only travel between molecules via hydrogen bonds: no hydrogen bonds, no proton transfer. Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source and their colleagues at the University of Southern California investigating molecular components of RNA were surprised to find that protons can find ways to transfer even when hydrogen bonds are blocked. The discovery may open new opportunities for research in biology, environmental science, and green chemistry. US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, National Science Foundation Contact: Paul Preuss email@example.com 510-486-6249 DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Methods Columbia Engineering and Penn researchers increase speed of single-molecule measurements Columbia Engineering researchers, together with colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania, have devised a way to measure nanopores -- tiny holes in a thin membrane that can detect single biological molecules such as DNA and proteins -- with less error than can be achieved with commercial instruments. They've miniaturized the measurement by designing a custom integrated circuit using commercial semiconductor technology. Their research will be published on Nature Methods's website March 18 at 1400 EDT. National Institutes of Health, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Office of Naval Research Contact: Holly Evarts firstname.lastname@example.org 347-453-7408 Columbia University Página 22
ezine113 april Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Need for speed In fruit fly egg cells, oskar RNA carries a stamped ticket detailing its destination and guaranteeing it will travel fast enough, scientists at EMBL Heidelberg have found. The study, published in NSMB, provides clues to how a single molecule could receive tickets for different destinations, depending on what type of cell it is in. Contact: Sonia Furtado Neves email@example.com European Molecular Biology Laboratory Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Chemical Biology New insight into mechanisms behind autoimmune diseases suggests a potential therapy A mutant form of a protein called LYP has been implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases, but the precise molecular pathway involved has been unknown. Now, in a paper published March 18 in Nature Chemical Biology, researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute show how the errant form of LYP can disrupt the immune system. In doing so, they also found a potential new therapy for autoimmune diseases -- a chemical compound that inhibits this mutant protein. NIH/National Cancer Institute, Norwegian Cancer Society, American Cancer Society, Oxnard Foundation, Belgian Research National Scientific Fund, Liege University Contact: Heather Buschman, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org 858-795-5343 Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute Public Release: 18-Mar-2012 Nature Medicine Researchers reveal how a single gene mutation leads to uncontrolled obesity Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have revealed how a mutation in a single gene is responsible for the inability of neurons to effectively pass along appetite suppressing signals from the body to the right place in the brain. What results is obesity caused by a voracious appetite. National Institutes of Health, American Diabetes Association Contact: Karen Mallet email@example.com Georgetown University Medical Center Public Release: 17-Mar-2012 Global Change Biology Bioenergy Mesquite trees displacing Southwestern grasslands Mesquite trees and woody shrubs are better adapted than grasslands to a Southwestern climate predicted to shift toward higher temperatures and greater variability in rainfall, UA ecologists have discovered. Philecology Foundation of Fort Worth, Texas, National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture, Sustainability of Semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas Contact: Daniel Stolte firstname.lastname@example.org 520-626-4402 University of Arizona Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Nature New research lowers past estimates of sea-level rise The seas are creeping higher as the planet warms. But how high could they go? Página 23
ezine113 april Projections for the year 2100 range from inches to several feet, or even more. The sub-tropical islands of Bermuda and the Bahamas are two seemingly unlikely places scientists have gone looking for answers. National Science Foundation Contact: Cheryl Dybas email@example.com 703-292-7734 National Science Foundation Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Advanced Materials Nanopills release drugs directly from the inside of cells Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona researchers have created nanoparticles which can release drugs directly from the cells' interior. The technology, which has been named "nanopills," was licensed to the firm Janus Developments of the Barcelona Scientific Park, which verified its tolerance by administering it in vivo. The results have been published recently in the journal Advanced Materials. Contact: Antoni Villaverde firstname.lastname@example.org 34-935-813-086 Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Reproductive Toxicology Highly exposed to phthalates as fetuses, female mice have altered reproductive lives Many environmental and public health officials are concerned about the potential health effects of phthalates, which are common chemicals used to make plastics softer and more pliable. In the first study to examine what effect in utero doses of phthalates have on the reproductive system of mice, Brown University toxicologists found that extremely high doses were associated with significant changes, such as a shortened reproductive lifespan and abnormal cell growth in mammary glands. NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Contact: David Orenstein email@example.com 401-863-1862 Brown University Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Nature Conservation Building the European Union's Natura 2000 -- the largest ever network of protected areas As the European Union's Habitat Directive celebrates its 20th anniversary, Douglas Evans from the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity describes how the Directive's Natura 2000 network of protected areas has grown. The review also analyzes the measures taken to ensure that the network adequately covers the species and habitats identified in the Directive as requiring site-based protection. Contact: Douglas Evans firstname.lastname@example.org 33-014-079-3870 Pensoft Publishers Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments Researchers print live cells with a standard inkjet printer Researchers from Clemson University have found a way to create temporary holes in the membranes of live cells using a standard inkjet printer. The method will be published in JoVE, the Journal of Visualized Experiments, on March 16. Página 24
ezine113 april Contact: Katherine Scott email@example.com 617-765-4367 x301 The Journal of Visualized Experiments Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Nature Climate Change Glacier-fed river systems threatened by climate change As glaciers vanish due to global warming, so will those species dependent upon the icy runoff. The alarming new findings can be found in the journal Nature Climate Change. Contact: Dean Jacobsen firstname.lastname@example.org (45) 26-82-14-77 University of Copenhagen Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Increase in Arctic shipping poses risk to marine mammals A rapid increase in shipping in the formerly ice-choked waterways of the Arctic poses a significant increase in risk to the region's marine mammals and the local communities that rely on them for food security and cultural identity, according to an Alaska Native groups and the Wildlife Conservation Society who convened at a recent workshop. Contact: Stephen Sautner email@example.com 718-220-3682 Wildlife Conservation Society Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Hiding in plain sight, new frog species found in New York City In the wilds of New York City -- or as wild as you can get that close to skyscrapers -- scientists have found a new leopard frog species. National Science Foundation Contact: Cheryl Dybas firstname.lastname@example.org 703-292-7734 National Science Foundation Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Ecology Letters Early spring drives butterfly population declines Early snowmelt caused by climate change in the Colorado Rocky Mountains snowballs into two chains of events: a decrease in the number of flowers, which, in turn, decreases available nectar. The result is decline in a population of the Mormon Fritillary butterfly, Speyeria mormonia. National Science Foundation Contact: Cheryl Dybas email@example.com 703-292-7734 National Science Foundation Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Planet Under Pressure Survival of the fittest -- ESF hosts session on the challenges of life in extreme environments Have you ever wondered how life is sustained in environments like deserts, deep seas or the polar regions? How do organisms adapt and thrive in such harsh conditions, and what challenges do they face as a result of human activities and climate change, especially climate "extremization"? Shedding light on some of these issues is the objective of the European Science Foundation's session on March 27 at Planet Under Pressure 2012. Página 25
ezine113 april European Commission Contact: Tom Reast firstname.lastname@example.org 44-203-176-4721 European Science Foundation Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Journal of Applied Entomology An invasive Asian fly is taking over European fruit Coming from the Asian continent, Drosophila suzukii has only been in Spain for a short time. Far away from slipping through into the Iberian Peninsula, it accelerated towards the north of Europe where it has already crossed the Alps. Amongst its preferred target are cherries and red fruits but any type of fruit is suitable for it to lay its eggs. This insect is posing a threat to the fruit of more and more European countries. Contact: SINC Team email@example.com FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Novel plastics and textiles from waste with the use of microbes New biotechnological and chemical methods will facilitate efficient production of chemicals, materials and fuels from renewable natural resources. The Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in White Biotechnology -- Green Chemistry Research focuses on the research and development of microbial cells, or cell factories, for producing new useful compounds from sugars in plant biomass. These compounds can be used, for example, for manufacturing bioplastics or in medical applications. Academy of Finland Contact: Merja Penttila firstname.lastname@example.org 358-407-000-163 Academy of Finland Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials Nano rescues skin Nanoparticles containing chitosan have been shown to have effective antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. The materials could be used as a protective wound-healing material to avoid opportunistic infection as well as working to facilitate wound healing. Contact: Mihaela D. Leonida email@example.com 201-692-2338 Inderscience Publishers Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Lyme disease surge predicted for the northeastern US The northeastern US should prepare for a surge in Lyme disease this spring. And we can blame fluctuations in acorns and mouse populations, not the mild winter. So reports Dr. Richard S. Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, N.Y. Contact: Lori M. Quillen firstname.lastname@example.org 845-677-7600 x121 Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 Current Biology Researchers uncover molecular pathway through which common yeast becomes fungal pathogen Página 26
