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E0UAT0RIAL EUINE¡A _ MACIAS COUNTRY

THE FOFGOTTEN FEFUGEES

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An lnternational Univcrsity Exchange Fund ilUEF) Field Study on the Equatodal Guinea Befugee $ituation

CONTENTS

Page }{unb.er Foreword
Maps
1

t-1

Surmnry 1.

v
1

Introduetion
Baekground

)

3

2.L.
na

The Country The People

3 4
B

2.3. 2.4.
).
Macías

IIi s tory
Chronology

10 L4
15

3.1. 3.2.
J.J.

t Countrv The, State Apparatus
Economy

23
2B

Forced Labour
Law and Law Enforcement

3.4. 3.5.

32 39

Relations with Foreign Powers Macías, "The unigue Miracle" 'The Personality of Papa Macías 4,r. Macías and Religion +.¿.
(

43 46 50 55 55 56

The Refugees

5.1.

Outflux

(,

Influx 5.2.I. Gabon 5 ,2.2. Cameroon 5.2,3. Nigeria 5.2,4. Spain and Other
European Countries

6I
64 66
66

6.

Solutions and Recommendat,ions Legal Recognitíon 6.1. Rehabilitation 6 .2. Education 6.3. Sugges tions 6 .4.
Sources

69
70 7L 74 75 80
BZ

7"

8"

S.elected Bibliography Appendix Appendix Appendix
1

2
3

84 85
B7

È!-1

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FORE TORD

By Lars-Gunnar Eriksson, Director, International University Exchange Fund (IUEF)

a number of occasions, the IUEF has commissioned studies on special refugee problems with a vier,v to devise prograrunes for assistance.
On

A refugee problem r¿hich has been preoccupying us for the last couple of years is that of the Equatorial Guíneans. Their plight, as well as that of Lheir countrymen sti1l living under the brutal oppression of President Macíast dictatorship, is litt1e known and hence the assistance provided Eo them is in no proportion to their needs.

I^lith the assistance of a grant from the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), the IUEF decided to carry out a mission, combining a study of the situation in Equatorial Guinea itself with that of the refugees in neighbouring countries, as well as in Spain.

to provide information about The ob.jective was twofold: firstly, the situation of the refugees and to make proposals for programmes of assistance, particularly in the field of education and training; secondly, to províde firsthand information about the situation in Equatorial Guinea in order to facilitate assessment of the possibilities for repatriation.
were lucky to be able to benefit from the services of Dr. Robert af Klinteberg, a Swedish anthropologist with sixteen years of experience of refugee problems in Europe, Asia and Africa. After a very risky visit to the country itself , Dr. Kl inteberg spent four months living with r-he refugees ín Gabon, Cameroon, Nigeria and Spain. The ensuing report and its appendix are the result of this mission, which we hope will add to the knowledge about the refugees, as well as the situation inside Equatorial Guinea. Above all, we hope it r¡ill contribute to increase the aid provided to the refugees.
I,rle

The views expressed in this report are those of Dr. Klinteberg not necessarily those of the IUEF.

and

Geneva, November 1978

ELOBEY CHICO.c i\C' SANTA ISABEL BALOERI DE cRlsro RE)¡ SUALA SAKATO DEL ESTE BASAKATO DEL SAN CARLOS NIGERIA a Port Horcourl CAMEROON CEPCION (RIABA) Sonlo lsobel FERNANDO PO IS.P. ELOBEY GRANDE Sio romé lsrsõo Tomi ANNOBON (PAGALU) Lr miles LOCATION ON THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA ./ì (MACIAS NGUEMA( / BIYOGO) GULF OF GU/NEA principe ls. FERNANDO PO (MACIAS NGUEMA BIYOGO) 0$' Þ\\ .

€ Â (J ó Þ ït 2 3 = a É .iQB ô<É (t ot E Q U AT O R I A L GU IN E A 111 .

It functions because of a deliberate cultural regression not unlike that of Nazi Germany.SUMMARY Equatorial Guinea consists of the island of Fernando Po situated is sandwiched rhe culf of Guinea and the mainland enclave of Rio Y"ii^tliih betweenGabonandCameroon. the refugees are probably among the best poses educated and most competent professionally in Africa. of the In 1968. Agents provocateurs threaten their security. 30. The United Nations' Development Prografrune tacitly (UNDP) and the European Economic Community (EEC) provide assistance' what accepting the regimL. a fact i¡hich special problems for their social and economic rehabilitation. tact< of education and medical facilities to make their combine with the language problLm and micro-political tensions situation increasingly worrying. the relations. which of has thrown the country and the people into a situation far below that of destloyed lhe strong traditions the pre-colonial period and has even village democracy. poverty. wirh smaller groups in a number of are in in Gabon and cameroon countries in Africa and Europe.. while Spain and the Vatican remain silent aboutstrained a final rupture of very is going on in oid"r to avoid. religious and ethnic persecuËion' and is characterised have contribSystematic terror and near total disintãgration of the economyfrom the most uted to drive an estimated third of the population into exile regressive desPotism in Africa' J I { .Thecountryissmall. by political. Maclas.000 in L910' in' and A strategic position made it a valuable pa!ùn in colonial politics and spain' for nearly 300 y. unemployrnent. notably the USSR. at all costs. England the prospects rule I^lhen it reached independ.000 in Gabon. The silence perpetuates the terror. persecutions have been directed against the intellectuals in particular. ¡ 1.000 in spain.r" it was dominated by Portugal. The diffiãulties began shortly afterr'iards 1972 saw him began to eliminate real or imagined political opponents.. particularly French.ence aftel 110 years of Spanish the best cocoa in the world. Cuba and China' as \^7e11 as by ruthless capítalist enterprises. The refugees an especially difficult posiiion. . Francisco Macfas Nguema became the first President when he independenr Republic. Tn view of the current situation inside Equatorial Guinea' repatriacion is not conceivable.000 in Nigeriu:6. fni" is condoned by the foreign po!üers present'in the country.7er base. increasingly personal His rule has since become become President for 1ife. I .2S. An economy based on good timber made the per capita income the highest in Black Africa' A prosperity promised even gl:eater infrastructure and a high 1evel of education for the future.000 in cameroon' other 5.andhadan estimated population of 285.Ë 1 ! t. and the cost is paid by people of Equatorial Guinea' official figures for refugees are: 60.000km. coffee and looked good. As a consequence.3 i l president Maclast reign has a \^/eak po\.

macro.INTRODUCTION This report deals with the situation of the refugees from Equatorial Guinea. the health and nutrition status. and the generous assistance of the S¡^¡edish International Development Authority (SIDA). For varíous reasons they have remained almosttotally ignored and neglected.and micro-polirics. There \^iere also the conflieting appraisals of the reliability of rhe information abouË the country. salaries and prices.. infrastructure. must he not also have an equally strong po\. an unusLlal policy for donor agencies. for instance. relations with nationals and other micro-political considerations . . The fact-finding was planned with four major questions in mind: l i l E i ¿ l{hat is the situation of the refugees? I.rlhat are the possibilítíes of repatriation? lrlhat are the short-term and long-term needs of the refugees? Itlhat solutions should be suggested? The first question required information about where the refugees are and in whar circumstances they find themselves. so much so that it is questionable if other forms of assistance should even be attempted if a return is a genuine possibility. the discrepancies betv¡een the sombre picture of Equatorial Guinea painted by the exiles and the rather more s)anpathetic descriptions given in certain Spanish and French media. I I i There r^rere. the apparent ambivalence of the United Nations and the European Economic Community.Iore specifically. economic plans and prospects. etc.. that I had an opportuníty to go on a f. ft was thanks to the initiative of the International University Exchange Fund (IUEF). if President Macías had his counLry under strong domination.all seen in the context of the general situation in the J country of asylum The second was crucial in the sense that voluntary repatriation always remains the most desirable solution to a refugee problem. l. educatíon and security. both giving assistance while providing minimal information about their progrannes.rer base indicating that vast numbers of his subjects were in favour of the regime? If it \^/ere true that exiles returned voluntarily. must it not be assumed that Macfast rule r^ras much more benevolent than had been a1 leged? hlhy had the important Fang tribe. Information about these matters would also hopefully help in sorting out some of the rather disturbing contradictions which occurred as soon as one tried to understand the situaËion t ! f I ¡ ! : ¡ . not created an effective opposition to the President if they had really felt oppressed? Evidently these and oËher questions had to be given satisfactory ansr¡/ers. about health and nutrition.act-fínding missíon to Central Africa during four months in L978. An assessment of the situation required information about Ëhe economíc situation inside Equatorial Guinea: employment. described as fierce \¡rarriors. security. emplo¡rment.

it became clear if large-scale repatriation was a realistic solution to the refugee problem, a preliminary need assessment would have to be presented, either'for a return to a counlry said to have lost much of its htunan resources and its infrastructure, or for continued lífe in exile.
Once

The question of repatriation reoccurred in the context of the needs of the refugees, especially in the field of education and training. If they vrere to go back to a country said to have lost much of its trained *"rrporlr and infrastructure, how could assistance best be used to alleviate the needs of Equatorial Guinea? If the refugees could not go back, how could they best be assisted to become useful residents in the countries

of

asylum?

Final1y, preliminary solutions would have to be suggested on the basis of these needs, to facilitate further discussions between the countries
and agencies concerned.

2

BACKGROUND

2.L.

TIIE

COUNTRY

Equatorial Guinea is among the least known countries in the ¡¿or1d today. It is often confused with Guinea-Conakry and Guinea-Bissau, even with New Guinea in the Pacífic (1) or incorrecÈly referred to by íts old colonial
name, Spanish Guinea.

Geographically and administratively it consists of t¡¡o parts, the province of Rio Muni plus the three coastal islets Corisco, Elobey mainland Grande andElobey Chieo; and the offshore islands Fernando Po and Annobón. These have now been renamed, respectively, Macías Nguema Biyogo and Pigalú, but will be mentioned by their more familiar names in this report.
The official capital is Malabo, formerly Santa Isabel, on Fernando Po. The island is subdivided into the districrs of Malabo; Luba, ex-San Carlos; and Riaba, ex-Concepcion. Also included in Maclas Province is On the mainland the Rio Muni Annobón r^rhich constitutes a fourth district. Bata \,/ith the province capital, Ebebeyin, Province has twelve districts: Evinayong, I'ficomeseng, Bimbiles, Mongomo, Nyefang; Mbini, formerly Rio Benito; Kogo, Acurenen, Nsok and Rio Campo.

in the Gulf of Guinea, 33 km from the nearest part It is roughly 70 by 30 km, with a coastline of some of the 250 krn and an area of 2rOI7 km2, and consists of Ëhree extinct volcanoes. The highest, Pico de Santa Isabel, is 3,007 meters and important for Ëhe possibilities it offers for electronic surveillance of sea and air traf.f.íc along a strategically important part of the African coast. The Moka mountain, with its crater lake at 11800 meters, used to be economically important because of its livestock. A1l over, the volcanic soils contribute to exLremely fertile lands, and in Malabo a broken dor,¡n crater rim provides a good deepwater harbour some 700 meters in diameLer.
Fernando Po is Cameroon coast.

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South of the Equator and 600 km south-south-west of Malabo, it is 750 meters high, covers 17 km2 and, at the time of independence, had a population of 1,500. This has since been reduced by an uncontrolled cholera epidemic.
NaËural reseurces abound in Equatorial Guinea. The agricultural potential is very high, particularly on volcanic soils and the differing altitudes allow the cultivation of practically anything. The sea and the rivers are rich in fish and other seafoods.

Annobón is the last of the chain of volcanoes which begins with Cameroon and continues through Fernando Po, Príncipe and Sao Tomé.

On the other hand, there seem to be no mineral resources of any consequence. ùn the mainland, minute quantities of gold have been found near Evinayong, and there have been rumours about títaniumriron-ore and coal. Prospecting for oil in the coastal sediments, inspired by the presence

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of oil in similar geological strata in Gabon, began in 1960' In spite of investment of US$ 15 million it has so far 1ed to nothing, but it cannot be excluded that future test-dri11ing might produce results'
cocoa, famous for its excellent quality; on second grade Robusta coffee; and on palmon timber, like Oukoumé, walnut aná different kinds of mahogany;

Duringthecolonialtime,theeconomywasbasedprimarilyon

oil.

Rio Muni is a rectangular enclave on the continent, bordering on Cameroon in the north and Gabon in the east and south, roughly 7?0 ^O^I . , of 2b'0UU Km' 140 km, with approximately 150 km of coastllne and wiÈh an area Most of the boundaries have been drawn with a ruler on the colonial map'
Behind a narror¡r coastal plain, the landscape begins to roll gently upwards, eventually reaching hills of 1,000 tó 11200 meters in rhe eastern pära. Geological1y, it consists of ancient metamorphic rocks, like granite' gn.iss, diorites and gabbroes. This produces soils of mediocre quality, of but with an annual rainfall of 21300 mn or more, average temperaturegood and is very 862, the fertility hurnidity rangíng around ¡øõC rni forest rhe rain "lr"ttge stands lush and ábundant - strikingly beautiful in its great variety, manifested in 140 different species of wood'
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Animal life in the forest \^7as sparse but rich in variety, with gorillas, chimpanzees, elephants' hippopotami, buffaloes' antelopes' now crocodiles, pythons and Gaboon vipers ' It would seem that it hasto hunt have forced people practicalty àisappeared, as pïoLein shortages rh"t",r"t they have been able to calch with traps and dogs'

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In the Rio Tamboni estuary are the manglove-studded islets of kmZ' Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico' respectlvety 1-5,2'34 and O'26 were that of Rio lfuni, the islands Being closer to the coast of Gabon than to the subject of conflicts betr¿een the two countries in 1912 and 1974' 2.2,
THE PEOPLE

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Ethnically,EquatorialGuineahasbeendominatedbytwogloups' ancíent Bubi on Fernando po, and the increasingly powerful Fang on the the mainland. some of the history of the country is influenced by the animosity between them, which has been deliberaCely exploited in a divide-and-rule policy, both by the colonialists and by the present regime' TheslaveryperiodmusthavehurttheBubibadly,butquiteto decline v/hat exte"a ir unknown. Statements that they suffered from a ne\^/the pasr in around 1900 probably reflect exaggerated population estimates increased rather than an actual reduction brrt, since then, their number hasand other affected by sleeping sickness very slowly. Apparently they were to Bubi informants' also by a tendency rowards diseases and, paid part "".otairrg alcoholism which r¿as reinforced by Spanish plantation ovmers who of the vrages in low qualitY wine'

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Fernandez. Inland are the Fang.Inlg60. i : t -a of the population of Fernando Po. Although of the lo¡¿est on the African continent (53. Fang stories tell that they cane from a bush country far to the north-easË. sma11 groups arrived at Írhat is now Libreville about 1850.Gabonese and LB3'377.en with English namesof mixed African and Coastal Englísh. especially the A census in 1912 gave the Bubi as 547" Fang.gøq of rhem rtit". fairly evenly The population density Z. and L2. comparatively A census made 31 December 1950 showed Rio l'Íuni to have 156. Ten years later the population had was 7 per krn2. of They are group In addifíon. the districts..263 mainly of. oft.000 in 1970 and would have brought it The326'000 slow in 1978 if it had not been for factors outside normal demography' one Èhe infant mortaliËy rate I'fas growth raÈe should be noted. Ibo. To clarify the issue it is necessary to a thr:mbnaíl sketch of the people. and because its for an understanding of the into three countries must be taken into account situation of the exiles. caused by the importation of workers ' oldest The mainland tribes are divided into Ë¡¡o seeËions. the irmigrants fron Nigeria.7% per annum' This to brings rhe populetion to 285. Lhe fertility rate \'ras has a strong Ëhe second lowest (G55/Lr000) after Gabon' This sub-fertílity bearing on the values and atùitudes of the ethnic groups.". and a knowledge of Liberia and the West Indies. They are the "People of the Beach". An important characleristic $/as the large surplus of men. populated by and liberated slaves from Angola.175 inhabitants. and irmigrants from Ëhe ís1and of Annobón. outside the region of the tropical rain forest' They seem to and have been driven south and south_r.222 whites.J I '. l{hat is the general cultural and social background for these events and the attitudes make which hãve interacËed with them. increased to Cameroonese origin. of the more recent history of the people of Equatori-al Bidyogo' Guinea are fair1y well known.. Ibibio and Efik contracË \^rorkers ontoËal the plantatiorr" tto lived in compaet colonies' Theybrought population "o"oã population up to some 63r000 shortiy before independence.ro" from Rio Muni and 4. extension because of its numerical and political domifiance.theymayhaverepresentedaboutathirdoftheinhabitants. However. in particular from writers like Ndongo has been made less clear Domínguez. The emphasis will be on the Fang tribe. late arrivals' Playeros. Other minorities r/ere lhe Crioulos portuguese blood. making a density of 31 per kmz.2/Lr000). The its inhabitants are the small tribes of the Bujeba and the Ndowe tribe with Los subdivisions Benga and Combê.. but the l. Rio Muni and the norttrern and north-\^Testern of Gabon. Subsequent figures have to be extradistributed polated r¡ith the help of an estimated growth rate of 1.lany events . and from emancipated Africans from sierra Leone' îi. therL were a few thousand Fernandinos ' from formeraslaves as mixed heritage descended from Europeans as r¿ell by"the Brit. L.4g7 of them whites.ish.¡est by the Fulbé tribe Some one hundred Centrefifty years ago and to have s1ow1y made fheir \day into rn¡haE is nor'r Ëheparts Sud Province of Cameroon. There I¡/ere a1 so limited nurnbers of Fang the largest group !üere ri"y. Pelissier and cronjé. throughout.

Relations between the groups are strengthened by a system aimed preventing incest in the widest sense of the term.il economic change. lh" area \''lay ro a relative prosperity. of the normally accepted criteria of nomadism applicable to the slow extension and consolidation of an area taken over from smaller tribes. Many of the men became farmers attached to a particular plot of 1and. in turn. which has made frustrated colonial administt. The introd. if any.e seems to have become a dominant aspect. which means that a man is prohibited from ràrrying nàt only a girl from his fatherts c1an.il iij iil . subsistence agricultui" on rhe whole. The Ëerm is misleading.. in the nineteen-twenties. i. crises were building up inside a social system which was vulnerable to the sLrains imposed by rapid socio- iii ìli iii rij iil iii iii ll ìii ì. furniture of all kinds began to appear./ay to r^¡ell-built houses of dried clay on woodframes and. In Cameroon and Rio l4uni there are relatively well demarcated. which allows a man to at "*ogr*y.movemenË petered out around 1890. During the seventy years after 1850. lll iii ii. l4ígration inside Fang territory is still going on. marry only outside his own clan. propelled by the economic boom which had begun in the tr. but once they entered their present tãrritory. commerce changed from almost exclusively ivory and natural produce to manufactured trade goods. times raising at the necessary capital through wage labour in the timber industry and to the sporting events of hunting and "obánn" raiding. At the same time. trad. in spite of a certain resistance to innovations. irj irl . weakened the social organisation. areas populated by one parËicular subdivision of the tribe while in Gabon fragmented groups are interspersed. which they regard as one of the fundamental prerequisites for the granting of fertí1iry. compared with many other Bantu tribes. the population became more settled and the growing importance of trading centres for the crops led to previously unknown concentrations of the population. buË also one from his motherts. As a consequence. rt is also indicative of the profound values-Fang tradition attaches to morality. rn the process.ii i'! 6 . This is relevant to the present hardships in Equatorial Guinea in three \. adherence to cash economy in spite of runavray inflation.e routes between the inland and littoral. Slave trade and colonialism had encouraged an extensive netv/ork of Ërad. iii It is not certaín what the economic basis of Fang life was before the migration began. the Fang appear to have paid little attention to farming. most of the traditional skil1s at handicrafts disappeared.iorc describe the Fang as "nomadic".ustries which might have provided basic necessities. for the I¡/omen' while the men d.ìi :ir Fang settlements have taken dífferenË forms. changed this./as on its oukoumé wood and the profits made from cocoa and coffee. and the capitalisation of trade goods upset the circulation of marriage payments which.uction of cocoa and other cash crops.rays: non-existence of the cottage ind. and serious social disorganisation. and the Fang were in an excellent geographical and cor¡rnercial the position to make use of it. "ãr.i :ii iri . In the centres the bark huts gave \.¿enties with the of "*ploit"tion \. with few.evoted themselves to trading. The Fang actually appear to practise double exogamy.1 . this cornplicated system means that the kinship ties become further extended geographically. and from bartering to exclusively cash basis.

but were not a\'rare of the vulnerability which was inherent in the social system. ]n the late forties' a series of steps v/ere taken to cope with the situaËion: bringing the groups togelher inside the "alar ayãng" movement for clan consolidation and setting up the "Pahouin Congress" for policy-making and external relations. in turn. it is quite common as a reaction of defence againsË oppression in the form of innumerable more or less messianic movements throughout history. On occasion the reactior¡ has been pushed further to become a militant \^/ay of political expression and (1) (2) Balandier ." (2) At the same time. He was said to be able to perform miracles (akungé) . In reality. an underground movement made to Serve as refuge and defence frorn the superimposed threats of colonialism" The reaction is in no way unique. r P. ("Pahouin" has often been used as a name for the Fang. . ! I 1 Early explorers like du Chaillu and Fourneau were impressed by the intelligence "tt¿ tn" vitality of the Fang.IT I t: ri A classical study by Balandier analyses what happened in Gabon. more por4Terful . Bwiti had strong elements of magic and secrecy and is. (1) what \^7ent \^rrong r¿ith the colonial system and how the Fang responded' The situation i-n Equatorial Guinea shor¡s st-rong analogies which help in explaining how a rapidly developíng country with excellent economic pofential has backtracked a century of evolution in a few years and become the most backr¡ard region in Africa. interacted with what can best be described as a eultural inferiority "The complex vis-ã-vis the colonialists and their technical superioríty. They saw the strength and dynamism but not that it was lacking in direction' Migrations to do wage labour added to the dispersion and fragmentation of the social grorrpirrgs. described as the favourite son of God. Rapid economic progress had unfortunâte social side-effects ãnd contributed to a !üeakening of tradítional values which. money and the miracles of technique had reduced the ínfluence of the Biéri cult of ancestor worship' A new. the possessor of the whiteman r¡ras knowledge that is the source of power. Like these. Missionaries. L970. the Fang felt a kind of identity crisis and a need for reorientation. it is probably a corruption of a M'pongwe phrase *eaning "I do not know" used in response to incomprehensible quesËions about their neighbours the Fang') Another response to the vaguely understood but strongly felt crisis was in the field of religion. in many respects. the growing imbalance was further affected by Ëhe gap betvreen the traditional village elders and the rapidly growing number of well trained and educated youngsters who were becoming a ne\¡I social type for which there \^/as no place available within the system' i' Apparently. religion had to be introduced. The outcome r¿as the syncretistic Bwiti cu1t. Ibid. 279 Balandier. courbining traditional and Christian traits and sirongly reminiscent of the Voodoo of the inlest Indies and the Candomblé of Brazi|. 0n the contrary.

