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Gossip................By Darth Vader Kentucky Train Collision with Disk UFO, 2002 by.. WikiLeaks Set To Reveal US-UFO War In Southern Ocean....................by Sorcha Faal Modern Genomics ..................by Ana Maria Venegas. Mike Luckmanto plans for the cosmic majority 2012........................by Erik Mataxas.
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SUBJECT: CHILE SCENESETTER FOR CHAIRMAN OF JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF ADMIRAL MIKE MULLEN Classified By: EPOL COUNSELOR TIM STATER FOR REASONS 1.4(B/D). SUMMARY ------Â¶1. (C) The U.S. Mission in Santiago welcomes your visit to Chile on March 2-3. Your presence is an excellent opportunity to further strengthen military-to-military relations and to encourage Chile to exercise greater regional leadership. We have had several successful high-level defense and security-related exchanges, including a visit by Defense Secretary Gates to Chile in October 2007 and Defense Minister Goni's April 2008 visit to the United States. In 2008 alone, we have had visits from CSA Gen Casey, USMC Commandant Gen Conway, CNO Adm Roughead and Southcom Commander Adm Stavridis (three times) who helped up the level of coordination with their Chilean counterparts. Â¶2. (C) Chile continues to promote "the Chilean way" through free trade agreements, closer ties with like-minded countries, and new areas of cooperation (e.g. energy) with traditional allies, including the U.S. Chile is also trying to strengthen relations with its neighbors by promoting concrete, confidence-building measures that focus on the future and avoid rehashing historical differences. The Chilean economy has been impacted by the global financial crisis, but its fundamentals remain strong. The Chilean military's international efforts are consistent with the Chilean government's goals of increasing global trade and ties with Chile's neighbors. The U.S. and Chile have taken several positive steps to strengthen ties in the last year, and Chile is taking on greater leadership roles. These include extending their PKO commitments in Bosnia and Haiti; encouraging the U.S. Congress to ratify the U.S. free trade agreements with Colombia and Panama; and endorsing the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), as well as the Global Initiative Against Nuclear Terrorism, and joining the Partnership for Democratic Governance Steering Group. End summary. Concertacion Still in Power After 19 Years -----------------------------------------Â¶3. (U) Chile's center-left coalition government, known as the Concertacion, has been in power continuously since the end of Pinochet's military dictatorship in 1990. The election of current president Michelle Bachelet in January 2006 was heralded as historic. Bachelet is Chile's first female president, a single mother and agnostic in a country with strong conservative Catholic roots, and a survivor of torture during the Pinochet regime. Bachelet has had her share of ups and downs during her term in office. She started her presidency with soaring popularity and high expectations, but a series of domestic problems--including large student protests, the expensive, failed reform of public transportation in the capital, and a number of relatively minor corruption scandals--led to a drop in public confidence. In recent months, however, Bachelet's star has begun to rise again as the public generally approves of her handling of the international financial crisis. Â¶4. (SBU) The Concertacion will face a test of its popularity in the presidential and parliamentary elections to be held in December. Opposition candidate Sebastian Pinera, a wealthy business tycoon and former presidential candidate and senator, enjoys a substantial lead over his Concertacion rival, former president Eduardo Frei. While many believe that Pinera and his Alianza coalition have their best chance ever to break Concertacion's domination of Chilean politics, analysts on both sides of the aisle believe that the election will be very close. Pinera and Frei both represent centrist tendencies in their coalitions, so the actual political differences between the two are not large. Instead, Pinera is trying to frame the election as a call for change, casting himself as the agent of renewal. Regardless of who wins, U.S.-Chilean relations will remain strong. Chile on the International Stage -------------------------------Â¶5. (SBU) Bachelet performs well on the international stage and has contributed to Chile's rising international stature. In September 2008, she convened a summit of UNASUR, the nascent South American political union, which helped to defuse, at least temporarily, the crisis in Bolivia and
prevented the meeting from degenerating into an anti-American forum. Chile serves as UNASUR's president pro tempore; has the largest group of Latin American peacekeepers in Haiti; and is generally active, if behind the scenes, in regional multilateral fora. The GOC sent two planeloads of humanitarian aid to Syria and donated money to the International Red Cross during the most recent Israeli-Hamas conflict in the Gaza Strip. This demonstrated Chile,s international commitment to provide aid but also helped appease Chile,s large Palestinian population of 400,000. Even though Chile and the U.S. see eye to eye on many regional and international issues, Bachelet has made it clear that Chile does not blindly follow where the U.S. leads. In comments last fall during the UN General Assembly, Bachelet said that the U.S. and Chile were "political friends, but not unconditional friends" and criticized the U.S. for its role in precipitating the financial crisis. She has repeated the latter charge in other public fora as well. Â¶6. (C) During the first visit of a Chilean head of state to Cuba in nearly 40 years (February 10-13), however, President Bachelet suffered her most serious foreign policy setback. She received considerable criticism from the opposition and the Christian Democratic Party (a leading Concertacion member) for not meeting with Cuban dissidents and being the brunt of Fidel Castro,s bad manners. Hours following their meeting, the revolutionary leader issued a column that revealed part of their private conversation in which Fidel pressed her on Bolivia,s access to the sea)-a sensitive issue for Chile domestically. Chile's Strong Economy Being Tested by Financial Crisis --------------------------------------------- ---------Â¶7. (U) Chile is fortunate to be in a strong economic position as the global financial crisis unfolds. The country maintains a budget surplus (5.2% of GDP in 2008), has relatively low debt, and has over USD $22 billion in offshore sovereign wealth funds, much of it from record copper revenues. Poverty has dropped from 40% of the national population in 1990 to 14% in 2006. Nonetheless, the global economic downturn has significantly impacted Chile's real economy, with only 3-4% GDP growth in 2008. Forecasts already predict much slower growth in 2009. President Bachelet recently announced a $4 billion economic stimulus plan designed to create 100,000 jobs and maintain a GDP growth rate of 2-3% in 2009. The plan calls for increased public infrastructure spending, temporary tax cuts for businesses, direct payments to low-income families, and other incentives. Â¶8. (U) A decline in copper prices at the end of 2008, an economic downturn, and a likely rise in unemployment top the list of Chilean economic concerns. In December 2008, domestic economic activity hit its lowest level since 1998. Copper accounted for 64% of Chile's exports in 2007, and the price hit its lowest point in four years in December 2008. The financial crisis has affected liquidity in the Chilean banking system, making it harder for some companies to maintain access to capital. Chile's trade volumes have decreased as a result of the global economic downturn. In January, exports decreased 41% and imports decreased 26% from the year before. These factors have caused many companies to reduce investment plans, cut costs, and begin laying off workers. Unemployment was 7.5% in December 2008 and many predict it will increase significantly in 2009. Other economic worries include high inflation (6.3% in December 2008), though that rate has been decreasing, high levels of consumer indebtedness, and low business confidence. The U.S. and Chile: Strong and Increasing Trade --------------------------------------------- --Â¶9. (U) The U.S. and Chile implemented an FTA in 2004, which has achieved impressive results in the bilateral trading relationship. The U.S. is Chile's largest trading partner, and Chile is our fifth largest trading partner in Latin America. Overall bilateral trade grew by more than 200% during the first five years of the FTA, reaching $20.3 billion in 2007. Chile's top three exports to the U.S. in 2008 were copper (34%), fruit (17%), and seafood (11%). The top three U.S. exports to Chile were non-crude oil (30%), machinery (18%), and vehicles (8%). Chile ran a trade deficit with the U.S. in 2008 for the first time since 2000. Â¶10. (SBU) Despite this FTA success, some economic sticking points between the U.S. and Chile remain. Chile is on the Special 301 Priority Watchlist for its poor performance in protecting
intellectual property rights (IPR), including copyrights, trademarks, pharmaceutical patents, and proprietary clinical trials. In October 2008, the Chilean Congress took a positive step by passing the Patent Cooperation Treaty. Drafts of four other IPR-related laws are still pending before the Congress. Chile still has a long way to go in its IPR protections, including improving enforcement mechanisms. For its part, Chile is concerned about negative U.S. press reports related to sanitary conditions in the all-important salmon industry. The U.S. and Chile: Partners Across the Board --------------------------------------------- Â¶11. (U) The U.S. and Chile continue to partner on a broad set of initiatives, including education, scientific research, and military-military cooperation. In May 2008, President Bachelet announced government plans to significantly increase scholarships for Chileans to study abroad. The new GOC scholarship program sent over 1,000 students/scholars overseas in 2008 and there are plans to send 2,500 in 2009. Program leaders estimate that approximately one-third may choose to study in the U.S. These exchanges build on the success of the U.S.