ezine113 april Scientists at the University of Toronto have found a molecular mechanism that plays a key role in the transition of Candida albicans yeast into disease-causing fungus -- one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infection. The finding highlights the importance of heat in fungal growth, and provides a new target for drug therapies to counter Candida albicans infection. In an additional study, the researchers identified 224 new genetic interactors for central protein in Candida albicans. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Fonds Québécois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, others Contact: Jim Oldfield email@example.com 416-946-8423 University of Toronto Public Release: 16-Mar-2012 EMBO Reports Exposure to antibiotics linked to severity of allergic asthma: UBC research Widely used antibiotics may increase incidence and severity of allergic asthma in early life, according to a University of British Columbia study. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Genome British Columbia, AllerGen NCE Contact: Brian Lin firstname.lastname@example.org 604-822-2234 University of British Columbia llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Aliens are probably dangerous, using the human race as a slave race, they probably have been in contact with the worlds governments for a very long time, and? are manipulating foreign policy. Get ready for world disarmament. If Aliens cared about humans, they wouldn't have abandoned us to die on this planet without medicine, our cells wouldn't be programmed for apoptosis, and our telomeres wouldn't shorten. Clear evidence of genetic engineering, and how humans die by design. Blade Runner. lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 8.- News in biology..................... by Liebe Gundlich Articles NewsfeedBiology JobsBiology Forum October 2011 archive December 2011 archive Page 1Page 2 British butterfly is evolving to respond to climate change Biology November 30, 2011 06:18 PM As global temperatures rise and climatic zones move polewards, need to find different environments to prevent extinction. New published today in the journal Molecular Ecology, has revealed change is causing certain species to move and adapt to a range habitats. .Full story 0 Comments 5951 views species will research, that climate of new
Petroleum-eating mushrooms Biotechnology November 30, 2011 06:18 PM Mohamed Hijri's team evaluates the progress of work on a contaminated site in the Greater Montreal region, where they have planted cuttings that carry petrol-eating mushrooms. Take a Petri dish containing crude petroleum and it will release a strong odor distinctive of the toxins that make up the fossil Página 27
ezine113 april fuel. Sprinkle mushroom spores over the Petri dish and let it sit for two weeks in an incubator, and surprise, the petroleum and its smell will disappear. "The mushrooms consumed the petroleum!" says Mohamed Hijri, a professor of biological sciences and researcher at the University of Montreal's Institut de recherche en biologie végétale (IRBV). .Full story 0 Comments 4741 views
Genetic code of first arachnid cracked Bioinformatics November 28, 2011 04:09 PM An international team of scientists - including Ghent VIB scientists - has succeeded in deciphering the genome of the spider mite. This is also the first known genome of an arachnid. This premiere not only brings along new insights into the evolution of arthropods, but also offers new opportunities to develop means of crop protection against the spider mite. .Full story 0 Comments 4112 views
Counting cats: The endangered snow leopards of the Himalayas Biology November 28, 2011 04:09 PM The elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) lives high in the mountains across Central Asia. Despite potentially living across 12 countries the actual numbers of this beautiful large cat are largely unknown. It is thought that there might be somewhere between 350 and 500 distributed across Nepal's northern frontier. New research published in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Research Notes has used genetic analysis to show that the numbers of snow leopards in the central Himalayas is actually much lower than suggested. .Full story 0 Comments 5076 views
Scientists determine how antibody recognizes key sugars on HIV surface AIDS & HIV November 25, 2011 06:12 PM WHAT: HIV is coated in sugars that usually hide the virus from the immune system. Newly published research reveals how one broadly neutralizing HIV antibody actually uses part of the sugary cloak to help bind to the virus. The antibody binding site, called the V1/V2 region, represents a suitable HIV vaccine target, according to the scientists who conducted the study. In addition, their research reveals the detailed structure of the V1/V2 region, the last part of the virus surface to be visualized at the atomic level. .Full story 0 Comments 4896 views
They call it 'guppy love': UCLA biologists solve an evolution mystery Biology November 25, 2011 06:12 PM Guppies in the wild have evolved over at least half-a-million years — long enough for the males' coloration to have changed dramatically. Yet a characteristic orange patch on male guppies has remained remarkably stable, though it could have become redder or more yellow. Why has it stayed the same hue of orange over such a long period of time? .Full story 0 Comments 4347 views
Metabolic defects in mice corrected with transplanted embryonic neurons Health & Medicine November 25, 2011 06:12 PM A new study has revealed that immature neurons taken from healthy mouse embryos can repair damaged brain circuitry and partially normalize metabolism when transplanted into adult mice that have grown morbidly obese due to a Página 28
ezine113 april genetic deficiency. This proof-of-principle discovery represents one step down a long road toward neuronal replacement therapy, which researchers hope might one day be used to repair brains that have been injured by trauma or disease. .Full story 0 Comments 2163 views
Salmon genome in final phases of completion Bioinformatics November 23, 2011 05:04 PM The International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG, the "Cooperation") has awarded the Phase II contract for next-generation sequencing and analysis of the Atlantic salmon genome to the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) in Rockville, Maryland. The JCVI will be sequencing the salmon genome using next-generation technologies, including assembly to integrate Sanger and next-generation sequence, and comparative genomics. This effort is expected to generate a high-quality resource for those responsible for the management of wild salmon stocks and the salmon aquaculture industry, as well as providing a reference genome for work with other salmonids. .Full story 0 Comments 1933 views
Introducing the monarch butterfly genome Bioinformatics November 23, 2011 05:04 PM The Monarch butterfly is famous for its ability to travel up to 2,000 miles from North America to central Mexico every fall. Now, it's enjoying fame of a different sort. In the November 23rd issue of Cell, researchers report the full genomic sequence of this iconic butterfly. The new genome is the first for any butterfly. It is also the first complete genome of any long-distance migrant. .Full story 0 Comments 2282 views
Big pest, small genome Bioinformatics November 23, 2011 05:04 PM Scanning electron microscope image of a two-spotted spider mite, which is less than one millimeter long. A University of Utah biologist and an international research team decoded the genetic blueprint of the two-spotted spider mite, raising hope for new ways to attack the major pest, which resists pesticides and destroys crops and ornamental plants worldwide. .Full story 0 Comments 2578 views
A first -- lab creates cells used by brain to control muscle cells Molecular & Cell Biology November 22, 2011 06:42 PM University of Central Florida researchers, for the first time, have used stem cells to grow neuromuscular junctions between human muscle cells and human spinal cord cells, the key connectors used by the brain to communicate and control muscles in the body. .Full story 0 Comments 5105 views
Surprising pathway implicated in stuttering Molecular & Cell Biology November 22, 2011 06:42 PM Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have obtained new evidence that at least some persistent stuttering is caused by mutations in a gene governing not speech, but a metabolic pathway involved in recycling old cell parts. Página 29
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Tweaking a gene makes muscles twice as strong Biotechnology November 21, 2011 04:13 PM This image shows dramatically enhanced muscle tissue in a high performing mouse, which has greater numbers of mitochondria (brown), the energy factories of cells. An international team of scientists has created super-strong, high-endurance mice and worms by suppressing a natural muscle-growth inhibitor, suggesting treatments for age-related or genetics-related muscle degeneration are within reach. .Full story 0 Comments 6262 views
A better way to count molecules discovered Molecular & Cell Biology November 21, 2011 04:13 PM Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have developed a new method for counting molecules. Quantifying the amounts of different kinds of RNA and DNA molecules is a fundamental task in molecular biology as these molecules store and transfer the genetic information in cells. Thus, improved measurement techniques are crucial for understanding both normal and cancer cells. .Full story 0 Comments 2401 views
Satellite data can help protect bluefin tuna Environment November 21, 2011 04:13 PM A new model developed by scientists of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) allows the potential presence of bluefin tuna to be tracked through daily updated maps, helping to protect endangered stocks and fight illegal fishing. The model, based on satellite remote sensing data, provides for the first time an overall view of the preferred bluefin tuna habitats in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as their changes over time. Satellite-based habitat mapping can help identify more precisely areas to be inspected or to be closed for fisheries and it can also help refine estimates of fish stocks, thus contributing to a more effective fisheries management. European Commissioner for Research and Innovation, Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, said: "This model will help to ensure sustainable management of bluefin tuna, actively contributing to two of the most pressing challenges for the future: food security and protection of the environment. Another good example of how science and research provide support to European Union policies." .Full story 0 Comments 1592 views
Critical molecules for hearing and balance discovered Molecular & Cell Biology November 21, 2011 04:12 PM Researchers have found long-sought genes in the sensory hair cells of the inner ear that, when mutated, prevent sound waves from being converted to electric signals – a fundamental first step in hearing. The team, co-led by Jeffrey Holt, PhD, in the department of otolaryngology at Children’s Hospital Boston, and Andrew Griffith, MD, PhD, of the NIH’s National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), then restored these electrical signals in the sensory cells of deaf mice by introducing normal genes. .Full story 0 Comments 2282 views