Once the foreigners and their superior magic were gone. the old virtues restored. "The Beautiful". This did not work out. i^Ihat Spain lost in terms of size of territory it gained by getting a base for the slave-trading which was necessary for the exploítation of its American colonies. with many wives and children. the desire to possess the mainland terrítory of Rio Muni was based on a realisation that there \¡/as a great need for manpower on the plantations of Fernando Po. it is clear that much of Macfasr election campaign in 1968 r¡as dírected towards the adherents of the Bwiti cult and. in 1960. All the property of the colonialistis would be distributed to those'who were for Macías. Originally. in Çhe case of Mau-Mau in Kenya has oftqn been the work of évo1ués with a sopûisticated policy towards eventual improvement of their own peoþle. dividing it into two spheres of interest for Portugal and Spain. but.1. But Spanish presence on the island was insignificant and the most influential there r¡rere the British who were soon Ëo use it as a base for their anti-slavery warships. Spanish settlers could geL theiï way with the Playeros. In the turmoil of frantic land-grabbing in the late nineteenth century. The Papal Seal closed Africa to Spain and. gave Portugal South America east of longitude 460\. a') IlISTORY The history of Fernando Po began in a distant past when it was populated by Bantu-speaking peoples coming across the narro\. it was'up against stronger colonial po\¡¡ers and received only a fraction of its claims. reluctantly began to focus on equatorial Africa.Bur while such a turn of events as. Spain demanded large areas on the mainland where it r¿as now beginning to stake out possessions. made up 80-902 of the inhabitants of Rio Muni. The arrangement survived until L777 when Spain obtained Fernando Po in exchange for its part of BraziI . towards Lhe influential village elders whos. It vras protected partly by its ov¡n clandestinity and partly by the perpetual lack of corununicaËion across the cultural and linguistic gap between colonisers and colonised. Portuguese seafarers came to the island tn 1472. more specifically. Twenty-one years later. The Bwiti cult appears to have been growing strong during the fifties. They found it rather more difficult to bend the Fang who. Their descendents were the Bubi who created a centralised kingdom. English attempts at buying the island were opposed by the Cortes but Spanish interests in keeping it were dívided and it v/as not until 1858 that Spanish colonial interests. a Papal Bu11 put the "undiscovered" r¡or1d up for grabs. . rapidly declining in the rest of the r¿orld. notably that of greater respect for the elders. ruled from the Moka highlands. noted its great economic and strategic value and named it Formosa.e fears of the Spaniards could be played upon easily. The mainland tribes were different from the docile Bubi and Crioulos. bringing endless prosperity. the good o1d days of Fang po\¡/er would return. for instance. action. in an unparal1e1led display of colonialistic at.{ straits from what is now Víctoria on the coast of Cameroon. Equatorial Guinea is a different case altogether. In retrospect.titudes.

p' 208. voted against. Respectabitity became a must. The opposition against these apparent benefits must be seen against the inferiority complexes which the colonial domination created' Two From 1960. people of Fernando Po. building model villages compleËe with churches and schools along the new roads. Itlhen the Europeans finally moved in they did much to develop Èhe area. Madrid announced its intention of giving the two provinces of Spanish Guinea greater autonomy and an opportunity. in particular for the r¿hites. independent and primitive' not quite' to be trusted and no good as farm labour. but Fang nationalism \^las beginning to express itself in Gabon and Cameroon' gradualiy spilling over into the more prosperous and advanced Rio Muni' lp"in r. The nationalists protested in the UN against the strengthening of the Spanish influence through an increasing integration r¿hich sar¿ the first African delegates in the Cortes in Madrid and growing numbers of African students in universities in Spain. Spanish repression became milder. The had more to lose than to gain from stronger Fang participation in internal affairs. (1) Ëo "prepare themselves to be administered and governed by their oh'n sons". In 1945.The Fang were fierce warriors. introduced coffee farming and timber industries. feeling they question of increased autonomy. built rã"q. Rio Muni remained largely unexplored until the 1920s. l'loreover. hundred of nationalists went into exile' one of the most important leaders was kil1ed and pressuTe mounted. Prisoners and detainees were released and ín 1962 most of the exiles had returned. IL was getting too late. . culminaling wirh the alleged murder of the nationalist Enrique Nvo. years later Spain was finally admitted into Èhe United Nations.â"tå¿ with increasing oppression. UN pressure tovrards decolonialisation left litt1e option.rol. Predictably. iE created great benefits for the population. there was the issue of Gibraltar and how to put pressure on the British to hand it back to Spain. 1970. The inability to understand what was goíng on ¿lmong the Fang qras to become one of the most fatal short-comings of the colonialists. "The winds of change" were moving up on the Beaufort scale. a newly awakened and slightly bewildered attention to its exotic colony found an expression in the creation of an Institute for African Studies in Madrid. Post-primary educagion was sadly neglected and attitudes tol'rards political conscíousness hlere set by the Franco regime. The larger population of Rio Muni voted for' In July Lg63. Things were beginning to stir. In 1958. (1) lloronoff . There were other faí1ures. the Liberation Conrnittee of the OAU increased diplomatic pressure and. one month later. The Madrid Government had to do something.r"te road netowrk and worked hard on getting the health situation "r. But there \^7as an ever-presenË paternalistic attitude which prevented clear ideas of the damages which were being done and created what was to become a heavy psychological legacy. under cont. In that year Spanish Foreign Minister Carrero Blanco visited Spanish Guinea for the first In 1963 a referendum \^7as held on the tiure. the increased freedom stimulated the demands for further independence. It made the colony a province and began an assimilation policy" Economically. The Bubi and the Playeros kept quiet.

will be outlined here under section 3. 1968. document. Servicio Informativo Espaãol. Fernando Po had 12..000 and by far the highest number of vehicles. populated by the Bubi people. An unkno\^m colonial civil servant from a remote inland district named Francisco Macfas was. "Economically speaking the period of autonomy \^ras characterised by outstanding achievements. Spain begins slave-hunting and slave-trading. 1968. irl tl Id :j l ii li ii il i1 It is obvious that Ëhe last years of Spanish rule represented a seríous attempt to make up for past neglect. The countryts energy consumption per capita was the fourth in Black Africa. undated. Madrid." (1) Fernando Po had a per capita In GNP of US$ 466. Q) Opinions among the exiles about the role of Spain as a coloniser vary from acceptance by most of the refugees in Africa.i' ii iil 'i ti ¡l Portuguese seafarers discover uninhabited Annobón.000. way above any other country in Black Africa. The circtrnstances leading up to and following independence' described in some detail by the specíalists.¡l (1) (2) ANRD "España y Guinea Ecuatorial".7 hospital beds per 1. to harsh condennation from several of the politícal1y conscious resistance groups in Europe. headed by Bonifacio Ondo Edu who later became the leader of the MUNGE party.but the fact remains.21 åi T77 7 Portugal and Spain swap Fernando Po and Annobón for BrazíLían possessions. there \474s one doctor per 71230 inhabitants and 5. and r\^ro years later Fernando Po. H il lt il it iÍ +t i¡ :l ¡t å il ït {l rl :ìr . åt AI ïl L789 # fl {t Il .'l . ä ö ü # ã 10 {1 fl Yd å F-l :Èl . the oppression of politics during the Franco regime . # L4:3 L494 d # g fl . Literacy \. The colonial por^/er withdrew from a country woefully unprepared for the political aspects of independence.3 telephones per 1. CI1RONOLOGY Ël fi r470 1500 r'l rl .! .I 2.l s . But even those who give much credit to the malerial benefits of the later period of Spanish presence agree that"Ëhe greatest crime Spain committed in Equatorial Guinea was its neglect to introduce political education and to form political cadres". the average per capita GNP for the whole country reached US$ 300. * H fl d First factories and slave-trading on Annobón Papal Bu1l splits the world into tv/o sphere of dominance between Portugal and Spain along longitude 46oW..4.êd iil I ¡i 'rì . especially as regards Ëhe development of an economic and social infrastructure and the development of agricultural exports. ttMaclas I Countrytr.íappointed as rq il t:t 1å tf Vice PresidenL.'. There is an easy explanation for this./as assessed at 897.ii ri: l¡ ir il rl i¡ 11 f1 il ii: :t: Ìl t1 ¿t r1 lir l i1 '_t 1 l Ìll il -.l :ll it ¿1 ii .in 1965.H H Atanasio Ndongo founded the independence party MONALIGE and an autonomous goverrìment r^ras set up. shutting out Spain from Africa and giving a part of present-day Brazil to Portugal.-..--. second only to Gabon. etc.

.nd Cameroon. Falangist' Lgl+7 Fang nationalism emerges Republican Guinea.e. First African delegates in the Cortes.000 k'n2: the Rio Muni enclave which is conceded from French Gabon. An adminisËraËion is organised ín 1904. 11 .L827 England sets up a base slave trade at Port Clarencer no\¡tr Beginnings of Fang migration into Rio Muni' for naval ships to suppress the Malabo' 1843 A spanish Royal 1B5B 1866 1885 commíssioner sent t.000 km2 to 26. Spain Ëries repress budding tendencies towards independence' 1953 Nationalist leader Enrique Lg56 Nvo is killed 1955 Spain joins the United Nations. Nationalists protest increasing Spanish domination in the UN. in exíle f959 The indigenous population is granted Spanish citizenship. in Gabon ¡. expropriates land from the indigenous population and 1900 A treaty in Paris reduces Spanish land claims on Ëhe continent from 300.o take possession of the islands appoints an Englishman the first governor of Fernando Po The first spanish-born governor. Hundreds its colony equal status 1958 Nationalist leade-r Acacio Mané is ki1led.. i. 1936 Civil war in Spain. Under UN pressure Spain gives r¿ith the provinces of the peninsula. but most of it remains unexplored unril rhe 1920s. Lg42 Treaty with Britain on Nigerian labour in Equatorial in to Gabon and Cameroon. American and Asian colonies. Fernando Po is Falangist. spain introduces an assimilation policy along Portuguese 1ines. having lost its steps up the colonialisation. and beginnings of spanish colonialism orì Fernando Po' The first Catholic mlssions on Fernando Po Germany and France draw a coÍlmon border between respective colonies Karnerun and Gabon' their lBBg Spain. Rio }funi becomes "pacified". 1960 General Spanish elections. Fang migrations ebbing ouË.

00Ospaniardsareevacuated by air and sea.6. Macías becomes Vice President' Franco no¡ninates Bonifacio Ondu Edu to head the autonomous government.L963 Referendum. asks UN for peace-keeping 5March:thefirst''coupd'étatatËempt'tleadstoviolent seriesofassassinations.l lrll TgTo''YouthonEhelnlarchwithMacías''roamthecountry.i jii ii iti ììl 1963SpainI^fantstoincreaseinternationalpressureonBritain to concede Gibraltar and pushes the conference to show its eagerness for decolonisation' Macíasr relations with Trevijano begins' Maclas visits UN in New York' referendum 11 August. the new constitution is accepted in a observed bY the UN' iij In 12 September general elections are won by Macías ' lij ili iÌi October: proclamatíon of Independence' 11 Novernber: Equatorial Guinea joins the UN' ili iti iii !11 to Lg6g t{acías bans Red Cross relief flights from Fernando Po Edu' force.. Rio Muni votes for increased autonomy' by Fernando Po against for fear of becoming dominated the Fang. Equatorial Guínea voËes for China in the UN' I'il LSlt Macías assumes total por¡/er' SpaindeclaresallinformationaboutEquatorialGuineatobe against the official secrets act' LgTzReligiouspersecutions'NzéAbuy'BishopofBata'inexile' 14 July: l'Iacías makes himself President for Life' AgreemenEsabouteconomic'cultural'rechnicalandmilitary assistancefromUssR'Cubaandothersocialistcountries. Two UN t964 L965 iii 1ìi resolutions urge Spain to give full independence and to prepare a constitutíonal conference' year for cocoa. buL stalls' llj ]-966 A UN commission visits Bquatorial Guinea' Record. 7 July: creation of "Partido Unico Nacional' Exchangeofambassadorsbetr¿eenSantalsabelandPeking. iri t967 iii . B0 remain in Equatorial Guinea' ti. ki1ls Ondo Bíafua. In October Èhe constitutional conference begins in Spain. Somalís and Ethiopians engaged ín the security system' Strained relations with Gabon' 12 .

Attempts at a national census. Equatorial Guinean ambassador in Gabon abducËed and presuruably ki11ed.000 repatriated' 1976 US Embassy closed. 11 Nigerians shot in Malabo. L97 7 lularch: last Spanish diplomat leaves embassy in Malabo. Economy disintegrating. All Roman Catnâlic priests and nuns arrested' Diplomatic relations with US broken. May: Macfas declares an atheistic state. 13 . of the populatíon in exi1e. Deterioration of relations with spain.000'-. leader of the Bíafran rebellion. L27. Docr:ments found in his apartment prove that he had been employed in I972 to overthrow Macías and put General Ojukwu.loan from IDA' ne\. Equatorial Guinean students in Spain occupy the Equaforial Guinean embassy in Madríd. Macías visits Peking. Labour treaty with Nigeria abrogated and 20. Ca. Pyongyang and Hanoi' L97 B March: last Spanish teachers leave.ü ANRD L97 4 August: formation of Liberation movement' "Coup attemptil followed by large-scale killings ' L975: March: formation of Liberation movements: ANALIGE. in his place. Franco dies. Their relatives at home ki1led in reprisals. Macías signs friendship treaty r. 20 October: the ner¿ Spanish Government lifts the official secrets act from information about Equatorial Guinea. April: A mercenary committs suicide in London.r97 3 Maclas imposes coûstitution and renames most places in a desire for authenticity. Omar Bongo' goes to Spain where he requests diplomatic support for his countryts claim on the islands of Equatorial Guinea in exchange for Gabonrs support for spain in its problems with the canaty Islands. Meeting of the Liberation movements. November: The President of Gabon.000 Nígerians repatriated. 25. URGE and MOLIFUGE in SPain./ith PresidentBokassa of CenËral African Republic. Third PUNT congress. June: The Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs says in Peking that his country would strengthen its diplomatic relations with Equatorial Guinea'. July: Six Spanish priests are expelled from Equatorial Guinea. US$ 400.

L4 . It is a contributing part' of the tragedy that even the meagre information ¡n'hich has trickled out of the country has to a great extent been ignored. Q) Macías changed that. made an assessment of Ëhe current situation inside the country essential. Spain and the vaLican have kept their silence. or repressed.Ialabo. if not wel1. walk to the (1) (2) (3) Africa Magazine. consists of rehashed digests based on sources so far away in time and space that checking' and controlling become irnpossible' The task of providing a report on Ëhe exiles.AnauthoritylikeLinigerlistsl.UNESCO 1L91 4 "Ya". Some lJestern publications like "Marchés Tropicãux" have produãed information vihich is misleading to the point of becárning fa1se. but in vier¿ of what I abouË Africa provided some inÈeresting information that it was laËer Eo experience personally. described inSpanishpublications.i"f grrirrea "materia reservada". Liniger-Gournaz rM.alese and ín statistical estimates.J.rn oi tr"tt a dozen nevrspapers and periodNews from icals. 79 . However. prohibiting its publication in Spain under the official secretst act' eventually published was obviously biased.lorld countries as representing partisan interests. MACIAS' COUNTRY The change r¡hich has Laken place in Equatorial Guinea after Macías took poweris ofamagnitude which makes it unique in Africa. l"la1abo is no longer a town where "You port and coffee in the main plaza in front of the Cathedral. contrádictory and hard to evaluate' In 1971 he was helped by the Franco regime which made all information relating to EquaÈo.trading partners'" Most list of trading païtners is incorrect but the caution is justified' and much of it of what has been published so far is at best second-hand.T00titlesinhis iiuriogr"ptti. their reasons for leaving the country and the possibilities of repatriation. "Guinea EcuatorialiBibliogtafía general. reinforced by Macíast eminence grise. So have the socialist countries and the inter-governrnental organisations. No . . a study of the existing documentation was anything but conclusive. stil1 more astounding is that it remains so unknor^m. rn December 1968 he told leading (3) Among civil servanEs "Franco commands in Spain and I command here" ' his commands were the closing doi. much more so while Spain. much of it is so out-of-date may sip is totally misleading. Trevijano. l"larch \97 8. until 1968 the country had been abundantly. statements the from Ì. stressed and imperialism' progressive nature of a regime threatened by colonialism Those who had fled from the country held rather different opinions ' tr{hat was Impartial sources like member organisations of the uN expressed Handbooks themselves in bland offici. t'Such reports remain a matter of speculation in the absence of first-hand reports. rigid censorship and banning of all foreign journalists' and about Ëhe country became scarce.October L977. United States and West (1) fne Germany are sti11 Equatorial Guineafs rnajor. Other üIestern reíterations of reports from the refugees have been regarded by Third !.

The President has assumed the rights which belong exclusively to the people.hlho". Europa Publications Ltd.. less given to understatement. and visas were all but unobtainable for lJesterners.. (1) All this was already untrue in 1973 and the statements in "Africa Yearbook" of L976 ate nothing short of macabre. New York. Juan José Martínez Zafo./s. (5) The five political parties had all come into existence during the period. The life presidency claimed by Macías is contrary to the ConsËitution.7.1 THE STATE APPARATUS "The rule of the first President. 3. "Africa South of the Sahara".the beach. october L977 . Its "VisiËorrs Guide" provides opening hours for banks and shops. whose leadership eventually passed on to Maclas' once (1) A11en & Segal. (4) Actually the democraticConstitrrlion was disregarded after 75 days. claims that I'True independence lasted only 145 days. Hopkinson & Blake. is highly personal" observes the Encyclop. London.. The Minister informed the Public Prosecutor that tre could not discuss the matter r¿ith him and that it ¡¿as forbidden to interfere with political matters". London' 1977. Francisco Macías Nguema.. of which the Chief of Police had no official ne\. l5 . (Z) (3) (4) "Africa Yearbook and tr^lhot s .^. "Sources". lists hotels and restaurants' (2) and describes t"tala¡o "ã "r busy town. approached the Minister of the Interior on 26 December L968. tle has insfitutíonalised a reign of rerror by imprisoning or physically elirninating persons guilty of non-existant or supposed crimes". The following descriptions contain ury firsthand observations of the situation inside Equatorial Guinea and corroborative information obtained through methods mentioned. membership of which is compulsory from birth. Idea Popular de la Guinea Ecuatorial (IPGE) was formed by colonial the lawyei. Since then Macías has suppressed the righc of association. L976. But "Tourism is not encouragedt' (3) Eo assess the contradictory infor*"rion. (s) "Yat'. Africa Journal Ltd. all had been kil1ed. l'fitogo. drawing his altention to "excesses and maltreatmentt' by Government officials. and "reports. Lrri" Maho. 1977 .below in sectlor. tribalism and regionalism. To maintain his por/Íer he practises to an excessive degree racism. Some had been called home "for urgent consulations" and some had been forcibly abducted from their embassies.edia Britannica. L973. and enjoy 12 hours a day of televísion on free public sets (Spain's last pre-independence gift) and where inexpensive local taxís Ëake you to a cqcoa esËaterr. Evidently it was necessary to visit Equatorial Guinea personally. l"títogo . abolished the political parties and created PUNT. After the Christmas recess the Public Prosecutor. I eventually goE one from a díplomaf who was planning to defect in order to avoid the fate of numerous of his colleagues. that certain persons had been detained and were being held Inrithout having appeared in court. throbbing with life and music". "The Travellerts Africa". from 12 Ocrober 1968 to 5 March 1969. apparently as political prisoners.

iii iit Ìii iii The democratic Constitution.¡ere no\. 14 JulY L972. Accusations of these two offences would be judged by persons appoínted by Macías himself. "of thirst". "Everybody agreed that the referendum day was disastrous. The others r¡/ere the Fernando Po Democratic Union and the more important Union Bubi. The Movimiento de 1a Guinea Ecuatorial (MUNGE) was formed in 1963 by Ondo Edu who died in Blackbich prison in 1968. Ëhe Third Congress of PUNT adopted a new constitution r¡hich formalised the autocracy and set legal rights aside in the case of subversion or acts against state security. The few r^/ho abstained in Evinayong and Santa Isabel were given a terríble beating. In July the same year it was renamed Partido Unico l. The Youth on the March with Macfas \^¡as recruited mainly from the discontented teenagers at the boÈtom of the society. ( 1) In 1970 Macías banned the political parties and created the Partido Unico Nacional.lacional Trabajadores (PUNT). Juventud en Marcha con Macías.ü abolished and the administratíon of the two provinces became more íntegrated. Confiscations. and any who managed to survive v/ere executed a few days later in Bata prison.üer to intimidate anybody below the top strata of the Party they formed bands of thugs. The Movimiento Nacional de Liberacion de la Guinea Ecuatorial (MONALIGE) was formed ín L964 by Atanasio Ndongo. (1) (2) (3) Jeune Afrique." (3) The Independence Consitution had tried to balance the numerically dominant Fang by providing certain safeguards for the smaller ethnic groups on Fernando Po.üas threatened with public ki1ling. Adding a surrealistic touch he also declared himself Grand Master of Education. It anybody who intended \¡/as pure coercion and ímplanted an undescribable terror: to vote against. is said to have died from gangrene caused by his eyes having been gouged our. because there is no other God but Macías". This was carried out. Now al1 you need is the card fron PUNT. Boletin Oficial de1 Estado. Their verdict could be anticipated from the way in which the referendum had been carried out. PUNT and the arrned forces. Given sudden po\. beatings and general harassment of the population became routine. Before he became a refugee. (2) Aft"r a nevr referendum. The Party activists quickly assumed a povüer over and beyond the 1aw. Bidyogo. the Minister of fhe Interior used to say that "Once you needed a certificate. hrhat remained of it was effectively s\¡/ept aside when Macías assumed Èota1 supremacy over the nation. L7 October 1975. ki11ed in March 1968. Science and Culture. Pastor Torao A founder of the Union Bubi Sikara r¡/as to die in Bata pfison. 229 T6 . or abstain \. accepted by a UN-supervised referendum in August 1968 had become more and more dísregarded. The Bubi leader. twelve months later. Failure to produce the card usually 1ed to immediate arresÈ. These measures r. much of it based on the fear inspired by the youth section of PUNT. of baptism to enter Heaven. encouraged to ferret out potential enemies of the state. p. The PIJNT membership card became the all-important document which had to be shov¡n ever¡zwhere and at any time. "The Workerst Only National Party'r.Spanish attitudes tor¡ards the independence movements had become more tolerant.

In reality the centre of on very po\. Tire diagram below shor¿s the key posts. as Macfas only visits the island all his time in the small town rare occasíons. Gone are the ideas of delegation of po\^rer between etitnic groups.r"rrrãd by a "Gorci" (Gobernador Civil).L Militia The real administrative structure gives a different picture. commanding their respective units.7 \ Detachment lleads I J Army ) I \. ã"yor who is delegated from the Government..Iomenf s Section of the PUNT and the President of the Juventud en of the Marcha con Mácías.t Mayor Ì.fi1itia Lieutenant-in-Chief (Government Delegate) -+ President of [Jomenr s Section ¿J 1 rhe PUNTT' President of Youth Section Detachment Heads SECURITY . Each province is a Each district is governed by go. of balance and collaboration.rl_irrg rhrãugh his political network. The Government delegate is theoretically in control over a conrnittee consisting of the local President of the PUNT. Civil National Lieutenant-in-Chief €-- Governor .üer is now on the mainland. primarily as spies and informers. and by two Lieutenants-ín-Chief' one from the National Guard and one from the Militia.officially Malabo remains the capital. Ëhe Esengui from Mongomo' L7 . On paper this set-up is under formal control PUNT and the arme-d forces but responsible to the civil administratíon' In reality it is a shell around Ehe security organisation shown in the diagram below.. the President of the l. preferring to spend almost of Mongomo and . r^rhich has its members in all the other bodies. All of them are held by Ì'{acíast clånsmen.

Teodoro Nguema Mba N'zogo) (1) SecretarY General lfinis ter f or Foreign Affairs Bonifacio Nguema Esono (2) Captain Aide-de-CanP (t. Macías Nguema Biyogo Miníster of the People I s lutínister for National Securiry (l'tacías) Armed Forces (Macías ) Head of H. 1B . (Feliciano (l) Oyono) the (3) Nephew of Macías Commande'r-in-Chief of the People's Militia (Braulio N'zue) Dis Di s -v PUNT trict. ComPanY Minister of the Interior Secretary-General of in-Chief (IIba Onana) ( I) the PresidencY Director*General of ) Security ) of ) Director-General and Tourism ) Information (Daniel Oyono AYingono) (3) Notes: Civil Governor Permanent SecretarY of (1) Cousins of Macías (2) From Macías t village and f amilY.E. rs Military Household (Com. Teodoro Nguema Mba N'zogo) (1) Minister for (Macías) Trade Head of H.taye) Secretary of State for Economy and Finance Di s tric t Corunanders- Captain Znd.Life President of the Republic H. I s Cívi1 Household Vice President Bonifacio Nguema Esono (2) Minístry of Defence (Com.E.E.Lieutenants-in-Chief trict \y s v vSecond-Lieutenant Detachment Offieers Militia {.

died in connection with the destruction of a photo of Macías.u.ly report to the local Base Commíttee. the purpose of his visit and the persons with whom he is h". National Security and Èhe Peoplets Ministry of Trade. from Fernando Po. The CabineË should also include the heads of twelve ministries. The Base CommitËee deals primarily with national security and surveillance of al1 travel and movement within the country. the tradítional village democracy which functioned on a basis of spiritual authority. giving an account of v¡here he from. soberly commenting that but "some of these Ministers may be dead". they have no budget and when I went tå tne buitdings the doors had been loeked for a long time. trrlhen the economy came close to bankruptcy in L972.As with Ëhe administration. i.Iinistries of Popular Popular Health. in BaLa and l9 . The mechanisms which Every village or tor^7n in controlled by a Comité de Base:.. report suspected "subversivos" of Þtacías. "Now every chief If he has ambitions to \^/ants to be a little Macías in his or. The constitutional structure at the top has been brutal and effective. Popular Construction. in the office of Blackbich Prison. Three have indeed been ki11ed' lack of zeal as lack of the low number most 1ikely depends not so much on money.headed by the Vicepresident. He will appear again in this account. but very rarely for such purposes as visitinEi onets wife and children. lfhen a traveller arrives at his stafed destination he must prompt. proclaimed himself President for Life and took upon himThe first Vice-President. the Ministries of the Peoplets Armed Forces. At present three seem to have dísappeared Educatíon. Nobody is allowed to leave his or her place of residence wifhout splcial permission. kinship loyalties and prestige based on Ëhe respect a person could earn from his community. the Government is one thing on paper This began on L4 JuLy L972 when Macías. The perrnit. Agriculture. a Bubi self forty-five other official titles. and Electricity and Natural Resources have ministers appointed by Macías personally. elected for and another in reality." inform on those politically.rn village. The days of ruling by consensus are long gone. several ministries altogether' \47ere more or less closed. s\^/ept array and the same has happened to the structures at grassroots 1evel. Of those who made up the Independence Cabinet. The compositíon is the same as that of the Committee at the district 1evel. on occasions for seeking such medical treatment as is available. According to the Constitution the post should be held by a Bubi. The only ministries which seem to function to any degree are the l4inistry for External Relations and Friendship with the Peoples. is issued by the Delegã'ao C. go further in life he has to prove himself and act in support who are discontented. with Macías carrying all the portfolios' really govern life in the country are elementary. "oro" going tostay (there are no\¡/ only two hotels in the eountry. The l. However. the President of the I'rlomenrs Section and the president of the Youth Section.tUãtnativo. ca11ed "credencia". with the local President of PUNT. but the present Vice-President is a Fang from Ì'facías' clan in Mongomo. ten have been killed' "Africa South of the Sahara" lists the 1974 Cabinet. It ís given for such things as reporting for \^/ork. a five-year period. The o1d chiefs and their councillors have been substituted by militants appointed by Macías.

what has been donã to their groups lhis seemed a surprising opinion. starting r¡ith the Government grtr_rl r" i" usual and then going on to vaccinate those in A third of this latter group was vaccinated. began a campaign of vaccination with a team for each province. Judging from the existing list of his victims and from the knov¡n cases where entire villages have been exterminated. opinions are dívided as to l"lacías' other motives for claiming that he has been threatened by "subversivos". but their rationale \^¡as that "the Fang have lost more than us because there are more of them and nor^i Macías oppresses everybody"' at. This deserves comments' The racism directed tor¿ards Spaniards may be seen as a natural post-Independence reaction and has not been systematic.Malabo) ancl for how 1ong. Macías has declared that he has been threatened by. But other things are difficult as the attitude to\n/ards the already vastly diminished population of Theregionalismcanperhapsberegardedasanexaggerated Annobón. clear that it seems faír1y as the other reputeã coups d'état are concerned most of them have been nothing but stories made up by Macías to demonstrate his invulnerability and divine protection. Some say that he uses an invented attempt against tris iife as ân excuse to kil1. checking orr each other as well as on travellers' There has been no lack of official justification for the internal security system. The system is based on a double At every kept borh by the Militia and the ar:Ïny.oãt". Subsequently. it appears unlikely that he feels restrained by the need for offical excuses ' "Mitogott. but I have heard refugees of Bubi and Fernandino origin of Against the background say ttrat "tie Fâng now suffer more than us". in collaboration tiith the Ministry of Health. others that he kills whether he has an excuse or nor. and by devine grace saved from. Further control of movements inside the country is maintained by an extensive network of checkpoints' established every 25 kiloneters along watch Ehe roads and manned day and night. an Equatorial Guinean using a pseudonym for the sake of protecting rálatives inside the country' also mentiones "excessive degrees of racísm. Already the evenLs of 5 March'Lg6g are questionable. The tearn for Ëhe island of Macías Nguema Biyogo began its work in the capital. tribalism and regionalism". and as far ridiculous.tempt at counteracting the preferential treatment the colonialists to understand. Among the refugees. His host must report on the s¿tme matlers' Failure Ëo comply inevitably leads to arresË by the political police the Mílitia.\) . The hrorld Health organisation. /. the Guardia Nacional' chãckpoint there are tr^7o separate camps \^7ith 5-10 people in each. no less than fourteen attacks against his This is not a case of allegations open to doubt. ""f. A medically trained refugee relates: "In March and April there \^ras a cholera epidemic in Equatorial Guínea. it is downright life. such gave to Fernando Po. The tribalism directed tor¡ards the non-Fang ethnic groups has been much in evidence and has been severe periodically.