-Chile Equal Opportunities Scholarship Program, inaugurated in 2007, to sponsor English and academic studies for Chilean PhD students who come from disadvantaged and rural areas that have not traditionally had access to English language schools or study abroad opportunities. Â¶12. (U) In June 2008, President Bachelet and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger launched the Chile-California Partnership for the 21st Century. The partnership is fostering collaboration between individuals, government, and the private sector in areas such as agriculture, energy efficiency, environmental resource management, and education. A similar program existed from 1963-1970 and this renewed effort will seek to leverage the numerous economic and geographic similarities between Chile and California. Facing a Serious Energy Crisis -----------------------------Â¶13. (SBU) Chile continues to face a serious energy crisis which, at least in the shorter-term, is being addressed by industry making adjustments to accommodate fluctuating hydroelectric generation and reduced natural gas supplies. Uncertainty about how Chile will meet the projected 12,000 MW it needs over the next 10 years, however, is having a negative impact on the country's economic growth and investment prospects. Chile's electricity matrix is dominated by hydropower and thermal plants with limited spare capacity. In 2007 and early 2008, record low water levels forced hydropower plants to operate at minimum capacity and Argentina reduced exports of natural gas to the bare minimum needed for residential use, forcing the entire thermal infrastructure to rely more heavily on expensive diesel and increase the use of coal. Â¶14. (SBU) Chile is building liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals, but natural gas supplies will still be subject to fluctuations in price and availability (and growing demand from China), as well as the need to increase capacity to transport it to the center of the country from terminals. Moreover, due to resistance from environmentalists and growing public concerns, the future of a large hydroelectric project in Patagonia is very much in question. Although President Bachelet has promised not to introduce nuclear power during her administration, a national debate over nuclear generated power is underway. The National Energy Commission has commissioned three studies on nuclear energy issues and the two leading presidential candidates are pro-nuclear. Â¶15. (SBU) The GOC clearly recognizes the need to reduce energy consumption, increase energy efficiency, and explore the full range of energy sources, including renewables and nuclear. The situation is complicated by the fact that although Chile has a Minister of Energy, Marcelo Tokman, responsibility for energy policy is currently distributed among several government agencies. The formation of a Ministry of Energy is still under discussion by lawmakers, but should be resolved by mid-2009. (Comment: Like several other senior Chilean government officials, Tokman carries the title "Minister" although there is currently no ministry that he commands. End Comment.) Â¶16. (SBU) President Bachelet, and nearly every minister with whom the Ambassador has met
since his arrival, have emphasized that Chile welcomes increased bilateral energy cooperation with the U.S. across the board. As the GOC struggles to develop a coherent energy policy, we are working with U.S. agencies and the Chilean Minister of Energy to increase bilateral cooperation in four target areas: renewable energy; nuclear power for electricity generation; energy policy formation; and energy efficiency. Of note, on 19 February, Minister Tokman met with Department of Energy Secretary Chu in Washington, D.C. to discuss Chile,s energy challenges and prospects, the possibility of establishing a strategic partnership in the area of non-conventional renewable energy and the country,s strong ties to the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Outstanding Mil-Mil Cooperation ------------------------------- 17. (C) The Bachelet administration is interested in strengthening mil-mil relations as an element in modernizing and normalizing the Chilean military's role in society. There have been several high-level exchanges on mil-mil issues in the past years: Secretary of Defense Gates' October 2007 visit to Chile, Chilean Defense Minister Goni's April 2008 visit to the U.S, three USSOUTHCOM CDR's visits to Chile in 2008, CSA Gen Casey in April 2008, USMC Commandant Gen Conway in May 2008, CNO Adm Roughead in December 2008, and innumerable other general and flag officer and senior-level OSD visits. Together with the annual Defense Consultative Commission (OSD-Defense Ministry-level talks, to be held 26-31 May 2009) and annual Joint Staff Talks (to be held November 2009), these visits have intensified U.S.-Chile dialogues on mutual defense-related issues. Â¶18. (C) In April 2008, Minister of Defense Goni and the Secretary of Defense discussed defense and security issues in Washington, D.C. Both agreed the U.S. and Chile share common values from a security standpoint, and that relations between OSD and the Ministry of Defense were strong and growing. The Secretary of Defense noted a recent agreement to expand the U.S.-Chile Defense Consultative Commission (DCC) by adding two subcommittees on energy/environment and education, and the signing of the Master Information Exchange Agreement, all of which marked a step forward in the relationship. Minister Goni said the U.S. was Chile's most important defense and security partner, and said Chile seeks greater interoperability with the U.S. Minister Goni also highlighted the Chilean Defense Ministry's current reform and transformation efforts, and expressed interest in U.S. assistance in developing expertise in the Defense Ministry's civilian community though professional education opportunities in the U.S. (e.g., NDU, CHDS). Â¶19. (C) During his trip to the U.S., Minister Goni also visited the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC) to better understand the institution and its capabilities. There remains a small minority of opponents to WHINSEC in Chile (including some members of Congress) and the Minister wants to take advantage of the transparency of WHINSEC to help educate this minority. To this end, the Minister, at the recommendation of the Secretary of Defense, has invited several Chilean Congress members and NGOs to visit WHINSEC in March 2009 in an effort to help opponents better understand exactly what WHINSEC is all about. Of note, Chile has sent roughly 190 students to WHINSEC every year since 2006. Â¶20. (C) Goni noted that the pending transfer of the oiler USNS Andrew J. Higgins was important to Chile's overall defense position. The Secretary reiterated his support for the transfer. (DAO Note: FY09 Ship Transfer Legislation passed the U.S. Senate in October, 2008 and Congressional notification was received the next month authorizing EDA transfer to Chile.) Goni said Chile was interested in more exercises with U.S. Special Forces, and also updated SECDEF on the status of the joint Chile-Argentina PKO force "Cruz del Sur." Goni characterized the level of security cooperation between Chile and Argentina as "excellent." The Secretary expressed appreciation for Chile's participation in MINUSTAH in Haiti. Noting the high level of proficiency and professionalism of Chilean military forces, the Secretary asked Goni to consider having Chile participate in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) Operational Experts Group. Goni said Chile was looking at this possibility. 21. (C) In September 2008, after several years of effort explaining the benefits of the State Partnership Program (SPP), the GOC formally requested, via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that Chile be considered to partner with the National Guard. The request also suggested that the Texas National Guard be strongly considered as the optimal partner in this new security cooperation initiative. The current Chilean Army and Air Force service chiefs pushed for SPP
through Minister Goni, having noted the experience of National Guard service members in support of OIF/OEF and in assisting with the aftermath of numerous natural disasters in the U.S. The expectation is that this security cooperation initiative will allow sharing experiences in disaster relief and emergency management operations which not only lead to closer mil-to-mil ties, but will also create conduits for greater civilian-military and civilian-civilian cooperation. The work by all parties has come to fruition and the SPP signing ceremony between Texas and Chile is scheduled to be held in Austin on 27 April. NO SOFA ------Â¶22. (C) Chile does not have a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with any country. T he U.S. and Chile exchanged diplomatic notes to provide limited protections to DOD personnel in Chile for military exercises in 2005 and 2006, but failed to conclude a similar agreement in subsequent years. Despite the lack of a bilateral agreement granting protections and immunities, SOUTHCOM proceeded with CY 2007 military exercises and exchanges, and continued to do the same in 2008 and 2009. These included several successful joint exercises, including JCETs with the Chilean Army and Carabineros (national police) Special Forces, Partnership of the Americas Initiative (which included a Chilean frigate), UNITAS (Pacific), Teamwork South Naval exercises, the Marines' Southern Exchange, Exercises WILLKA and NEWEN with the Chilean Air Force (FACH), an Army platoon exchange program with the 101st Airborne Division, and a SOCSOJCET in May 2008. Â¶23. (C) Before entering into formal SOFA-related discussions with the U.S., the GOC must first enact a law granting the executive branch the authority to negotiate SOFAs. This legislation was introduced into Congress in March 2007, but ran into opposition from members who (together with Chile's Supreme Court) believe it would grant an unjustifiably large number of foreigners immunity from local jurisdiction. The draft bill's lack of reciprocity for Chileans abroad is also a concern. Senior Chilean government officials have told USG officials that the Chilean Congress most likely will not approve a draft law which does not include mutual reciprocity. During the April 2008 DCC meeting, the Chileans told us they are preparing a new draft proposal for the Congress, which specifically addresses this concern, although whether this proposal would be acceptable to the U.S. and the Chilean Congress remains to be seen. To date this draft has not been introduced to Congress. Â¶24. (C) In March 2007, Chile endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), participated in May 2008 PSI exercises, and is considering joining the PSI Operational Experts Group (OEG). However, it is unlikely the GOC will reach a decision on the OEG before the national elections in 2009. Chile also endorsed the Global Initiative Against Nuclear Terrorism. The GOC is interested in joining the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the Wassenaar Arrangement, and the Australia Group, and has requested U.S. support and assistance. Chile also co-sponsored the OAS MANPADS resolution. Chile enforces the U.S. Coast Guard's International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, but is not a signatory to the Container Security Initiative or the Megaports Initiative. New South American Defense Council ---------------------------------Â¶25. (U) The proposed South American Defense Council (SADC) would be an integrated defense alliance of Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) member countries. Theoretically the SADC would function to prevent local conflicts, coordinate defense policies, contribute to UN and other humanitarian missions, and coordinate military technology and resources. The creation of the SADC was approved by UNASUR members, including Chile, in December 2008 at a summit of Latin American and Caribbean leaders in Brazil, but organizational documents must be approved by the proposed members before the SADC can be officially created. However, what was agreed was that each respective country would maintain separate defense industries and that the SADC would be based upon defense cooperation between nations with an emphasis on training and equipment issues. UNASUR was unable to come to a consensus on who should be SADC Secretary General. A meeting has been scheduled for April 2009 to discuss and vote on this issue.