Researchers discover Achilles' heel in lethal form of prostate cancer Health & Medicine November 17, 2011 06:18 PM Página 30
ezine113 april An international team of researchers led by clinicians at Weill Cornell Medical College have discovered a genetic Achilles' heel in an aggressive type of prostate cancer -- a vulnerability they say can be attacked by a targeted drug that is already in clinical trials to treat other types of cancers. .Full story 0 Comments 3128 views
Snake spills venomous secrets Biology November 17, 2011 06:18 PM Examining venom from a variety of poisonous snakes, a group of researchers at the University of California, San Francisco has discovered why the bite of one small black, yellow and red serpent called the Texas coral snake can be so painful. .Full story 0 Comments 5219 views
Vultures dying at alarming rate Biology November 17, 2011 06:18 PM Vultures in South Asia were on the brink of extinction until Lindsay Oaks and Richard Watson, from The Peregrine Fund in the US, undertook observational and forensic studies to find out why the number of birds was falling so rapidly. They discovered the vultures were being poisoned by residues of an anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) used in cattle and other livestock, whose carcasses they feed on. The work is presented in a chapter of the new book, 'Wildlife Ecotoxicology - Forensic Approaches,' published by Springer. .Full story 0 Comments 3229 views
Worms reveal secrets of wound-healing response Biology November 17, 2011 06:18 PM The lowly and simple roundworm may be the ideal laboratory model to learn more about the complex processes involved in repairing wounds and could eventually allow scientists to improve the body's response to healing skin wounds, a serious problem in diabetics and the elderly. .Full story 0 Comments 3326 views
Molecules on branched-polymer surfaces can capture rare tumor cells in blood Biotechnology November 17, 2011 06:18 PM The removal of rare tumor cells circulating in the blood might be possible with the use of biomolecules bound to dendrimers, highly branched synthetic polymers, which could efficiently sift and capture the diseased cells, according to new research at the University of Illinois at Chicago. .Full story 0 Comments 2020 views
Finnish researchers discover regulator of human cell activity Molecular & Cell Biology November 16, 2011 07:19 PM The research teams headed by Prof. Johanna Ivaska (University of Turku and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) and Prof. Marko Salmi (University of Turku and the National Institute for Health and Welfare) have discovered that the SHARPIN protein regulates human cell activity. .Full story 0 Comments 2896 views
New American Chemical Society podcast: Genetically-engineered spider silk for gene therapy Página 31
ezine113 april Gene Therapy November 16, 2011 07:19 PM A new episode in the American Chemical Society's (ACS) award-winning "Global Challenges/Chemistry Solutions" podcast series spins a real-life tale in which spider silk shows promise for overcoming a major barrier to the use of gene therapy in everyday medicine. .Full story 0 Comments 2652 views
Stop signal discovered for skin cancer Molecular & Cell Biology November 15, 2011 04:58 PM An extraordinary breakthrough in understanding what stops a common form of skin cancer from developing could make new cancer treatments and prevention available to the public in five years. .Full story 0 Comments 6055 views
Researchers confirm new cancer-causing virus Microbiology November 15, 2011 04:58 PM An important new study from the Laboratory for Developmental Genetics at USC has confirmed cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a cause of the most common salivary gland cancers. CMV joins a group of fewer than 10 identified oncoviruses — cancer-causing viruses — including HPV. .Full story 0 Comments 4846 views
New biosensor benefits from melding of carbon nanotubes, DNA Biotechnology November 15, 2011 04:58 PM Purdue University scientists have developed a method for stacking synthetic DNA and carbon nanotubes onto a biosensor electrode, a development that may lead to more accurate measurements for research related to diabetes and other diseases. .Full story 0 Comments 1876 views
Chinese genomics giant BGI releases latest bioinformatics software and datasets Bioinformatics November 14, 2011 04:44 PM BGI, the world's largest genomic organization, announces several bioinformatics analysis pipelines and software, including assembly and binning tools, genetic variation software, as well as two cloud-based green solutions for genomic-based research. In addition, GigaScience, an upcoming research journal published by BGI, announces the launch of its new, freely accessible, large-scale database: GigaDB. The launch of GigaDB is heralded by today's release of numerous large datasets of different types and from a variety of organisms. GigaDB is unique because it is directly affiliated with a journal and all of its datasets are assigned a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows these data to be directly cited in future publications. .Full story 0 Comments 2605 views
Bats, dolphins, and mole rats inspire advances in ultrasound technology Biotechnology November 14, 2011 04:44 PM Sonar and ultrasound, which use sound as a navigational device and to paint accurate pictures of an environment, are the basis of countless technologies, including medical ultrasound machines and submarine navigation systems. But when it comes to more accurate sonar and ultrasound, animals' "biosonar" capabilities still have the human race beat. Página 32
ezine113 april .Full story 0 Comments 3188 views
Bats show ability to change their ear shapes, making their hearing more flexible Biology November 14, 2011 04:44 PM "Certain bats can deform the shapes of their ears in a way that changes the animal's ultrasonic hearing pattern. Within just one tenth of a second, these bats are able to change their outer ear shapes from one extreme configuration to another," said Rolf Müller, associate professor of mechanical engineering at Virginia Tech. .Full story 0 Comments 3094 views
Researchers uncover why the body can't defend against tuberculosis Health & Medicine November 14, 2011 04:44 PM Tuberculosis, which kills over 2 million people each year, is caused primarily by infectious bacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis – or Mtb. Mtb targets human immune cells as part of its strategy to avoid detection, effectively neutralizing the body's immune response. .Full story 0 Comments 3407 views
Gene switch for odorant receptors Molecular & Cell Biology November 11, 2011 04:00 PM The olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal mucosa perceive the myriad smells in the air with the aid of odorant receptors. Each sensory neuron chooses one and only one receptor gene for expression. The probability that a particular receptor gene is chosen for expression determines how many olfactory sensory neurons in total produce this receptor type. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt have unveiled an aspect of how the probability of the choice of an odorant receptor gene is regulated in olfactory sensory neurons. Regulatory elements in the genome regulate the probability of the choice of individual odorant receptor genes within a gene cluster. These elements act as on-off-switches for gene choice, but they do not regulate the number of receptor molecules that are produced by a cell once a particular gene is chosen for expression. .Full story 0 Comments 1915 views
'Fishy lawnmowers' help save Pacific corals Environment November 10, 2011 05:39 PM This is a crown-of-thorns sea star feeding on a coral. Can fish save coral reefs from dying? UC Santa Barbara researchers have found one case where fish have helped coral reefs to recover from cyclones and predators. .Full story 0 Comments 3469 views
Tweaking a gene makes muscles twice as strong Biotechnology November 10, 2011 05:39 PM A team of researchers at EPFL, the University of Lausanne and the Salk Institute created super strong, marathon mice and nematodes by reducing the function of a natural inhibitor, suggesting treatments for age-related or genetically caused muscle degeneration are within reach. .Full story 0 Comments 5825 views
Non-coding RNA relocates genes when it's time to go to work Página 33
ezine113 april Molecular & Cell Biology November 10, 2011 05:39 PM Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the Nov. 9 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus. .Full story 0 Comments 2409 views
Dendritic cell subtype protects against atherosclerosis Molecular & Cell Biology November 10, 2011 05:39 PM Atherosclerosis, commonly referred to as "hardening of the arteries," is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke. The cause of atherosclerosis is not well understood but, for some time, chronic inflammatory immune responses have been implicated in driving disease pathology. Now, a new study, published online on November 10th by Cell Press from the journal Immunity, identifies a type of immune cell that is not associated with promoting disease, but with protection against atherosclerosis. The findings substantially advance the understanding of the complex immune responses associated with atherosclerosis and may guide research to develop new therapeutic interventions. .Full story 0 Comments 1647 views
Details of ancient shark attack preserved in fossil whale bone Biology November 10, 2011 05:38 PM Whale bone fossil showing three tooth marks from a shark. The marks on the rib indicate the whale was once severely bitten by a strong-jawed animal. A fragment of whale rib found in a North Carolina strip mine is offering scientists a rare glimpse at the interactions between prehistoric sharks and whales some 3- to 4-million years ago during the Pliocene. .Full story 0 Comments 2617 views
Forest Service part of team sequencing 1,000 fungal genomes Bioinformatics November 8, 2011 06:35 PM A 79-year-old collection of fungal cultures and the U.S. Forest Service's Northern Research Station are part of a team that will sequence 1,000 fungal genomes in the next 5 years. .Full story 0 Comments 1600 views
Survey identifies sea turtle 'hitchhikers' Biology November 8, 2011 06:35 PM These are barnacles collected from Olive Ridley and green sea turtles during a survey. "It is strange to think of a sea turtle as an ecosystem," says Amanda Feuerstein, program coordinator and research assistant at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, "but they are…they have all of these other animals living on their skin and shells." .Full story 0 Comments 2448 views
How parasites modify plants to attract insects Biology November 7, 2011 04:18 PM Página 34
ezine113 april A leaf hopper on a finger, watched by Dr. Akiko Sugio and Dr. Saskia Hogenhout. Pathogens can alter their hosts, for example malaria parasites can make humans more attractive to mosquitoes, but how they do it has remained a mystery. Scientists from the John Innes Centre on Norwich Research Park have identified for the first time a specific molecule from a parasite that manipulates plant development to the advantage of the insect host. .Full story 0 Comments 3806 views
A Trojan horse in the fight against HIV/AIDS AIDS & HIV November 7, 2011 04:18 PM The Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) announced today that one of its researchers will receive funding of 100,000 US $ through Grand Challenges Explorations, an initiative created by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that enables researchers worldwide to test unorthodox ideas that address persistent health and development challenges. Dr. Andrés Finzi will pursue an innovative global health research project, titled "Reverse Fusion: a new approach to eradicate HIV/AIDS" to deliver toxic genes to HIV-infected cells and eliminate them. .Full story 0 Comments 2665 views