352 consultations.652 r. The dread. ordered the ship Presidente Maclas Nguema Biyogo to sail for Annobón with a leam of nurses. vaccinated the population of San Pedro de Annobón and did the best deal of their lives. I recall that one of the worst thíngs that could happen to one !¡as to be sent to Annobón. The Government \^ras aware of the sítuation on Annobón but rworthwhiler. a clear idea of how our country is tled and governedt. They did an about turn and went back to Malabo. Result z 192 dead. He protested and this action cost him his job. I believe. The vaccine which had been allocated for the Annobón district was puE into storage at the medical dePositorY ' "There v/as a brand new ship r¿hich could do Ëhe voyage in one day. Basic goods were short and fundamental needs could not be sa. 70 rnilicíanos and about 15 Guardia Nacional.ed "pian". "He had not even the training of a medical dresser. several hundred thousand analyses had revealed 70 cases. four cakes of soap for each pig. Tn L942 their nurnber was reduced to 538. "They arrived two days later after having stopped off for tsightseeingt on the island of Sao Tomé (then a Portuguese colony). a campaign against the disease found only 21381 afflicted On 2I . However. These and other events which are present in all our minds give. In 1952 the situation had deteriorated. rconvincedr that tsomething serioust \¿as happening and.he courageous General Dírector for Health should be compared with that of a football player from Micomeseng who made a political career in Ëhe JuvenEud. also knovrn as "tropical syphilis" had appeared åmong 61794 people out of 44. bu¡ Maclas made him a medical doctor by decree and nominated him Hospital Director. unburied' out of a population of 400 inhabitants. The area had become a living hell and the epidemic continued to take its to11. The colonialists built one.with the intention of obtaining pigs to eat on the feastday of 5 March 1g74. He was sent to Ebebiyin as Technical Assistant in the Health sector.the anticholera vaccine was 'exhausËedt before it reached the inland schools. in 1958. "The General Dírector for Health made an attempt to protest against such a state of affairs.{as not Some time later Annobón was stil1 cut off and the remaining inhabítants seríously considered leaving for Angola or some other nearby country." the whole. The climate of Equatorial Guinea provides fertile ground for most tropical diseases. considered that a trip to the island \. with 10r952 cases out of 81. the health situation is becoming increasingly frightening." The case of t. l4ission accomplished.sickness. fourteen years later. After nearly a year the Government. making effective health care imperative.¡ho had been checked in L942. In the L92Os there were thousands of victims of sleeping.tisfied.

All the pharmacies pills and the like. apart from token conLributions from abroad' After the numbers of indigenous medical personnel had been exiled or eliminated. spain. Madrid. and did not friendinËerested in helping us any\"/ay. These are said to be stored in apparently and can be released only on specific order from Macías' This is I have seen \'üeÏe kept open but the shelves not forthcoming.d today. \^Iere completely empty apart from collections of headache would find in a family-stzed in size and composition approximately what one first-aid kit.iËmustbestacedclearlythatlsahTnoindicationsof themselves serious food deficiency. seem bur they had very little in the way of drugs or medicines. such as antelopes traditional fish-traps or hooks. D. Even Ehose in forced labour can keep free to from sLarvation with a bit of luck and with enough family members climate Generally speaking the hothouse do some subsistence cultivation. Archivos del Instituto de Esludios Africanos. uäcías is known to have attacked modern medicinedid the context of his campaign for "authenticity".637 beds. had one hospital bed for 193 people. Leprosy had affected in several 4 . there should be met medicine need now. "Progresos Sanitarias en 1a Guinea Española". and along fishing rods ' In with crude women and children catch small amounts of fish possibility of catching fish in the rivers' using Rio t4uni there is also the game.51000 in the l94os but the fight against it was having results treatment centres. ft is interesting to note that the use of European with no counter-indications as far as he himself or his innnediate family were concerned. The biggest leprosarium. Malaria r¡/as fairly well under control. Equatorial Guinea had one hospital bed for is even 171 people. There are no indications that the health care system beinã *. r. Numero 55. largely becase of sleeping sickness wholesale The livestock whlch was not ki1led by disease has been slaughtered rare for the national feast days when the participants have been offered opporËunities of eating meat ' If human iil ril 1l However. saying that Lhe people no not need it before the colonial period and.7:I4r37L. rnrith an average recolnition as cause of death of. as will be seen in section 4' As for medicines. at that time. therefore. small "Inle could talk ro them when f/e Tíere sick' cubans worked r" p"t"*"dica1s. 22 . in Micomeseng' had 1r210 parienrs in 1958. (1) In 7967 the country had 16 hospital establishments . animal health care has (trypanosomiasis) ' disappeared altogether. on the contrary' it appears to be deliberately neglected. According Ëo uN statistics. In some areas there is (1) Valentin Mati1la.itr. 20 per year. the beaches easy to grow manioc' yam' bananas and other staples. There \. Now we have the chinese' They are cannot talk to them"' lier and r^rant to telp rrs more' but we among l{ongomo supplies of some size in the country.irrtrirr.r'ere no customers to be seen in any of the pharmacies had any and I did not get the impression that the people behind the counters in training in pnaãacy. 0n Fernando Po the excellent soil makes it makes real famíne a remote risk. 1960.. the refugees agree that there are medical ili iii iii iii health eare has deteriorated to the stage of the eatly colonial days for all except the Party hierarchy.4.

000.¿.--.209. by deep scars and burns. Salt is an absolute necessity in The clímate also increases the need to lack of ir has been severely felt. I^Iith few exceptions. Allthischangedafterlndependence.000 metric tons of risr. this was insignificant in comparison with canoes.L67.Afterlg6gEquatorialcuineaslowlydroppedoutoftheworld. Equatorial Guinea exported 38. then disappeared altogether' AccordirrgtoPelissíer. are stoic and proud' and complaints salr. 2.--. have managed to ordeals are clearfy illustrated regainimpressivepnysi"alrlealttl. The kind of data Information about the country became more and more scarce' marked with Ydarbook were which make up the coh¡nns in the uN SÈatistical anasterisksígnifying''estimate''. The Food and Agricultural 1.othershavebeenusing few remaining clothes ' papaya leaves to wash themselves and their ).whomadeconsiderableinvestments' (i) from lhe new President"' \"/as \^Tearying of incessant calls for assistance colony fell as flat spanish benefits from trade agreements with its formerits losses and compenas production and imports.tertT¡Toyearsofforced soap during the labour report túat they recej-ved five pieces of Chinese entireperiod.and 4. done largely from per capita consumpLion 12..000. be.995 metric tons of r¿orth us$ :ogr000'-. then abruptly descended errãrr nrr*b"rr.000.procupines.-1^:'064metric mr of wood worth rons of RobusËa "ãriã.. Ëhey are extremely ex_prisoners.''Spain.althoughitisuncertainto whatdegree. whose Even with muscle and of great physical vitality.ForafewyearstheestimateshTere to low estimated adjusted for estimated growth rate.000metrictonsofhighgradecocoaworthUs$25'1:9'9qO:.oãrin us$ 6.43g metric tons of palm kernels Organisation (rAo) of yuccaworrh us$ 296. concerned an equatorial climate and the medicine.r.andtofeel.ápt. The Madrid Government cut (1) Africa South of the Sahara.806 US$ 624'000'--' palm oi1 worth US$ 19 .-.bothintovrnsandjungle well built' bulging víllages.Almostwithout about the exeeption.tobesharedbytheirramities.clean. soap and mainly with Government-created shortages are f.Itseemsfaírtoassumethatt'hisfactor to the physical and mental strength has been a major contributing 'anazíngLy long periods some prisoners have survived' Infact. L976-L977 ' 23 .005 metric Eons L.onehearslitcleaboutlackoffood. ECONOMY According Eo UN statisËics for 1967. bringing the annual of fish uP to 46 kg.. 325.000 metric tons calculated that industrial fishing produced approximately r¡iere exported' of fish per year and that shrimps-worth US$ one million extensive sma11the However.Refugeeswhohaveescapedaf. which provided approximately scale fishing. use dogs to-"hase it and kill wooden tíPs hardened bY fire' fact that their dier is adequate is illustrated by the extragazeLLes and The ordinaryphysíqueofthemajorityofGuineans. The authoríties have forbidden firearms and metal spear_headsbut'iittagerssometímesorganísethemselvesinsmallgroupswho it with spears with dig pits to trap the !ame. the p.

000 people.. Africa l{agazine published an article on the situation in Equatorial Guinea stating that the countryrs rate of inflation was greater than in any other African country and among the highest in the world. a decision "To approve the urgent construction of a Palace of Congress with a capacity for up to 10.-. Anybody selling a cake of so. In his opening speech. Sudanese and Nigerian Ëechnical experts sent under the Interafrican Progranrne for Co-operation. Bata. the forest.to 150. but can only sell them at the duly authorised prices of the Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Agosto I974... i^le consider such persons as enemies (cries of tDown with the traitorst) of the Government because such sales are destructive.It 1üas revealed that Macías had just expelled the remaining Egyptian. thousands of sacks of salt and soap have arrived in Equatorial Guinea and these have been distributed restríctively to avoid price abuses which have been committed by many traders and others who have been selling soap at pesetas Guinean 75. il ¡i ti il In June L974. It was a lot' One among many. who was in charge of the UNDP office in }4alabo. the Extraordinary Congress then adopted Point 10. "Decisionãs adoptadas por e1 I Congreso Estraordinario de1 PUNT".sated its returnees for much of what they had to leave behind. The flight of capital' and know-how did not help the economy to recover' but there ís no indication that Maclas r¡anted it to do that. Macías. as well as the Haitian Mittchel Louis. much in his owrì manner' the recognised the reasons for the chaotic situation: "The matters which will be discussed within this Congress will be limited exclusively to those connected with the world oil crisis and the consequences of this in the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and in Africa in general. 'According to the magazine. B5Z of the costs to be met by the Peoplers (2) Revolutionary Governnent of the Republic and L57" by the Militants of the Party" (1) (2) Bidyogo. but I believe that' at the plesent time. I am not aÍraíd. On Ehe contrary he continued to lead his country towards bankruPtcY.ap at this price will be arrested and brought before the courts to be judged in conformity with the present Constitution of the Republic of EquatoÏia1 Guinea (applause) ' Henceforth.üas said to respect. months later he convened the First Extraordinary Congress of in Bata.-.per unit. Nigeria and Zai"xe and the Emperor of Ethiopia. Currency reserves r^rere exhausted and Lhe only currency which the country possessed was the pesetas one thousand million (US$ 15 million) offered to Macías by Spain. had advised him to abandon his power. nobody may sell basic articles at abusive pr{ces. for in many regions of the world the price of basic arlicles has increased considerably and such artícles Iluch has been said are in as such short supply as in our o\trl country. Comrades and fel1ow Guineans. 266f. p. ?L . and these basic articles will be controlled '" (1) by the Government itself and nobody else Tvro pUNT irl iil til ìiï !ii :il True to its name.enterprise ALENA lost all its peseta 727 million investment because of the economic paralysis in 1971. African leaders whom Macías \. including the presidents of Cameroon. to affirm that this crisis has affected many developing countries and not simply the Republic of Equatorial Guinea as our enemies within and without believe. about salt and soap.. Iufacías' nalural response rras to forbid them to interfere in the internal affai-rs of his country.

Indeed. (2) (3) Bidyogo. sugar and tomatoes "which are not typically African foodstuffs. p. Maclas blamed tnle shortages olr the failure of his countrymen to implement Decisíon No. UNDP. that only colonialists and neo-colonialists talk about rrilk. a project for maintenance and repair of industrial equipment which is "not in full implementationrr as the experts have lefr the project and reactivation of'a palm oil factory. off fhe record. (1) The non-avaílability of certain typical African foodsËuffs like meat. development planning and administration. they had not been able to study the question. forestry. conËained ín 14 separate projects. L) . in effect. B June L97t+. (3) Evidently the days of plenty \.Simultaneously Macías acted in two directions. Recent export r) ( 1) Unidad de 1a Guinea Ecuatorial. 233. nalural resources. spices and the ríght to consume crops which had previously been produced in the countrY. without coûments. a UNESCO project which no\^7 appears Ëo be Lerminated. that. expressed in an . fishreggs and other essentials \^/as not mentioned. included "two or three volunteers to assist one expert in a project for "íncrease and diversification of agricultural producLion". First he provided his people with a rationale for the economíc situation. human resources. Exactly to what 1evel producËion has decreased is uncerLaín. saying. roads.r to be recruited from all distric¡s in a First Plan for the rehabilitation of all the plantations abandoned by foreigners.lorkers who will dedicate themselves to activities concerning agriculture. industry. 2 of tine Third National Congress of PUNT. neither was the lack of salt. infrastructure. The crisis continued and new UNDP projects' approved in January L975. mentioning that the experts which had been sent from FAO in Rome and the United Nations Development. Secondly. etc. Meals of the African type exist in Equatoríal Guinea". livestock. Assistance Requested from UNDP by the Governrûent of Equatorial Guinea for the Period L974-1978. The ilN plans for assistance were in the fields of. current UN activities consíst. forestry. agriculture. thaË "due to circumstances outside our own coritrolr our current activities bear no resemblance to the rather extensive Country Programme described for Equatorial G'uinea". the needs appear to be greater than ever./ere over and the indigenous management capability had sunk to below that of expatriate volunteers. At the same time. of teleeommunication developmen¡. A Headquarters spokesman recently declared.ngty retort abouË the scarcity of food mentioned in the international press. It is noted. " (2) The Decision did not do much to help the economy. Progranrne (U¡llp) had returned from Equatorial Guínea without making any recommendatíons. Semi-official doctrnents from UN Headquarters cautiously refer to the crisis which had begun ín 1971. The Decision read: "To unanimously approve the Economic Development Plan outlined by the PIINT and its Life President for the recruítment of SIXTY THOUSAND (60.000) NaËional I. bread.

commutes infrequánt1y between of china and manned Japanese-built vessel.rrrtriá". some coeoa is evidenËly markets.r" put the L975 export try orÁ observations indicate that the low figures might well be .lli iiÌ i.. The only animals that'rthe island The Africa Yearbook and trihots Vüho for Lg76.re ""rtain on-th"-jo¡ training tomi1í-tary patrol boats of three The only other Equatorial Guinean Uãats are of the coasts and the prevention of approximately 16 tons used for control and one in Bata' escape attempts.Boattraffícusedtobe intense.Thedoct¡rnentation present number does not seem to be recorded in international onshipping. in previous trigh productívity. taxis or other meansLandrover in Government truck or exceptionally does one encountel a battered supply. like much of the rest of in the streets the period around 1968.". providea uy trre Peoplers Republic indigenous cre\^/' a smal1 by chinese who gi. but a petrol the repair-shops' All at 15 litres per t\. French and incidentally securing a enterprises at¡empted to revitalise the producËion.*./o weeks.l it il ål il !t ii ll äl :l{ .340 metric The commodiry experts at Gill & l. 23 m3 pãtnu"t"te as opposed to 10 m3 Spain had because had been possible because of a good transport system and than other importing accepted a r¡ider ïange of diffeient types of wood countries. in rgzr. Later ít became negligible. monopolyintheprocess.Soarethefillingstations. !i il tons per year' figures for cocoa are said to be approximately 3. formerly san carlos'and Bata' It is a Malabo Macías'Nguema. nothing seen any!'Ihere' reaches Equatorial Guineans. rationed service.ration exist. The beans correct.Å ti :l +l *1 tl Ét õi g 3 'ül 26 ìt { . observers in cameroon expressed their concern that empty the sea"' Ëo were using fine-meshed nets and "fishing as if they wanted of the catch Apart from what is gíven to those in forced labour. vehicles v¡ith co regist. There is no livestock to be I sa!¡ \¡üere four pigs inside afl army compound' not even goaEs. Two are staËioned in Malabo (1) UNDP. In places.rii. industry to end up in East Germany.500 metric at 2.õõõ-. The extensive plantations around Malabo are all dead' the concrete and are rotting on the trees.. This is also ih. There are no buses. That. 2l :l :¡ rl il .valuable trees have banana cultivation' Eo make place for family-sized ptot" of subsistence produced ín Rio Muní and sma1l on the other hand.ggled into Gabon for sale on the loca1to Eastern no\^7 go overseas exportsronce almost wholly absorbed by spaint with the low grade coffee' said European. L974.lalabo.000 of Macías Nguema Biyogo and Rio Muni together have its information'refers to licensed vehicles"... quantities of it ''.a.o. Now it is rare to see a single vehicle transport' 0n1y of public of l.tr. and the Soviet navy ship' Presidente The closely guarded harbour of Luba. sLates approximately 7.butitisnotinexcessoftenshipspepyear'apartfromthe entries in the Soviet fishing ships based in Malabo..000 swiss commercial .areclosed.butnothinghappened. keeps them off the streets' different tradet\'/enty many sti11 with their o1d advertisements for some marks.with663shipsenteringandleavingthecountryín1967.Itshouldbeaddedthatthe Gabon. . (1) disappeared' Indigenous production of fish and seafood has virtually and partly due to ussR fishing parrly due to the prohibition of ovrning boats the trar¡lers monopoly. The productivity of the forestry m3 before rndependence to decreased from an annual average of 364. P. all Ëhe feeder roads are overgrornm been felled basins are filled with debris.

there is the national airline Lineas Areas Guinea Ecuatorial (LAGE). when I stayed there.20 per piece. whi-ch one is forbidden to visit.20 per ki1o.As for civit aviation. for which Santa Isabel particularly used to be famous ' are nowhere to be seen.30 per kilo.863 and 14r166 respectively and in Bata 7. Other services still exist.75. pineapple of condensed US$ f. palm oi-1 US g 3. MeaL and dairy products ale non-existant. possibly because I was the onlY guest. In a few places small girls or old as \^rere most of the market-place stalls. coming home from training in rhe USSft. It is not a bad place. luloscow-Tripoli-Malabo' set up "for getÈing also operates a weekly naval cre\^rs and technicians in and out". or a síngle cigarette' or a box of matches for 75 ekuele. The streels of Malabo are s\^/ept regularly and Ë. in US dollars to facilitate appreciation' ) Fresh fish from the beach can be found on the market in very smal1 quantities at US$ 7. rried to defect before boarding the lberia planes.üas publicly tortured to death behind the Hotel Panafrica in Bata The central post-office remains permanently closed with an iron bar across the doors. 27 . Malabo has electricity more or less daily and water for one hour a day. avocado US$ 0'60 per piece.25.350 and 7. A big bottle of Chinese beer costs US$ 9.90 and one egg cost US$ I. a couple of very small loaves \¡/omen can be seen on the sidewalk selling of bread made from flour mixed with maníoc. Rice from China is reserved for påople doing forced labour and not available in the markets. Tr¿o hotels remain open' Panafrica and Hotel Bahia in Malabo. At the tirne of my visit practically all shops were closed.-. Its closure cannot have made much difference in view of the rigidity of the censorship. LAGE is perated by Iberia personnel but Equatorial Guinea holds 51% of rhe shares. poratoes and yam US$ 3. The stained and rotting matresses have no bugs and it is kept very clean. but Cuban sugar can sometimes be found at US$ L2. In fact' one is constantly reminded of what an extraordinarily attractive city it must once have been' It is now strikingly depopulated and gives a general impression of a place hit by war or the plague. shrimps and other seafoods. a small tin (These figures are expressed milk was US$ 4. f1ight. The Bahia is attractively situated by the beach. The crabs. thus making the harbour completely out-of-bounds. But the national bank is closed since the Director \. Africa South of the Sahara mentions that' ín 1967.30 per kilo.he facades of most houses are still in reasonable repair. and to avoid what has often happened in the past when Equatorial Guinean students. the number of arrivals and departures in Santa Isabel was 13.-. In addition. it was very quiet. With rhe ekuele on par with the Spanish peseta. lobsters. Flour is very scarce and bread made out of flour is a privilege only for those who have the means to import it by air from Douala in Cameroon. bananas US$ 0'60. this amounts to approximately US$ O'90' Certain staples are more reasonable in price: manioc was US$ 0.68L respectively. These remain quife good' The have been drastically reduced but the facilities The Soviet airline Aeroflot Spanish airline lberia has a weekly flighr. Guests who bring their ovm food from abroad have no problems with meals and.per kilo.per litre. which has two flights to Douala in Cameroon and four per week between Malabo and Bara.

mentioned taken' also in Macías.. of being responcandidate caused a stir in the us by accusing his Government (r) '.. illegal extension of A defeated Liberian presidential part of the workers' wages for themselves.itappe''sthatwhenthearticlementionedon a ne\'I on the permit is not available. !i l 1Q . vrhich helps Eo explainmilicianos at Ëhe were stolen by the fact way ín which most of my belongings airport. but and other permissions are required for the purchase of kerosene' a spade iil iri ltl iil iii iil rli iti iil ìit lìl il 'it fundamentalthings. iil lrl rl FORCED LABOUR ìii ììl iil il ii irì I il ri ìri TheendofslaverySomel50yearsagodidnqtmearranendtoforced crops' are both labour. these notes on the economy wouldGuinea has ordered the quotation from a spanish periodical. Yet their real value is demonstrated held often handed over in the standard bundle of nineteen 50-ekuele notes ' the terrace at a beer together by the folded twentieth. calmly pay with bundles not drink beer recipient.000 ekuele respectively.bother to count..ThisSystemgaverisetoconsiderablecomplaintsabout keeping contract time and consuls bad working conditions..rrlnty the workers rribe. "Equatorial themintingofsilverandgotdcoinswithavalueof2'000ekueleand Championship 10.1 "Ya".recruitedbyLiberiancons.--). speech tn L974. The "have-nots" do not Sl^Taggert do and do not carry bundles' Before going on to mention Maclas' most important effort to\^7ards the recruitment of Lhe implementation of the Economic Development Plan: be incomplete \^¡ithout the National Inlorkers.Apairofshoescosts5'000 6r.r. to comlnemorate the Iniorld Football (r) ¡¿hich are to be held in Argentina"' 3. British-made of metal thread inside the watermarked paper for electroníc detection they are in the \^lay counterfeit money.o permission to buy a bar separate' all the members of the applicants household. us$ 0. Inlristwatches' spectacles the'matter-ofand the like are Ehings of the pãst. nor the which neither of the Hotel Bahia.Importedgoodsareexpensive.i. a pair of trousers 6.rol over the sale and purchase of basic articles./ere widely scattered as vüest African ports. for the issuing of the of soap lists required for essentials.OOO át. but rather in behaviour and in bundles in smart.". where the Kru-men dockersandsailors. and the building-up of plantations required from the Kru eâme mainLy Ðu-ri..3 . economically the most important imported labour' iab'our íntensive.000 ekuele ekuele Razor blades used to cost the equivalent of and a towel 2. many officials will not insist bribe for a new aPPlication' differEven the visiting foreigner quickly becomes ahTare of the not manifest irself ences between the "haves" and the "have-notstt' It does using money' The "haves"' so much in clothing. when I tras leaving the country' (US$ The con. Party-officials.ng much of the rrineteenth ". The banknotes are of the best-.ls.60 each but can nol^7 no longer be found. 7 l{"ay 1978. and similar. The ttitt. carry their money in quality' wiLh a their pockets. havingthey. a shirt 5. Cocoa and coffee.Ho'u.000 ekuele.i ill :.bothontheLiberiancoastandin itinerant I. confident and free r*o move around. I have seen bribespermits very matter-of-factly and routinely.i I . sti1l exists.

from Spaints production on Fernando Po r¿here view. But the strained situation continued' Irritation from both sides. Geneva. the After Equatorial Guinea became Independent. (2) (3) Balandier. needing more manpol¡/er' of mainland nurnbers same Ëime.EquatorialGuineanotonlyfailedtomeetitsobligations. and particularly the fear of imporLing docile island' nationalism and claims for Independe. The report. Tn L942.iii"ã. on occasion' attempts by the Spanish and British colonial administrations Fernando to keep thíngs working smoothly failed. this was a voluntary. some were paLently absurd..272. I February L976' 29 . 79lO Sunday Times.95 of them are (:l Nevertheless..rnbers the height and Santa Isabel \4'as the main airbãse for relief flights duríng of the famine.. Fang' which politically astute: the old aniagonism bet\'Ieen islanders andrising Fang Spain had made r¡rorse.denied this s. Ëhe mosË important thing \.ents'dere made' endence.. handling most' not fit to farm cocoa: the same subtribes r¡/ere successfully real to the Others h/ere more if not all. but the situatiãn was tense and. incidents and isolated outbursts of violence' in conËrol grew in Lagos where it was said that "while the spaniards were But after Indepthe labour agreement had been kept and paym. of the cocoa farming in Gabon. The Liberian President commission to and asked the League of Nations to send an inËernational recruitment investígate. took p1ace. French colonial authorities I^/ere concerned Guinea ' (2) the continuing out-migrarion of \^ToIkers from Gabon into Equatorial artifícia1 borders However. The short distance betr'reen the Biafra during particularly po and Nigeria contributed Èo the difficulties.568M. the Lagos Got"rn*. there hTere reasons not to bring over large such as the coÛtrnofl saying that Fang were Fang.¡as to increase At the large modern plantations \^7ere being created. of Ibo refugees reached both the island and Rio l"luni' war when large nr.000 workers !üere repatriated to .Commíssions Report.but (1) League of Nations Document C. a formal labour agreemenË but.rce into the peaceful and who could rt was easier to import foreign v¡orkers from another country. point of The trend in cocoa prices was rising and. when 20.ible for what amounted to slavery. 1930. in Biafra' with the choice úetween starving in Equatorial Guinea and starving to have saíd thev stayed on. spontaneous migration across administration Spanish colonial into Rio Muni and neither the Frlnch nor the LaËer a similar iurmígration of Fang from Cameroon had the means to stop it.nt signed a ne\d agreement r'¡ith accusations with recruit another 15rO00. Macías stoppedFaced Red \^7ages' He also stopped payíng the lbo fheir Cross relief ffigúrs. London. conventiently be expelled should the need arise' Economicandotherpressuresintheover-populatedsouth-eastern to find part of Nigeria 1ed to a migrant \^/ork-force' parts of which began signed was their \^Iay to Fernando Po. Macias to Nigeria in 1972. read in Geneva in 1930' noted that scarcely criminal compulsion had been carried out "under conditions of (f) distinguíshable from slave-raiding and slave-trading"' about At the same Ëime. .