ICC Ratification Near, But No Article 98 ---------------------------------------Â¶26. (C) Chile has signed but not yet ratified the International Criminal Court Rome Statute. The Bachelet Administration and the Concertacion coalition support ratification and are working out final details to amend the constitution and ultimately ratify the Statute. Concerns about the potential cutoff of U.S. military assistance under the American Service Members Protection Act (ASPA) had been a factor in delaying ratification. However, with IMET, FMF and EDA safely protected from ASPA sanctions, ICC ratification in 2009 appears increasingly likely. The GOC has repeatedly told us that there is no political support in Chile for an Article 98 agreement. Helping in Haiti ---------------- 27. (C) Chile self-deployed a battalion to Haiti on 48 hours notice in February 2004. In May 2008, Chile's Congress voted to extend Chile's 500-plus peacekeeping troops for one more year, to June 2009. Some opposition members of Congress opposed the measure and question the need for Chilean troops to remain in Haiti now that elections have taken place. They remain concerned about Chilean casualties (four wounded, no deaths to date, although one Chilean peacekeeper committed suicide while on R&R in the Dominican Republic), deployment costs, and the perceived slow pace of funding for economic development programs. 28. (C) The GOC is especially concerned about coastal security. It believes the U.S. Coast Guard should take the leading role in securing Haiti's coasts to stem the flow of drugs and weapons/munitions. Chile would like to see donors disburse pledges more rapidly and completely, an increase in maritime interdiction capacity, and a shift in MINUSTAH composition from military to civilian police. A February 2009 visit by MOD Goni and CHOD Lt Gen Ewing to Haiti focused on building Haitian civilian law enforcement and security capabilities as a requirement for Haitian prosperity. Showing Peacekeeping Leadership ------------------------------Â¶29. (SBU) Chile has contributed small contingents to UN missions in Cyprus, Bosnia and Kosovo, in addition to the troops and engineers currently stationed in Haiti. Chile and Argentina are working to stand up a joint peacekeeping battalion as a standby unit for United Nations PKOs. Chile also responded positively to the U.S. request to support the Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative (GPOI), by sending three PKO trainers to assist the Conference of Latin American Armed Forces peacekeeping center in Guatemala in April 2007. The Chilean Congress approved a bill that establishes rules and procedures for deploying Chilean PKO personnel abroad in the future. Â¶30. (SBU) The USG has supported Chile's PKO contribution in Haiti through FMF. We provided helmets, flak jackets and other accessories, vehicle spare parts, and water purification equipment. Ten HMMWVs are pending delivery to Chile's CECOPAC joint peacekeeping training facility and the Navy. The U.S. has provided over USD one million to CECOPAC for training facilities in the past, including five English language labs to the Chilean Army last year to support greater English language proficiency in the military. Military Sales and Transfers ---------------------------Â¶31. (C) In March 2007, the U.S. delivered the last two of ten new Block 52 F-16 fighter aircraft-the first major purchase of U.S. equipment since the 1976 U.S. cut-off of military sales during the Pinochet era. Chile also received 18 reconditioned Block 15 F-16s (mid-life upgrade--MLU), with Block 50-like capabilities from the Netherlands. An LOA for a USD 45 million, five-year FMS support case for these aircraft was submitted to the FACH and signed on May 15, 2008. Delivery of U.S. manufactured weapons systems for the aircraft purchased from the U.S. began in 2007 and include AIM 9M Sidewinder, AIM 120 C5 AMRAAM, GBU 31 JDAM, AGM65 G2 Maverick, and GBU 10/12 Paveway. It should be noted that the Chilean Air Force (FACH) also purchased Derby and Python 4 air-to-air missiles for their F-5, F-16 MLU, and F-16 Block 52 fighters from Israel. Â¶32. (C/NF) After being offered the USG grant of two Excess Defense Article (EDA) KC-135E refueling aircraft for USD 42 million, the FACH instead decided to pursue acquisition of an
alternative fixed boom air refueling capability for their F-16s, contracting with EADS for purchase of two modified Airbus A-310 MultiRole Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft, reportedly for USD 114 million. The acquisition of A-310s was problematic and the FACH canceled the contract due to expense and long delivery times. The FACH has recently submitted an official Letter of Request (LOR) for three KC-135E aircraft and requested delivery of at least one operational aircraft by October 2009. Other recent developments in FACH weapons system acquisition are the potential purchase of 16 additional used F-16 aircraft from the Dutch, as well as an LOR for the Avenger air defense system. If selected, this system could reaffirm benefits of the FMS program. Â¶33. (C) Additionally, the Chilean Ministry of the Interior may be to be interested in a medium-lift helicopter for domestic missions, with both the Blackhawk and the Russian Mi-17-V5 receiving the strongest considerations. Ambassador Simons has made forceful presentations on behalf of the Blackhawk to both the FACH Commander in Chief as well as the Minister of the Interior. However it appears that a decision is not imminent at this time. The FACH recently contracted with Bell for 1218 model 412 utility medium-light helicopters. Â¶34. (C) With regards to space, the FACH has expressed interest in training and education in space operations and information on other cooperative opportunities. In October 2008 they inaugurated a satellite imagery download and processing station, consisting of U.S-purchased radar and data processing equipment. Chile reportedly will purchase imagery on the commercial market until they can use their own earth observation satellite. The GOC recently awarded a contract for approximately USD 70 million to EADS-Astrium to develop the satellite, which reportedly will also be used for defense-related purposes. The satellite is scheduled to be launched from China in 2010 as a part of Chile,s bicentennial celebration. Â¶35. (SBU) The Army and Navy are also considering significant purchases of U.S.-manufactured systems. In 2006, the Chilean Army received 72 of a projected 200 M1098A2 series HMMWVs, and has nearly exhausted its first FMS case for USD 600,000 in spare parts for the M-113 A2/M548 A1 FOV. The Army has requested its first major purchase FMS case for 12 M109A5 self-propelled 155 mm Howitzers. The Army is interested in future government-to-government purchases to enable transparency of future acquisitions and support life-cycle interoperability via FMS. The Chilean Army and Air Force are considering acquiring together a short-to-medium range air defense system that is being offered by the U.S. Army. Both services requested Letters of Offer and Acceptance for the AVENGER system, which includes the SENTINEL radar. If selected, this system could reaffirm benefits of the FMS program, build greater interoperability, and further strengthen military ties between the U.S. and Chile. The Army has also expressed interest in acquiring MILES equipment and training, engineering equipment, and cargo aircraft. Lastly, the Chilean Army has requested a Letter of Offer and Acceptance to establish an office at USASAC New Cumberland. The Chilean Army FMS office at USASAC New Cumberland is a priority for the Army to equal its sister services acquisition benefits and will be the linchpin for additional FMS cases being established. 36. (SBU) Over the last four years, the Chilean Navy has modernized its entire surface combatant force through the purchase of four frigates from the U.K. (one Type 22 and three Type 23 frigates) and four frigates from the Dutch (two L Class and two M Class frigates). The Navy has ordered Harpoon launch systems and upgrades for all eight recently acquired frigates (this order included 22 Harpoon BLK 1C and a number of NATO Sea Sparrow missiles), and ordered the SM-1 missile launch system for the Type 22 frigate. Additionally, the Navy intends to upgrade the L Class frigates with the SM-2 missile launch system. The Navy, within the last year, took possession of 10 Harpoon BLK II missiles that were purchased from the U.S. in addition to 50 NATO Sea Sparrow rocket motors and miscellaneous equipment. The Chilean Navy is in the process of joining the U.S.organized Harpoon Missile International Users Group and has already joined the SM-1 Missile International Users Group (at a combined cost of approximately USD 17 Million). The Navy recently purchased KIT-1C MODE IV IFF for their Cougar helicopters, four Defender Class Patrol Boats, P-3 pilot training in Jacksonville Florida, and the C2PC Command and Control system for their Marine Corps ground forces. Â¶37. (C) In 2007, the Chilean Navy took possession of the second of two Scorpene Class
submarines built by a French/Spanish consortium (DCNS of France and Navantia of Spain). The Chilean Navy has asked for a Letter of Offer and Acceptance to purchase the US Navy Oiler, Andrew J. Higgins. The November 2008 Congressional notification authorized the LOA to be presented. On November 17, 2008, CNO Roughead submitted a letter expressing the oiler,s availability, and on December 18 both Adm Codina and Adm Roughead signed an MOA regarding utilization of the oiler in support of USN maritime operations. The approximate value of the Higgins transfer is USD 48 million. Unusual Copper Law. Â¶38. (SBU) Chilean law requires that 10 percent of earnings from the state-owned copper company, Codelco, be set aside for the Chilean Armed Forces for military acquisitions. However, the Chilean military does not yet have a multi-year budgeting system, and the so-called "copper funds" cannot be used for operations and maintenance expenses (e.g. maintaining PKO troops in Haiti), deployments, or military salaries. Proceeds from copper sales accumulate in a holding account held by the Finance Ministry and are not readily available for use as the Armed Forces choose. Instead, funds are distributed annually from this account to sustain approved acquisition programs, which are subject to civilian oversight. The Armed Forces reportedly are receiving payouts for acquisitions that average around USD 740 million per year. A goal of the Bachelet Administration has been to rescind the &Copper Law,8 but as the price of copper declined by more than half of its 2008 average, pressure to rescind the law dissipated. Additionally, until the MOD submits an alternative multi-year funding system, the prospects of the &Copper Law8 going away are slim. SIMONSPP
00000000000000000000 Kentucky Train Collision with Disk UFO, 2002 .......by Paintsville, Kentucky -- At exactly 2:47 a.m. on January 14, 2002, while working a coal train enroute from Russell, Kentucky to Shelbiana, Kentucky, our trailing unit and first two cars were severely damaged as we struck an unknown floating or hovering object. I know it was 2:47 because my watch froze, and to this day shows that time. Along with my watch the entire electrical systems on both locomotives went haywire. Approaching a bend near milepost 42 in an area referred to as the Wild Kingdom, for the many different types of animals spotted there, my conductor and I saw lights coming from around the way. This ordinarily means another train is coming and will pass on the other track. The outlay of the area is this, the river, #1 track, #2 tracks and a straight up mountainside, carved out for the laying of these tracks. I killed our lights as not to blind the oncoming crew. As we rounded the corner our onboard computer began to flash in and out, speed recorder went nuts, and both locomotives died. Alarm bells began to ring and that’s when we saw the objects. Apparently scanning the river for something. At least three objects had several "search" lights trained there, the first object hovered about 10 to 12 feet above the track. It was metallic silver in color with multiple colored lights near the bottom and in the middle. There were no windows or openings of any kind that we could see. It was 18 to 20 feet in length and probably ten feet high. With both engines dead as we rounded the corner we made little noise and the first object did not respond in time, I estimate that we hit the object at 30 mph with 16,000 trailing tons behind us. It clipped the top of our lead unit then skipped back slicing a chunk out of our trailing unit and first two coal cars. The other objects vanished. Our emergency brakes had initiated due to the loss of power and we stopped approximately a mile