Page 1Page 2 October 2011 archive December 2011 archiveBiology RSS Feeds Display our NewsBio News ArchiveBiology LinksContact Bio News NetBookmark Us! Biology articles published 112 days ago British butterfly is evolving to respond to climate changePetroleum-eating mushroomsBiology articles published 114 days ago Genetic code of first arachnid crackedCounting cats: The endangered snow leopards of the HimalayasBiology articles published 117 days ago Scientists determine how antibody recognizes key sugars on HIV surfaceThey call it 'guppy love': UCLA biologists solve an evolution mysteryMetabolic defects in mice corrected with transplanted embryonic neurons Search Bio News Net Cells develop and thrive by turning genes on and off as needed in a precise pattern, a process known as regulated gene transcription. In a paper published in the Nov. 9 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say this process is even more complex than previously thought, with regulated genes actually relocated to other, more conducive places in the cell nucleus. "When regulated gene transcription goes awry, many human diseases result, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and growth defects in children," said Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, a professor in the UC San Diego Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and senior author of the study. "We've shown that rather than being activated at certain, random locations within the cell nucleus, regulated genes can dynamically relocate. The discovery provides a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between regulated genes and human disease." Specifically, Rosenfeld and colleagues found that genes regulating cell proliferation responded to growth signals by moving targeted genes from a "silencing environment" in the nucleus called Polycomb bodies to another nuclear compartment called interchromatin granules, which is enriched with activating transcription factors. The movement was precisely guided by two non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules called TUG1 and NEAT2. NcRNA are molecules that are not translated into proteins. In recent years, researchers have ascribed a growing list of duties to them. In this case, Página 35
ezine113 april Rosenfeld said, TUG1 and NEAT2 move genes to a location in the cell nucleus where they can be more effectively activated and accomplish their function. Cells contain many ncRNAs and it's likely that others play roles similar to TUG1 and NEAT2 in association with various human diseases. "A big finding here is the uncovering of a general ncRNA-dependent sensor strategy that relocates a large subset of regulated transcription unit cohorts," said Liquing Yang, a postdoctoral member of the Rosenfeld lab and co-first author of the study. "Our data suggests that ncRNAs act as regulators and perhaps as modifiers of 'readers' and 'writers' of the histone code, which implies they have a critical 'switching' role in gene transcription regulation." "The ability to have signal-dependent relocation of genes in the subnuclear architecture has intriguing implications both in normal regulation and in cancer," added the other co-first author, Chunru Lin. The deeper, more detailed understanding of ncRNAs and proteins active in controlling gene relocation may reveal new targets for future chemical compounds or inhibitors against diseases that involve mis-regulated gene expression. "The global roles of ncRNAs and regulated dynamic alterations in nuclear architecture that we have identified connect regulated gene activation programs to other cellular processes, including DNA damage/repair, proliferation, and inflammation," said Rosenfeld. "This discovery will hopefully provide the backdrop for new approaches to several diseases, including prevalent forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, growth defects and diabetes." Source : University of California - San Diego
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 23.- Origins of domestic cattle traced back 10,500 years.............. by Liebe _Gundlich.
Wednesday, 28 March 2012 University College London
The cow's ancestors can be traced back to a small number of wild aurochs, the ancestors of all domestic cattle. The find has implications for understanding the process of domestication, pointing to challenges in first domesticating cattle. Researchers with samples being prepared. The team compared samples of modern DNA to ancient DNA extracted from the bones of domestic cattle excavated in Iranian archaeological sites
Small dogs originated in Middle East Cows line up to Earth's magnetic field 12,000-year-old tortoise banquet unearthed Kangaroo meat: much better for environment LONDON: All cattle are descended from as few as 80 animals that were domesticated from wild ox in the Near East some 10,500 years ago, according to a new genetic study. An international team of scientists were able to conduct the study by first extracting DNA from the bones of domestic cattle excavated in Iranian archaeological sites. These sites date to not long after the invention of farming and are in the region where cattle were first domesticated. Página 36
ezine113 april The team examined how small differences in the DNA sequences of those ancient cattle, as well as cattle living today, could have arisen given different population histories. Using computer simulations they found that the DNA differences could only have arisen if a small number of animals, approximately 80, were domesticated from wild ox (aurochs). The study is published in the current issue of the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. Domestication wasn't easy The small size of the original herd points to difficulties in initially domesticating the animals and has important implications for the archaeological study of domestication. “This is a surprisingly small number of cattle. We know from archaeological remains that the wild ancestors of modern-day cattle, known as aurochs, were common throughout Asia and Europe, so there would have been plenty of opportunities to capture and domesticate them,” said Mark Thomas, geneticist and an author of the study based at the UCL Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, London. A larger number of cattle in the original progenitors of domestic animals would indicate cattle domestication was a "technologically straightforward and unexacting region-wide phenomenon, while a smaller number would be consistent with a more complex and challenging process", the researchers write. "Such a low number is consistent with archaeological data indicating that initial domestication took place in a restricted area and suggests the process was constrained by the difficulty of sustained managing and breeding of the wild progenitors of domestic cattle," they say. Big, wild cattle Joachim Burger, an author of the study based at the University of Mainz, Germany, said wild aurochs were very different beasts from modern domestic cattle. “They were much bigger than modern cattle, and wouldn’t have had the domestic traits we see today, such as docility. So capturing these animals in the first place would not have been easy, and even if some people did manage snare them alive, their continued management and breeding would still have presented considerable challenges until they had been bred for smaller size and more docile behavior.” Archaeological studies on the number and size of prehistoric animal bone have shown that not only cattle, but also goats, sheep and pigs were all first domesticated in the Near East. But saying how many animals were domesticated for any of those species is a much harder question to answer. Classical techniques in archaeology cannot give us the whole picture, but genetics can help - especially if some of the genetic data comes from early domestic animals. Jean-Denis Vigne, a CNRS bio-archaeologist and author on the study, added: “In this study genetic analysis allowed us to answer questions that – until now –archaeologists would not even attempt to address. “A small number of cattle progenitors is consistent with the restricted area for which archaeologists have evidence for early cattle domestication around 10,500 years ago. This restricted area could be explained by the fact that cattle breeding, contrary to, for example, goat herding, would have been very difficult for mobile societies, and that only some of them were actually sedentary at that time in the Near East.” DNA extraction tricky in hot countries Ruth Bollongino of CNRS, France, and the University of Mainz, Germany; lead Página 37
ezine113 april author of the study, said getting reliable DNA sequences from remains found in cold environments is routine, it's harder in hotter countries like Iran. “That is why mammoths were one of the first extinct species to have their DNA read. But getting reliable DNA from bones found in hot regions is much more difficult because temperature is so critical for DNA survival. This meant we had to be extremely careful that we did not end up reading contaminating DNA sequences from living, or only recently dead cattle.” Marjan Mashkour, a CNRS Archaeologist working in the Middle East said the study highlights how important it is to consider archaeological remains from less well-studied regions, such as Iran. "Without our Iranian data it would have been very difficult to draw our conclusions, even though they concern cattle at a global scale”. oooooooooooooooooooooooo 5.- The Book of Enoch - Entire Book, R. H. Charles Version Apocryphile1970 ......Uploaded by Apocryphile 1970 on Oct 27, 2011 The Book of Enoch Category: Education The Book of Enoch can't be inspired of God. It has the old mythical nonsense of the earth being flat and the earth being the center of the universe with the heavenly bodies orbiting around us.? So when the Bible or the Book of Enoch mentions anything about the east, it has to do with beginnings, the west with endings. Eden is eastward (Gen 2:8 "And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed,") Anything coming from the "east" anywhere in Scripture refers to things? from earlier times. Apocryphile1970 in reply to realitycheck48 1 month ago As you can see in Enoch, the fact that God descends into the South, is corroborated with the Christian tradition that Christ descended into Hades. This is why the term "south" is associated with Hades and the devil, even in popular culture. "Things went south from that point, etc." You can see a lot of fallen angel imagery on "South Pole" tee-shirts and other gear. The devil puts? all of this stuff out there for us to see and we just don't see it. Apocryphile1970 in reply to realitycheck48 1 month ago 5 The reason why the North is? divided into three sections is because God is going to reveal Himself in three phases. One phase is the rule of men, before the Law in other words. The seas are associated with God's people throughout the age, as in how Moses delivers his people across the Red Sea, but the Egyptians drown. There's the cloud imagery there also, as well as the darkness. This is the religious age. Jesus crossing the Sea of Galilee serves the same purpose. Apocryphile1970 in reply to realitycheck48 . 1 month ago As for why God would use the existing? view of the universe rather than correcting it, it's pretty clear that God was not interested in advancing the sciences. That was what the fallen angels were doing to destroy us. He needed to squeeze 6,000 years out of mankind. Do you honestly think mankind would have lasted 6,000 years on this earth if he had been given this knowledge? The earth would have been depleted and polluted beyond recognition thousands of years ago. Apocryphile1970 in reply to realitycheck48 - 1 month ago 3 What does it matter in the end if it is all in codes. That is what it all amounts to in the end. It's all pretty obvious when you learn how to read the language. Watch the original 27-part series with the captions on, and you Página 38