The usual ominous calm settled over Fernando Po and the cocoa production ground to an almost complete ha1t. London. It is also interestíng to note that rice. While for an individual the quantity is actually somewhat in excess of that provided by the World Food Érogranme for people in relief camps. He had got credit before from the USSR by giving them the monopoly of fishing in the rich waters. Government vehicles. a very expensive Congress palace. Forced labour is unpaid.ro"ation and humiliation".00 to 18. The output on the small plantations o¡¿ned by Rio Muni Fang had declined badly after nationalisation. This r^/as unacceptable. When bad it means beatings. 30 . it is clearly insufficient for even a small family. About 700 people were called in. for arms. After embassy personnel had been whipped and eleven Nigerians shot. 45r'000 man !üorkforce on Fernando Po had gone back to Nigeria r¿hen the incidenËs goL \^/orse. this time under strong coercion. remunerated by 20 kilos of rice. Actually it began in 1976. The severity of the control varies.000 Nigerians were quickly repatriated and the Nigerían Labour Congress urged that the Federal Government consider (2) It could have been 'lthe imperative necessity to annex that is1and". the remaining 20. 1 February L976. The workday is as long as the daylight' from 6. (1) (2) Sunday Tirnes.subjected the Nigerians to what the Nigerian Government descríbes as an (f) About half of the unbroken chain oi pto. The ration is given to the v¡orker. withholding of food rations. tlacías needed cash. but was not. printing of new stamps (a costly undertaking arranged through Trevijanots interests in Liechtenstein) and the printing of the new ekuele bank notes in Great Britain (at a cost of US$ 2 nillion). the presidential plane. mainly in Rio Muni. írrespectíve of the number of dependents. improvements Lo the port in Bata (although it was used less than ever before) . The first Ln L977 there \^rere two more recruitments. The real number of people who went was much higher as many could not afford to leave their dependents and took them along to Fernando Po. provided by China and fish. but only for those in forced labour. The Larget was 25. the r¿hole year around.000 workers from all the ten districts of Rio luluni.000. Taking into account their dependenls the number reaehed approximately 40. It may be regarded as an unusual "foodfor-work" system. recruitment should have taken place after PUNTTs Third Congress in 1973. Only large-sca1e agro-industrial farming on Fernando Po could help the bankrupt economy.00 hours. Ilost of them had nothing to do and little to eat anyvray and went voluntarily for a twelve-month period. 4 litres of palm oil and 4 kilos of fish per month. International Herald Tribu'ne. Cocoa production had to be increased. provided by Ehe Russian fishing monopoly. but that affair could not be repeated. done. are not available on the market places. Conditions are tough. Equatorial Guinea had substantial bills to pay. 2B February L976.

There are also other fields of endeavour for the National In/orkers. together with Chinese technicians supervise those building the highway. "S1avery" implies a propertyelementand conjules up images of auctions and trading posts' the The National irtorkers are State property.tch I¡/orse off than people once system" who had to spend 15 obligatory days on public works in French ltlest Africa until Lg46. more recently. They are better off than the Sklavenarbeiter in Nazi of property' Germany \^/ho \^rere. A fifteen year o1d girl tried to bite off the ear of the guard who was raping her. they are not treated as a valuaL¡le commodity. l"iost of the forced labour is on the cocoa plantations.ir eyes. The Liberation movements have talked about slavery. random brutality and the occasional killing'out to carry I^Ihen good it means certain leeways. For the regime. Under no circumstances does it mean paynent' food beyond that mentioned above.viol. both the UN and the USSR close ifr.ac{ast nev/ palace in Bata.ùorse off than the serfs in Tsarist tunate circumstances. undeT forThey are somewhat \. that of the uN and. that of the EEC inspire grave \^/orries. This is debatable. the National \^Iorkers represent an asset and a hope to get the country ouL of bankruptcy in order to preserve the current system' However. in particular to about one-Ehird of the camps being converted in 1965 to relatively milder labour colonies' In the case of the present conditions inside Equatorial Guinea. and no molesting. could produce a surplus and accumulate reserves of their own. not to be traded.ations of women of all ages. on the wholer regarded as an expendable piece Russia who. medical care. Abuse is frequent and aecepted by the Government. as v¡itnessed by numerous incidents' In one particular camp. leaving the workers quiet as long as they fulfil their quoËas. only used for in the "corvé benefif of the nation. giving them a certain security and independence' It is interesting to note that in 1953 the UN ad hoc Cormnittee of Three exposed certain conditions in the corrective labour camps in the USSR and that this eventually led to the rnitigation of some of the severer sides of the Soviet labour system. from behind the barracks of the Policia Armada in Bata in the direction of Evinayong and Mongomo. They are m. after confining the male labourers to their quarters' raped many of the women. Irrhile the attitude of the latter may be understood. the guards. Ilis companions then held her pinned to the 3t . or freedom to coffnunicare wíth relatives' or to go home. French engineers from the DRAGAGE enterprise r¿atched them toil on the construction of M. Some import.ant distinctions should be made in rhis context. such as allowing depedendents slash-and-burn cultivation. Maclast faithful.

to a great extent. at village 1evel. have bãen been replaced by political nominees' for the regíme. contact with it. Almost anybody can be arrested for Inmostcasestheprocessleadingtoarrestbeginsatthebottom Jefe del Seguridad dominates' of the ladder. The chiefs and elders have (1) I Africa South of the Sahara.groundwhílethebleedingmanpulledabrandoutofthefireandburntouc hervagina-slowly.e. theyoung and militant student' with a The local chief of Security is irequently thepowertosuperviseandcontrolhistwocolleaguesintheComitédeBase.other'moreroutine'Sanctionsaredescribedinthe following Pages 3. There is no pto"Ldrrtu leads to a Presidential order for aceusation is true or fa1se.to verify if the in telegraphic style.. r. almost anything' academic..ittiteratemilitantfromEbebeyin.possiblybecausethedead are the law enforcers gír1 was noE a 'ori. The Supreme Tribunaf al Malabo appeal. derived family' neighbours and others' who are erlcouraged to inform on anybody: AccusationsandallegationsareforwardedbytheChiefofSecuritytothe DelegadodelaMiliciaatthedistrictlevel. and an abundance or t"potls will asinthecaseofAntonioSeguro. made into political instruments mutual assistance and respect..tor" been expelled frorn other countries' Penaltyclausesinthenationallegislationarekeentostateserious crime for such a imprisonment.. " (f) AcomprehensionofthelawenforcementsysteminEquatorialGuinea and' wànt to leave the country is important for the understanding or rtry people A further reason is that therefore.Hewasnotreprimanded. The villages.4. or death.Itnow includesgivingofferingstomissions'nott'urningupformanifestationsof is again rt praise and joy on national t"""tl¿rys and being "descontento". and possiuly also because 1a\. Theimportantthingtonoteinthiscontextiswhatmaybethemost tragicaspectofwhathashappenedinthecountry:thedestructionofthe once democratic and based on traditional social system.' get the same punishment as i"ttgrity" working "against the terrirorial The distinction is academic' nationals. Lately'therangeofpunisha¡teoftenceshasbeengreatlyexpanded.. LAI^I AND LAI^J ENFORCE}ßNT a is guaranteed by the "An independenË and secure judiciary is the highest court of Constitution. i. village from youngsters in the His information is.runtothemselves.TheniilitiaDelegatehas' -as his only function. particularly those who have returnees tend to get into. Normaily. it lead to promotion for the Jefe' punishme4t. deserves to be descriuãd at some length.. la' LlLgTI' it is the punishment in Equatorial Guinea Foreigners as insulring rhe president (O-ti y""ttl. to forward reports to the President' If no acknor^¡1edgeback to the Jefe' he will contact ment from the Office of the Presidlnt comes has not been forgotten' Macías directly. L9l6-11 ' .20-30 years of prisoã. to make sure Ëhat the accusatíon ThereportsaddresseddirectlytothePresidentarebriefaccusations whatsoever'. There.

Buendy. he usually signs the death sentence and leaves for Mongomo even before the trial has begun and. Mr. although there are strong indications that these latter were under instructions not to defend their clients.ptesented by defense lawyers. in any case. Death sentences . One can only guess lhe amount of strain many of rhe new officials are under in a situation which makes ruthless and ambitious exposure of potential enemies of the State a matter of personal survival ' Orders for arrests can also origínate from the top. when the occurred actual prison \. especially in the case of a teal.or alleged attempt to oppose the regime. possibly loudspeaker system". 27 August L97B " 1970. leaving only their heads above ground. Subsequently.B. The "defenders" wouLd then be over-ruled by the will of the peoplei expressed in shouts of "No mercy for the enemieè of Equatorial Guinea".{ere carried out by public executions with obligatory cheering attendance from all the population within reach. personally witnessed the beating to death of 157 prisoners during his in jail from 1971 to Igl5. Previously.. There rs some feeling among the refugees that the Cuban presence has alLeviated law enforcement practices. Former MinisËer of Health. The next day witnesses saw that all but two were dead with their eyes missing and their faces partly eaLen by insects. the victims "vlere unski1lfully hanged . In 1969./as too small for expediency.. his hair and eyes l{ere burnt before he was killed in a spectacular event in Bata in Lg76. L7 February B.(l) because of breakdowns in the electrical sysLem. There have even been occasions where the accused have Uåàr r. "Idhen they shoot people they do it wi. 33 .thout r. Information that Macías enjoys being present at executions is incorrect. (1) (2) Financial Timqs.. Pedro Ekong Andeme.often despised by the population and always dependent upon l{aclas for their po\^ier and promotion. this would sometimes lead to a trial. In this system' syrnpâthy becomes \'üeakness. a foregone conclusion if the accusation came f rom Macfas. T." Also their treatment of girls ís much belter than what happens to the girls in prisons or the ones attached to those in forced labour. On the contrary. They were then forced to move into it and the earth was filled in. l4ost of what happens takes place inside the prisons. (2) Other wholesale killings have oro "."y in villages connected to some offender andt at times. old loyalties Letrayal of the Party.C.luch of the usual brutality and oflen it seems that they do not really rltant to clo !t. This occurred in Bata. from Ëhe President himself or from the circle around him. only to plead for clemency. his village v¡as detroyed and the remaining villagers beaten to death. public execuEions have now all but disappeared. when thirty-six prisoners !/ere taken out of the jail and ordered to dig a ditch. Instead prisoners have been beheaded' with their heads left to rot on poles. to the strains of Mary Hopkins singing 'Those hlere the Daysf over the The background music !üas not used later. Methods have varied. On Christmas Eve of the same year Ì4alabo prisoners were publicly shot but later executions have usually not involved firearms. tn t974. slrangled or beatentodeath' In the case of the Director of the National Bank in I'Ialabo.

hitting those who fall or crawl unEil they eventual 1y find their \^ray in through the door they Once inside the came out of some five or six hours earlier. only some 35 X 40 meters but the area is used which To the left of the entrance is a building with two doors effectively. with the dancers staggeling around \^/ithout sense of direction. and there are no grounds for doubt. Three other men stand in the background. Then. An ex-participant gives the following account: one spectacle which still I'On Saturday evening a dance Ëakes place at Blackbich. the Dance. there are only a few spectators at the beginning.s". It is quite smal1.intended to irnitare certain tladitional dances' everyOrre srrggested that fot a long time there had been a severe lack of thing. Not until most are !/eary beyond exhaustion does it end. rio is ônief of National Security. Three informants mentioned lrâcias' Lg73 campaign for "Authenticity" saying that the dressing up in grass skirts \^/as. including enteltainment. the prison in l'lalabo' It has been confirmed by independent sources. . building they are prodded and manhandled into their ce1ls. Qne shrugged' Qne said nothiog. singing and keeping the rhythm by clapping their hands and encouraging the dancers to join in the clapping and the song.takes place is knovrn as El Baile. but the dance goes on because if one of them fa1ls ' one of the onlookers will reach for one of the iron rods which have been heated until they are as red as the embers. clapping and repeating the endless song. Most of them are naked but they cover themselves by tying banana leaves around their r¿aists with a piece of string. Eventually the dancers begin to Ëire. The onlookers move in with Abaca sticks in their hands. but later soldiers will turn up from the army c¿tmp' fifty meters &wa:yt often bringing their wives and children to watch the dance. orrly mentioning the name of lfacías' nephew. he will aim a stroke. Then. around sunset. lead into th" "nav. He is also the author of pamphlet abouL the 1974 tti. The words are simple and repeaËed incessantly' Usually. careful not to burn his hands. Expatriates àre not invited but there can be little doubt that the Chinese medical staff at the nearby hospital have seen the results of it. all men. Similar scenes have been witnessed in Bata. sixteen üen come ouE of a lov¡ building.The Dance of the Damned. Blackbich is surrounded by a four-to-five meter high concrete wa1l. for bored soldiers. Some of thern will stumble. they begin Èo dance around a burning fire. Daniel Oyono a Ayingano. There are nolmally around 180 prisoners. Sweat glistens in the firelight on the lean bodies. is the scene broken up. My question hIHY received different ans\¡Iers. The fallen man gets to his feet and continues moving around the fire. The big ha11 is windowless." This is a description of one saturday evening in Blackbich (known as "Blábich" which is pidgín for Black Beach). sometimes missing sometimes scoring. Two electric bulbs burn day and night and there are latrines at one end. that it goes on every week of the year.aL of large numbers of political suspects' ånritfe¿ "El Baile de los Malditos" .

The prisoners aïe divided into groups, according to the reasons for their arrest. There are invisible lines of demarcation between the parts of the hall where the political prisoners are and those of people ãccused of ordinary criminality. In actual facL, the latter receive preferential treatment and constitute a privileged c1ass. The "subversivos" are controlled by a kapo system similar to that of concentration camps in

Europe, wiËh three criminals ín the key position of bringing food and drinking \^/ater. It is also the three kapos who keep the pace of the weekly dance sessions.

On the other side of the open court is a somer¡haE smaller building. Its far end is a t'nave" reserved for female prisoners. At the other end of the building is the prison office and the room where executíons are carried out. In between are sixteen cells for solitary confinement. Each cell is 160 cms long and 60 cms. wide, makíng it impossible to lie down in a straight position. There are no windows and no light and scant ventilation Ëhrough holes below the roof. In the daytime the heat is stifling. Urine andexcreta go oll the floor. Cel1 There is no \,rater and no latrine. prísoners are kept naked or sometimes allowed a paít of underpanLs. They are never allowed out, except for interrogatíons, the ceremony called "raising and lowering the flag" and Saturday evening dances. Food may or may not be brought by the guards; one ex-prisoner says that he received nothing to eat for two r¡eeks. The "f1ag ceremony" is prison slang for daily beatings.

a prisoner is taken out for interrogation he is invariably made to run the gauntlet between the guards r¿ho are present. He is beaten with truncheons until he has made his \,¡ay to the door of the prison of f ice. There he is tied with his hands behind his back, thrown on his stomach on the floor and has his legs bent backr¿ards until his feet can be tied to his elbows. The position is referred to as Ethiopia in memory of the Ethiopians r¿ho worked with President l"lacíast security system in L972-74.
Inlhen

The actual interrogation goes on while the prisoner is lying on his face and stomach. It is ínvariably accompanied by beafing and although routine questioning only goes on for fifteen to thirty minutes on account of the number of prisoners who have to be heard, informanLs who have been through it say that time seems long.

Interrogations are conducted by Sergeant Ondo Ela. Ile is from Mongomo, old, but strong and vigorous. Allegations that his strength comes froà feeding on human ftesh are impossible t.o confirm, but his reputaËion for uncommon brutality seems well-founded. Ile has been decorated for his fervour and diligence by the President. Trvo clerks assist with the typing of the protocol, if one it taken, and with manhandling the prisoners. Usually at least two of the three key persons of the judiciary system on the island will be present: Comandante Teodoro Nguema Mba NtZogo, Jefe de 1a Casa Militar de Su Excelencia, Bonifacio Nguema Esono, ex Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs and now Vice-President, and Carmelo Bicó, Teniente de 1a policia Armada. In case of executions or interesting interrogations normally a1l three will attend.

35

Nighttime is usually preferred for interrogations and always for executions. Killing takes place in the room adjoining the prison office. In the past prisoners vrere often shot or garrotted but nor¿ the common method is crushing the head. The prisoner has his feet untied and is led ór dragged into the inner room. There he is forced down on the floor and held, face down, while the sku1l is-broken with iron bars. The body or bodies are left on the spot and fetched in the morning. The three kapo crimínals have the task of washing away blood, vomit and brain substance. Fairly often a corpse is brought the 500 meters to the hospital where death is declared to be natural. The body is very rarely given out, although, on a couple of occasions, the family of a particularly important The usual way of body dísposal is Ëo person has been able to retrieve it. ãrop it into an open pit, locally knovm as Toma' behind the cemetery' The vehicle used for transporting corpses from Blackbich is well known and its registration, which carries the Presidentts initials, MNB 8740, is feared' the ce11 prisoners news gets around fast by wal1-tapping. The sounds of interBet\nreen certain cells it is even possible to talk. rogations and killings can be heard quite clearly from the ce1ls closest to the wa1ls of the prison office and the execution room. Generally, all prisoners here know each other but, because of the turnover and mortality rate, the names of those in the cellb1ock are eventually forgotten' However' sometimes there are telltale signs. In the light from the elecÈric bulb in the corridor, one prisoner entering Cell 6 saw the name Ondo Edu written low on the wal1, apparentlY with b1ood.
Among

Apart from routine interrogations, torture is used to break a prisonerts resistance. It can also be added to normal questioning methods on the order from a Gobernador Civil ' or a captain of the armed forces ' The reasons may be anyËhing from a personal dislike of a prisoner to the President having had one of his supernatural visions. The most commonly used instruments are:

A Club made from a coffee-tree branch, carefully selected and \,rorked, some 65 cm. long and elasÈic. It is normally used by the National Guards and the Milicianos enÈrusted with the transportation of política1 prisoners on their way to forced labour. "It is used for all t.yPes of continuous blows and makes the flesh and the muscles so painful that iE is impossible to touch the part of the body which has suffered the blows because if is so sl'/o11en.rt A rubber truncheon made from lorry tyres, about 3 cm' thick and 45 cm. long. "It is used for all fypes of continuous blows and leaves swollen \^/eal s' particularly on the buttocks' Some three hundred blows are given daily at each session.''
Abaca stick, made from an elastic root which is very corìmon on Fernando Po, particularly in Moka. It is used to give blows across all parts of the back, feet, buttocks, etc. "Because it is very elastic it bends to the forrn of the body and leaves thíck 1nIeals

.tt)

which are painful as the club strikes a large area of Ëhe body all the time. It is about 55 cms. long." The l{elongo club is used in the same way.
An initiate Eorture:
E1 Balanceo (The Swing): The prisoner is tied by his feet and hung above the ground and beaten mercilessly about the ribs, lower part of the back, the buttocks, etc'. He is sr/üung from side to side and around in circles to make him dízzy and síck and to create a feelíng of terror within him. The pain from the metal

into the system has listed fíve current methods of

links or rope binding his ankles is intense and the prisoner rapidly loses consciousness.

into his wrísts right to the bone. The resulting pain is made increasingly unbearable by the prisoner being beaten by clubs and pulled downwards. Inlhen suspended by the wrists the prisoner rapidly loses consciousness. The pain is extremely brutal and if this form of torture is continued for more than 15 minutes, the victim is unabte to use his hands for several days and the pain stays wíth him for more than three months. In addition, there is the possibility that he may suffer permanent injury to the bone or tendon. On occasion, the National Guard or the Mílitia leave prisoners hanging for a considerable time as though they were colpses
Las Tablillas (The Planks): Planks of wood are pressed on both sides of the ca1f, ankle and the under part of the foot. At the end of the planks are notches over which ropes are passed and progressívely tightened so that the feet are so contracted and painful that the least movement is unbearable. This form of torture is employed for hours at a stretch and, on occasions, the prisoner is left in this position in the ce1l.

La Colgadura (Hanging): The prisoner is hung from the roof by a rope attached to his handcuffs. This makes the handcuffs cut

(the Shackles): Metal fetters are tightened around as hard as possible so that there is no circulation the wrists in the hands. This causes a very intense pain which is further increased whenever the shackles are moved or pulled or struck, and make the metal cut inËo the bone. Prisoners are sometimes made to undergo this form of torture for days at a time and there are many who are left with deep scars on the wrisls.
Los Grilletes

El Rombo (the Quadrangle): The eLbows are forced behind the prisonerts back until they rneet and are tied in this position. His wrists are bound in front of his body. The prisoner is left in this state for a considerable period of time until he collapses. He is then repeatedly forced onto his feet and beaten until he is no longer atrle to stand and then is brutally kicked where he has fallen. The pain is such that loss of consciousness follows rapidly and so to avoid this the pressure is decreased from time to time. This form of torture generally lasts for 3 or 4 hours
11

The prisoner is deprived of everything (cigaretËes. The bugs istic and bloodthirsly. in which case he is beaten' .day The wrists and elbows are subsequenÈly left permanently scarred and injured.. stabbing and stinging at his skin so that a what he had hoped for as rest turns itself into a sufferance . suffering despair. a spark of madness seems to . the feeling of going ínsane' experience' I have met no confirmed by one more person with a similar more than Ëhese who have been in a position to tell the story' lii: l:-l li! l.trant to take hold of him.Thosewhoareabletoreleaseatorrent'ofrears again' know a brief moment of relief and hope which soon disappears night comes r. Mr' Braulio Ichinda' "For the unfortunate prisoner-assigned to the punishment cel1s' life turns into the most brutal sort of exísÈence. The Guard gives the order to líe dovm on the dirty floor and sleep and so he lies down. sadand mosquitoes crawl to side on the hard floor. a . But anxiously seeking. The prisoner is forced to rerair... The more escape ones cry out loud.r is put. in a sËate of former madness. the oblivion of sleep' side from sleep tetrays niã.likedarkmarshypatches. like a star of hope.' A batË1e cornmences within him.i "The cell is a room which is permanently damp and foul-smelling. llil.Thereisnolighting. ã prison. insomnia invades the body and tosses it out. a dry svieat' as cold as the cell walls.IHÌ Ii I tli. The minutes are slow and hang fortunate ín the air and he weeps in anger and helplessness.His nerves are on edge. letting their tears behindthebars. pain. standing the whole day and the guards watch to see whether he leans against the wall. such as the MinisËer of Economy and finances.descendintothe The situation becomes one brain and ímpair his mental lucidity.r IH ilìl he ?he same ex-prísoner has also given a personal account of what It has been regarded as the ri/orsË experience. visits and even food on occasions) and kept in the most ãbsolute solitude. with their health and sight impaired. The superhuman efforts he as shadows' makes to rid himself of these evil nightmares are as vain past prisoners The very wa11s are hung with the remembrances of which haunt the' newcomer.The 3B . brãaking the silence. incessant martyrdom in which all thinking and reasoning is blocked and and nothing is envisaged other than nightmare.naÈura1 or arÈificial and almost no ventilation. breaks from his body. I^líthin a short timeblackelouds.¡ithout his seeing it. justlargeenoughforoneperson.in the ce11 without any explanation whatsoever' Allernatively prisoners may be punished collectively for an act carried out by one individual.The reãson for prisoners beíng put in these cells are varied' It a suffices that one of the camp pärsonnel takes a díslíke to occasions On other prísoner for him to be escorted off to the ce11. Many of those who have undergone ii lorture have come out with theír nerves shattered. . his hands become tense. often they remain raw to the bone' .