and a half to two miles after impact. Our power restored after we were stopped and we notified our dispatcher, located in Jacksonville, Florida of what had happened. We were told to inspect the cars to see if they'd hold the rail and try to limp into milepost cmg 60 which used to be the Paintsville yard which is no longer in full operation. We checked everything out and the cab of the rear locomotive was demolished and smoking, the second two cars looked as if they had been hit with a giant hammer, but looked like they'd hold the rail. We pulled into Paintsville yard at approximately 5:15 am. The huge overhead lights lining the yard were noticeably dark and the only lights came from what we assumed were railroad officials vehicles parked near the end of the track. We pulled to a stop and began unloading our grips off the wounded train. We could hear what sounded like an army of workers immediately tending to our train. Vehicle doors slamming, guys running by in weird outfits and lights glaring from all directions, the one thing missing was railroad officials. A guy named Ferguson shook my hand and asked me to follow him into the old yard office. We did, once inside they, and by they I mean I have no idea who these people were, began to ask us hundreds of questions, they then told us for our own protection we'd be medically tested before we could leave. I asked repeatedly to talk to my road foreman or trainmaster and not only were these requests denied but they confiscated my conductor’s cellular phone. Hours later we were led outside the old yard office and the strange things continued to happen, the 2 locomotives and two cars were removed from the rest of the train we had brought in and my only guess was parked 4 tracks over under a huge tent like structure buzzing with activity. We were led off the property and told, due to national security, our silence on this matter would be appreciated. We were then put in a railroad vehicle and taken to Martin, Kentucky were we went through questioning again with railroad officials and were then drug tested. After all of this we were sent on to Shelbiana, where we took rest for 8 hours and worked another train back to Russell. Working back we passed by Paintsville, no sign of the engines, cars, tent, people, nothing. 000000000000
WikiLeaks Set To Reveal US-UFO War In Southern Ocean ...................................By: Sorcha Faal
A new report circulating in the Kremlin today prepared for President Medvedev by Russian Space Forces (VKS) 45th Division of Space Control says that an upcoming WikiLeaks release of secret US cables details that the Americans have been “engaged” since 2004 in a “war” against UFO’s based on or near the Continent of Antarctica, particularly the Southern Ocean. According to this report, the United States went to its highest alert level on June 10, 2004 after a massive fleet of UFO’s [photo 2nd left, click for video here] “suddenly emerged” from the Southern Ocean and approached Guadalajara, Mexico barely 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) from the American border. Prior to reaching the US border, however, this massive UFO fleet is said in this report to have “dimensionally returned” to their Southern Ocean “home base”. The fears of the Americans regarding these Southern Ocean UFO’s began, this report says, during the unprecedented events of July 11, 1991 (referred to as 7/11) when during the Solar Eclipse these mysterious aircraft appeared by the hundreds over nearly all of Mexico, even their Capital city. Most notable about the events of 7/11 were that as millions of Mexicans were watching on their televisions the National broadcasts [click for video here] of these UFO’s over Mexico City, the American media refused to allow their people to view it. Since 2004, this report continues, fleets of Southern Ocean UFO’s have continued to emerge from their bases, with the latest such event being this Friday past when another of their massive fleets
was sighted over the South American Nation of Chile. The “immediate danger” to our World when these massive UFO fleets emerge from the Southern Ocean, this report warns, are the massive waves caused by their sudden eruption from what are believed to be their underwater base, or bases. In the past week alone, the Clelia II, an Antarctic cruise ship with 160 people onboard, was nearly capsized [click here to see video] when hit by waves generated by these UFO’s emerging from the Southern Ocean, and just today the Number One Insung has been reported sunk with only 20 of its 42 member crew said saved due to the same cause. Interesting to note in this report is its confirming our October 14th report US Shuts Down New York City Airspace Over UFO ‘Threat’ that these same Southern Ocean UFO’s were responsible for the closing of the airspace over New York City this past fall (October 13th) when they “appeared” openly and were witnessed by tens of thousands of people, and which, coincidentally, occurred during the same time frame as the mysterious Crystal Skulls of the ancient South American peoples were being exhibited there too. Even more interesting to note is that the mysterious earthquakes being reported in the Gulf of Aden (where another “extraterrestrial” event is currently ongoing and we had reported on in our December 1st report Mysterious ‘Vortex’ Warned Is Creating Global Weather Catastrophe) are now being reported occurring in the Southern Ocean too. This report goes on to state that after WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange warned last week that he would begin releasing secret US cables relating to these Southern Ocean UFO’s, and the Americans “war” against them, he was immediately arrested by British Police on trumped up charges issued by the Swedish government which in our December 8th report, Global Rebellion Erupts After “Unprotected Sex Meets Disrobed Governments”, we noted were engineered against him as a “classic” CIA “Honey Trap”. Note: Since our last report on the EU-US frame-up of Assange it is now being reported that one of his two accusers, Anna Ardin, has fled Sweden and is now in hiding in the Palestinian territories. To if Assange, or his WikiLeaks website, will survive to see the whole release of these Southern Ocean UFO files it is not to our knowing, nor does this report say. What is in our knowing, however, and when coupled with the information we reported on in our December 10th report Massive Earthquake Fears Rise After Mysterious Object Moves Nearer To Earth, suggests that the timing of these events, as we near the December 20/21 Total Lunar Eclipse, and as Mercury turns retrograde and joins Mars as it forms a conjunction with Pluto, that the ending of this year, 2010, truly marks the ending of this age as prophesied by the ancients. In the Sorcha Faal’s seminal work published in 2007, Battle Begins For Throne of This World: The Return of the Einherjar Warriors, she notes that in these “last days” the “guideposts” to what the future will hold for humanity does, indeed, rest hidden to the discerning reader in the words handed down to us by the ancients, none being more important in this case than those of Nostradamus, who in writing of this coming Lunar Eclipse and feared conjunctions warned: “The arms to fight in the sky a long time, The tree in the middle of the city fallen: Sacred bough clipped, steel, in the face of the firebrand, Then the Monarch of Adria fallen.” Quatrain 3:11 Most ominously for our World today, “the tree in the middle of the city” has, indeed, “fallen” with
news from Glastonbury that the 2,000-year-old Holy Thorn Tree, one of Christianities oldest and most revered symbols, has been cut down by vandals. With the great tree now “fallen”, the battle for this Earth now moves to the “sky” until the “Monarch of Adria” (Pope Benedict XVI) has “fallen” too. © December 13, 2010 EU and US all rights reserved. Permission to use this report in its entirety is granted under the condition it is linked back to its original source at WhatDoesItMean.Com. [Ed. Note: Western governments and their intelligence services actively campaign against the information found in these reports so as not to alarm their citizens about the many catastrophic Earth changes and events to come, a stance that the Sisters of Sorcha Faal strongly disagrees with in believing that it is every human beings right to know the truth. Due to our missions conflicts with that of those governments, the responses of their ‘agents’ against us has been a longstanding misinformation/misdirection campaign designed to discredit and which is addressed in the report “Who Is Sorcha Faal?”.] pppppppppppp Modern Genomics.............. By Ana Maria Venegas With new tools that can grab individual strands of DNA and stretch them like rubber bands, Rice University scientists are working to unravel a mystery of modern genomics. Their latest findings, which appear in Physical Review Letters, offer new clues about the physical makeup of odd segments of DNA that have just one DNA base, adenine, repeated dozens of times in a row. These mysterious "poly(dA) repeats" are sprinkled throughout the human genome. Scientists have also found them in the genomes of animals, plants and other species over the past decade. But researchers do not know why they are there, what function they perform or why they occur only with the DNA base adenine and not the other three DNA bases -- cytosine, guanine and thymine. "Previous investigations of poly(dA) have suggested that adenine bases stack in a very uniform way," said Ching-Hwa Kiang, a co-author of the new study and assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Rice. "Our investigation focused on what happens when single strands of poly(dA) were stretched and these stacks were pulled apart." Kiang's research group specializes in studying the physical and mechanical properties of proteins and nucleic acids, and their primary tool is one of the mainstays of nanotechnology research -- the atomic force microscope, or AFM. The business end of an AFM is like a tiny phonograph needle. The tip of the needle is no more than a few atoms wide, and the needle is at the end of an arm that bobs up and down over the surface of what is being measured. While nanotechnologists use the device to measure the thickness of samples, Kiang's group uses it in a different way. To begin her experiments, Kiang first places a thin coating of the proteins she wishes to study on a flat surface. This is placed under the AFM arm so the bobbing AFM needle can dip down and grab the ends of one of the proteins. As the arm retracts, it unravels the protein. All proteins fold into a characteristic shape. Like tiny springs, they remain in this compact "lowest energy" state unless they are pried apart. The new study on poly(dA) was conducted by Kiang, Rice graduate student Wuen-shiu Chen and colleagues at Rice and National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) in Taiwan. The team discovered that poly(dA) behaves differently depending upon the speed with which it is stretched. When the AFM bobbed rapidly, the poly(dA) segments behaved like any other segment of single-stranded DNA. But when the AFM motion was slowed, the team found that the amount of force required to stretch the poly(dA) changed. At two particular locations, the strand lengthened for a short distance without any additional force at all.
