3b) If classless routing behaviours is in effect, continue searching level 1 supernet routes in the routing table for a match, including

the default route, if there is one. 4) If there is now a lesser match with a level 1 supernet or default routes, the router uses that route to forward the packet. 5)If there is not a match with any route in the routing table, the router drops the packet Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes -Same thing as best match Eg. Ip Packet Destination Route 1 Route 2 Route 3 172.16.0.10 172.16.0.0/12 172.16.0.0/18 172.16.0.0/26 10101100.00010000.00000000.00001010 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000

Route 3 has the longest (best) match to the IP packet Destination. *For there to be a match between the destination IP address of a packet and a route in the routing table, a minimum number of leftmost bits must match between the IP address of the packet and the route in the routing table. -The subnet mask of the route in the routing table is used to determine the minimum number of leftmost bits that must match Longest Match: Level 1 Parent and Level 2 Child Routes -Before any level 2 child routes are examined for a match, there must be a match between the classful address of the level 1 parent route and the destination IP address of the packet. EG Destination of IP Packet Level 1 Parent Route Level 2 Child Route Level 2 Child Route Level 2 Child Route 172.16.3.10 172.16.0.0/16 172.16.1.0/24 172.16.2.0/24 172.16.3.0/24 10101100.00010000.00000011.00001010 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 10101100.00010000.00000003.00000000 10101100.00010000.00000010.00000000 10101100.00010000.00000011.00000000

Route Look Up Process with VLSM -Same as classful lookup method however VLSM child routes display their own specific subnet masks. -These subnet masks are used to determine the number of leftmost bits that must match the packet's destination IP Address Routing Behaviour Classful and Classless Routing Behaviour -Routing behaviour influence the process of searching for the preferred route using the "no ip classless" or "classless" commands -Not the same as classles and classful routing protocols, these affect how the routing table is populated *-Classful and classless routing behaviours determin how the routing table is searched after it is populated ** REMOVING RIP and Setting Static Routes (p370) CHANGES for R2 -1) Add static "quad zero" route on R2 sending default traffic to R3 -2) 'default-information originate' command to RIP routing process so that R2 will send R1 the default route. -This will allow R1 and R2 the ability to reach all other networks -3)"no network 192.168.1.0" because we no longer want to exchange RIP updates with R3 CHANGES for R3 -1)"ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 s0/0/1" added static route on R3 for sending traffic for the major network 172.16.0.0/16 -2)"no router rip" remove RIP routing from R3 Classful Routing Behaviour: NO IP CLASSLESS (Step 3) -What happens when there isn't a match with any of the level 2 child routes of the parent -*'no ip classless" is the default state of CISCO routers (Prior to version 11.3. This means that the route lookup process uses classful routing table lookups by default. Classful Routing Behaviour: Search Process -Step 3a states that when classful routing behaviour is in effect (no ip classless) the process will not continue searching level 1 routes in the routing table -If the packet doesn't match a child route for the parent network route, the router drops the packet

* Because Router is using classful routing behaviour (NO IP CLASSLESS) the router will not search beyond the child routes for a lesser match. -The routing table process will not use the default route, 0.0.0.0/0 or any other route Classless Routing Behaviour: IP CLASSLESS -Starting from IOS 11.3 the default routing behaviour changed from classful to classless *Classless routing behaviour means that the routing process no longer assumes that all subnet for a major classful network can only be reached within the child routes of the parent. What happens when there is a match with a level 1 parent route but there is not a match with any of the level 2 child routes or subnets? -STEP 3b) If classless routing behaviour is in effect, continue searching level 1 supernet routes in the routing table for a match, including the default route, if there is one. -STEP 4) If there is now a lesser match with a level 1 superhet or default routes the router uses that route to forward the packet -STEP 5) If there is not a match with a route in the routing table, the router drops the packet Classless Routing Behaviour: Search Process

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