On numerous occasions it has been mis-represented and deliberately confused by partisan interests. The US Embassy was elosed in Mareh 1976. but stationed elsewhere. he heaves a sigh that he might leave this threefold hell of body' soul and mind. " 3. at the time of writing." The aecounts add certain overtones to the words of rhe Saturday evening song: Maclas The population adores him. Libya and Nigeria. vietnam and Yugoslavia. like a lost soul . "Hatred. infírm. disrespect for human Life. unhinged to the point of madness.thousand Ëimes r¡/orse. Diplomatic relatíons with Sekou Touréts Guinea-Conakry came to an abrupt end when a citizen of that country had a relationship with one of Macíasr místresses. are Czechoslovakia. 39 . The French Ernbassy is the only one from the I'Iestern bloc. It appears Ëo be the smallest in Ehe tofnrn and. the Democratic People's Republíc of Korea. and Ghana. whose ruler has always been admired by Macías. indef initely. a desire to break a mants will .these are the only qualitíes with r¿hich Maclas'People's Militía are endowed. Of more modexate size are Ëhose of the German Demãcratic Republic.5. Gabon and Cameroon have embassies but the ambassadors stay in their respectíve countries. The diplomatic contacts which remaín with ambassadors accredited in Malabo. If he is released. the Arnbassador wí1l be leaving shortly' Other countries with díplomatic relations with Equatorial Guinea are the Central African Empire. Hungary. The Spanish Embassy ís open. Cuba and the peoplets Republic of China. but the Nigerian Embassy is under a condition of siege with a number of Nigerian nationals confined to the The Ambassador is ín Lagos Embassy compound and not allowed to leave it. but no Spanish A¡nbassador has been there since 1975 and presently there is only clerical staff. Solitude pervades and. he is marked. The biggest are those of the USSR. RELATIONS I^IITH FOREIGN POWERS The picture is not easy to díscern. LeË us enjoy ourselves in Independence is a serious man' l. Romania. A good starting point for clarification can be found at the embassies in Malabo.lork and remain quiet And the Lord of Guinea will take care Of you for a long time.

a trend which may continue.in L977 to US$ 500. sent by Spain as a part of a cultural assistance scheme. only Seãores lfontero. The OrganísaËion of African Unity (OAU) closed its office in Malabo ín L977.000. In addition.000 ha. The number of Cubans has been reduced to about 500 r+ho are mainly concerned r^iith military training and some teaching. UNESCO diseontinued its activities in the country ín L976. They also have a Ëeam of ten para-medicals there and another tearn of eight in l{alabo where one of their tasks is receiving bodies from Blackbich. have now altered direction. apart from a skeleton staff of three clerks at the Embassy and about ten people running the national airline. Torbay and Touza.-. Soviet Russians are very much in evidence in Malaborbut most of them are in the sealed-off submarine base at San Carlos and on equally inaccessible radar and radio installations in the highlands of Fernando Po. buË has not been Èhere for several years. On the other hand. At the time of ili :li . to relieve the cholera victims in Annobón. The last Spanish schoolteachers. wíth a minímal staff and a budget r¡hich has been reduced from US$ 800. once dominated by Spain. On the other hand.i. married to an Equatorial woman is staying. but after Macíasf refusal to a1low LrrHO. 4. are working on telecommunications in Malabo and run a ship named after the President which sails irregularly bet¡¿een Malabo and Bata. theEuropeanEconomic Conrnunity (EEC) is planníng to provide aid in accordance ¡¡ith the l-omé Convention.¡n completely. Reduced quantities of cocoa and coffee are exporLed to East European countries. or anyone else.Hr !fl lÈlr iil. gne Portuguese. l i ::i !I r'i !. The presence of índividual foreigners is very limited. Trade with Spain has stopped altogegher'. forest enterprise in Nyefang. they have built a radio station in Bata. In 1960 there r¡ere 7. The Cardinal from The Spanish Catholíc Church appears to have withBenin has made one visit.-- i. The Papal Nunzio representing the úatican in Yaoundé is accredited in Malabo.1 lil l. dra¡.068 Spaniards. r¡Ì Of intergovernmental organisations.000. iu: l[i iil. expropriated from Antonio Lopez Sanchez.:l :li ìii ìii writing. left in March 1978 after considerable harassment.i in 1978. where they work principally on road improvements. the practíca1 results of the visíts appear negligible. The Chinese are mainly in Rio Muni.l irl iil iil iil O¡her French private firms are involved in forestry. only the United Nations Development Progrartrne (mqOp) has an office in Malabo. has been Laken over by Cubans. it is possible that Cuban embarrassment over the nature ofl4aclas' regime may lead to a withdrawal' Commercial relations. road ímprovement between BaÈa and Mongomo and harbour improvement in Bata. The French engineeríng firm DRAGAGE has been involved in construction of Macíast new palace in Bata. The prosperous 150. there are. Swiss Plans to get into the timber índustry in Equatorial Guinea came to nothing and there are no known relations with Llest Germany. I^IHO has a represenfative stationed in Yaoundé who visits Malabo once or twice a yeax. at least for the time being. Some of the timber goes to France. unless one includes the presence of Trevijano as rePresentative 40 ii . It íntends to give financial and technical assistance for building sÈorage tanks for fuel for the fishing ships.222 of Èhem on Ïernando Po. iil :il t.

taking ínto account the economic. some indications can be found in the political affinities he has claimed with Hitler (see Appendix 1). (1) As far as his general attitudes are corì. partly to gain "prestíge within the Organisation of Afrícan Unítyl'. are mentioned in this report.. His attacks against imperialism and colonialism have been very consistent. More than that' there is a legal ban on any conversation or other cormunication between na¡ionals and expat. MOLIFUGE. He r^¡as strongly advísed against such a move by flabbergasted counsellors. Although his main support comes from the USSR and Cuba. (1) Recorded intervier¡ with l'tacfas. URGE and several others.to install a democratic rule. Macías declared that he wanted to cror. The índications are that this situation is likely to remain. now Emperor. As direct contact with the Government of Equatorial Guinea did not result ín achieving the desired objective. Howe-ver. with the nepublic of Equatorial Guinea.riates. a majority of'the I^IorkingGroup (three members: the tqro other members of the i. before taking a final decísion on this matter. The fact that he did noË renounce the Kingdom because of personal modesty is clear from the list of forty-six official honorary titles he has assumed. There are also indications that Trevijano directly and indirectly creates dissent and distrust bet\^/een the Liberation movements. CAHIS. There are no other foreigners ín Equatorial Guinea. this would be farfetched.OMGE.m himself King.C. rather another sign of his political immaturity. dominated by ANRD.. due to túe refusal of the Government of EquatoEial Guinea.cerned. social and cultural conditions in that country. FAM.. But a reaction has begun and.æ t- oi Spanish interests. and because of the lack of traditional coherence between tribal groups and sub-groups. At present a1l of them operate under formidable constraints. For obvious reasons the Governments of Gabon and Cameroon are unable to recognise them and the OAU is forbidden by its ol^n statutes to acknowledge a Liberation movement directed towards an independent member country. but somewhat lose ín their concentration when they include Switzerland and organisations 1íke the Inlorld Council of Churches (l.lorking Group abstained) recournended that the Commission. on a confídential basis. Macfast political anrbitions are confusing. only a couple of which. but often disunited because of differing political views. he made violent attacks against the USSR duríng his visir to Peking in L977. partícularly in Spain. with the usual consequences in case of detection. accordíng to the procedure laid dovm in paragraph 6 (a) of Economic and Social Council resolution 1503 (XLVIII). on 23 February Lg7B.fCC). The lack of unity is in part the Iegacy of colonial divide-and-rule policy later reinforced by Macías. Bokassa I. But these hardly seem relevant.B. The intensity of the opposition against Macías' regime has expressed itself in a number of Liberarion movements. The result is a bewílderíng number of acronyms. Franco. as Trevijano has now been deprived of his Spanish passport and lravels on an Equatorial Guinean díplornatíc passport-when he makes arrangements for Macíast foreign trade. ASODAGE. At the time of Emperor Haile Selassie?s death. without support and at besË barely tolerated. 30 July T975. a thorough study of the human rights siËuation in Equatoríal Guinea. all in agreement about the absolute necessity. 4l . and his main trading partners are Ëhe East European countries. B. the Secretary General of the UN made an at¡enpÈ to esÈablish dírect conËact. President Amin and President. undertake.

They r'ron Ëhe fíght and found the weapo::'-::t. because there wàs no ammunitíon there' According to The-.Nevertheless.imes\ri of the they kil1ed or wounded eight membe-rs of the militia and two soldiers the of national guard before they were foiced to ïetreat. the despaír of the refugees has taken the form of at jungle action. attempt faíLeð. fn L976. I. in an attempt to start a popular uprising. The brutality Maclas t Evinayong is an indication of subsequenE reprisals in and around fur¡her dread of the extraordinary courage of Ëhe raiders and his fear that attacks will be more successful' (1) 18 Decembex L976 42 .n:}T-.T. a smal1 group of exiles made its I^7ay through the and a few bushknives they night to the Ëovm of Evinêyong.ùiEh bare handsget arms and a¡munitíon and attacked the nilitia Uarratts..t.

He was rewarded acctrdingly with the "Order of Africa" and the "Merito Civil". atrd all their psychological artifice.qualified him for the beginning of a career in the civil service. an African reality. to please. Maclas belongs to a Fang clan cal1ed Angui or Esengui. ''THE UNIQUE }ÍIRACLEII Accounts of post-Independent Equatorial Guinea imply a number of contradicrions. at Eimes difficult to perceive. with the Forest Service and Public Inlorks Department of the Sub-gobierno de Bata. famous for his sorcery and infamous for the casual killing of one of his o\. but in the small Ëown of Oyen in the Fang-dominated Woleu Ntem Province in the north of Gabon. His official title "E1 unico miraclo" hints at his tremendous importance and the way his personality inter-relates r+ith what has happened in his country. Irrhile the date is uncertain. The entry sirnply states his name v¡ith the coûunent "a boy of approximaEely 15 years". There are other aspects. MACIAS./as regarded by Ëhe colonialists. he went througtr his basic education in Catholic schools dominated by his elder brother and with no apparent talent for as a shy boy study. standing both of l{acfas and his people but it gives an indication of how While the militants for Independence Maclas \. 43 . but perhaps even more important. To clarify some of them it is necessary to make an attempt at understanding the role of President Macfas in the events of the last ten years. whaL has so far been said and i. and easy to handle because of his intellecLual shortcomings.. The administrators obtained a true and exact understanding of the situation The statement shows lack of underthrough the faithfulness of these traits'r. A highly complimentary biography of Macías.4. His father.ia1 in October L96B described him as "A man r¡ho knor¡s ti" peopt. I94L and L942. People from Oyem point out his birth place.ün young sorls. This is far from the whole picture. detaíned or in exi1e. In the records his fiame rtas then written Masié. meaning "Father of the Goril1a" and is said to have been born ín the víllage of Nsangayong in Mongomo District on l January 1920 or L924. he failed crucial examinations at the now closerl Escuela Superior Indigena in Santa Isabel which In reality. However. always eager. known as "Su Santo Padre" (His Saintly Father) \^ras a well-knovm man. Macfas stayed on the job and was seeri: by the Spaniards as a trustworthy collaborator. published in the Catholic monthly La Guinea Iqu.¡ritten about him has been in Ëhe vein of convenËiona1 European political and social concepts. Biyogo. 0n three occasions. subterfuge and reticence. sometimes with pride rnixed with fear. were imprisoned. In 1943 he was hired as an "ordenanza" (orderly). The first tirne his name appears is in the Registro Civit in Bara in 1935. and with the confidence of Ëhe authorities. profound.atol:. He later changed it to the Spanish form Macías to honour a Spaniard who had helped him to become "emancípado". it is clear that he r^ras rrot born in Equatorial Guinea. in 1940. There is no mention of Maclasr birth in any of the official registers in Equatorial Guinea. would have.

. he r^ras campaign witfr påseras 50 million was Ëo come' and him. P. 6-Lr. as shor^m incoherent' and They are rambling made in late 1967. He used his key positioo tittt Spanish officials who were against or of the language and the customs by twisting his translations for confid f". writing his speeches' masterminding much of what for his or'¡n ambitions' instrunent obviously regarded Macías as the ideal ¡tunt opponents !üere Maclas ran an excellent eampaign' He had to' His But they were all in more popular. it went (1) (2) 44 Ecuatorial. Discursos 31-10.. BuË.Thereisapowerofexpression.AfterStrongpersonalrecommendationsfromtwoofhisSpanish time and superiors he was allowed to sit for the examination a fourth to a posting passed it in Lg44.much ù. full of sound and fury haveasignificance. It(1) neces sa1. to al1or¿ trim to finish.tlur educated. Theyas Maclas sometimes his political thought and leave the teader as confused they are' they also as declared himself to be. z-IL. up to hís expectations. particularly in court. "n"ã"nã"-il. making it clear tha. paying for at least part New York in 1968 in order visit which Macías made to tt" unitud Nations in by the recorded \.Consejero de Obras Publicas"' t\^7o posts which he held until the posts he kept a 1ow Conference in June 1968. until L962' Ile remained in this job public tr^lorks Department in Bata. 9-11.i". Ile financed Maclas in the behind (2). 8-11. himself as the favour of close collaboration iit¡ spain and Macfas presented did not ta11y If this only real nationalist.¡herehis name appears of ten' Tråt'ijano of the costs of a and took him under his wing. not to cut him short. referred to as Trevijano recognised the potential of Macfas r.rrite method of his was to people. wirh appeals to the President of the conference not to interrupt interspersed defy analysis of him.y. eivil service but with certain opportunities for a shrewd man wiËhout ignorant scruples. after a long illness and a year spent in cameroon' he posting in the an equally 1ow interpreter in the remote Mongomo District. señor fn Lg67 he became friends with a spanish legal expert named report in this Antonio Garcia Trevijano y ToÏte.s.rt trrri he. present but largely inactive movements. . lt""f. would use his influence in If the re\^/ards r"ru rro. a stiff was entially tell a man accused of some minor offense that hehave facing it reduced' to sentence ¡.ro. This 1ed to his becoming "emancipado" and with the then as t. In spite of these prominent in most of the Independence political profile. 14L.atalentformoving Bantu el0quence ' an audience and an unmistakable element of tradition have been very clear to the Conference precisely what l1acías v¡anted may not but it was evident that he wanted it very strongly' approaching Trevijano r^/as awa'e of this. Actas de la Conferencia Constí Eucional sobre Guinea L961.auxiliar administrador" first in Rio Benito DisCrict. 3-11./as to be groomed for greater things. subsequent translations the courtroom tended to cause problems for relatives of the ungrateful'and to show him The colonial authorities noted the respect people seemed to 1968' Maclas lived up made him "a1ca1de" (mayor) of l"longomo fto* tgO: Tn L964 ro their conf idence in him trrd agãio his ef forts \^/ere rer¡arded ' and he was made vice-President of thã "consejo del Gobierno Autonomo"Constitutional . became assistant Then. the only true anti-colonialist' in the villages' He home with his speeches during the Cånference. more experienced. Lî-IL Ndongo BidYogo.

Peace. with internarional experience gained during his journey -to New York and the UN lleadquarters. He could really rouse his audience. MUNGErand a man generally respected by the people. Hís fatherrs reputation helped ¿rmong some sections of the Fang tribe and his o\^irl T^/as beginning to grornr along similar 1ines. But there were other sides to Maclasl personality and the support he received r¿as less blatantly colonialistic. carrero Blanco. Prosperity. in turn. The other major candidates possessed the same virtues and it seems ¡airly certain that. some of Maclasf strong feelíngs about the u. much of it in Fang because his Spanish \^/as not very good. the activities of Sr. if no other aspecÈs had been involved' one of them would have become Presídenl. Then he would break off and point aË a plantation or a house orrmed by a l^/hite and fYesl'. later he won the second ballot and his \. leader of the mosE important political group. not.Unity.rere shunned by his cãmperitors and completely ignored by the colonialists. In particular.h very few people.716 votes against 3Lr94I for Ondo One r^reek Edu on 22 September 1968. Later Trevi j ano \4ras to say that "Ar the time of Independence the only person with the necessary force of character' strength. p. 26. especially on village chiefs and their counsellors r¿ho. It seems that a major encounter \^7as with two puerto Rican janitors in a corridor who told hirn that they were being oppressed.travelled extensively. He would start off with his slogan . His limited education and antipathy for things he did not understand was accompanied by a syrnpathy for certain old traditions whích r.üay to the Presidency was open' The ( 1) Dominguez . energy and priâe-was Macfas. (It was only much later that Maclas said publicly fhat. Backed and prompted by Trevijano he appeared on television. He was the only leader capable of uniting the country The first does Lehind him". he had only been abLe to coamunicate wit. L977 . did irresponsible damage to the reputation of Bonifacio Ondo Edu. 45 . He r¡on the first ballot r¿ith 36. Maclas may have lost if Spain had not intervened elumsily in the internal politics of the country. because of language problems. Those who watched saw a serious and concerned politician. The margin was sma11 buE sufficíent. shout 'Do you want that?r and people would shout back tlf you voËe for me I will give it to Your Then he would say and the younger people would be for him"' Still. concentrating on the rural people that his more sophisticated competitors neglected.s. (f) The last sentence has some truËh in it.A.) But his populist genius worked best in the vil1ages. then relatively wide-spread. may date back to-lni" episode. Miníster of Foreign Affairs in Madrid. used their considerable influence over other villages to make them pay heed to the potenrial President: People who remember him from that period have said: Ëhe "At that time Macfas !¡as a good speaker. He would speak f"or a very long tíme.

for examination and treatment. of people who may be a threat to hirn and of his phases of the behavíour and obsessions. I have talked with hundreds of puop1" r¿ho have met him.outcome \^las voEes \¡iere honestly counted under UN supervision and the judging from perfecrly clear. who knew him personally from Lg72-74. nobody the only mainland district \. Trevijano refers to him as: "Passionately given to the noble of dissimulation or intrigue' of the Independence of his people. boEh loco. Maclas went clandestinely ations with Dr. Bur \^ras ahlare of one interesting facl: spanish ne!üs reports at that time. at first' seems to be just as obscure and incomprehensible.fhere the vote went against him was Mongomo'and five years dominated by his own clansmen. However. seen him.¡e1l as anybody can' Yet he elusive and with him. incapable Ramon sternly upright in his objectives and actions". where he had been mayoî fox wheîe. This may exíst but is inaceessible in the ists of medicine and psychíatty in Spain' his hearing' "For a long time l"lacías has been having trouble with compaign and his deafness has It was aLready evident during his election Pladrid before increased since. the future of Equatorial Guinea' The rest is history and has already been outlined' I'rIhaL remains 4. in some cases. Lopez Ibor ín Barcelona fot a pty"tti"atic examinltiol: Tht ethics but' this examination has not been revealed for reasons of medical further consultto Barcelona for three years later. was remitted to revealed s)mptoms beyond the purely physiological and he outcome of Dr.er knornm than anywhere else in the country' Macías for this report is to try to elucidate the extraordinary character of It is very difficult' who is one of the enigmas of eontemporary history.. knovrn him as r. If asked to elaborate they will mention his his irrational dead victims. indicating lunacy in the literal sense of the word' of these stereotypes are very illuminating and statements bY medical aboùt mental instability remain weak if they aïe not corroborated hands of certain sPecialevidence.he was bett. describesa pathcharacter as: "unbalancedrinconsistent and unpredictable.itre people had made their choice. wiËh unusual outbursts of o.L TilE PERSONALITY OF PAPA MACIAS The personality of Maclas appears to be inseparable from his political thinking and. Equatorial Guineans in exile habitually refer to him as "medio fear. The Spanish writer' his Garcia Dominguez. (half rnad).logically psychic incongruency which provokes his lucidity and which and violence. and the way he is influenced by the moon. listened remains to him and." In fact he went Ëo the Clínica Ruber in diagnosis the the elections.. Partisan accounts do not contribute Lo one's understand- cause ing. Ibor. interrupted by påriods of equilibrium of a latent must be related tà a sense of bifteï resentment arising out inferiority comPlex". None 46 .

/ithout the calculated build-up and carefully orchestrated response. tr^Ihere the latter use guiet measured eloquence.¡n alone and kept up a conversation with the dead persons for whom the table had been set. heedless of the shouts from the crowd. bul the rambling incoherence and length of his speeches (r¡hich often go on for hours) is 41 . He hastOndo Edu. Maclas improvises.otes abound but some are confirmed beyond doubt and appear to be indicative and inspired by a sense of pity. However. to cry out the names of his victims. He only accepts food cooked by members of his own family and it is all imported from Spain." Some ' things can be inferred from his recorded speeches and from his public behavior. Macfas shouts and rants. Atanasio. listen quietly for a moment and then talk about ondo Edu and Atanasio. Maclas is guided by voices. you. medical ethics tor¡i¿ revelations about the patient but rumour has it that he was suffering from a brain Ëumour. He once ordered the table laid for eight peop|e.If the effectiveness of the psychiatric aid remains unknovm. Thére is much of HiLlerts hysteria in his more rabble-rousing deliveries but !. Macfas is a long way from the usual calm dignity of his countr)rmen. repeating himself or changing subject as the mood takes him. This could explain some of the peculiarities of his behaviour. The servants qrere mute. It may be assumed that the effecËs of systematic and prolonged use are less than healthy. such as his screaming and shouting' It might also conËribute to his tendency to suspect virtually everybody' Macfas \. and rushes on. wittr jerky movements. only mineral 't^later. He has no tribal scars and has forbidden all scarrification after he had a vision in which he sar¿ himself attacked by visitors with scars.üas also treated by Dr. Some of his mannerisms are undoubtedly caused by his deafness. He never drinks alcohol. His eyes and ears are bad but he uses no hearing-aid. swilches from Fang to Spanish and back again in mid-sentence. it is clear that his deafness has increased. heard. perhaps partly because as a public speaker. Ciudad Universitario in Madrid. buL he drinks Iboga and smokes Bhang and this shows in his pupils. Nobody knows quite whose but sometimes he will stop himself in the middle of a speech. Its hallucinagenic effects are potent and may explain certain of Macíast peculiarities Bhang is a loca1 form of hash-hish. relatively been "Maclas is very frightened (tiene mucho miedo). why do you search for me? I have done nothing to you have killed yourselfl t. and is said to resemble LSD ín íts effects. The drug can be taken Iboga is a little-knovrn both by smoking and by drinkíng. then sat dor. Manuel Duran Sacristan at the Hospital Clinico. derivative from a local tree. It is also regarded as an aphrodisiac and plays an important role in traditional religion.'' widely spread. Again. mâfly refugees who were once in a I position to observe him closely confirm each others ímpressions of some of the more noticeable traiËs "He is physically strong and in good health but badly co-ordinated. publicly. Anecd.

He began talking about the destroyed picture and said that if an ímage of him \^/as ever harmed in the College' everybodytherewouldbethrov¡nintotheseawithastonetied around his neck. He inrnediately left for Malabo where Lhe first thing he did \. Those who know him r¿e1l bequitepleasant.Atotherlimesheiscompletelysilentortalksto 4ì5 . a Congreso Popular. I r. Macfas then began to talk about Atanasio and the coup d'état.00 hours' very exciËed and intoxicated from Bhang and went right into a violent speech: 'r have been told that my picture has been destroyed' . a list of contents were limited to a biography his forty-six titles and an attack on Spain' President. He then changed again' to say that and that they \^/omen were allowed to come to his closed palace any price they were all free to sel1 whatever they wanted at liked.ri11 create political corrnissars to take over aLl the posts held by spaniards and throw awayallcopiesofthebookFormaciondeEspírituNacional Ecuatorial and write a ne\d book ca1led Formacion politico de Guinea eight people Two days later the president actually made a list of its r¡ho were to co-author the book.In 1975 Maclas had ordered his picture to be put up everywhere' InDecemberthatyearhewasinvitedtoEheUniondouanièreet économique de ltAfrique centrale (UDEAC) meeting in cameroon' telephone trrlhen he r^¡as there he was urgently informed over the pictures.Laterinrhedayheorderedameetingofall the teachers and students in Malabo in the Collegio Nacional for the next morning' .wipingthe s\./eatfromhisforeheadanddroppingthemicrophonefromhis trernbling hands.. the }linistry of Education r¿ill be closed and all the teaching stopped. had been torn. he is said say that there are days when he can on the screen.and was killed shortly after. uâcías arrived at 13. 'From today. Llhen it eventually appeared of the Prdsident.úas to order a big meeting.The women shouted an begantoinsulttheMinistersandtheaudience.BosioDidco.Afterthat'hebegantotellthemthatiftheyeverhad trouble with their husbands he would receive them and the meeting endedinlaughter.hadbeenunderarrestsincethetorn photograph had be"o ruiorted.1 cannot tolerate this' Now' I ask you Nobody is allowed to point his fingei at it' what shall I do with the person who has destroyed my image?' 'Kii1 him'.partly due to his use of Iboga and Bhang' An eyewitness account may serve as illustraEion: .00inthemorningeverybodyhadarrivedandwaswaiting.." The ex-Vice "Maclas never returned to the Conference in Cameroon' "Macfas arrived in his Mercedes' He \"¡as very excited' He the period Maclas can sound quite normal on the radio and during to have been impressive when the country sti1l had a TV station. on the door of the house of the ex-vicethat one of the President. for the Seccion Feminina de PUNT in the hiorkerst Recreation Centre' ByS.

the closer the better. They had a civil separation in 1965 and she sti1l lives in l{ongomo. in a traditional tribal marriage. "Laughing like a madman" he screamed that Lhe duty of the soldiers \. picked up a stick The ominous thing about and begun dancing before the crowd. He has' on occasion. One has to take into account that for a Fang. During his Mongomo period he a look the Bujeba girl. The importance of the family is also shown in the concept that a man has to break the sacred kinship ties and sacrifice a relative. particularly at the time of the ne\^l moon. Rumours that Maclas has done so abound but are. a 1ocal drinking place. childless. an object. The President is frequently referred to as Papa Macías but as pater familias. so far. gther incidents would appear mainly humouristic if it were not for their sinister connotations. is of Paramount importance. of condescension and ridicule. he has had his hardships. A man can be rich and powerful. His excentricities can sometimes have a happy ending.as his first wife in a Catholic marriage. but if he does not have wives and childrerl' he is considered a non-entity. 49 . it would seem that there are other more relevant factors. the family. In L972. irlhen he starts to grind his teeth he is regarded as very dangerous and fear of him mounts during the period from November to January. but as that is compensated. by his shrewd intelligence. but has escaped to Gabon. l{aclas kicked the door open' waved the gun and ordered everybody present to 1ie flat on their faces on the floor. held the post cf Director of Pharmacies. refused. unconfirmed. to a large exLent. Maclas Guardia Civil. After she became the mistress of a Spaniard named Roman he wanted to divorce her but the Bishop. in early L975. He went to the military camp some 200 meters from the Old Palace and emptied his gun into the ceiling.rise harmless exhibition is Macías' preoccupation with cults that demand human sacrifice. The next day he promoted all the soldiers he had beaten to the rank of Lieutenant. rather stiffly. the mulatto daughter of a Spanish The latter has þeen his consort since L964. Monseigneur Raphael Nzé Abuy. His inferiority complex is constantly mentioned by those who have knovm him. The reason most conrnonly mentioned is his lack of formal education.Ada. born in L972. the mulatto daughter of a German and with Monica. mulatto daughter of Santiago Osa. During one of his difficult periods. and then he 1eft. an other\. who had some nursing training. and especially the procreation of the family.himself. Thís subject vill reappear in the context of the Bieri and Bwiti cults. Clara. Things were better with Frieda Krohnert.ras not to rest but to guard their President and then he returned Lo his palace. Maclas rushed out of hís palace aË rnidnighË in a tantrr¡n. Armed with a machine pistol and accompanied by the Governor of Bata. in order to obtain potent magical po\¡/ers. It is unkown who is the fatkrer of a boy. Lrhen he found thaE there \¡/ere several soldiers present his rage mounted and he beat their faces. he picked a Landrover and In/ent to Okucuc Bianba Mba. he married C1ara. screaming that they should stay in their camp to guard their President. These are probably more in accordance with the traditional background. a nobody. accompanied by dancing.

t.Theyalsohadtheirornm Monseigneur . In a pastoral letter in April 1968.everrhe contented himself with expelling her Osseni. In order to live with them he kills their hisperiodsofmentalcrises. his'of others.Heisamanwhoisnotregardedasamanbyhisown on the preposterous people ¿rnd whose desíre for recognition and love takes cult he has created' expression of his mania for titles and the personality Hispersonalitycombinesintelligenceandhumour.. The illiterate but colourful lady went onas Maclast business tour. cameroonian lover Tancho How. 37 50 . P. where she acted representativeindeatingswithaLebanese.'AgapitoNmvo. Thl picture then begins to emerge of disregard for the lives his deeds. ol".withaneedforthegrossestflatteryimaginableandcoupled it is oddly moving with amazing megalomania. .irrr.JuanSesinJuan. i'Th.Christianity.albeitoftenbitterand Sarcastic./ live in Mongomo. but there is no doubt that it was widely spread' goverÛnent' Training colonial power which was closely interwoven with Lhe ofindigenousclergywasoneoftheslowestinAfricabutalsooneofthe during the and Ii.patiently had most of her previous lovers killed: Luis Nguema FredericoandsimonNgomo. .saidtohave. "Macfas husbands' during of mixed race.t. via Moscow.. after having million) ' This is Swiss bank account (said Ëo have contained pesetas 50 a grand shoppping incorrect.ThiswasthecaseoftheDirectorofSocial S"curity. dynamic lonelyandhaunted.HeadoptedhersonwithOsseni'Teonesto'whoisnowinCuba with a for rnilitary training. Against this background ring of a hope which with its to recall his siatement on 16 January L969 have I "I have beln considered as mad' ¡Ihenthe madness . with Aeroflot relationships with other Frieda and Moniea no\. her Nsué' Guardia Civi1.Shethen Both to Malabo' visited Tripoli from where she returned.ror been achieved my (1) done vrithI" MACIAS AND RELIGION TheCatholicChurchbuiltastrongnetv/orkthatwasamplified bytheeducationalsystem.'' Thetediousdetaílsalepresentedinanattempttoshowthree t p"t'o"älity.ThelatterdiedinBataprisoninlgT3. Maclas'very attracted to \^7omen is lromen have been of short duration. preoccupation of some Catholics about the Raphael Nzué Abuy-\^rrote. ruthless shrewd.Monica in early I97B where was extensively mentioned in the international press emptied his it r¡as stated that she had escaped from Maclas./üas not to be fulfilled. ofsecurityforBata. ãf u""í"' strong loyalty to those closest to him and his him a laughingstock. her daughter children r'¡ith the Deputy Director and paão and Moniqrrità.ilâYhavebeenthinlyspreadincertainpartsofRio important It \^tas an Muni. FeliPe Pedro Esono.í"". has been suffered from madness? The only madness I have shown madness is over and for freedom and since freedom tá. his sexual impotence which makes important f"". Las Palmas." aro indigenous bishops who were installed mosr thorough Autonomyperiodr¿erechurchmenofgreatstanding. brought home to us' attitude of the political leaders of Rio I'luni have been (1) Dominguez.AntonioEljoandAntonioMane. unlearned but a person who is victim as ¡¡el1 as perpetratoÏ ofbut not sadistic' sensitive' but without direction. Paris. He also adopted l'Iaribel.beenadoptedby 957"ofthepopu1ation.