"Typically, single strands of DNA behave like a rubber band: The resistance increases as they stretch, meaning you have to pull harder and harder to continue stretching them," Kiang said. "With poly(dA), we found these two points where that doesn't apply. It's as if you have to pull harder and harder, and then for a brief time, the band stretches with no additional force whatsoever." Kiang said the exact causes and implications of the phenomenon are unclear. But scientists know that double-stranded DNA must be pried apart at discrete locations so that the cell's machinery can read the genetic code and convert it into proteins. There has been some speculation that the adenine repeats play a role in ordering genomic information; Kiang said the new findings raise even more questions about the role the repeats might play in gene regulation and genome packaging and how they might be potential targets for cancer drugs.
English Translation of Mozart's Requiem ..................... By Ana Maria Venegas.
I. Introit: Requiem Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis. Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem. Exaudi orationem meam, ad te omnis care veniet. Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis. Grant them eternal rest, Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them. You are praised, God, in Zion, and homage will be paid to You in Jerusalem. Hear my prayer, to You all flesh will come. Grant them eternal rest, Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them. II. Kyrie Kyrie, eleison. Christe, eleison. Kyrie, eleison. Lord, have mercy on us. Christ, have mercy on us. Lord, have mercy on us. III. Sequence 1. Dies irae Dies irae, dies illa Solvet saeclum in favilla, teste David cum Sibylla. Quantus tremor est futurus,
quando judex est venturus, cuncta stricte discussurus!
Day of wrath, day of anger will dissolve the world in ashes, as foretold by David and the Sibyl. Great trembling there will be when the Judge descends from heaven to examine all things closely.
2. Tuba mirum Tuba mirum spargens sonum per sepulcra regionum, coget omnes ante thronum. The trumpet will send its wondrous sound throughout earth's sepulchres and gather all before the throne. Mors stupebit et natura, cum resurget creatura, judicanti responsura. Liber scriptus proferetur, in quo totum continetur, unde mundus judicetur.
Death and nature will be astounded, when all creation rises again, to answer the judgement. A book will be brought forth, in which all will be written, by which the world will be judged.
Judex ergo cum sedebit, quidquid latet, apparebit, nil inultum remanebit. When the judge takes his place, what is hidden will be revealed, nothing will remain unavenged.
Quid sum miser tunc dicturus? quem patronum rogaturus, cum vix justus sit securus?
What shall a wretch like me say? Who shall intercede for me, when the just ones need mercy?
3. Rex tremendae Rex tremendae majestatis, qui salvandos savas gratis, salve me, fons pietatis. King of tremendous majesty, who freely saves those worthy ones, save me, source of mercy. 4. Recordare Recordare, Jesu pie, quod sum causa tuae viae; ne me perdas illa die. Quaerens me, sedisti lassus, redemisti crucem passus; tantus labor non sit cassus. Juste judex ultionis, donum fac remissionis ante diem rationis. Ingemisco, tamquam reus: culpa rubet vultus meus; supplicanti parce, Deus. Qui Mariam absolvisti, et latronem exaudisti, mihi quoque spem dedisti. Preces meae non sunt dignae, sed tu, bonus, fac benigne, ne perenni cremer igne. Inter oves locum praesta, Et ab haedis me sequestra, Statuens in parte dextra.
Remember, kind Jesus, my salvation caused your suffering; do not forsake me on that day. Faint and weary you have sought me, redeemed me, suffering on the cross; may such great effort not be in vain. Righteous judge of vengeance, grant me the gift of absolution before the day of retribution. I moan as one who is guilty: owning my shame with a red face; suppliant before you, Lord. You, who absolved Mary,
and listened to the thief, give me hope also. My prayers are unworthy, but, good Lord, have mercy, and rescue me from eternal fire. Provide me a place among the sheep, and separate me from the goats, guiding me to Your right hand. 5. Confutatis Confutatis maledictis, flammis acribus addictis, voca me cum benedictus. Oro supplex et acclinis, cor contritum quasi cinis, gere curam mei finis. When the accused are confounded, and doomed to flames of woe, call me among the blessed. I kneel with submissive heart, my contrition is like ashes, help me in my final condition. 6. Lacrimosa Lacrimosa dies illa, qua resurget ex favilla judicandus homo reus. Huic ergo parce, Deus, pie Jesu Domine, dona eis requiem. Amen. That day of tears and mourning, when from the ashes shall arise, all humanity to be judged. Spare us by your mercy, Lord, gentle Lord Jesus, grant them eternal rest. Amen.
IV. Offertory I. Domine Jesu Domine Jesu Christe, Rex gloriae, libera animas omnium fidelium defunctorum de poenis inferni et de profundo lacu. Libera eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum. Sed signifer sanctus Michael repraesentet eas in lucem sanctam. Quam olim Abrahae promisisti
et semini ejus.
Lord Jesus Christ, King of glory, liberate the souls of the faithful, departed from the pains of hell and from the bottomless pit. Deliver them from the lion's mouth, lest hell swallow them up, lest they fall into darkness. Let the standard-bearer, holy Michael, bring them into holy light.
Which was promised to Abraham and his descendants. 2. Hostias Hostias et preces tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus. Tu sucipe pro animabus illis, quaram hodie memoriam facimus. Fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam, Quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini ejus. Sacrifices and prayers of praise, Lord, we offer to You. Receive them in behalf of those souls we commemorate today. And let them, Lord, pass from death to life, which was promised to Abraham and his descendants.
V. Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempiternam. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, grant them eternal rest. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, Grant them eternal rest. Lamb of God, who takes away
the sins of the world, grant them eternal rest forever.
VI. Communion: Lux aeterna Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine, cum sanctis tuis in aeternum, quia pius es. Requiem aeternum dona eis, Domine, et Lux perpetua luceat eis, cum Sanctus tuis in aeternum, quia pius es. Let eternal light shine on them, Lord, as with Your saints in eternity, because You are merciful. Grant them eternal rest, Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them, as with Your saints in eternity, because You are merciful.
-----------Science daily............................. By Seat Allday. Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 First liver transplant patients receive experimental drug to prevent hepatitis C infection Following a successful Phase 1 study for safety, researchers at MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School today announced the beginning of a Phase 2 clinical trial testing the ability of a human monoclonal antibody they developed to prevent hepatitis C virus infection of a donor liver in transplant patients. Contact: Michael Cohen email@example.com 508-868-4778 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Annals of Internal Medicine Storytelling may help control blood pressure in African-Americans A new study in the Jan. 19 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine suggests that a storytelling approach -- in which recognizable members of a community provide positive messages aimed at controlling hypertension through diet and medication adherence -- may help control hypertension in African-Americans. Contact: Mark Shelton firstname.lastname@example.org 508-856-2000 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 The right food supplements during pregnancy? Mothers-to-be can cover increased demands for most nutrients, vitamins and minerals with a balanced diet, but where dietary supplements are needed during pregnancy, knowledge may be a missing ingredient. According to a study conducted by the Chair of Nutritional Medicine at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen, pregnant women often start taking appropriate dietary supplements too late or not at all. Other micronutrients, whose effects during pregnancy have not yet been studied, may be unwittingly overdosed. Contact: Jana Bodicky email@example.com 49-816-171-5403 Technische Universitaet Muenchen
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Blood Discovery of a gene associated with a leukemia mostly affecting children Researchers from Universty of Quebec in Montreal made a major breakthrough in research on Bcell acute lymphocytic leukemia, a disease that occurs most commonly in children. She has successfully identified a gene that may facilitate the diagnosis of this cancer, which is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of B-cells, antibody-producing cells that defend the body against infection. Her findings were recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Blood. Contact: Claire Bouchard firstname.lastname@example.org 514-987-3111 Université du Québec à Montréal
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Angewandte Chemie Breakthrough for more efficient drug development Developing new drugs is a highly costly and time-consuming process. Of 20 candidates, 19 are normally rejected because they don't work or have unwanted side effects. Now a research team led by professor Lars Baltzer at Uppsala University has produced a tiny molecular "binder" that has the potential to change this landscape radically. Contact: Lars Baltzer email@example.com 46-070-648-2595 Uppsala University
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Naturwissenschaften Are sharks color blind? Sharks are unable to distinguish colors, even though their close relatives rays and chimeras have some color vision, according to new research by Dr. Nathan Scott Hart and colleagues. Their study shows that although the eyes of sharks function over a wide range of light levels, they only have a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type in the retina and therefore are potentially totally color blind. Hart and team's findings are published online in Springer's journal Naturwissenschaften --
The Science of Nature. Australian Research Council, Sea World Research and Rescue Foundation Contact: Renate Bayaz firstname.lastname@example.org 49-622-148-78531 Springer
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Nanotech medicine To rebuild damaged parts of a human body from scratch is a dream that has long fired human imagination, from Mary Shelley's Doctor Frankenstein to modern day surgeons. Now, a team of European scientists, working in the frame of the EUREKA project ModPolEUV, has made a promising contribution to reconstructive surgery thanks to an original multidisciplinary approach matching cutting-edge medicine to the latest developments in nanotechnology. EUREKA Contact: Piotr Pogorzelski email@example.com 322-777-0979 EUREKA
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics New research examines how HIV infections occur on the molecular level The UK's National Physical Laboratory with the University of Edinburgh and IBM's TJ Watson Research Center have published new research about the structure of an HIV-1 protein that could help to develop new drugs to stop the virus infecting healthy cells. Contact: Joe Meaney firstname.lastname@example.org 44-845-680-1864 National Physical Laboratory
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Journal of Natural History 2 new species of 'leaping' beetles discovered in New Caledonia Only five species of these so-called "flea" beetles, out of a global total of 60, had been found to date in New Caledonia, in the western Pacific. A three-year study has now enabled Spanish researchers to discover two new herbivorous beetles -- Arsipoda geographica and Arsipoda rostrata. These new beetles hold a secret -- they feed on plants that the scientists have still not found on the archipelago. Contact: SINC email@example.com 34-932-309-643 FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Weizmann Institute scientists discover: Antioxidants cause fertility problems in females Antioxidants are sold over the counter everywhere. They're added to food, drink and face cream. But new research by professor Nava Dekel and her team of the Weizmann Institute of Science has revealed a possible unexpected side effect of antioxidants: They might cause fertility problems in females. Their results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Contact: Yivsam Azgad firstname.lastname@example.org 972-893-43856 Weizmann Institute of Science