ezine113 april will see how to interpret this book, and just how useful it will become in this age to depose the false leaders? inn the Church, which is what it was meant for--to sever the wicked from the godly. Says so in the first 2 verses. Apocryphile1970 in reply to realitycheck48 (Show the comment) 1 month ago 2 Dude you rock? thanks for sharing your work! taron78 5 months ago 6 When I read or hear that the fatherless are the children of the holy one, that he cares in? a special way for them, I can only accept this book to be relative for the 144,000 Hebrew Jews that will hold Jerusalem, that they will destroy the amalgamation from them in order to see clearly to judge the earth. Exodus 22:22. jh YeOldClipper 2 days ago I? think it is "son", not sun. HazyHalo in reply to ThePreciousNessa (Show the comment) 4 days ago 22:02...and the angel? tasted flesh... AnTrax798 Reply ShareRemoveFlag for spamBlock UserUnblock User so did the bibel define the earth to be? a globe? just curious... AnTrax798 in reply to realitycheck48 (Show the comment) 6 days ago In the King James 1511 Bible the Book of Genesis Chapter 6 It confirms the story of Angels mating with human women.? Jude has something to say about this. The early church used Enoch as part of their doctrine. The Lord said..."Just as in the days of Noah, so shall it be in the last days when the Son of man returneth to the Earth" We are in the last days and the Nephilim and fallen ones are playing with our genome again! 777godwithme 1 week ago I want to thank you so much for all the effort you put? forth in reading all these wonderful books to us. I am totally hooked on your channel and thought I was already in heaven when I discovered it. In these last days it is so important for us to read and study all we can. It is a shame so many of these books were banned or discarded as heresy. God Bless You. nextproject90 1 week ago Reply ShareRemoveFlag for spamBlock UserUnblock User God reveals as we, as a species, have the ability to grasp mysteries in our time. Every messenger receives what can? be conceived, understood by the messenger, in his or her time, according to the ability to grasp the mysteries. What is God but a Spirit? To speak with God is as conversing by empathy & telepathy. And who but madmen can talk to God at all, for who but madmen will believe the voice within? Do not argue with those who do not believe. They choose their reality, as you choose yours. aurian555 2 weeks ago WOW! I love this ,I was wondering why only a few verses of Enoch was put in the Bible. This book is for the watchers I see. religion has hid this because of fear, and sin.It's good to have the Holy Ghost ..he's a breaker of the code. Those evil angels were nasty!! they like? fornication; nasty things. They stole all the future inventions, they tried to find Moses DNA,remember.they are trying to give away time travel it's still a fight going on. and of course you guys wont believe me. lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 6.- The Evolution of the Human Brain?.................by Bob Davenport. The evolution of the human brain is a point of much debate among evolutionary biologists. Paleoneurology, which studies the evolution of the human brain, seems to be caught on the horns of a dilemma. In evolutionary biology, there is the thought that the human brain attained it's current size roughly 200,000 years ago: "The evolution of a large, complex brain has been the defining feature of the human lineage – although human brain size has not changed over the past 200,000 years." (http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7974 ). This poses a huge Página 39
ezine113 april question: if the incredibly complex human brain has been around for that long, why has the great advancement of human knowledge only taken place within the last couple of thousand years, leading to the great knowledge explosion we have seen in recent history? Human knowledge builds upon itself; why didn't the knowledge explosion take place 80,000 or 100,000 years ago, if the human brain has been roughly the same size during this time? Were human beings (homo sapien) out there "beating around the bush," hunting bugs and rodents, for all those thousands and thousands of years, even though they were walking around with an incredibly complex brain? This apparent problem has indeed puzzled the great thinkers of our time. A recent approach has been to label the evolution of the human brain a "Special Event." The normal pace of evolution was somehow set aside, and the human brain evolved much more rapidly than normal. From a recent study: "Genes that control the size and complexity of the brain have undergone much more rapid evolution in humans than in non-human primates or other mammals, according to a new study by Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers." "The accelerated evolution of these genes in the human lineage was apparently driven by strong selection. In the ancestors of humans, having bigger and more complex brains appears to have carried a particularly large advantage, much more so than for other mammals. These traits allowed individuals with “better brains” to leave behind more descendants. As a result, genetic mutations that produced bigger and more complex brains spread in the population very quickly. This led ultimately to a dramatic “speeding up” of evolution in genes controlling brain size and complexity." “People in many fields, including evolutionary biology, anthropology and sociology, have long debated whether the evolution of the human brain was a special event,” said senior author Bruce Lahn of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Chicago. “I believe that our study settles this question by showing that it was.” Lahn and his colleagues reported their data in a research article published in the December 29, 2004, issue of the journal Cell ." (taken from an article on the Howard Hughes Medical Institute website, http://www.hhmi.org/news/lahn3.html ) This presents a recurring problem for the Darwinian theory of evolution. Evolutionary theory is built upon the premise that evolution occurs gradually, over hundreds of thousands
of years of time. Whenever data occurs that doesn't fit the theory, the
theory of very gradual change through natural selection is set aside, and a new theory of rapid change is introduced. This is how the Darwinian theory of evolution "absorbs" evidence that contradicts the theory. However, once you allow various exceptions to the theory of evolution, you no longer have the foundation upon which the theory is built, and the theory needs to be set aside. Then the search for new scientific theories, better aligned to the facts, can begin. The idea of "punctuated equilibrium" is another example of changing the theory of evolution to account for rapid change. Because there is a lack of evidence in the fossil record of very gradual change from one species to another, the idea of "punctuated equilibrium" has been introduced, which says that there have been sudden spurts and dramatic changes caused by mutations in various species. Again, gradual change is set aside, in favor of a theory of rapid change. Concerning the evolution of the human brain, there is a contradictory school of thought in Paleoneurology, that the evolution of the human brain has actually slowed down over the past couple of million years: ScienceDaily (Dec. 29, 2006) — "Despite the explosive growth in size and complexity of the human brain, the pace of evolutionary change among the thousands of genes expressed in brain tissue has actually slowed since the split, millions of years ago, between human and chimpanzee, an international research team reports in the December 26, 2006, issue of the journal, PLOS Biology." "We found that genes expressed in the human brain have in fact slowed down in their evolution, contrary to some earlier reports," says study author Chung-I Wu, professor of ecology and evolution at the University of Chicago. "The
more complex the brain, it seems, the more difficult it becomes for brain
genes to change...." The article goes on to report, "Genes that are expressed only in the brain evolved more slowly than those that are expressed in the brain as well as other tissues, and those genes evolved more slowly than genes expressed throughout the rest of the organism." "The authors attribute the slowdown to mounting complexity of interactions within the brain. "We Página 40
ezine113 april know that proteins with more interacting partners evolve more slowly," Wu said. "Mutations that disrupt existing interactions aren't tolerated." This article also acknowledges the problem presented by the apparent "rapid evolution" of the human brain: "Humans have an exceptionally big brain relative to their body size. Although humans weigh about 20 percent more than chimpanzees, our closest relative, the human brain weighs 250 percent more. How such a massive morphological change occurred over a relatively short evolutionary time has long puzzled biologists." (University of Chicago Medical Center (2006, December 29). Complexity Constrains Evolution Of Human Brain Genes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 15, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/0612260954 21.htm Has the evolution of the human brain rapidly increased, or has it slowed down over the past couple of million years? Scientists differ radically in their conclusions. There are other unanswered questions that can only be mentioned here: How can scientists "prove," in any scientific sense of the term, the pace of genetic evolution within the human brain, going back 50,000 or 100,000 years? Are there any repeatable scientific experiments
which can conclusively "prove" how fast the human brain evolved 50,000 or