I did manage to get into one other Church. Private Catholic teaching institutions. which is sealed off. imprisonment was milder than usua1. the year in which he made himself Life President. hate and false promises. No Guinean shall' On 10 February |916. trrlhen The reaction of the Vatican has been one of discreet silence. Inle followed r¿as a long story of escalating anLagonism on both sides. pUNT catechism. Party officials were increasingly prone to state "No hay mas Dios que Macfas" (there is no other God than Macías). paragraphs 2 ro 5 . on the whole. (1) Unidad de Guinea Ecuatorial.gf "the subversive activities meetings of the Catholic and oiher missionaries". The funeral ceremonies should be "carried out according to the African Lradition". whose bishops (considered by many as imporËant as the president) showed little willingness to co-operate. another Decree had one single artícle: as from this day. fie also !¡arn you against anti-religious rabble-rousers. prohibited all religious and encouraged popular supervisiog. Letters to the Pope have been answered by the State Secretariat which "takes note of the contenLs". Cardinal Pantin fromBeninwent to Equatorial Guinea ín L974 and apparently informed the Holy See that the situation r^ias not serious. I^lithout Macfas. Maclas hamstrung the Church by expelling the two bíshops and began a slor¿ but fairly systematic campaign of humiliation and harassment. Christian names were forbidden' so \.fere Christian funerals. either it is noL passed on to Rome. the tone hardened. From L972._ Its slogan "God created Equatorial Guinea thanks to Macfas. Unwillingness to comply led to temporary arrests of priests. be called by the names by which he r¿as baptized in Church. PUNT. upori Macfast order. 22 November L974. Neither shall the mispronunciation of Afrícan names and particularly with 'European intonation'. It had been total ly vandalised. \^rere to be closed (see Appendix 2. but. The returnees who did not manage to escape were imprisoned.the Decree is typical and well worth study). as well as egoism. compared him to the Messiah. The Cathedral is inside what has become the Presidential enclosure. It is now used ag an arsenal to store a:rns provided by the Soviet Union. an obvious wordplay in Spanish. He who does no! fear God will not respect the laws of Human Rights'l. as well as a very small Seventh Day Adventist Mission Chapel . Sermons r^/ere to be censored and alms or offerings to missions became prohibired. Any person failing to observe this law shall be sanctioned r¿ith a fine of Bipwera one millíon". ( r. Lrrhat In November I974. for the spiritual welfare of the refugees ' not to menlion their do anyÈhing material welfare. In March and April the fo11owing year. The Church. be permitted. Everything inside was broken and lying in shambles on the floor. the only ones sti11 providing a semblance of educatíon. or the Vatican hlhat is astounding is that no action has so far been taken to suppresses it. for instance Father José Esono. -1 JI . Equatoría1 Guinea would not exist" bëcame an obligatory part of Church services. He also advised Equatorial Guinean seminarists abroad to return to their country. I r¿as in Malabo a small Church near the market place was stil 1 kept open. which r¡as taught everywhere.warn you against messengers of tribalism. A few were killed. monks and nuns. The Papal Nunzio so as inYaoundé in Cameroon has recommended the Vatican to remain silent' in the country" There is a great deal no¡ to endanger the rnissionaries still of information about the conditions available to the Catholic Church both in Cameroon and Gabon but.

Theyascribe naturally o"". 44. ogun drinks blood and.. P' 495 Pais. with fecundity. are the subjective factors. 7 JulY L978.of misleading. cannot be understood unless this is takenof only a the support Macías t ability to suppress an entire nation with of political terror and smal1 fraction of it is only partly the result the strength of arms. There is a tendency Èo r¡rite them off as primitive but superstítions.rut. almost the feeling of fear thal he inspires is so sLrong that it causes rotal apathy and polítical impotence' The question of beliefs outside the main established religions is a sensítive issue. This phrase. who had married Maclas and Ada as evidence that kept in Mongomo as a kind of house chaplain. October 1977.Religionisplayingaveryimportantpartinwhatgoesonand the country and in Ehe situation amoig the equalorial Guineans. (1) (2) E1 Arnre.In May 11971.Ogunisthegodoflronandmany him vehicle ãri. used in myview of Maclas t agent provocaEeur in Gabon would """* qt"'tionable in rather blatant violations of the Ten Commandments' In reality. Vo1. . pretending normality. Their average age \¡/as 66 and they had were accused SPent an averag e of 32 years in. It can cause success ered natural and magic permeates it afiects childbirth and crops. aged 85. believe that they can neglect v/orshipping days' onty at their own peril. certainly not to be taken seriously' This atritude of superiority rnight have some foundation if applied when to current Western beliefs in astrology. the evasive action taken both by t{acfas. and the outcome of r^¡ar' I'Jhat and failure. something to be regarded with regret or condescension. Equally important. It is inexcusably superficial r¿ell-knov¡n African applied to rraditional belíefs in a tribal community' A scientist elucidates: . both inside into accoun!' neighbouring staËes.rtiing phenomena to the whims and capriees of gods who mustbepropítiated.instead vehicle' of being due to careless driving or mechanical failure of a (2) is ascribed to the anger of the god!" and steaming The Bantu world of beliefs is bursting with vitality deaths are considFer¿ and the power of virginity.l. fertility most aspects of 1ife. and Telecommunications". often usedpresence by an Uaàías. Maclas declared his country to be an "atheistic staterr and shortly afterwards he expelled seven of the last Spanish missionaries from the ordine de los claretianos.Equatorial Guinea before they (1) The only one to remain was Father or iuiog inËeliiguot" agents' and then had been Leandro Fuente.lany of those who live in developing countries exist in cultures .inwhichthesupernaturalisveryrealindeed. every few his devotees have to find a live animal to saerifice to him'the This sacrifice is much more important to many'dlivers than regularmainLenanceofËheirvehiclesandanaccident. are both highly christianity is sti11 observed riit-. O. ElecËromagnetlcs r"Development Problems in the Teaching of TelecomJnulric."" ir good Catholic".InNigeria. _pretending that atheism of a vaguety t"tarxist kind.ation Journal. r modicum. and by the Vatican.

People " 53 . they flesh. I{hen he intends to go somewhere.the British.within the context. where nobody outside his inrnediate group is allowed to He He collected all the sorcerers and Mvet singers he could get'hold of and learnt their Malàn (magic). Inihat I had not realised of when listening to them in the villages was that they are also in possession Some new dances Seem dangerous *"gi" and are performers of sacred dances' to h". Macías would only have to "speak with the voice of the Tiger" to make ít appear instantaneously in his defence. Mongomo. he learnË the differenÈ kinds of magic practised by the different tribes and is nor¡ in a position rvhere he always has a surplus of countermâgic' to the extent that he is invulnerable .Theyare itinerant musicians who sing a kind of chronicle and running comment oir current events and are important disseminators of ne\^ls. he says thaÉ way is Lad. "It serves him as a guide'.ru originated fairly recently in connection wirh the Bwiti cult and were possibly created by Macías himself. feeding on blood gazel-iLe as an emblem' Inevitably. Most important of all. They are seen through gi. mystical. His political opponents had a lost in the villages. It became knornm that the Tiger \^7as a legacy from Macíasr grandfather. immortal. In the villages it eats men and feeds on human flesh every two or three weeks ' " With rhat "knowledge of his people and all their psychological artifice. subterfuge and reticence" so highly appreciated by the colonialists' Macfas placed his totem animal on Ehe PUNT rnembership card' The signifieance success that \^7as clearly understood by everybody.heusedtheMvetsingers. if he sees the Tiger turn back. French and Spanish colonialists disregarded as pagan superstition remaíns a reality in the villages and sti1l influences life profoundly beliefs systematically." It also remains invulnerable and immortal as long as it gets it" pr.y. Trilles and hlalker. "Inlhen it stays in the forest it eats animals. of traditional religion. an animal which and does not exist in Africa. If a group of people would gather to assault him. if he sees the Tiger go before him he says that \^ray is the right one and. Christianity. he revived the Biéri cult of ancestor worship and collected powerful skulls from all over the country' is presumed to have created sanctuaries for these skulls in his víllage at go. 1etha1."s darkly and expressed in sociological terms. and I'Iestern technique and science are po!r'erful enough in their owrì' right to be able to resist or even neutralise his magic. Maclas uses traditional Shortly after he became President. His fear of and very active campaigning against Christianity had a 1ot more to do with this than with affegations that missionaries were imperialists. It contributed to his Macfas had come from Gabon where the secretive Bwiti had been more powerful than in Equatorial Guinea but where it was more feared" to approach and even The cults of Biéri and Bwiti are difficult tounderstand to most readers from industríalised countries' more difficult They are mentioned by writers such as Balandier. Tomakehispowerknovrn. to serve him in defence and attack. At an early stage hechangedhis emblem from the vigilant rooster Ëo E1 Tígre.

.may also be veiled' in the villages put il more b1unt1y.rn o""."iâ"r. talked about with a well-knor. when G'ciring paradise of the deceased General Ludendorff as going off to Valhall. it is a question of regression to tradition.you may le against Maclas as long as the sun shines but and Ëhey sum up to be fár hi..t". But it is difficulr of another paralle1 with the Unique Miracle' 54 . and his powerful hold over a reluctarit mueh in line Fundamentally. although their termsin the night you have .rnrtrrt"d pt. " These were the terrns used by one old man between the one explanaËion for the otherwise inexplícable contradiction feeblemilitarypovrerandpopularsuPportforoneoftheworld'smost people' . the to think the Norse gods one thousand years earlier."ion in Hitlerf s Germany.

OUTFLUX There are certain conditíons which facilitate escape' The tropical rain forest in Rio Muni is extremely dense and easy to hide in' The border the thickness is a line on the map and there are no natural obstacles apart from strategic guard roads and of the vegetation. There is no doubt that the terror and oppression have been made systematic in a way which is unique on the continent. machine-gun posts or land mines but allegedly there have been pits with sharpened poles made like the traditional hunting traps ' "r*orrIl*ged 55 . but to refer to life there as normal is grotesque.0ô0 atteged refugees in Spain.5.000 disappearance.ject to methods of cross-checking all data described in ttSources" below. not an Auschwitz built for the extermination of a people. The following brief description of the current situation is based on conservative estimates of numbers and sub. Inevitably. They remain in obscurity. and forced 150'000 people into exile' Other inflated figures are caused by extrapolation and by adding presumed annual growth to known data ¡¡ithout having the means to check whether this has anyLhing to do with reality. there have been exagge1 ated statements about them' A PUNT spokesman t. little has been heard about them. a fantasy and a myth.000 deaths and 15. Equatorial Guinea has had little of the violence and bloodshed which has taken place for instance in Amin's uganda." This ca1ls for comment. On Evidently the truth lies betr¡een the t!üo extremes. a refugee problem forgotten by almosE everybody but themselves. 5. One thousand had left for personal t'they live normal1y"' reasons but many had returned to their country r¿here "To speak about refugees from Equatorial Guinea is. He made it clear that out of 6. but a cottage-industry Dachau' the other hand some of the information from refugees in exile is misleading as far as figures are concerned. NeverËheless. a silent embarassment to Gabon. Cameroon and Spain. Gabon and cameroon most had left their country long before Independence. l{acfas has then been given the blame for the difference and been accused of having caused 50.pfi"a to a critical article in "Africa Magazine" in "Unidad de Ia Cuineà Ecuatorial" on B June 1974 under the headline "Our Country is a Cradle of Liberty for Everybody". THE REFUGEES TherefugeesfromEquatorialGuineamayrepresentthelargest proportion of any nation ever to have gone into exile.a falsehood.1. The soldiers or milicianos who points are badly trained and frequently not issued with bullets' There are no dog Þatro1s. It is a statement of fact to refer to the country as "the concentfation camp of Africa". There are explanations' In one case dubious population guesstimates made by the present Government have been compared with more prá"i"u demographic data.

primitivos".iungle. natives were regarded as ì. that is. On the whole.j children even more so. If anybody manages to leave now it is usually by having sufficient pretexÈs and connections to be permicted to go to Bata. qt INFLlTX Differences betrreen the situations in which the refugees find rhemselves in Africa and in Europe will be made clear on the following pages after mention of common denominators and general characteristics' First.ill confused and uncertain. and the maínlarrd province of Rio Muni. them ever fainter or I'll shoot" from a frustrated soldier waving an emply rif1e. to their heels and run off.Leaving Fernando Po is next to impossible since all the local boats have been confiscated to prevent eslcape by sea. colonised for four centuries. escaping with them in Ehe general confusion.írst-rate anthropologists into the field and making use of their analyses of the peoples involved.just settling dov'rn from a largeI^lhile scale population movement when colonialism began to make itself felt' politics the dynamics of Fang migration were s1owly ebbíng out. school Carrycertificates or any documentation other than the PUNT membership card'small ing personal beloniingr is very suspect in the border areas. stamped only at the points of depaïture and arrival. travel permits are leagally in Equatori"t crrinea is very difficult. since few members of the armed forces have taken been enlrusted rith rr*nrrnition. hearing behind. travelling However.üere concerned. It still remains important' even among Lhe refugees in Eurgpe Spanish attitudes towards the indigenous population appear already in the official terminology: "menores" and "emancipadostt. but Rio }funi was. the influence of Spanish colonialism must be emphasised. personal papers. carrying A ma. Fernando Po vüas comparatively stable as fat as ethnic minorities \. It had different impacÈs on Fernando Po. Sp"itt maintained a deeply ethno-centric s6 . from whel:e he may be able to make his way through the .000 Nígerian plantation workers. Also a fast runner may stand a chance if apprehended by the authorities.. however. rarely a minor issue' \^/as increased and aggravated Uy ttre colonísing power. Lrhile Britain and France \^7ere making serious efforts to understand at least certain communities in their colonies by sendin g f. cries of "Stop. I^Iith very strict measures imposed on all internal movement. This affected the attitudes of spanish settlers there. which was partly unexplored as late as 1920. who felt uncertain with the more independent Fang fribesmen' Po and Spontaneous Spanish sympathy for the more docile tribes on Fernando into a deliberate divide-andon rhe coastal strip tf-nio Muni later changed rule policy airned at maintaining Spanish economic interests after Independence Subsequentiy tribalism.came at the 'time of the repatríation of 45. inter-tribal were st. or problem is that it is very dangerous to carry anylhing that might indicate rhat one is trying to leave. several people have done exactly that. The \'{aves of refugees from the island. not at each checkpoint' everThis makes it possible to by-pass certain checkpoints and thus reduce theeven present risk of arbitrary arrest..

in the view of the countries of asylum. overcome if r:heir potential is to be given a chance? The question is then. In the eyes of the local indigenous population they are somewhat suspect characters out of favour with the Government. When arriving in Spain they feelings originating from the have been influenced by the inbred inferiority Throughout they have been in a situation where physically colonialists.¡as strictly a one-vr'ay process. This class system.Jhen they arrive in Gabon. and mental scars from the oppression of the for relatives and frlends left behind. and it was ãf spanish cultural automatically taken for granted that acculturation r. and the country v/as \¡rell on its \tay tortards advancing even further.-. as do fear and anxiety political and economic uncertainties in the countries of asylum aggravate their situation and the inevitable stïain of belonging to an exiled minority with dím prospects does not ease the psychological pressures I. caused considerable damage in terms of social tensions and confusion of value systems. Spain. In fairness it must be stated that Spanish racism remained on the whole benevolent and coloured by a definite synpathy for Ëhe PeoPle. unknov¡n in the traditional democracy. Hospitals and clinics refuse them because it is unclear whether they have the right to benefit from subsídised The first 57 .r.Iith rheir varied skills and their energy and will towards helping themselves. The effects are still very much in evidence among Equatorial Guineans.p. daily lives. Cameroon or Nigeria they automatically find themselves in conditions way below the standard of living they have been used to in their own country before Independence. and religious models was never in doubt. partly for reasons concerned with the international image during the Franco regime and with debates over the Gibraltar question and with touchy relations with other countries.The superiority philosophy r¡hich can at best be described as paternalistic. Economic administrative infrastructure \^/as more Lhan adequate. would make them assets rather than liabilities. the refugee groups certainly have a potential which..iioiity and a fixation on things Spanish. As far as development in Equatorial Guinea is concerned the facts are c1ear. \n/anted to make a model colony out of Equatorial Guinea.me'vrant to bectme Spaniards too. I.which are the main constraints which must be is the uncertaínty and ambiguity surrounding the presence of the refugees. Inevitably this has affected the present situation of the refugees.s confidently expected that Those who were not remained they r. Spanish unquestioning assumptions of complete have given rise to a corresponding cultural inferiority complex ". Human and animal health problems were well under control. They succeeded in the economic sense. present Government affect lheir . At the time of Independence Equatorial Guinea \^/as prosperous.rould eventually mend their ways and ín the course of ti. Those who adopted Spanish ways were classed as "emancipadost' and gi. but it wa. people whose obligations and rights are not c1ear.tr considerable assistance to advance further within the colonial system' t'menores". Education progrannnes had raised the degree of literacy to a high level.

. As rff u" the composition of different communities indicate that they is concerned. .. the entire population rhe neighbouring eounrries t. 4. .rr"d.Havetheydonesoprimarilyinordertomakeabetter livingincountrieswithamorevigorouseconomy?SinceanumberofexilesGuinea situation in nlua¡1rial apparently ao go back voluntarily'"can the beasbadasitisrumoured?Iftherumoulsareincorrect'isanysuch to well-founded feat o1 refugee "political" in the senså that he' "owing I ia I' Ii t1 Ë¡ 58 !. rn other *orã".of sometímes dubious Employershesitatetogivethemiobs'ordosoatwagesfarbelowthelegal The is being created' minimum. but there are also fishermen from Ehe villages' elemenL.staËe-SupportedschoolsdotheSame. .economic refugees. constitute a confusing SensethattheyarenotcoveredbythelJNorOAUmandateswhichgivelegal in Moreover.. extensive contacLs ú/ith There are enough educated and trained a.tly with the intention of money' Guinea once they have made enough tá-al"ttorial 3.. Guinea to look "Economic refugees"' who leave Equatorial going back for work abroad. peopleamongthemtogive". acceptance which is fot the the recognition'ãna t""p"ct which are cruci aL place' required before "rr"""""1"1 integration can take into the social There are also the contradictive elements builtconfused the issue These have system the refugees have brought rriith them' difficult for their governments to for Èhe countries of asylum and rnade it is the fact that a considerable come to firm PolicY decisions. ..dãubts 1!o"a about their reasons for q":?:lons of Equatorial' Cuineans in exile' raisi"g leavingtheircountÏy. ín the The . mostly for trading purposes' People who stay voluntarily in Equatorial Guinea' their will' People who stay in Equatorial Guinea against ii Noappropiiatecensuseshavebeenmadeofthefirstcategoryand itisuncerLain'h.¡"t^..""tothesuspicionthatmostofthecadres large groups of farmers and have left the country.'ityleadingtoviciouscirclesof as well as lack of poverty and marginality which peipetuate themselves. *irotity proletariat underprivileged groups in irnplicatíons of this are those contrnon to most minoritysituations:lackofoppo'.leavingexpensiveprivate standards as the o¡r1y alternative teaching institution"...tt'"'existingfiguresarecorrect'exaggerat'edorunderthe group of genuine political refugees stated..:e a cross-section of Ëhe population." "u. Foremost.lreatment.people who cross the border for short-term trips.no. their presence protection to recángised politicai refugees. 5. them to retLlrn' asylum because it is impossible for 2.Va-et-viens" . number of refugees r@' categories of Equatorial To understand the situation five different Guineans have to be identified: in the country of Bona fide Polit ical refugees' remaining I.

clothes' etc. the "va-et-viens". The r. Thus.ks. nationality. and carrying their goods on their ba. with its iapid economic expansion over the past years.¡n before Independence. but ít is equally important that he himself comes back to assist the family he has left behind' He has the choice between risking his own life or the lives of those who depend on him. In less fortunate circumstances. is founded on the same rationale. although a seconcl arrest is likely to mark them as "subversivos" and lead to a prison term under conditions described elsevrhere.000.tirne in a village in Gabon or cameroon ro raise a litrle *only by doing odd iobs or cutting and selling firewood along the roadside in order to be able to make their purchases ' Sometimes they can bring and sell small loads of cocoa. those who come and go. Gabon. has been a particularly attractive goal. this and other relevanl. membership of a particular social grouP or political opinion. part.-they more. combine with fhe system of unpaid forced to create an impossiblá situation.articles in the 1969 OAU Convention on Refugees make things quite clear' Any refugee who "has is no voluntarily re-estáUti"tru¿ himself in the country which he left" political no longer a longer covered by the convention. sometimes they stay a short. The third calegory.to have taken jobs available at half or a third of the payment offered nationals or subsisted on money lent to them by relatives or friends' The explanation of the voluntary repatríation of these workers is is simple and based on the fundamental importance of kinship ties' It back normally the breadr+inner who goes abroad to make enough money to bring to support his family and to make necessary purchases of medicine.Iith a shattered economy. buying things like salt' soap.-. CFA 30. money can be made only outsidefrontier dare lo cross the country. Their traffic is not regarded u"lrury seriou" by the authorities on either side of the frontier and they can sometimes make a deal wi¡h the soldiers or milicianos' If they are caught a first arrest normally leads to nothing more than a week in loca1 detention. mostly crossing the border at night. and Cameroon and Nigeria have also offered some opportunities' official with luck.being persecuted for reasons of race. the migrating workers have been able to secure . kerosene for lamps and other necessary commodities. Near total absence of such for health care and the most basic consumer goods and excessive prices labour necessities as clothing. and consequently refugee.or about US$ 130.icularLy in rural areas.iobs at theevefi per month or minimum salary of Fr. 59 .rr owing to such f ear. life in Equatorial Guinea no\'n cauFes hardship which rnras unkno¡. is outside the country of his nationalitY and is unable o. To be able to obtain essential included commodities it is necessary to obtain money and for all who are not the in the small privileged grorrps in power. religion.ã1 "itrration ís more complex and demands a certain understanãing of the background of the ethnic groups involved' l. These things are essential. They are small-time smugglers. He returns. is unwilling to avail hirnself of the Protection of that counrrY"? Superfici aLIy. a Large number of people who can and illegally make theit rry out and try to get employmenl abroad.

pride in standing up to their fate.cateurs who have done much to complicate relations between the real refugees and their host communities' The last group is the largest. there. Undoubtedly there are groups which have gained from Macfas' rrtivat in power and the political system which he has ãreated. The same goes for stories to the UN in New York as-sassination attempts against Gustavo Mbela. nobody stays voluntarily in Equatorial Guinea. they have certainly improved their paradoxically. The most primitive way ofoPerating is case and place the break into. Agentsmaximum antagonism to cleate make their lüay into the border areas. in spite of a generally speaking tight security provocateurs .rirrgi" has many ans\¡/ers: fear of the dangerous flighr' behind uncertainty about what awaits them in exi1e. Rumours that Maclas has had a militant opponent to his about assassinated in Amsterdam are unconfirmed. Ambassador reign 0ntheotherhand.ro kinds of agents operating' One is more or less on the same leve1 as those in the villages. "Inlhat keeps them from t"r. looting. usually posing as refugees.ãfrrg"es in Madrid the information is collected and forr¿arded both who uses the Embassy of Equatorial Guinea and particularly by Trevi. arrest of opponents.The return of the iob seekers in the second category ls more precarious. This is "ã exaggeration. people from this "ti"goty do make their way inro neighbouring countries. under orders for the agent to against the refugees. These are some of the agents provo. being about reprisals.the house of a Gabonese national. What goesAccording almost immediately' among the refugees in Spain is known to Macfas by ao . rape and manslaughter' Members of the army and the milicia fill the second rank in the pecking order' Since most of them are recruited from strata r¿hich úrere previously looked down position' upon or even held in contempt. steal a box or The miliciano emply box in the ilrmediate vicinity of the house of a refugee' remuneration from those who give him sent out to do this is normally without during his orders. his only compensatlon being what he can collect for himself his mission. Ln Gabon the situation is stil1 hTorse. In Libreville rhere are t\. The rhetorical question. this service to render hirnself an irreplacable al1y.jano.y"a". confiscation. untrained rnilitants r¡ho advancement spread confusion and dissent and ¡¿hose main remuneration is 60 I .itisperfectlyclearthathisagentsare penetrating into Cameroon. fatalism' The external intelligence and counter-intelligence activities of on Equatorial Guinea are effective in a number of countries. unwillingness to leavewill fear that their flight family members who are too weak to travel. They must anËicipate having some of their goods and moneY confiscated as a price for letting them return to live with their families easilY and being at the continued mercy of the local authorities which can seal their fate by branding them "subversivos" According to many refugees.¡n kinsmen from Mongomo who have in which been propelled to unprecedented influence and placed in a position almost any use or abuse of power goes unopposed and unpunished: extortion. First among these are Macfas' ov.