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Genes & Development A different path to fat-related heart disease Fruit fly study demonstrates how lipotoxic cardiomyopathy might occur in genetically obese individuals, revealing potential therapeutic targets for fat-related heart disease. American Heart Association, Ellison Medical Foundation, NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Contact: Josh Baxt email@example.com 858-795-5236 Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Environmental Conservation Scientists: Big city life may alter green attitudes People with good jobs found in large cities are more likely to engage in pro-environmental activities. So says a new study of China's environmental behavior published this week in the British journal Environmental Conservation. For the first time, scientists weighed employment and leadership when considering how people act regarding their natural surroundings. They found the status and political power of companies in cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin strongly influence the conservation practices of their employees. Contact: Bobbie Mixon firstname.lastname@example.org 703-292-8485 National Science Foundation
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Environmental Conservation Big city life may make residents lean toward green, study says The downsides of China's explosive urbanization -- like pollution and greenhouse gas emissions -now are joined by an upside: better environmental citizens. It's the first time scientists have weighed employment and leadership when considering environmental behavior in China's cities to show that city size -- especially the good jobs there -- lead people to pro-environmental behavior, like recycling plastic bags and sorting their trash. National Science Foundation Contact: Jamie DePolo email@example.com 609-354-8403 Michigan State University
Public Release: 18-Jan-2011 Environmental Health Perspectives Findings on pollution damage to human airways could yield new therapies
Researchers from Duke University Medical Center have identified how nanoparticles from diesel exhaust damage lung airway cells, a finding that could lead to new therapies for people susceptible to airway disease. The scientists also discovered that the severity of the injury depends on the genetic make-up of the affected individual. Duke University, RJ Reynolds Inc., Philip Morris USA Inc., Philip Morris International, US Environmental Protection Agency Contact: Mary Jane Gore firstname.lastname@example.org 919-660-1309 Duke University Medical Center
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Nature Physics Beating the competition Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization discover how the size of networks can sky-rocket. Contact: Dr. Birgit Krummheuer email@example.com 0049-173-395-8625 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Aberrations in adipose tissue could increase risk of diabetes in PCOS A study from the University of Gothenburg, shows that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have aberrations in their adipose (fat) tissue. This discovery could provide answers as to why these women develop type 2 diabetes more readily, and shows that it is important for their health that women with PCOS do not put on weight. Contact: Louise Mannerås-Holm firstname.lastname@example.org 46-031-786-3557 University of Gothenburg
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Experimental Biology and Medicine Activation of PPAR a/? mediates remote IPC against myocardial infarction Although vast improvements have been made in the clinical care of patients suffering from an acute myocardial infarction, heart attacks still remain the No. 1 cause of death in the western world. A promising approach in overcoming this troublesome issue is to make use of an innate cardioprotective response: the ability of short ischemic episodes to precondition the heart against a subsequent prolonged ischemic insult. Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research Contact: Dr. Christopher Lotz email@example.com 93-120-130-719 Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Kidney gene implicated in increased heart failure risk Scientists have identified the first DNA sequence variant common in the population that is not only associated with an increased risk of heart failure, but appears to play a role in causing it. The variant, a change in a single letter of the DNA sequence, impairs channels that control kidney function. National Institutes of Health Contact: Joni Westerhouse firstname.lastname@example.org 314-286-0120 Washington University School of Medicine
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Reducing diet early in pregnancy stunts fetal brain development The fetal brain is vulnerable to even moderate decreases in nutrition during the first half of pregnancy, a new study by Texas and German researchers indicates. Contact: Will Sansom email@example.com 210-567-2579 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Oil giant plans new platform near feeding ground of critically endangered whale Sakhalin Energy Investment Company -- part owned by Shell -- has announced plans to build a major oil platform near crucial feeding habitat of the Western North Pacific gray whale population. Only around 130 whales of the critically endangered Western population exist today, and their primary feeding habitat -- off Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East -- is already besieged by multiple oil and gas exploration and development projects. Contact: Natalia Reiter NReiter@wwfint.org 41-223-649-550 World Wildlife Fund
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Journal of General Physiology Massive endocytosis in cells In three papers in the January and February issues of the Journal of General Physiology, Don Hilgemann and colleagues have extensively characterized a previously unidentified process by which up to 75 percent of the cell plasma membrane can be reversibly endocytosed. Contact: Rita Sullivan firstname.lastname@example.org 212-327-8603 Rockefeller University Press
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Magnetically controlled pill could boost body's absorption of drugs Many drugs can only be absorbed in very specific parts of the intestine. In a new paper, Brown University scientists describe a new system that can safely hold a magnetic gelatin capsule in place anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract of a rat. In humans, the system could improve drug delivery and pharmacological research. Contact: David Orenstein David_Orenstein@brown.edu 401-863-1862 Brown University
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Sixth International Conference on Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine RevaTen platelet-rich plasma shows promise as potential treatment for heart attacks Platelet-rich plasma, successfully used to treat soft tissue injuries, has only recently been studied in cardiovascular medicine. A pre-clinical investigation by Stanford researchers indicates the healing properties of PRP might be beneficial in treating heart attacks and cardiovascular disease. BioParadox, Inc. Contact: Patti Davis email@example.com 630-920-8042 DAVIS MEDPR, Inc.
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Canadian Medical Association Journal Binge drinking: Too prevalent and hazardous Binge drinking, an activity that many young people engage in, has associated adverse health risks and we need to do a better job of controlling overall alcohol usage, states an editorial in CMAJ. Contact: Kim Barnhardt firstname.lastname@example.org 613-520-7116 x2224 Canadian Medical Association Journal
Public Release: 17-Jan-2011 Canadian Medical Association Journal Common antibiotics and blood pressure medication may result in hospitalization Mixing commonly used antibiotics with common blood pressure medications may cause hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure) and induce shock in older patients, requiring hospitalization, according to a study published in CMAJ. Institute for Clinical Evaluation Sciences, Ontario Drug Innovation Fund Contact: Kim Barnhardt email@example.com 613-520-7116 x2224 Canadian Medical Association Journal
Nanotech Medicine To rebuild damaged parts of a human body from scratch is a dream that has long fired human imagination, from Mary Shelley's Doctor Frankenstein to modern day surgeons. Now, a team of European scientists has made a promising contribution to reconstructive surgery thanks to an original multidisciplinary approach matching cutting-edge medicine to the latest developments in nanotechnology. Published on: 2011-01-18 According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), an estimated 322,000 deaths globally per year are linked to severe injuries from fire and in many of these cases death could have been avoided with surgical intervention. In this type of intervention, when major burns patients have insufficient skin left to graft on the most damaged part of their body, new skin has literally to be grown from the patient’s own skin cells. However, the long delay in growing the skin can expose the burns patient to increased risk of infection and dehydration; so to help those cells to multiply, specialists use a particular kind of component called polymeric material. Because of their extraordinary range of properties, polymeric materials play a ubiquitous role in our daily life. This role ranges from familiar synthetic plastics: plastic bags or yoghurt cups, to natural biopolymers such as wood or proteins that are present in the human body. New nano-structured materials It has been known for the last few years that man made synthetic polymeric materials have the potential to grow and multiply human cells. ‘About 10 years ago, scientists discovered the important influence that nano-structures had on the way a line of cells would develop. It was the beginning of an entire new scientific field, somewhere between medicine and nanotechnology,’ says Professor Johannes Heitz, Senior Research Associate at the University of Linz, Austria and main coordinator of the ModPolEUV project. In the case of human skin cells, re-implantation of the tissue can be performed once a sufficient amount of skin is obtained, by growing it on a polymeric material surface. However, in many cases, imperfections in the material structure can make the process relatively long and sometimes inefficient, with cells developing erratically. The team of Austrian, Czech and Polish scientists involved in the research project managed to develop a new and simple way to create nano-structured materials that would allow a better development of human cells. It was the beginning of an entire new scientific field, somewhere between medicine and nanotechnology. The Polish partner in the team, the Military University of Technology of Warsaw, has been in charge of the development of the new laser-based technology called EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) that was used for the creation of the nano-structured polymer surfaces. A beam of EUV light formed with a unique mirror developed by the Czech partner REFLEX S.R.O is directed on the surface allowing the creation of new kinds of polymeric materials. This innovative technique allows for a very high degree of precision, from 10 to 20 nanometres, whereas conventional techniques allowed only for a maximal precision level of 100 nanometres. ‘One of the newest theories in the field of cell growing is that the smaller the structure, the wider the possibilities to manipulate cells,’ says Professor Heitz. A wide range of human cells The EUV technique, thanks to its particular level of precision, also allows for the conservation of the material’s structure, which was not the case with other methods used to modify the polymer. ‘A