80,000 or 100,000 years ago? Or are we dealing with great amounts of speculation in this area? The even more difficult dilemma for evolutionary theory is to explain why the explosion in human knowledge has only taken place within very recent history, using the evolutionary time scale. Human knowledge accumulates over time - that knowledge builds upon itself and increases, to where we have the explosion in knowledge that is so evident today. How did it happen? Why did it happen so suddenly? Two or three thousand years, as compared to 200,000 years, is a very short amount of time. Yet it is claimed that the human brain has remained the same size for the past 200,000 years. (some scientists may speculate that it has been the same size for the past 150,000 years, but the obvious point still remains). Human knowledge is transmitted through language, and then through writing. This transmission of knowledge is a key in the accumulation and development of human knowledge. Some evolutionary researchers have estimated that human speech developed around 150,000 years ago: "Phillip Lieberman has investigated the origin of speech for many years and has used this research to form hypotheses about the evolution of language. Lieberman suggests that speech improved greatly about 150,000 years ago when the larynx descended into the throat. According to the work of Lieberman and his colleagues, this descension improved the ability of early homonids to make key vowel sounds. Whereas the Neanderthals had a vocal tract similar in many respects to that of a new born baby, the elongated pharynx of a modern adult human is thought to enable production of a more perceptible repertoire of speech sounds. Lieberman suggests that though Neanderthals probably had some form of language, they may have failed to extend this language because they lacked the physical apparatus for producing a more sophisticated set of speech sounds." (From "The Evolution of Language," at http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/evolutionlanguage6 ). This estimate that human speech began to develop 150,000 years ago makes the problem even more obvious: How could homo sapiens (man) have developed speech that long ago, having an incredibly complex computer called the human brain, and yet not have made great advances in language, writing, and the transmission of knowledge? It is estimated, based on archological discoveries, that writing developed around 3,500 B.C. in Mesopotamia (see "Ancient Mesopotamia: The Invention of Writing" / Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, at http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/writing.html). This makes for a huge, huge gap between the development of speech, and the development of writing. For humans to have 144,000 plus years of speech, without developing writing, seems totally incredible. The human mind is much more clever than that. How could people be able to speak for that long, (or even half that long) without attempting to communicate through written symbols? In fact, no matter which way these estimates and theories are developed, there are huge problems. The idea that man evolved very gradually, over hundreds of thousands of years of time, is full of problems and contradictions. If one takes the position that the human brain has slowed down in it's evolution since separating from the chimpanzee over a million years ago, then we have an incredible computer which is incredibly silent over hundreds and thousands of years of time. Página 41
ezine113 april If one takes the position that the evolution of the brain was a "Special Event" in which the normal pace of evolution was somehow miraculously sped up, then you have abandoned the Darwinian theory of very gradual evolution through natural selection, and you have introduced a new theory, of rapid change. We need to think seriously about how long 150,000 years is, and how incredible the human brain is: with this great computer having the ability to reason, to think, to speak and communicate with other human beings, wouldn't knowledge have advanced much more rapidly? 150,000 years is a long, long, long time for man's knowledge to be flat-lined, until the gradually increasing curve of human knowledge in recent human history. This knowledge curve is now accelerating at a greater and greater rate. The fact that the human brain does not fit in to the timescale of evolutionary theory is perhaps why scientists have felt compelled to theorize that the evolution of the human brain was a "Special Event," in which the evolutionary progress of the human brain was somehow dramatically increased. As quoted earlier, "Although humans weigh about 20 percent more than chimpanzees, our closest relative, the human brain weighs 250 percent more. How such a massive morphological change occurred over a relatively short evolutionary time has long puzzled biologists." http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/0612260954 21.htm In "The Origin of the Species," Charles Darwin himself acknowledges that without a complete dependence on very slight, successive modifications to organisms through natural selection, his whole theory would break down: "If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive,
slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down." (Charles
Darwin, The Origin of Species, p. 189). Well, it has already been demonstrated, even by Darwinian evolutionists themselves, that rapid change must be introduced into evolutionary theory in various instances (two of which were cited above), to explain the facts. Thus, Darwin's theory has broken down. Perhaps it's time to leave the sacred soil of evolution, and explore new options. Is it possible that the reason the knowledge explosion has only happened gradually within the last couple of thousand years, with greater and greater acceleration in recent time, is that human beings haven't been around that long, relatively speaking? A more recent appearance of man would explain the "massive morphological change that has long puzzled biologists," the great difference in brain size between humans and chimpanzees. A more recent appearance of man would also explain why the rapid advancement in knowledge has only occurred relatively recently. For man's incredible computer, the human brain, to be silent for hundreds of thousands of years is just not a viable option. Is it possible that man is the product of some kind of creative intelligence, introduced onto planet earth? Rather than an automatic stonewalling by much of the academic community, why not consider the possibility that there may be higher intelligence in the universe than ourselves? Perhaps thinking that we are the highest intelligence in the universe is the current day equivalent of thinking that the sun revolves around the earth. In other words, it is a paradigm that is outdated. One could also make great advancements in the pursuit of honesty and truthfulness, and rather than engage in endless amounts of scientific speculation about what happened 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 years ago, we could simply admit that, scientifically speaking, we just don't know for certain what happened that long ago, in regard to man’s origins. Some of the scientific community needs to recover the clear distinction between proven scientific facts (proven by repeatable scientific experimentation), and large amounts of speculation. In light of the knowledge explosion, and our knowledge of the human brain, the theory that humankind evolved from lower primates gradually over hundreds of thousands of years of time is just not fitting in with the facts.
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ezine113 april Everyone knows the Vatican bureaucracy knows that three years before the death of Pope Wojtyla, Sodano & CIA. planirficaban and executed the campaign for the papacy for today, Benedict. Italians have said caçrdenales and sensed during that time many Catholics still believe that the Cómnclave cardenlalicio should indeed lead to the Holy Spirit in vain. We have already seen how, for historical scandal, the popes after Pope Paul VI took great pains to desmnatelar the work of the Holy Spirit at Vatican II, and with that goal hierarchies filled with the most retrograde and rfacionalista of fundamentalism and how, in the eagerness , gagged and rigorous biblical theology of the Church and alienated every vestige of Bishops concerned to open the Church and commanded the gospel to the poor and oppressed by the structures of power which the papacy and its mitred parrte have become active . Benedict may not want power for himself. Another thing, very different, is that it means pastoral zeal. Since Paul VI, the Catholic hierarchy in the world feels part of the aria maquin power. As Vatican state bureaucracy, as opposed to Jesus' ministry Just look at the examples internal defense of unborn life but complcidades Karadima direct or indirect with his hosts and Episcopalians, how in the parliamentary debate on a law essential for equality of all concerned to protect the status quo and take to show solidarity daniel and his family. The fate of mercies is hierarchical distributed ciudadosamente with temporary political scope. Our recent popes do very well. Posted by: Schechner Haydee Esplej 31/03/2012 10:27 [No. 8] consider the admirable work of God, to see people who are supposed enemies, can talk in peace, each in their different roles and political and religious stance. Furthermore old and would like to see a pope, dialogue alone, without complaining of his years, carrying the message of Christ, leaving behind so much joy. Posted by: Pablo Tapia 31/03/2012 10:29 [No. 9] pedro lara kings kings lara 31/03/2012 08:54 [No. 1] ... to extend the list of useless views, was repeated a few. but .. that room served these visits? There is more freedom for it? ... there are free and informed choices? ... any opponent had the chance to make releases against the owners of the island? ... when Pope JP II was in Chile during the military regime, either a neighbor (?) rose to the podium shouting from the rooftops against the de facto president. Best comment on that, do not defend corpses Posted by: Minnelli Maximilian U. 31/03/2012 10:36 [No. 10] Mr Garcia Huidobro In his analysis I miss you, something very simple and obvious, it omits as well can back up your argument. 50 years of the Cuban regime are held by the vast support that system, with all the problems it has, holds the majority of Cubans, who have been attacked boldly, for over 50 years by the U.S. In Chile sr only endured 17 years of dictatorship, where Pinochet much more powerful than Fidel, submitted to a Chilean respresion unequaled in our history. Cubans as well said one of them from the island, have the system they want Página 48
ezine113 april and could throw the dictator who wanted ... if they so wished. If you believe that Cubans do not stand since they are subject is that it really has no idea of ??the history of Cuba, much less know the idiosyncrasies of the people, who united and courageous and dignified way, supports half a century of abuses at their human rights by blocking unworthy and immoral. Posted by: Carlos Fernandez Lords 31/03/2012 10:53 [No. 11] And we both show how important and necessary is the renewal in the world today ... and adapt to the times, leaving room for new generations, instead of trying to keep things running force in ways that clearly are not appropriate for these times. while the two should be given space to the necessary changes have yrenovciones or near miss for others to spearhead ... is the most worthy that could have cast these octogenarians ... long before become octogenarians ... They are not leaders such nostalgic clinging to past worlds and we need to face the present or much less the future ... Difficult to claim at this point quesean presisamete Cuba or the Church today, governments and religious institutions to help us live better in the future ... When challenged by his fata just renewal and leadership octogenarians and more traditionalists attached to past worlds exist and that the world today, its complexities and its current and future challenges ...
Posted by: Carlos Fernandez Lords 31/03/2012 10:57 [No. 12] Two worlds oldest dinosaurs ... now facing serious danger of extinction ... not able to adapt to time, changes ... Posted by: Aravena Alberto S 31/03/2012 11:03 [No. 13] Don Joaquin would have endorsed the letter, but has a serious omission that prevents me: the performance of the current pope in the case of Marcel Maciel. In the news it said that during the Pope's visit to Mexico: "Victims of sexual abuse by Mexican Marcial Maciel, a priest who died in 2008 he founded the Legionaries of Christ Catholic church, issued a manifesto accusing Pope Benedict XVI, on a visit to this country, Had they been ignored." "For your hands passed the opportunity to accept the truth" (Maciel's sexual abuse), says the manifesto presented in Leon, 400 km northwest of the capital, where the Pope is staying on his first visit to Mexico. "But we thought we heard or timely. Were long ignored." Of course, following a repeated conduct, the pope did not receive them or anything said on the subject. Ignored them. Página 49
ezine113 april Pope played in the Vatican in the Maciel case, the same role as the Bishop Errazuriz, in the case of Karadima in Chile. They received complaints and did nothing.