Maps show the Rio Muni province as a rectangle cut out of north- no for Gabon vary between the official figure of more than a million and UN estimates of. of the refoulements which have taken place in Gabon up to November 1971 ' concernThey were almost certainly involved in the stealing of documentation In addition.and are no\^/ living in and around Bitam. of the entire population. estimared at 407. be it is officially accepted as 60. The impact of this influx mustof politics and economy seen against the background of the population. extend latent intertribal tensions across the borders of cameroon. rhey also complicate Gabonese relations with Equatorial Guinea Gabon maintains diplomatic relations .000 density inhab i tants in L9l 5 . who are professionals and consequentlyin some difficulr to identìiy. had together 100. In addition. atre sometimes apprehended another kind. their arrival is a threat atreãay sensitive elhnic equilibrium. and through the territory of the Fang tribe' the I^lith these geographical conditions it is quite natural that Gabon hasinto have quietly f iltered largest nLlmber of refugees. as well as the ugãrra" in the villages . for space reasons and other considerations' be detailed here. have m6vsd as far south as Mtd. at least indirectly. Libreville had 250'000 inhabitants in 1975 and a probably third of a million in 1978' The two other largest cities." from Rio Muni are also Fang.of their careers in the party hierarchy once they make their v¡ay back home ' by These.jacent countries. trained in the the Gabonese authorities. only some 250 kilometers of border dravm artifically through the rain forest. I'Ii th this intensive urbatrisation population in the ca. Medouen and Cocobeach. The vast ma.000. They have been involved./estern Gabon. conditions in the rnaín influx countries will be very briefly outlined' Unfortunately' much of the information cannot. 5. Bgt there is also more countries which support '¡qae{as.000. Except for a short stretch of the Mitemele River there nalural boundary. An estimated third of the refugees are in The exact size of the refugee population is not knov¡n. but Libreville. the "pan-Fang" movements' the Alar Ayong and the Pahouin Congress.jority Oyem' Fang areas near the border. Gabon. by far the most numerous are the the Fang.L GABON is \. although those with Equatorial Guinea were very strained on two occasions in 1972 arLð' 1-974 because of conflicts over of extension of Gabonese territorial r¡Taters which affected the small islands DemograPhic data 6T . the clansmen of Mac(as ing rhe refugees in Gabon in late 1977. since B0z to 90% of to an r"flge. Port Gencil and Lambaréné. under a stable goverilnent.zít. r¡ith all ad.2. 715. 266'000 square kilometers of rural area is as low as l-2 per irrr2 of the 52 tribes in the country. in oyem in the Inleleu Ntem province have a certain polirical and personal influence whieh extends beyond the purely loca1 interests ' After these general remarks about the exile siËuation. Smaller groups port Gentil and Lambaréné.

ï.Itlookssounofficialthatonemusthaveacertainunderstandingforpolicemenandothersr^¡horefusetoacieptitasavalid unfortunatelv' ï..since period 1960-70 and rhar ru"'^orrtf-inã during rhe taken income overEquatorialG"ittttsoldroleofhavingthehighestpercaprta in Black Africa' primarily on petroleum and important The present wealth is based The role of labour intensive patricularly uranium ". flimsypaper."nese: i"ãustry' is declining' This minerals . ao slow-downs men.". ã*pn"'i"å tlei. beginning ao ou-iurt.f..n"oouConventio.'ptii:. ín imprísonmt"t ã"ã t""" ""P"1sion' Thelackofstatusinteractswithotherdifficulties. centre tá*ãl"t vrithout."ii*. situation Moreover.*.rr. vulnerable rhe t.r".includingfoodstuffs' above all in the urban areas' prices to dangero"rfy irïgf1 ievêls.rg"e who is considered bona recognised status. .à StatuS'canrrotue. At or.ofeconomic."rrion with a aggravated by an inflation ourcome is an austeriry ". infrastructure have contributed is raising t.. debt of about us$ r'7 billion' natìonal roughly to an economt-c.i 62 . High óommissioner."ã-Ñ... for RefugeesA requesred rhe u. and economic refugees' socialandpoliticalnature.rllner"bt.opr" who lâck becausã of lack of legal affected are rhe peoplt-ttt"' resented for micropolitical t"tlorrr'ar.Gabonisasígnatory totheUNand.rtu orr"iåOott."o. Attitudestowardstherefugeesareambivalent.inNovemberl9TT... and.increasingdependenceonimportedgoods.rn"i*-f.ofalphabetic...'uritfromtt'elegislationconcerningminimalvJages. and forest production..o . the *.r "r.ro.'....".therearefundamentaldifficultieswhichhave that of lack of The biggest Ot"¡ftt is undoubtendly fide to be resolved' t"t. especi aLly agrtcul¡ure create a da193rous employrhe very trpiá urbanisation to of the economic growth' has combined with . heavy expendlt..o.rural " receivesan"Attestationde:éio"r"whichservesasanidentitypaper' a stencilled sheet of the docum""t t' i" tt't form of Unfortunately.chronologi.. the confusion between-political by an essenti.. attitudes tor'¡ards the refugees' and af fects the Gabonese authotici"r' booming' Per capita íncome tripled The economy of Gabon has been u"gittning' Gabon has."".-io problem of supplying oo from the Government is working 'nã counterpart Atthesametime.'d At present.á.trhiletheGovernmentisdoingitsbesttocontrolthesituation.thesituationisfurtheraggravated factor...""'ningrefugeesand... people who are marginal .. rhe effects are training.free the situation of the ma'iority of t"¿ *tai"al care' ff-'i" îs the by their ignorance of French' education rhey are n""ui"rooed refugees..^ documen.rions rhe Governmenr tibreville for a six-rnonth mission' rD-cards (UNHCR) ro send a represenrari._Mo'...through were quicklv resolvell^i:^::tt remalfls Corisco and El obey' The disputes uneasiness but an Lhe acËivities of an OAU speciui-"o**i""iorr.o'otherSystemsintheregistersofthe a duplicare long delar'-io the issuing of arlest' to de DocumenLation.ilf"i is .' not seldom tearing lack.The estimated aL 307" "Evidently the first categories to be I.

wrwind. The houses I saw were invariable clean and well kept. the police and the gendarmerie launched a ma.to 100. Even the prompt release ." (l) The ef fects were bad./ere searched in the course of an operation referred to as "ratissage" or rat-catching. It had been declared as ttinevitable" because of recent confrontations between inrnigrants and Gabonese nationals which had led to arson and pillage. This sum. The refugees realised that there \^/as no protection for them and the nationals drew the same conclusion' The experience \^Ias traumatic and.lere a problem. Acts of vandalism \¡/ere thus carried out in the different quarters inhabited by Equatorial Guineans. provides a shack built \'/ith odd pieces of wood and Oukoumé plywood. could be done in one to tr¡/o months at a cost of FT. 63 . and a fair amount of work.ùent as far as to set the houses on fire and commit savagie acts of aggression on the refugees. It has been a free-for-al1.-. with a sheet metal roof and a mud f1oor. but lhis rnust be seen against the situation in Equatorial Guinea. Certainly most of the inrnigrants do precisely that. thus forcing an interventioà. with goåd latrines dug downhill and dor. of the tor^rn ha. During the whole day. and in particular Libreville.000. The army. People were breaking the doors of houses and looting what they found inside. There is no electricity but fresh \^/ater can normally be carried from a nearby conrnunal tap. Above all.s been finding an unused 100 m2 of land on the outskirts able to claim it for himself. As one iurnigrant said.--. 8 March 1978. Economic refugees are xegarded in rather vague terms as people entering another country to improve their econoÍiic situation and living conditions. l{osquitoes \. of systematic refoulement of all the Equatorial Guineans. but (1) LrUnion. However.thanks to the tímely intervention of the UNHCR representative of the large number of refugees who had been imprisoned could not lift the atmosphere of anxiety and suspicion which pervaded the slums.The fírst category is in principle covered by the UN and OAU treaties concerning refugees and given the same rights and obligations as other aliens within the country. but that "the recent census of people coming from Equatorial Guinea has been badly misunderstood by the population Most of the people actually believed that it \¡/as a question of Libreville. The next step. the Government had declared that bona fide refugees had nothing to fear. The gold rush ambience of Gabon. . building a house. its non-refoulement clause protects them from being sent back to the country they have escaped from' The second gronp has a fluid status and is in reality without 1egal protection. houses' pedestrians and vehicles \.000.CFA 50.-to 434. t'How can one be an economic refugee from a country withour an economy?" The lack of lega1 status 1ed to a crisis on 16 February 1978 when increasing concern about agents pïovocateurs and news that a Gabonese-citizen had been ki1led in Equatorial Guinea made the Government act. Some \.-.¡ho preferred to hide in severe discomfort rather than to go back to Ëheir empty houses.ior campaign in Libreville to get Ih. at the time of my visit Ëwo weeks later' there were sti1l hundreds of refugees ¡. Anybody has had its definite advantages.control.or US$ 217.ituation under .

gr. Eviãent1y no Church has the resources' own' which on its experienee.rn to be efficient among the refugees Hovrever. In the villages in of the capital the sítuation was much less marked by the relative affluencewell constructed very but houses I^/ere.jock east of at Akonolinga settlements are already in existence.2. in Decemberttproblems of coûlmon interest" Foreign Minister with a delegation to discuss ( 1) wi ttr itre Yaoundé Government ' an average .000 km2. the underdevelopment of problems'." of poliLicar stabiliry has been relarively highcaused by the influx' reduces anxiety securiLy system knor. Thema.jorityoftherefugeesisstillintheFangareanearthe population a 1ow border.2. Cameroon The predominance of much less disturbed by the refugee infl.000. the year around.ith an estimated seven million inhabitants spread with is obviously riensity of L4 ar'^ti-Oãt-mi o. Theothersideofthegoldcoinisthatthereisnoorganisation nor the is active in welfare. p' 34 64 . CAI"IEROON population The united Republic of cameroon has the second highest ofrefugees. which extends through Equatorial Guinea up to to tropical rain forest all the way from the border Yaoundé to The Goverffnent has resisted pressures from President-Maclas :-gl5' when Maciãs sent his send refugees back.ematic repression of intellectuals (1) Jeune Afrique. good.o make up for the organisational by involving the refugees themselves more than is usual ' 5 . in order to settle them at what is consideredandsafe }lband.Theyarelocatedmainlyinthe the sparsely populated tribal territory of the Fang. LZ3 tribes and represent only some 3Z of the total president Ahidjo led the country to Independence on 1 January 1960' the and a national á. to take up assistance programmes for the refugees occupied with are fully As the UNHCR and its counterpart from the Government up the legat aspects of the refugee problem there is a need for coming gaps with unconventional solutions and t. mainly in the departments ãf Ntem and Océan' I^lith densityinesSentiallyfertilecountlythisregionhasahighabsorptive province which the capacity. than yaoundé but their total population seems at present to be no more 500 ro 600.the rural areas the malaria seemed to be under control. in theory.particularly has only an embryonic infrastructure poses worrying population' The in view of the characteristics of much of the refugee Guinea has created in Equatorial syst.ux than Gabon' country where they are one Fang among the exiles is of minor importance in a population' Since of. on the whole. reports about agentS provocateurs opefating from the border have made the authorities keen to transfer the inmigranLs distance' Two a areas. l0 December 1976. For instance.^.officiallygivenas30. In reality.rut an area of 475. built with mud onBoÈh in tovm and village leaves ' wooden frames and with roofs of impenetrable providing food there were small fields of manioc grotirrg near the houses.

"It's rediculous. housing and agriculture. the security situation has been much more reassuring. travel agents and bank clerks. for its síze.e a number of the refugees are not farmers.e Living conditions in urban and rural areas are fairly similar in Gabon. Further aspects of meeting the needs of the refugees ¡.jobs with production of playwood. with priority on the issuing of proper identity cards. middle-aged army ma.jobs r¿ith forest utilisation and protection.Íer. the Fédération des Eglises et l{issions Evangéliques au Cameroun (FEMEC) has responded positively to the need for action. So is the waste of human skil1s if this'b/ere to happen. the best educated refugee conrnunity in Africa' of these refugees adapting to subsistence farming are The difficulties obvious. from labour-intensive road construction.what must be.o gain considerable assets of trained and experienced manpo\. In view of this. He gets upset by voices which only he can heartt. and of the fact that the main potential in the under-developed influx areas is in forestry. Presumably the representative of the Vatican is wellinformed about what goes on inside Equatorial Guinea but this has not in any r^/ay affected the Catholic Church. Macfas does not get upset by what is said in Rome. donor agencies should investigate how the refugees can be assisted to fit in v¡ith Cameroonrs development plans concerning the exploitation of the forestry resources.'i ors. but rather ex-cabinet ministers. In particular. FEMEC seems to be willing to become the operational counterpart of the IJNHCR and the yaoundé Government. NCOs f rom ttre Spanish Foreign Legion. the tempo has been calmer. although a bigger population density makes land less to those available and there has been no comparable boom of house construction r^rhich has permitted extensive use of surplus and waste materials from the building sites. This would open a wide range of employment opportunities. nor in any manifestations of interest in the material or spiritual welfare of the Children of the Church in exile. with the risk of refoulemenr almost non-existent. defected ambassadors. At the time of writing plans for assistance were being discussed ín Yaoundé and Geneva. v Recently.¡i11 be mentioned under the section "Solutions". The presence of a PapaL Nunzio in Yaoundé seems to have had no effect whatsoever. . Finding meaningful occupations for them is not going to be easy' but if the task can be accomplished both Cameroon and Gabon stand Ë. For better or for v/orse. senior civil servants' ex-managing directors. chief accountants. lumbering and reforestation. but one peculariarity should be mentioned here. either ín its policy towards a country where it has been effectively substituted by more traditional religions. ir r¿ould seem that the situation calls for an innovative approach: instead of helping people into agriculture. health care. technical . to specialised . 65 . The Nunzio has visited Equatorial Guinea on several occasionsl but appears to have reconrnended caution and an avoidance of anything that could upset Macfas and break the political relations. educatíon. pulp and Paper' small-scale enterprises' constluction' etc. namely that quit. One refugee commented.

1 t1 il tl il il T il ti li it tl H Itisimpossibletoassesswithprecisionthenumberofexiles a probable 8.withthepresentrateofunemploymentthroughout achievement' the country'this must be regarded as a notable Generallyspeaking.2. regularising of able to integrate with the economic progreds As a result there is a large their formal status has not been a pioulu*.l . Nigeria has been a step on gather enough money to to appeaï to stay o"iy fot as long as it takes this may become a long time and' be on one.They to reveal their real origins' keep a 1ow profile and often prefer not Againstthisu.tothepointfeasible inrninent .ditisdifficulttooutlineanyactivitiestoscholarships for number of assist them.ution are praticallyallthelg5refugeeswithwhomtheANRDinLagosisinconract and are young.500 anã figure. This is in part because most competent'.Nevertheless.000 as in spain. I^iith the curreflt situationserious problems' Remarkably' in the meantime. cut calm' to the repatriated rvorkers and kept an uneasy Evidentlytherefugeesfeelaffectedbythissituation.Ingeneral.5..thankstoastudymadebytheTechnicalCommissionofthe the characterisLics (ASODAGE) ' documented' ASODAGE Associacion de Amigos de euinel-t""tt"tial are r¿ell and general situation of the exile conrnunity isanon-politicalorganisationrecognisedbytheSpanishGovernmentwhich rl +1 q 66 ff ." l"tany have used that once they have been English as a step t"""tat assimilation and found of Nigeria. with 6.3. apart from sugg"'ii"g a smal1 higher education' 5.were or during the confusion which rook place when theY are said to have repatrialed in 1975 and early 1916' Since then.However. SPAIN AND OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES .t.g'o.thesituationoftherefugeesiscolouredbysimilar attitudes.l"lost of them managed to the Nigerian workers.4.000."Wecangetalong'butitisbetterífitisnotknovmthat pidgin coastal their knor'¡1edge of the \¡/e are refugees.àttered all over the 12 states' TheGovernmentofNigeriamaintainsstrainedrelationswith EquatorialGuínea. However' the Lagos of thousands of-Nigeriän workers from its losses by paying ouL compensation Government refrained from action.IttoleratestheexistenceoftheAlianzaNacional not recognise Movement but does de Resrauracion Democrati.further violence.. Estimates vary betwu..2. bachelors are employed.thesituationappearsfluid'Nigerian relationswithEquatorialGuineahavebeenveryStrainedindeed.a (aitinn) iiutt"tion it.s rnray.and perfectly where an annexation of Fernando lo tpp"ated ir"tified by the need to protect tens as long as a military presence could f.. s. housing "rr¿ "¿tr. numberofexilesinthecountrywhocannolongerberegardedasrefugees in the lega1 sense' the \ray to Spain and they For many. NIGERIA Nigeria are all from With verY few excePtl-ons the refugees in the island f ú-rIy early' escapå from Fernando Po.r ¡.

In the following resumé figures and percentages refer to the samPle. The second \. (2) (r) Ndongo Bidgoyo. there is less racism in spain than in many other European countries. and. Two l"figration to Spain has come in three r^/aves. (1) The immigrants had become "de facto" refugees long before that status had received any recognition and more were to arrive into the same predicament. in early I970. A. begging friends for money. The problem arising in this particular context ¡¿ill be mentioned in the context of acculturation. t'Migrants in Europe: Problems of Acceptance and (2) t. 67 . asking for help at welfare institutions.27 for men and 25 for women. things are striking about the sample: the large number of females.Inlate 2. without much hope of becoming integrated where they are and with dim prospects of going back to where they belong . tr/e are again up against rracceptance. Unfortunately.tutionr. the problem of children who gro!ü up as Africans in a European country r¿ithout roots of their own. 186. the sampled immigrants \^7ere on the whole absorbed . 287" are of school age. 427" of.ic iàenrity appears endangered.sleeping in the subway . the degree of attachment fhe immigrants feel for their society of origin and the similarity of cullures of the country of emigration and the country of imurigration". this does not make it easy for the someone from a different race to live there.iustment of foreigners global phenomenon that is a function of the openness of the host society.. and of Young PeoPle. 542. one "cou1d see Guineans.500 Lg77 iË made a survey of 2-?l persons sampled from the estimated exiles in Madrid. P . Girls from Equatorial Guinea have been particularly affected. By then.even if they had been able to maintain the cultural 1ink. with average ages of. fi. Univers itY of Minnesota Press.e study is thorough and has been largely confirmed by some 45 in-depth interviews conducted in Madrid and Barcelona during tie fact-finding mission. integration and ad. The refugees there have been Urorrlnt up with assumprions of Spanish superioriLy Lo the point that their erh. M. employees. to such an extent that they will often say that they àre Black Americans rather than admit to their African background ' An obvious r¡/oIry is concerned with the next generation.as students.faírs. Sirnultaneously emplolrrnen| became problematíc and. when the situation in Equatorial Guinea made it very difficult to leave for Spain. The survey shows that 287" of the exiles arrived ít 1976 and 1ater. The f irst began before 1960 and was made up mainly of girls in domestic service and boys coming f or their studies. In all probability.fave' predominantly students. Rose. conrnitting petty crimes or prostituting themselves". 1977 . or children of parents who were already established in Spain.concerflsitselfwithrefugeewelfareandsocio-culturalaf. Increasing oPpression raised the number of people trying to seek political asylum in spain. 197" pre-school age.969 Ad-ius tmentr' . Inregration is particularly difficult in Spain. lulinneapolis. But in 1969 scholarships for students were discontinued f or political reasons. lasted from 1965 to 1970.

' uv uãing "o"'ia"red some of rhis has been compensated by the spanish Goverãment.this the in Spain has put not really Uåe' forihcoming.rr. neither easy . lÎ :pi..ri"nd.there stateless by the lack of o. although abandoned as individuals' All rhe the friendship tt'd g"o"ï. the exiles-have :::-advantage difficultyrøith_thelanguage'whichtheysometimesspeakbetterthanmany adaptation to-the culture' Spaniards.normallyatleastoneineveryhouseholdwasemployed ti" (or her) income. rven modest fo. it. where the ¡i¡¿1 ofthisrepor..i.s""t'rity..rgl'rness of around those who have work' self -help puoplå"*t""o"tn:i:t1:"t helped to promote thi. of having no n"U Upon arrival.' Inthesampledgroup.. integration generosity of of tnt"friendliness and innnigrãñt country"' And.rratrl clothingandforhousing. hardshiPs and uProoting' rl ii j 68 .tãi "o"itl i. t'o priests linked to the as there form a.ro.Ilrhilethesituationratherpfovesthatthelackofacceptancecan leadtolackofattachmentamongtherefugees." theindividualspaniard.ir"ioo.rrtty.theAS0DAGEsurvey causêd to a great extent ir. one shoula ''ot--iotget and ad.-force religion aour.¡ere r^¡ithout any breadwinn"r "rrä."if. and by having been concludes that.-"oosuq.r. sritr.ut.oa authorities which can provide cournunity"... the need for be grown outside a slum house iÏ c. most have suffered from on the crops which can prices on everythi". high Rfrica.i. ..t''. outside africa. characterised by uncertainty' economrc a situarior..creatingacomplication one of his T"ii"^::::lusions: of the unforeseen by Rose. g.'u"checkedagainstthedatacollectedinthefivecountrlesare in The refugees in switzerland visired during rhe facr-fi"di... Nor are there t"y oln"t spiritual a viable value sYStem' I.g otr in a very díf f icult position' r.In]hat is imporrrir'ro.whichtherefugeesarekeentopointout.:t:nt-:lanish for by catholics' but their ro be chiisrians and tt" *"jotii.rsing.Inpu'ti".therearesomesmallscatteredgroupsinothercountries " control of the information órru i.thelastpointh. "r"in. "rr¡"idised t. partsforcepeoplefaroutintothesuburbs. but L27" of the households and the others were livi.to. has The solution.*o*t" respondenr.. Familiesaredispersednotorrlyb"treenspainandAfrica. and to the UNHCR' ïitu rhe spãnish Red crtss-and caritas' organisariorr" Surrrningupthesocialandreligioussituation.withtime-consumingcommunications' wirh farnily members and fellow Guineans ' making ir hard lo t".-includinq :h" subsistence adequate money.inally.in the central even in l¿a¿ria...-"rra spain.o. rrrá rittr" tilrt ptátiti"try lack of provincial practi"tr-difficulties: other hand.butalsoinside trigt cost of housing.ascreat'ed may housing is expensive and Guineans -óo""tttit¿ àf tne sampled households numerous problems.îriirr to that in spain..been to turn to charity-oriented ... The ethnocentrism handicap them severely' has enough to African immigrants under a pressurã n"r.i. The ""rr.p in touch Sofar.justment is Ehe openness .r. not apply in one room' The housing and employment had four or more persons living sitr¡.ationhavealsocontributedtoabreakdornmoftheextendedfanily.therehasbeenacertainamountofmutualassistanceand a way' the iob situation has' in wirhin the groups.åti"fying.

provided that it is carefully planned and co-ordinated. The recent austerity economy of Gabon and the constrainËs in Carneroon.ün in Equatorial Guinea it may be necessary to cam-lraign against them to get some of the refugee groups back to the health standards of 1968. to be reviewed and revised in the Unless stated otherwise. Neither are there any alarming signs about the neighbours it is not impossible to eke out an existence of sorts. And the time for planning is still there. tuberculosis. malaría and other diseases which are endemic in the region may require special attention. much less of famine. that of the Equatorial main aspects: the world's problem in dealing wíth its refugeest problem in coping with their o\¡/n situation. SOLUTIONS AND RECO}ßIENDATIONS Like all refugee problems. On the positive side there is the high degree of literacy and lhe large proportion of people with professional experience. In Ëhe rural areas Ëhe most basic material needs are more or less met. in particular the high rate of unemployment. although a closer medical scrutiny r¡ould probably reveal deficiencies of protein. at this sËage it seems that even limited assistance can go a long wây. but r¿ith a 1itt1e help from kin. The observations made in this part of the report must necessarily be regarded as preliminary guidelines. one should briefly consider what they do not. some general characteristics of the refugees should be summarízed. Ttre main objection to the situation is not the misery. There are no signs of undernourishment. the situation in Gabon and Cameroon v¡here needs are greater Ëhan concern in Nigeria and among the refugees in Europe.needs r¡hich do require a certain amount of assistance. Since the control of afflictions like leprosy and sleeping sickness has broken do\. Fortunately there is no need for relief operations. first aspect has made the second more difficult than it Guineans has trnro refugees. vitamins and minerals. it is Ëhe inexcusable \^/aste of an unusual manpo\^7er capacity. 69 . they course of ongoing assistance activities. If this does not materialize ít will be diffícult to avoid a furhter deterioration of the situaÈion. Before listing the. health situation in general. and the The negleet of the needs to be. which is less severe Ehan in many other refugee situations in the r¿orld.6. However. On the negative side one must note that during the last ten year the sEandard of education'provided in Equatorial Guinea has declined from very good to dismal. friends and Before going into what Ëhe refugees require. but intestinal parasites. imposed by the necessity to postpone implementation of most forms of assistance until the sÈatus of the refugees has been properly recognized in the countries of asy luru . Unemployment is rampant. make assistance necessary within the near future.