regular structure is essential if the material is to be used for the purpose of growing human cells,’ says Dr Henryk Fiederowicz, Professor at the Military University of Technology. The story does not end there. Nano-structures built through the EUV technique have the ability to influence the behaviour of organic cells and different kind of cells can be grown better and faster depending on the type of polymer surface used. The variety of material used to grow human stem cells will determinate the way cells will differentiate, meaning that they will transform into another human cell type. In other words: ‘Using one type of polymer material or another will help you grow different types of muscle, nerves, cells adapted to a human heart, bone or any other part of the human body,’ says Professor Heitz. Using one type of polymer material or another will help you grow different type of muscle, nerves, cells adapted to a human heart, bone or any other part of the human body. Thanks to their affinity to human tissue and cells, polymeric materials could also be used for designing entire artificial implants. Indeed, many types of implants are already being made out of polymer materials, such as heart valves and bloods vessels. Using the EUV technique would reduce the odds of implant rejection, as the range of new materials created could be adapted to interact perfectly with specific parts of a patient's body. Broad applications All partners agree on the fact that EUREKA has helped them to find elsewhere in Europe the expertise and skills unavailable in their own countries. The next step is to bring their innovation to the market. The Military Institute of Technology has already handled several EUV installations to laboratories in the USA, Germany, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, China and South Korea. It is now preparing for a full commercial phase, in partnership with the Polish company PREVAC, a leader in the market of high-precision instruments. Applications of this novel technique could go far beyond nano-medicine and bio-technologies. An important potential market could be the one of micro-electronics, with its ever-expanding need for high-precision lithography; applications could be proposed to every type of industry where nanostructures are used. For instance, in micro-mechanics, integrated optics, wear reduction or the production of nano-composite materials. For researchers at Linz University, the cell-growing technology is still in a testing phase and Professor Heitz prefers not to be overwhelmed by enthusiasm, even though he concedes that results have been ‘very encouraging so far’. ‘The interaction of cells with which structure dimensions are below 100 nanometres is currently the topic of a huge international effort,’ he says. Despite the importance of the innovation ‘our contribution is very small when compared to the many other laboratories working in this field at the moment’. According to Professor Heitz, ‘recreating whole organs is still a scientist’s dream’. Yet the outcome of the E! 3892 ModPolEUV project might just have brought the dream a little closer to reality. '''''''''''
As I understand, our present Universe sprouts from another, bigger one, and it's still expanding from the initial explosion or big bang. Matter and energy is the same thing, in different state, The law of entropy Statistical mechanics demonstrates that entropy is governed by probability, thus allowing for a decrease in disorder even in a closed system. Although this is possible, such an event has a small probability of occurring, making it unlikely. Even if such event were to occur, it would result in a
transient decrease that would affect only a limited number of particles in the system. The Sense of rightness
--- firstname.lastname@example.org escribió: From: YouTube Service To: heliosium Subject: Reply from 19justinbrown88 on "Ancient Alien Nephilim, Giants, Mutants, Genetic Engineering, and Hybrids(2 of 4)" Date: Sun, 16 Jan 2011 23:12:29 -0800 (PST)
help center | e-mail options | report spam 19justinbrown88 has replied to your comment on Ancient Alien Nephilim, Giants, Mutants, Genetic Engineering, and Hybrids (2 of 4): @heliosium Can matter and energy come from nothing? Can structure, order, DNA, life, thoughts, feelings, emotions, desires, hate, love, and everything else come from nothing and evolve over long periods of time, overcoming the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (The Law of Entropy: the tendancy for order to become disorder and available energy to be lost)? Where did our sense of right and wrong come from? The society impose on us a code of conduct from the begining of our life. Depending in which society you are born, the code you'll had to use or not use- I can kill and maim and be nasty, but society will chastise me if caught. The easy way is to became one more obedient person, and that's what the majority of people does. Why do we think that killing people is wrong or that stealing is wrong? You can reply back by visiting the comments page. © 2011 YouTube, LLC 901 Cherry Ave, San Bruno, CA 94066
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Mike Luckmanto plans for the cosmic majority 2012........................by UFO ACTIVIST MIKE LUCKMANTO OUTLINE HIS PLANS FOR THE COSMIC MAJORITY 2012 T. Peter Park Thu, 02 Dec 2010 21:40:35 -0800 NEWS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE PRESS CONTACT: Michael C. Luckman (212) 995-0384 UFO ACTIVIST TO OUTLINE HIS PLANS FOR THE COSMIC MAJORITY 2012 ON THE KATE VALENTINE SHOW ON DECEMBER 11 AT 12 MIDNIGHT UFO leader Michael C. Luckman will outline his plans for the Cosmic Majority 2012, including a high energy Las Vegas educational/entertainment spectacular titled "2012: Boom or Doom?," on the Kate Valentine Show on Saturday, December 11, 2010 at 12 midnight, on The Apple (970 AM), New York City. Besides providing details of the Cosmic Majority 2012 supershow, Luckman will discuss launching a New York City Extraterrestrial Ballot Initiative and the formation of The Committee of 1,000 Humans to Welcome Extraterrestrials to Earth. Luckman, who is author of a critically acclaimed book, "Alien Rock: The Rock 'n Roll Extraterrestrial Connection," published by Pocket Books and VH1 and read by British royalty, will give an update on rock and pop superstars and their close encounters with UFOs and alien beings. Luckman is one of the few people in the world who has his fingers on the pulse on the skyrocketing UFO and 2012 movements. This is one radio show not to be missed!
Romanian fighter jet hit by UFOs Thursday, June 12, 2008 Officials from the Romanian Defense Military confirmed that one of their MiG-21 Lancer fighter planes was struck by four Unidentified Flying Objects on October 31, 2007, which shattered the plane's cockpit. The military also released a video captured by the plane's on-board camera as it was flying above Transylvania. The recording shows solid bodies, which authorities are working to determine the identity of. Officials have already been able to determine the bodies were not birds or pieces of another plane, a meteorite or ice. Rocket launches and ground artillery shots were also ruled out as possible explanations for the incident. The pilot, Marin Mitrica, was injured slightly but managed to safely land the plane. The investigation was passed to the Security Committee of European Air Forces. A similar incident happened in the United States in 1948. Captain Mantell, of the Kentucky Air National Guard, was sent to intercept a UFO that was in US airspace, and allegedly, he was shot down by the UFO. Further investigations revealed that he was unfamiliar with the F-51 (P-51 fighter plane of World War II era).
0000000000 Sugar and spinal cord.......................... by Sugar residues regulate growth and survival of nerve cells RUB researchers examine interaction of cells and extracellular matrix Researchers in Bochum have found out that certain sugar residues in the spinal cord regulate the growth and survival of nerve cells which control the movement of muscles. "We hope that our findings can improve regenerative treatment of nerve injuries", explains Prof. Dr. Stefan Wiese from the Molecular Cell Biology study group (Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology). The researchers report on these sugar residues in the environment of the cells, which is called the extracellular matrix, in the Journal of Neuroscience Research. The vision of healing nerves Brain and spinal cord comprise more than just nerve cells. The extracellular matrix, a complex scaffold of proteins with sugar residues, surrounds the cells and influences their well-being. Prof. Wiese's team is interested in the interaction of the matrix with a specific kind of nerve cells, which transmit signals from the brain to muscles (motoneurons). Because injured motoneurons lead to paralysis, clinicians have great interest in being able to influence the growth of these cells. "If we had a medication that could change the extracellular matrix so that it favours the growth and survival of nerve cells, that would be a large step in the treatment of nerve injuries after accidents or also for the treatment of diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis", says Prof. Wiese. Growing muscle-controlling nerve cells In cooperation with Prof. Dr. Andreas Faissner (Chair of Cell Morphology & Molecular Neurobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology), Dr. Alice Klausmeyer from Prof. Wiese's team cultivated motoneurons from the spinal cord of mice on various kinds of extracellular matrix, from which the researchers experimentally removed certain sugar residues (chondroitin sulfates). By comparing the
cell cultures with and without sugar residues, they were able to show that the residues control the growth and survival of the motoneurons. Staining, counting and measuring To express the growth of the cells in understandable figures, the cell biologists in Bochum measured the longest process of the motoneurons under a microscope and counted the number of processes which the cells had formed. With the help of the processes, the cells communicate and transmit signals across large distances. Some of the chondroitin sulfate sugar residues examined had a positive effect on the length and number of the processes, others had an inhibiting influence. The question of whether the growth of the nerve cells was supported or inhibited also depended on the kind of extracellular matrix with which a certain sugar residue was combined. Furthermore, the researchers stained for an enzyme in the motoneurons which is a marker for cell death. This analysis showed that the chondroitin sulfate sugar residues not only regulate the growth of the motoneurons, but can also lead to survival of these cells. The experiments performed by Dr. Klausmeyer and her colleagues were supported, amongst other things, by the RUB Rector's Office programme for start-up funding of research projects of the next scientific generation. Klausmeyer, A., Conrad, R., Faissner, A., Wiese, S.: Influence of glial-derived matrix molecules, especially chondroitin sulfates, on neurite growth and survival of cultured mouse embryonic motoneurons. In: J. Neurosci. Res. 89:127-41 (2011). DOI: 10.1002/jnr.22531 0000E.O. 12958: DECL: 2019/12/10 TAGS: PGOV CI SUBJECT: Countdown to Chile's Congressional Elections REF: A. SANTIAGO 899 B. SANTIAGO 755 C. SANTIAGO 919 Â¶D. SANTIAGO 448 E. SANTIAGO 484 CLASSIFIED BY: Weitzenkorn, Laurie, A/DCM, State REASON: 1.4(B), (D) Â¶1. (SBU) Summary: Individual races in this year's congressional elections are more competitive and uncertain than ever, although the elections may not produce much change in the overall makeup of the Chilean Congress. The governing Concertacion coalition will most likely regain its majority in the Senate, and match the opposition Alianza in the Chamber of Deputies. A number of small party and independent candidates, including communist party aspirants, will almost certainly win seats despite an electoral system that favors the two main blocks. The new Congress will largely continue the work of its predecessors, as pending legislation does not need to be reintroduced, while new legislative initiatives will be driven by the new President. End summary.