Posted by: Patrick Matte Raimundo Pérez-Cotapos 31/03/2012 11:08 [No. 14] Perhaps the world would be better off without these two old fogies. Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 11:14 [No. 15] "His trip to Cuba, despite being subjected to many restrictions, such as failing to meet with dissidents, is a real contribution not only to the Church in this country so harshly persecuted, but to prepare a peaceful parting of the Revolution, without hatred or vengeance. " If a pastor imposed restrictions to attend his sheep, the better to refrain from going to the fold dominated by the wolf. That visit was useless, disappointing, not only for the followers of the IC but for a lover dominated world of freedom and free expression. With respect to "prepare a peaceful parting of the Revolution" is not dependent of the Pope or any other Head of State or the Vatican or other power. Depends on the people affected by injustice intolerant, by the castration of any thought or idea that is not pleasing to the dictator. More powerful, better message to the world - had been - a formal protest of the Holy See by the prohibitions condicionadoras Tour Chief of HF
Posted by: Jose Fregoso Edelstein 31/03/2012 11:26 [No. 16] Very suitable meeting. Two dinosaurs stale airs of "saviors of mankind." Both, along with their respective ideologies, near extinction. Posted by: Antonio Schuda Escaff 31/03/2012 11:26 [No. 17] Fidel Castro and the Pope .... I stay with Fidel Castro, with Cuba has had a criminal blockade and yet Cubans have never surrendered to the feet of the organizer of the block which is Use Fidel and his revolution is attached to, while the Pope is a big difference with the other revolutionary faith that Jesus was because he was humble, had a stick of wood and gold potatoes, while a crown of thorns Jesus , Pope of gold ... I'll stick with Fidel. Posted by: Nicholay Hel. 31/03/2012 11:49 [No. 18] Ratzinger's visit only bring publicity and political dividends to the owners of the island, the Castro brothers. What has become of the dissident who dared to shout against Castro before the cameras. There will be some organization of the Catholic Church that their welfare is prepcupada ¿ Voice goes up some "Monsignor" to refer to the fact Chilean. ¿ I doubt it. In cambiop SI were servile, "yanaconas" and "bisagreros" when it came to cooperate with foreigners in Chile. Página 50
ezine113 april The week saw a photo of a semi papamobil through deserted streets, and basically a huge billboard that said "fighting yesterday and today Santiago hospital." In this poster saw a young Fidel with a gun in high (greater than that of hospitality). Do not saw the satrap in its current state. Tembleque and gathering the tools to an expected death and humiliated before Ratzinger requesting to intercede with the Yanquies. In the poster advertising was intended to inform new generations that the revolution was won by arms, not the Batista army deserted en masse after a New Year celebration watered, being the revolutionary Havana with abandoned and no that faced (Things as they are) Ergo: "advertising, how many crimes have been committed in thy name." Posted by: conrad arriagada novoa 31/03/2012 11:56 [No. 19] Posted by: Minnelli Maximilian U. N ° 10 You do not think he saw on television when a Cuban cry "down with communism" and was immediately breaded by Fidel's henchmen, or you hear the ladies in white were guarded in their homes and bake Blogista all fell victim of tight control on the Internet. Nobody in the world has the right to seize power for life to those who did their heads despotically serve as our example, when shot at the hem. Lifetime powers that are indecent while the World, except those that serve as symbols but have no political interference, because these decisions must be held by the public, this we are following with bad example with mayors, senators and deputies bolted, are remain fresh for years, should be investigated, citizens must be informed, that does not happen in the end we know that the satrap who ruled us, was also a thief. CAN PASGASF.
Posted by: sergio infant Cousino 31/03/2012 12:24 [No. 20] The old little dictator, now wants to sell the ointment to the Pope, wants to sell crosses, wants to apologize. Here on Earth, there is no one who can forgive, only God can do, but do not think the Pope to intervene or change the future that awaits you ... Posted by: Patrick Matte Raimundo Pérez-Cotapos 31/03/2012 12:58 [No. 21] Posted by: Nicholay Hel. In the poster advertising was intended to inform new generations that the revolution was won by arms, not the Batista army deserted en masse after a New Year celebration watered, being the revolutionary Havana with abandoned and no that faced (Things as they are) Ergo: "advertising, how many crimes have been committed in thy name." -----------------------------------Mr. Hel: I do not think you endorse the theory of good and evil dictators. Here we had one of the most cruel and miserable in the world. Cuba was the home of regrinding of gringos attending their burseles and Página 51
ezine113 april casinos with the approval of Fulgencio Batista, a corrupt and a thief. All dictators are equal, I think. Posted by: jaime hangman hangman 31/03/2012 13:01 [No. 22] The old dictator (Fidel Castro), who betrayed the revolutionary truth, all he wants is to get away from all the crimes and robberies committed on the island. He wants to die of old age and avoid any responsibility for that, appointed his brother, while awaiting death calmly and with all the comforts of the world surrounded by his "followers" unconditional. Posted by: Patrick Matte Raimundo Pérez-Cotapos 31/03/2012 13:05 [No. 23] Posted by: sergio infant Cousino 31/03/2012 12:24 [No. 20] The old little dictator, now wants to sell the ointment to the Pope, wants to sell crosses, wants to apologize. Here on Earth, there is no one who can forgive, only God can do, but do not think the Pope to intervene or change the future that awaits you ... -----------------------------------It seems that Mr. Castro is an atheist dictator Mr. Infante, so I do not care. Posted by: Alberto Martones Cannon 31/03/2012 13:16 [No. 24] Joaquin: The Pope went to Cuba to help the Cuban system in its economic transformation from socialism to a market economy open to the world. Cuba needs some guarantees that it will not be invaded by the American Mafia. Cuba needs help and you can be in late European trade bodies privately with PR China on how to take better economic freedom. The current government does not want to lose political control as happened in the USSR. The Pope is a discreet messenger of the Cuban program of democratization and openness to capitalism. In a decade, Fidel will be made statue and democratization will be with socialism. Strange but true. Posted by: Hector Moyano Pereira 31/03/2012 13:32 [No. 25] Mr. Maximiliano Minelli (posting # 10): Being quite agree with you in raising your posting, I can not but fail to note that the personalism of the Castro brothers is hurting the most important parts of the Cuban Revolution. If these achievements were translated into collective bodies of real significance, I think it may be in better shape and will last longer. I mean, for example. to the excellence of universal free education that exists there; to health, which could be even better without the American blockade. And many other achievements, and at work, science and many más.Buen day and with all my respect. Página 52
ezine113 april Posted by: Nicholay Hel. 31/03/2012 13:33 [No. 26] Mr Patrick Raymond ... etc.etc. Post no. 21. You give me all the right with your post. Pinochet was a dictator who led a military government. Never was the "owner" of Chile as are hnitos. Castro, Kin Il Sung, Pol Pot, Stalin and Hitler. (Love that is far in the number of corpses he left his step, as compared to the millions of deaths of the above mentioned) Totally agree with that of Cuba was the Yankees' lenonicio but ud look. that after 50 years of "Revolution" the island is not only the cdp of the Americans, but now it is all in the West and which constantly "Jineteras" 14 years or less sexual favors are given to tourists for a bar of soap, a tube of toothpaste or a used jean. What you do or not do with their time Ratzinger and silver I do not care because I do not profess any religion, but bothers me on so that someone like him, who knew the horror of war and persecution; endorsement by their presence Castro dictatorship that only benefit from their stay. My posting has to do with advertising and I hope you have understood well. Posted by: Carlos Fernandez Lords 31/03/2012 13:43 [No. 27] The old dictator and the old Pope ... talking about their old worlds ... what changes can we expect from these dinosaurs, unless a later death and meanwhile continue to defend the indefensible ..??? Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 13:50 [No. 28] "The old dictator and the old Pope" For a moment entered my head that I do not see reality ... "Opposite Worlds." Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 13:52 [No. 29] Don Jose Fregoso Edelstein ... see you "Opposite Worlds"?
Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 13:55 [No. 30] Dinosaurs here and there ... how we are at home? Are likely to have more years mencionadores hundred flocks of parrots ... Posted by: Andrea Goreux Boyens 31/03/2012 14:03 [No. 31] Interesting. Out there say with holy innocence: "Bothers me greatly that someone like him, who knew the horror of war and persecution ..." Referring to the worthy, than a member of the Hitler Youth was dedicated to Página 53
ezine113 april denounce Jews. That would be it. Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 14:04 [No. 32] "" The Pope, meanwhile, knows that his reign may be more or less valued, but that the Church is not going away with him in the coffin "" Neither the Egyptian pharaohs ... we all alone in the coffin but join us thousands or millions of colleagues killed in the pyramid. And always will be others, for better or worse of the causes they represent, to benefit or misfortune of human history. And until the end of our time ...