Congressional Elections ------------------------------Â¶2. (U) Some 8 million Chileans will vote in congressional elections on December 13, in addition to casting a ballot for president. Eighteen seats in the 38-member Senate and all 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies are in play. (Note: The remaining 20 senators will not face elections until 2014, as senators serve eight-year terms while deputies serve for four years. One of these senators is Concertacion presidential candidate Eduardo Frei (Ref A). End note.) Senators and deputies can be re-elected indefinitely and are not required to reside in the districts they represent. In fact, it is quite common for incumbents to change districts when running for re-election or for members of the lower house to make a bid for the Senate in a different part of the country than where they previously served as parliamentarian.
Political Balance in Congress -------------------------------------
Â¶3. (U) The governing Concertacion coalition is made up of the Socialist Party (PD), the Party for Democracy (PPD), the Radical Social Democrat Party (PRSD), and the Christian Democrats (DC). The opposition Alianza coalition is made up of the center-right National Renewal Party (RN) -- its presidential candidate Sebastian Pinera is the front-runner (Ref B) -- and the conservative Independent Democratic Union (UDI). After the 2005 elections, the Concertacion coalition held a working majority in both houses of Congress, with 20 senators and 65 parliamentarians. Each house had one independent. Despite this majority -- sufficient to pass most laws but not for constitutional reform -- President Bachelet had difficulty pushing through her legislative agenda. Concertacion legislators began to stray from the disciplined voting blocks her three Concertacion predecessors had relied upon. The most unruly were labeled ""discolos"" by the press and were accused by their peers of criticizing their own coalition initiatives in order to gain media notoriety.
Â¶4. (U) Today that majority has been eroded due to a steady stream of defections over the past few years and disputes over who would be running for re-election on the coalition slate. By September, five Concertacion senators and eight parliamentarians - including maverick presidential candidate Marco Enriquez-Ominami (Ref C) left Concertacion parties to become independents or to join the Independent Regionalist Party (PRI). The Concertacion now maintains a plurality in the Chamber with 57 seats, the Alianza holds 53 seats, the PRI 3 seats,and there are 7 independents. In the Senate the Concertacion holds 17 seats, the Alianza 16 seats, and there are 5 independents. SANTIAGO 00000933 002 OF 004
The Binomial System ---------------------------
Â¶5. (U) In Chile's unusual ""binomial"" electoral system -- implemented during the Pinochet dictatorship -- two candidates will be elected per Senate or Chamber district. Coalitions of political parties present a slate of two candidates for each district while independents run alone. Voters will cast separate ballots for the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies and can vote for one candidate per race. (Note: Not all voters will receive a Senate ballot as only half of the Senate districts are up for re-election. End note.) The candidate with the most votes wins one of the two seats. However, a single slate of candidates must receive double the votes received by the second-place slate of candidates in order to gain both seats in the district, a process known as ""doubling."" Under this system, the Alianza and the Concertacion typically each win one seat per Senate district and one seat per Chamber of Deputies district. In order to gain a working majority, a coalition must double"" and win both seats in several districts, a feat which the Concertacion has pulled off in several districts in past elections and which the Alianza has achieved in one district.
A Plethora of Candidates: Independents and the Unruly ""Discolos""
Â¶6. (U) This year voters will face a record number of candidates in each Chamber of Deputies district--up to nine candidates in some areas. Defections from the Concertacion have resulted in four coalition slates in most districts with a smattering of independents thrown in. In addition to the main Concertacion and Alianza lists in all 60 districts, the ""New Majority"" coalition of the Humanist and Ecological party is running a list in 48 districts and includes two former Concertacion ""discolo"" supporters of presidential candidate Marco Enriquez-Ominami who are running for reelection. The PRI is running a list in 53 districts that includes three ex-Concertacion incumbents. The plethora of candidates makes outcomes much more uncertain than in past congressional elections, especially in smaller districts where it might come down to just a few votes. It also will make ""doubling"" very difficult, even in traditional Concertacion and Alianza strongholds.
Â¶7. (U) While it is likely that two former Concertacion parliamentarians will be re-elected as independents, others that have decided to run ""off-the-list"" for the Chamber or the Senate may not be so lucky, though they will manage to pull votes away from the Concertacion. Longtime Socialist Senator Carlos Ominami left the Concertacion to support his adopted son Enriquez-Ominami's independent presidential bid, but he faces an uphill battle to hold on to his senate seat. If enough ""discolos"" running as independents are successful, it could embolden others to take a similar route in the future. What is more likely is that all but a few ""discolos"" will lose to official Concertacion candidates, underlining the importance of party support for a successful congressional bid.
Communist Party Representation: A First in 20 Years --------------------------------------------- ------------------
Â¶8. (SBU) In order to get around the binomial system that effectively excluded the Communist Party (Ref D) in previous elections, the Concertacion agreed to run Communist candidates in 12 Chamber districts. Only four of those candidacies are considered truly competitive, and the Communist Party is expected to pick up one to two seats in the Chamber. It will be the first time since the return to democracy that the Communist Party is represented in Congress. Although the Christian Democrats and the Communists have been enemies in the past, the instrumental pact was accepted by the Christian Democrats. Frei advisor and Christian Democrat elder statesman Belisario Velasco told Poloff and Pol Specialist that, It's better to have the Communists than the 'discolos,' because when you reach an agreement with the communists they stick to it, whereas the 'discolos' don't.""
More Uncertainty in Individual Races, but No Change Likely in Relative Party Strength --------------------------------------------- ----------------------
Â¶9. (SBU) The Concertacion expects to recapture its majority in the Senate, but analysts predict that it will only keep two of its six doubled"" districts in the Chamber of Deputies as ""discolos"" and other independents draw votes off the Concertacion in its strongholds. Both Belisario Velasco, advisor to President Frei, and Dario Paya, UDI deputy, predicted that the Alianza would do well in the Chamber with close to 50 percent of the seats. The real race for the Alianza is in the many districts where RN and UDI candidates on the same slate are fiercely competing for that one seat that is practically guaranteed to their coalition under the binomial system. Depending on the number of seats gained by Enriquez-Ominami supported ""discolos,"" the PRI, independents, and the Communists, the Alianza could find itself with a plurality in the Chamber. However, with so many close races involving serious intra-slate competition and independent wild-cards, some traditional Alianza strongholds are also in play. Most analysts predict the final composition of the Chamber of Deputies will have the Concertacion and the Alianza more or less equally matched while smaller party candidates and independents take between 7 - 10 seats.
Â¶10. (SBU) The new Congress will largely continue the work of its predecessors, as pending legislation does not need to be reintroduced. New legislative initiatives will be largely driven by the executive, which sets the priorities of the legislative agenda and can force a congressional vote on a particular piece of draft legislation over another. Despite some significant shifting around of emblematic faces and personalities, the new Congress will likely continue to operate as it currently does, with neither main coalition winning a majority and a group of independents and smaller party representatives playing a swing role.
Longtime Party Leaders Face Tough Races --------------------------------------------- ----------
Â¶11. (SBU) Analysts argue that this year's parliamentary election is the first to be completely ""decoupled"" from the presidential race, where many congressional candidates are running on their own resumes rather than attempting to ride their presidential candidates' coattails. There are more variables and uncertainty present than in previous years, when the two big coalitions offered candidacies to emblematic political leaders that were virtually guaranteed to win, thanks to the binomial system. Not anymore. Several longtime leaders are taking big risks, including now independent Senator Carlos Ominami and Deputy Isabel Allende. A Socialist and the daughter of former President Salvador Allende, Isabel Allende is running a very tight race against her slatemate for a Senate seat in northern Chile. UDI Deputy Dario Paya admitted that his party is concerned that as many as four important UDI leaders may lose their races - including the current and highly respected President of the Chamber, Rodrigo Alvarez -- which would be ""devastating"" for the party. He was quick to add that all four would made excellent additions to a Pinera administration, though others in the Pinera campaign have told us that Pinera is opposed to including ""congressional losers"" in his administration.
Â¶12. (C) The usual predictability of the binomial system that favors two main coalitions is being challenged seriously for the first time in this year's congressional election. While the end result may not produce any big surprises in terms of balance, it has already upended the traditional notion that the most important part of running for Congress was securing a nomination (Ref E). Greater competition and uncertainty have pushed candidates to campaign more competitively and have brought in some fresh faces. While these fresh faces are largely from the usual circle of political elites, more competition in legislative elections should strengthen Chile's democracy, which has gotten a bit stale since there has been little change in party structures or personalities since the end of military rule in 1990. Any future President will have to negotiate his legislative priorities with the opposition and in the context of a more fractured Congress. The smaller party representatives and independents will be the ones to watch. End comment. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The End. 06:19 p.m. 11/02/2011
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