Posted by: Juan Francisco Gonzalez Bayancela 31/03/2012 14:15 [No. 33] The current Pope has no historical performance as it did the previous Pope, who had to actually join or ally with Reagan and Thatcher to shake the foundations of communism and demolish that archaic and bloody system. At present pope it examines the role of Catholicism in the Hispanic world and, above all, observe how Catholicism has survived in Cuba, where its owner has made up his and now he is senile speak for others, launched obscenities and believed a messiah. Nothing is more false than this and what can criticize the current pope is not received on dissidents in Cuba. This has proven to be weak and propose an alternative sui generis for Catholicism: continue to survive in the communist system to see if you may be exceeded in age and creativity. Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 14:16 [No. 34] The "iDial" would be a pope young and old dictator ... ready to kick the bucket - but - nothing is perfect. Nor nothing is modern, invents something and within seconds is dramatically improved or replaced by something better and newer. Progress does not stop. Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 14:26 [No. 35] "Is that democracy is very fome" said the divine Lastarria antichrist ... and it seems to be right ... the perfect anti-democracy to democracy, requires an effort. http://bit.ly/er7HLZ
Posted by: raul suarez Sazie 31/03/2012 14:26 [No. 36] The best of the Marxist dictatorship of Fidel is a tyrant who left his brother in power before he died ... for those who love democracy, this is the best example ..... and Vallejos go to Cuba to see in situ the "democracy" that wants to establish in our country. And travels free and first ... but critical if you do another. Página 54
ezine113 april Posted by: antonio rivera 31/03/2012 14:32 [No. 37] Maximilian U. Minnelli N ° 10 50 years ... the Cuban regime are held by the vast support of that system ... Sr ... In Chile only endured 17 years of dictatorship, where Pinochet much more powerful than Fidel, submitted to a Chilean respresion unequaled in our history ... Do not lie, sir. do not lie ... 2 million exiles have Cuba. the television network Al-Jazeera during the mass shooting of Pope Benedict XVI on Wednesday in Havana shows the times when a man was arrested and removed from the Plaza José Martí after speaking out against the government. the man shouted for the Pope not to go to Cuba until they run out of communism on the island. In the images of the television Catari, is the man when he was caught by four men quickly covered his mouth and took him away. Another man extends his hand to block the camera lens. http://www.cubanet.org/noticias/video-muestra-arrestoin-the-mass-papal-de-la-habana / That is democracy in Cuba, Communist mentally castrated. Posted by: Marian osorio gajardo 31/03/2012 14:44 [No. 38] Pope is lucky, at least not had to run to the meeting with the aged dictator, as he had to our former president. Posted by: Leonardo Godoy Echeverria 31/03/2012 14:55 [No. 39] Don Antonio Rivera (37) http://bit.ly/HrV77J (Courtesy of bit.ly) Posted by: raul suarez Sazie 31/03/2012 15:00 [No. 40] Posted by: Marian osorio gajardo 31/03/2012 14:44 [N ° 38 The downside is that Fidel does not move from your desk and you have to go and see his "office" from which governs in a democracy. Página 55
ezine113 april Posted by: Maria Kaufmann Nora Johnson 31/03/2012 15:06 [No. 41] Conrad Arriada No. 5 With warm regards. From what I read here, you've traveled a lot in his life and I also though in other ways, but history repeats itself over and over again. Men have ruled the world with few exceptions and it seems that instead of brains are born with a retroescavadora to amass wealth and power for themselves and their allies. Communism and neoliberalism, or extreme societies, failed because the human being and its essence does not count, first are the ideologies where the end justifies the means. They engage in inhumane wars where children, women and old people suffer and combatants killed or disabled, since the world began. It is very sad to old age without being able to see light at the end of the tunnel. That everything we think, say or write has no destination, no one with a brain capable and normal interests you. I am convinced that a lust for power in all its forms is a mental disorder, examples abound. It may be that in the twenty-first century would call "knowledge" and live in constant discussions and wars in the world where the vast majority always lose because a few want it all, even if it means millions more dead. Posted by: Gonzalo Diaz Pino 31/03/2012 15:08 [No. 42] The old fogies have more matches that seem, both believed to be possessors of absolute truths, do not tolerate criticism of their meager truths, ignore evidence that contradicts them are willing to destroy those who do not support their faith , afraid of science but use it to their advantage, do not tolerate freedom of thought, condemned homosexuality and fear. Ie both use religious thinking that causes so much damage to people, have bad taste aesthetically uniform guerrilero one uses and the other red shoes. Weird no? Posted by: CARRANZA ANTONIO ROBERTO PEREZ 31/03/2012 15:59 [No. 43] That letter more nondiscriminatory, perhaps people over 80 years are not even leaders? If they have the strength, health and energy, why not? Not know law in the world that says people over 80 years should expect to wait atuad or death bed, bad letter Garcia-Huidobro, surely he will be the "boy" from the movie Posted by: raul suarez Sazie 31/03/2012 17:14 [No. 44] Posted by: CARRANZA ANTONIO ROBERTO PEREZ 31/03/2012 15:59 [N ° 43 Perez, said "discriminatory", OK?.
ezine113 april 27.- A lecture on reptilians .......................by Outer Limits. A the island of Maui David Icke do a one day event on the theme “Remember Who You Are”. The message covered the understanding of our global situation, and how humanity can break free of our “Reptilian” overlords by riding a powerful “truth frequency” wave sweeping into our world. The first part of the day dealt with "Remember Who You Are". In it Icke explained how the universe is little more than various frequencies, and that the consciousness at the core of our identity uses this energetic frequency field to generate a holographic image of our physical bodies. He argued that we are eternal beings of infinite consciousness having a holographic experience. Our bodies are little more than physical vehicles that accommodate us for short periods and then reincarnate. Icke explained the importance of understanding how the energetic frequency field around us, is the substratum of the holographic image that is created by our five senses. Understanding how this holographic image is created – our physical body – not only is important for remembering who we are, eternal beings of infinite consciousness, but also how we are manipulated to believe we are powerless. Icke showed how historically humanity has been controlled by those whose energy frequency field is more expansive than our own. This allows humanity’s controllers to manipulate our perceptual field which is made up of all that our five physical senses take in, and is processed by our brain. Essentially, the controllers own sensory inputs processes more of the energy frequency field around us. The way they manipulate humanity is to implant our junk DNA with information that allows us to be manipulated to varying degrees. Those humans who have the right bloodlines (DNA) are steered into positions of power by our controllers. These human elites – bluebloods - are genetically hardwired in a way that allows them to be manipulated even more directly by our historical overlords that oversee this vast genetic intervention. As to who are our overlords - they are Reptilian multidimensional entities whose perceptual fields and abilities allow them to overshadow our perceptual reality. Our Reptilian overlords have been here for a very long time and evidence is found in many cultural traditions and artifacts. They act like shadowy puppeteers in pulling the genetic strings of elites prominently placed in the hierarchical control system. & the moon is in fact an artificially created satellite whose chief purpose is to transmit electromagnetic frequencies that allow humanity to be controlled. It appears that the moon’s position, the way it precisely overshadows the sun during eclipses, and its influence over human emotions, female cycles, tidal patterns, etc., is no accident. Icke explained how historically the planet or ‘god’ Saturn has been the center of many religious and cultural systems as a figure of worship. He claimed that the word “Satan” has its roots in Saturn. The fact that so many past imperial cultures, and Satanist groups, have venerated the planet or god Saturn, makes it part of the planetary control system according to Icke. This is where Icke generated some controversy when he tried to explain how the Star of David was an image of the Saturnian belief system with Satanic aspects. & the planetary control system is in high gear trying to counter the rising consciousness of humanity caused by an incoming truth frequency. The controllers realize that they are about to lose power, and are making every attempt to intimidate and frighten humanity into submission. This is why the Obama administration has gone to great lengths to implement legislation that enables it greater control over every aspect of American life: food, water, drugs, finances, security, etc. To control the enemy, just “No” to the controllers agenda, and to rally others to do the same. The time for nonviolent revolution is now! He says all forms of hierarchy are bad. This includes an alleged spiritual hierarchy called the “Great White Brotherhood” that has been silently Página 57
ezine113 april intervening in human affairs for a positive future. There is abundant evidence that such a secret ‘spiritual’ hierarchy had intervened in many ways to help guide humanity’s evolution, but doing so largely behind the scenes so as to not have too inordinate an influence in human affairs. It appears that they have been doing something similar to what Icke is now doing, but for a lot longer, and arguably more effectively given that humanity has not self-destructed. With up to 60,000 thousand nuclear weapons having existed in weapons stockpiles over the last sixty years that have been controlled by corrupt elites, it’s nothing short of miraculous that humanity has survived. The alleged Great White Brotherhood, according to many sources did intervene on many occasions to prevent a nuclear holocaust. If there is a dark control pyramid of power running our world as Icke suggests, correctly in my opinion, then it would be natural to assume that a benevolent hierarchical counterforce comprising enlightened beings exists. I have written articles analysing witness testimonies describing how such enlightened beings have regularly silently intervened in human affairs. The Robot’s Rebellion (1994), Icke stressed the role of a “Luciferian consciousness” at the apex of the control pyramid directing human affairs. In 1998, with his book, The Biggest Secret, he replaced this “Luciferian consciousness” by Reptilian overlords. While Icke during his day long event did admit to the possibility that there was probably something behind the Reptilians, this “Luciferian consciousness” was not anything he explicitly mentioned. While he did mention Satan and Satanic rituals, the context suggested that these were activities directed by our Reptilian overlords to place humans into fear. This is opposite to his first book where the Luciferian consciousness manipulated not only humanity, but also extraterrestrial species. This reversal appeared to me to be a major step backwards in the evolution of Icke’s thinking over the last two decades.
The entire corpus of David Icke's work undoubtedly helps inform a sleeping humanity about the secret control system and the role of certain extraterrestrial groups in the planetary hierarchical control system. There is much evidence supporting Icke's claim of intervention of Reptilians extraterrestrials in human affairs, but are they our planetary overlords? I seriously doubt it, and think this is clever disinformation by the ultimate planetary contollers - a Luciferian consciousness - to sow fear and distrust about one of the extraterrestrial species resident and/or visiting our world. 16:10 02-04-2012.Der ende.
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