Ashasbeenmentionedinthe led to repeated acts of context of Gabon.""d important improvements could help simply in Further at.Theregresthe same' sive fears imposed by Maclas appear to have done -FromLhepointofvievofbackgroundtherefugeesareaveryhetero_ to exiled ambassadors geneous loÈ..penetratesinto-thelor¿erechelonsofthe of the higher authorities staÈe apparatus. the siEuation in Gabon' have alre. nationals confidence between until thís is achieved there can be no muEual ambiguous and potentially and refugees.tothegoodwilloftherespectiveGovernmentsandthe Unitedl.inotherr¿ordstoprovidethemr¿ithaclearly definedroleinthecorrnunity. LEGAL RECOGNITION ThisisbyneeessitythefirstsEep. highly were I^líth the exception of the Bubi. rehabilitation and education 6. This combines r"¡ith the drastic oflivingtomakeadaptationtoconditionsinexilemoredifficult.However.a. ranging from farmãr.1.andotherswhoareindirectcontactwiththerefugees.ntions administrators' police and local have often failed to be implemented by securityforces.".Thecoloniallegacyoffeelingsof'inferiorityvis-à-visSpain appearstohavereducedinitiativea¡rdconsciousness. 'and the situation will remain dangerous.ReactionsfromtheUNHCR of.tention from humanitarirn otgrnizations l4ac(as r¡ith latítude to breaking the silence which so far has provið'eð' 70 . the traditional societíes polícy did nothing to decentral ízed. arrd fisherrnen and cabinet ministers' Therequ_irementscomeunderthemainheadingsoflegalrecognition.whatistrulythe obligations and important is thal Ëhe decision to acknowledge the rightsoftherefugees.IatíonsHighConrmissionerforRefugees..Nodoubtthiscanberemedied. and Spanish divide-and-rule improve the matLer.-Thesocialorganj-zaLionisnotconducivetounityamongtherefugees. Spanish-speakers in Black .dy .There is evidence of traumatic reactions lowering of the general level Guinea.deepinsecurityamongtherefugeesandanumberofvicious circles which threaten future attempts at integration' refugees is well rn Gabon and cameroon the process of recogn ízíng the underwaythanks. so far the goàa ir.The language handicaP of being the only great practical difficulties Africa sets the refugees apart and causes . to the Èerror in Equatorial . Itmustbestressedthatpolicyimplementationandeventswhíchcontradict'thestatedintentionsof""""pti''gtherefugeesareindirectly lack of interest conrnunity' fts caused by the ignorance of the internâtional affecting the problems of has contributed to Ëhe very low príority rating therefugees. uncertainty in this rLspect has refoulement.

some possibilities can already be mentioned: . of information to the refugees in order to alleviate fear and suspicions. There is thus an acute need to provide help for the documentation process. it would be unrealistic to aim at restoring them to such a level in view of the high cost and of the intra-eor¡nnunal jealousies which would ensue. undergo training or find employment. Especially in Spain there is also the need for moral support and encouragement of a gleater openness tov¡ards the refugees.dissemination. the present general leve1 of life in the rural areas is clearly too low. t"lany of the refugees are greatly overqualified for village farming.rlhat is more important is that the handicaps of language and of belonging to a minority prolelariat require that the refugees reach a level which would a11ow them to compensate for the inbuilt weakness of their situation. valid for residence. !üork. REHABILITATION It The tergr suffers from a certain vagueness and needs specification.financial contributions for support of alteady existing progralnnes' provision. Considering the previous prosperity of their country.2. I. Llhile the forms for this help will have to be decided after contacts with the governments and other bodies involved. also through a counselling servrce or refugee bureau.operate. or to establish them on the same level as their neighbours among the nationals in an influx area. and \47ith outside assistance.normally to signify eicl'rer getting a group of victims of has been used in the a natural or man-made disaster back to where they were before they were victimized. but most of the work remains undone. ciples to be applicable. past. Moreover. within the framework of a counselling service. education and travel.ral support for the refugees should not be underestimated. of assisEance with registering and keeping of systematic files. medical care. Provision of lD-cards is under way in Gabon and Cameroon. and . On the other hand. but on the other hand new arrivals find it next to impossible to get permits for residence and work. In Nigeria those who have arrived at a certain income level have normally been able to obtain official papers. The chief manifestation of recognition is official documentation. 6. This can be provided by increased public attention Ëowards the problem. In Spain in getting rhose r¿ho already have residence permits have 1itt1e difficulty citizenship. the positive effect of plain mo. The posítion of the EquaËorial Guineans is too complex for these prin- 7L . In many cases Lhere is also a need for passports for internatiorial travel in order to unite wíth onets family.

Thiswillentailmorethanasimpleassessmentof as as well food habits and taboos.pig-andgoat-keeping'ltis in which worth mentioning thai the rain-forest is one of the few ecosystems growth' the much malignãd goat can show all its qualities. and for rapid reproduction.Co_operativescallfor is financial support' rt know-how and training rather than large outside likelythattherelativelyhighnumbersofpeoplewithadministrative less problematic experience v¡ould make the setting-up of co-operatives than is often the case feasibility studies The planning for co-operatives should also include levels' An obvious for smal1-scale ilrduslries. hardiness and resistance As a subordinated to the envirorunent rather than the other way around' be investigated' If secondary activity the possibilíties of apiculture should nutritionprornising they might provide a sizeabLe cash incorne and a valuable accepttheir al supplement for the ethnic groups whieh include honey anong able foodstuffs. supplies' equally important to take the marketing aspect into aceount:price flucprices and demands. etc. ducks and turkeys). In this contexÈ it åay bilityofintroducingmulti-purposego-opef?çivesocietles:-?artlyfor credit facilitíes' and production. Allocated land can beordinary by burning and planted irmediately with available food crops' to provide staples will presumably be available buË it mlry be necessary necessary to ceriain seeds. nq. Fortunately.t"torial Guinea which minimizes provocateurs. which is actually 72 .at differenË technologicalbeing given priority opening night b"-fr""d l" forestry. fishpondsmadebydamningsmallforestbrooks.It could The heterogenity of the refugee groups could be a weakness' essential is Èhat the Ûlanpo!üer alternatively become a strong point. particularly for pulses and legumes which are foodstuffs and other supplemenr rhe ii*ir"¿ nuÈritional value of manioc in consisting mainly of starch. absorption capacity. in a still comprise plenty of unused land and the heat and humidity result soíls give rich harvests ' hothouse fertility ttti"tt makes even indifferenL cleared Agriculturally almost anything grol¡ls. such as fast once be to disease. partly for the pt"po"" oîlã"iai"g partlytopromotecollaborationbetweenmembers. tîa"sp"it' storage' Ue worthwhile to study the feasituations. the solution being obviously intesrated community developmenJ aimed at making different groups üore wi th nationals' ""prb1"-æ-t"tegrating distance The srarring point is the allocation of suitable land at a the risk of agents from rhe border lilr. Fruits and vegeÈables which are rich these improvements to vitamins should be introduced as early as possible as general health status' the diet can be counted uPon to be beneficial for the In addition there are numerous possibilities to provide a good supply of animal protein: poultry farming (chickens. the need for fertíLízers and pesticides rt is etc' for seed varieties. improved tools and farming techniques. trühat is poLential be used as fully as possible. Adequateplanningisneeessarytoestablishproportionsbetweenfood cÏopsandcashcrops. Close aitention must be paid to micro-politicalavoided and be "o'iditiott" in order that hosLile reactions from naËionals in the areathe forest areas possibilíties for collaboration be ensured.

carts and bicycles. Ideally. An additional benefit to be found in 1t¡mbering is that the necessary reforestation can be done by unskilled adults and children. first to initiate the aut. the choice is between hundreds of small setllements or no organised settlements at all. Ideally Ehis should begin right from the settling-in period.zed receptígn cenEre would do much to help both the refugees still coming in. require heavy investment. If the flow-through cannot be ascertained.in Cameroonían national planning. There is evidently a need for assistance. It seems inapplicable to Ëhe Equatorial Guineans for the following reasons. thirdly to provide financial aid. donors with enough staying po\. crediË and in some tools and machinery. Secondly. to cases basic inputs of seeds. the amibitio-os of proud Last but not least. and skilled administrators in numbers v¡hich are no! usually available. independent and individualíst. organised settlepeople. for carpenters. and to see how assistance can be beneficial both to them and to the nationals in the neighbourhood.rn leaders must be given enough leeway to make their o!ün groups funcËion as a community rather than as a number of disorganised individuals. A survey of existing needs in adjacent rural areas will give furËher indications for viable village enterprises: workshops for making and maintaining tools and machinery. A reception centre where people get stuck for prolonged periods of time is r^rorse than no centre at all. native is draL¡nout assistance to non-viable communities and support of professíona1 charity cases. Everything points in the direction of minisystem. etc. fertilizers. and lheir country of asylum.. díscuss ¡¿ith authorities in the countries of asylum as well as with representatives of the refugees. brickmakers.ot Ëhe purpose of education. a well orgati. Thirdly. The perpetual problem of this kínd of centre is rhat. under present conditions the refugees cannot be expected to manage entirely on their ovrn. such a centre is like1y to cause new problems without solving the old ones. Therefore its size must correspond with thar of the political unit which is accepted by the settlers. one can never be certain about what 73 . for cars. Ëhere must be both the felt need and Lhe opportunity The alterfor the settlers to activate a maximum of self-help initiatives. tailorsr potters. f. not that of the planners. secondly. in addition tonot being sure that there is an outflow. In reality it could be counter-productive.üer to carry ments the scheme through the inevirable delays and prolongations. 0n Ëhe other hand. In order Ëo have any chance of success the settlement must be aimed at the restoration or re-creation of a social system' notably that of the settlers. after careful planning. Since ¿rmong most of the refugees the political unit is a small cluster of villages. The concept of organised settlement has been raised in most refugee situaEions. in order to provide building materials and furniture. the settlerst or. the democratic mum organisation: the decentralised micro-political sysEem ¡^¡hich would work against any imposed leadership (unless the management of the settlement came up with a strong ma1ãnn). how and where the refugees fit in with long-term plans.o-rehabilitation by providing know-how. Èanners and shoemakers.

.ii.t ii*i-rea aãuirtr.::":::1" erleouatg ::ii' j :i "' i:"f i *i'i' äil:'.d p''t yet known to what rorial Guinea rt second".Minístry among the refugees with.o.d rhe counrrv o.r""""""t. nt:::i:1^:t::tï-:i:å:.ä'' . Ëhe EDUCATION Thisis.*ä:'.rtheyhavefinishedtherr studies.i:iî.ã" needs ^ttlt correctr-ons highlyhypothetical.ãrá¿'mainlv Èhemselves ' ThesystematicelirninationofteachersandotherintellectualsinEquaof the report affects the situaEion mentioned in tt.ã.' i.'tioo'itr. haPPen "#F' "' i-'nã.. rr u"ätirh mateã-it hard for them to vrhose ignorance of French Attemptsinthisdirectionhave"beenmadebycertainmissiongbutona efficient way of helping the insufficient scale.:"::tï ::.?'rl?.ot'trtining' for is not of srudenrs requiring the decreased qualiçy of extr..:å ï:i.'ïiï'.. "rrppott to compenraî" extent they may need 74 . It may become ant' to..':"iiiil'1.r".."":.i.lot basic instruction for living' earn a dif ferent \^rays. túi"h job opporHowever'itintroducesan"q.:liÏä' ïä...":il:îl'i:"i:î.i.:":"ï::.i.. manpo\rer requirements and has to be taken into account are hlhat tunítiesbothintheeventthattherefugeesareabletorepatriate.1 and 3"ffi'i"ä'"ä-iå'u-'"'th"*"ft.::'..y". progr"rlt.lî"..Thereforetheimplementationofaneducationalprog_ conti..s' i:i^ilt large numbers of immigrant of asylum to accommodate proportionally countries students.have a rarely achieved wilt swell into a flood' consequently "".considerablymorethanoneunknown.andinPlanning for in the country of asylum' the event that they have to remain botheventualiliesisnotimpossiblebuthastobedoneincollaboratlon Interior' of the for insrance.e s.. 6.i: ii:..3å i::ï:Ï'i:Ë':::i::iË 1 il.."Hi:ä:ïi :1"."i:i: ïå-:äï..lT.1":::.3.:. *' îït1 : ::: :..' ::..l::'Tt ".:.."i.-. .aftetlegalrecognition'Ëhemosturgentissueandisalso initaited' can be mãst rapidly part of an assistanc. search for nonon a :i:::::å:".r".iiit".î...l:l_:: :ï::.:t i": :: ."' I -' o" "ond l:^:l:... . :::"i1:1 "':^îî:ï:'.:..".thesinkingstandardofeducatiàninEquatorialGuinea.thelackof obvious difficulties of the documents giving evidence 'f '. Theseconstraintswillhavetobetackledatdifferentlevelsandin people io "ttt"gt.1:""iÏ:::"'ì'i'n'räll:'pri o r :'ï .ä i:i::. :::':. It...ïili:"i:.::."' " .': certain of its functions will have t: "iÏilÏ ..nî:":..:n' :.. Lvaluation to enable rapid raûme demands adequate and in order to adapt to changing situations' ThemoreobviousaspectsofrhepresentsiËuationarethelanguagepro_ blem.".'J.. as well as those the national planning commi""ioí. the t"linístrr-ãi Educationr..riã be to give financial or entirelv bv the refugees prosramme . ï:T:"T:. Probably the most for a low-cost adult education torally supporË job-seeker" I{o. is .trickle or even stop' or it may to the inflow.". eventual return' As a result it is an who can anticipat" .7 on":il:i-.-.t" in its ability Èo render servlces' maximum flexibilitY b:."o..'iil :li: ...::ï"..:*:...''..":: ..

teaching. classrooms. it would be nearly impossible for an organi-za1ion of the kind previously set up in other countries to concenËrate encounon individual cases. Macias's systematic elimination of the educated elite in Equatorial Guinea means that in the event the refugees will be able to return to their country there will be gaps everywhere and at all levels. and of promoting education according to planned priorities and the possibilities for placement. The needs for vocational and technical training depend to a great extenË on the planning for rehabilitation of the large refugee groups. SUGGESTIONS asYlum These observationslead to some concrete suggestions. 75 . a As for post-secondary training. It may be that the best way is to identify teachets in exíle and employ them to assist thei.r ovm people' provided thaÈ the îespective ministríes of Labour and education can accept this. Again.4. Once there is an agreement with the Ministry of Education. Moreover there is a need for testíng and screening studenËs in any case. but there may sti1l be a need for financial assistance in order to cope with the shortages. testing can be done quickly and cheaply. In the event their exile will be prolonged they will need higher education in order to compensate for the handicap of being refugees. Moreover. in view of the very large numbers of refugees. Absence of books and teaching m4terialsn spending much of the school daypracticingrnilitary dxíII. but possibility to make use of whaË they already know for the benefit of the couununity. the need is great. Once the documentation problem has been solved the situation should improve. thís has to do with the uneven and declining standard of teaching in Equatorial Guinea. I¡Ihat seems more appropriate tered in this context is rather is a refugee bureau with the objectives of maintaining 1íaison between the anthorities. past experience of the difficullies discouraging. and with many students having been out of toueh with school for years. but nevertheless with sufficient accuracy to show what stage the sLudent should be admitted to. donor agencies and tecogntzed represenLatives of the refugees. ãnd to be able to contribute to the further development of the countries of 6. because of already existing shortages of teachers. However. Presumably there will be quite a number of refugees with valuable technical and professional experience for r¡hom the problem is not further training. The problem of accormnodating inrnigrant students is strongly felt in some areas. The lack of school certificate and diplomas should not pose insurmountable problems. Until now the reaction has often been to exclude those r¿ithout valíd lD-cards. and Ëeaching materials. etc. Both in Gabon and in Cameroon Lhere is a need for counselling services.

it seems premature Refugee Bureau could begin planning in Ehis context. local labourptobably assist in identifying unemployed refugees who The Bureau should laws permitting. Mídzit. on the oËher hand.theproblemsofprimaryeducationwillbesolvedmoreor the refugees has less automaticaiiy oncl the ambiguity of the status offor donor agencies to disappeared.ry etlucation. Medouen and cocobeach. Ëhe problem is and will continue to Crmeroon and Nigária. and eficouragedtoleratedGabon' by the or at least Cameroon and Nigeria. 10 in vi1le and 2 each in Bitam. and retained to hire in Ethiopia. and it would be advisable ro suggesË that direct or under the pay at least a nominal fee. the students be kept at a rninimum.theprograÍmeshouldobviouslybeconcentratedinSpain IUEF selection criteria where there are no language problems and where normal and administration of scholarships can be followed' Gabon. et ttre present timá. despite the measures suggested above. the programe should be based in three countries: be for -However. relieve some of thå tLacher shortages' applying for also be irrvolved in the testing and screening of studenÈsthe needs and seconda. that 12-rnonth language course l-n students will probably have to undertake a 6 to the post=secondary French or Englísh before staÎ'ting the normal courses at education institutions' 76 . In Africa. in which they received the money teacherst performance' and the responsibilíty for daily supervision of the incidentally also of the studentsr attendance' Hopefully. clearly ealled ís A larger scholarship prograrmre in both Europe and Africa for and should be irnplemented as quickly as possible' InEurope. The teaching should come Bureãu..theneedsforhighereducationaÍecrucial andthisisanareawheretheIUEFshouldplayamajorrole. teach in evening classes 10 in Libre_ The suggested number of teachers would be 20 in Gabon. where ASODAGE is by lack of money' This inisome of the work. alttrougtr it is badly hampered also in tiative tor¿ards self-helt should be noted. Oyem.^ sometime.or a similar arrangement appear to be gradually under in fact already doing way in Spain. themight. Salaries could be paid through indírect supetvision of the Refugee Peasants' Associations an interesting and highly efficiãnt system' used by theteachers. of language' Yt::^ :. and in policy evaluaËion concerníng possibilities for vocational trairiing' However'aSStaledabove. 4 in Yaoundé and 6 in the border afeas. and costs for amenities should cameïoon. fi it can be accepted of assistance prograÍmes authorities it is rikely to inãrease the efficiency r¿hi1e keeping the costs down' undoubtPlanning for education progrartrnes in Gabon and cameroon r¿i11 in crash qdly reveal that there are refug"ã" tho can be employed as teachers enough well course language training.possibitities f. In *áty """"s those who speak I'rench but would be willing to to be capable of teaehiog rr" a]Jeady employed.

the training to them.r"tiorrs like. rn spain the non-political the Equatorial organtzatiors among both the latin American refugees and Finally.theRefugeeBureaushouldbeinvolvedintheselectionand Althoughtheneedismuchgreater. Needless to say this is hardly in accordance with priorities.followingscholarship 100 scholarshiPs 100ft 70 30 Nigeria TOTAL 300 themselves' handling of the assistance should be entrusted.to the refugees but it This self-hetp appraoch has not really been tried before in Africa' would seem that the time is ripe for it.thereiseveryindicationthatasmuchaspossibleofthe Guineansappeartohavethecapacityandthesupportt'otakecareofsome ofthehumanitarianwork¿rmofigtheirownpeople.the subjects of In addition. particular attention should be paid to of the 15 13 study to avoid sit. that in Libreville where only subject open university sËudents are attending classes in Spanish. partly to avoid the very real ativls of Macfas benefit from the progranrne' prograflmes can be considered as an absolute mlnl-mum: Spaín Gabon Cameroon Again. risk that representacceDtance of students. efforts should be made to associate them counselling services of services which are usually required wherever the scope is enlarged to cover aA¿iiional areas of refugee adjustment ' " to their An illustration of the assistance which refugees can provide mêntioned ASODAGE survey comparriots in exile is provided in che previously which concludes with the following solutions and projects: 77 .the.InAfricathetrustin in a reconrnendwhat can be done by the dispossessed has already been stated in ation made by the Refugee Bureau of the organízation of African unity valuable assistance to their December 1973: "As refugees can provide in the complementary fellow refugees.

A major scholarshiP Progranrne' ) Guinean Given that one main problem is the cohesion of the would be: community' to create the means for it Eo develop such as to enable the associations already existing' i.'r¿ithin an association businesses' where crealion of and prepare projects' such as the necessaryrequestingassistancefromnationalandinternational voluntarY agencies' fl il 7B I . housing such as ASODAGE studied by a conrnír"ior. 6. up which offers A reasonably priced dining-room should be set H typicalAfricandishesinordertoalleviateËhefoodproblem. ASODAGE' to Promote cohesion to envisage the escablishment of a Council which ii. represents a1l the Guineans iii. 't i1 il il Ê:l E should The creation of a savings and investment cooperative from benefit promoEed in order that lhe Guineans themselves rl be u H their caPital. shortage' etc' should be Such problems as unemploymenÈ. and further mutual aid' Tosolvetheproblemsofthechildpopulationnurseriesmustbe establishedandplacesinschoolsbereservedingoodtimefor children AGuineanStudentHouseshouldbeestablishedintheinterests lectures of those undertaking further studies' Courses and be given there' Africa and Equatorial Guinea should on -).tocreateacentrewhereGuineanscouldmeettofoster a connnunity sPirit to appoint a chaplain to promore religious gatherings ]-V.

4. Savings and investment cooperative 12. Bar . Nurseries STUDENT ACTIVITIES 9. is neither too little' 79 . Shop . B. Grocery III.Cafe 13. Guinean Restaurant 1. there is little doubÈ that they can contribute greatly. Guinean Economic s Hostel 11. Twice-yearly review CHILD I^TELFARE d) e) f) II. Guinean Cultural Centre 6. Social l{elfare 16. Council room CULTURAL b) c) 5. the conclusion would be that the characteristics of the groups of refugees from Equatorial Guinea strongly suggest that assistance to them should as far as ever is possible be based on refugee parLicipation and self-help' In view of the capability and maturity of many of the refugee grouPs' in all Lhe different countries of asylum. Social welfare offrce 17.Hispanic-African goods 15. MeeËing room 4. Guinean Student House ACTIV]TIES [.lomenr I^¡OMENIS 10.oo late.I. both towards helping their compatriots and by becoming assets to their respective host communities. a) Individual and Cournunity Promotion Projects RELIGIOUS 1. Chaplain' s Office socrA]3. Assistance fund Without going into detailed comments on these issues. Monthly bulletin l. Conrnunity Chapel 2. provided that assistance Ëo them nor t.

entification of a source inpossible. social and cultural aspects up to date. As informants. v/as gathered in six different countries: Cameroon. For the benefit of eventual readers in Equatorial Guinea it should be stressed that is some cases details irrelevant to the general contenÈ have been changed to Confirrned statements from make id.SOURCES This repor¡ differs from what has so far been written about Equatorial Guinea. Contradictions have cross-checked with . Some talked in relative comfort. Due Ëo the smallness of the country their experience usually covers most or all of the regions. non-goverrìmental organisations. Written sources as well as tapes of radio broadcasts. churches. soldiers. A grear deal has been published about Equatorial Guinea before f968. Quotations withouÈ specific reference are confirmed verbatim accounts v¡hose sources cannot be revealed for securiEy reasons. five of the six 80 . probable or with similar reservaEvery one of Ëhese items has been checked and tions are given as facts. representatives of international organisations. The cont. based on the writer's personal observations and on meticulously cross-checked accounls from eye-witnesses. Official writings from the Macías regime have been searched as far as possible for credible evidence thaL there are positive elements fo balance the negative. been pursued until they were either explained av/ay. policemen and urilicianosthere revealed a great dea1. Some published \^rritten sources are given in a short list of background reading. Gabon. The material. most of the relevant literature mirrors various aspects of colonialism and on occasion anti-colonialism and 1itt1e of it penetrates below the surface. most important. in Equatorial Guinea itself. Equatorial Guinea without any intention whatsoever to helpi the everyin day behaviour of officials. The inforrnants are government officials. or-the item dropped from Items r¿hich have not been confirmed in at least the list of accepted facts. It is a fírst-hand account. many in misery and many took great risks in having anything to do Some provided interesting information about conditions with a foreigner. countries visited are presented r¿ith reservations. It is hoped that Ëhis report will complement the pictureby bringing some economíc. and individuals with relevant personal experience. missionsr voluntåry agencies. people with first-hand experience as well as any other statement which is not explicitly mentioned as unconfirmed.inued exodus also permits the up-dating of events. However. Most of the informacion comes from the people of Equatorial Guinea. the Equatorial Guineans are special. and much of what has happened. etc. Nigeria. A large number of the refugees are r¿e1l-educated persons who express Ehemselves with clarity and unusual exactitude in their reca11 of numbers and dates.õi'r""" independent of each other. Switzerland and. but without success. Recent books give interesting descriptions of certain aspects of history of the posl-independence period but always from a the political strictly European point of view. Spain. It is also produced by an organisation and an individual without any vesÈed interests in the area. of r¡hich this paper represents only a sma1l part. have been used mainly to check verbal evidence.

The truth about our country must be told give Maclas the protection of silence'" v¡orld rn¡il1 understand and no longer 81 . But thLy could easily be killed hTorse íf I tell you silent.of interviews with Equatorial Guineans it beqame clear informants that much of the information \^/as potentially dangerous for still inside the particularly for people r¡ithin reach of l"Iacíasl agents anã procedure country vrho eould face unpredictablã reprisals. io "pità During hundreds as much about An overwhelming number reacted in a way which perhaps says of this reporÈ.¡hat I have seen. The situation is so bad that it cannot get much so Lhat the r. "I am a\¡¡are of the presiãent Macíast rãgime as the rest r¡ho are dangers and I have much fear. I made ít standard tre or she r^¡as willing to to bring up this poínt and to ask my informant if fur' and his long arm' of the obvious risk of Macfas' go aherã. especially for those of my familyif I keep even srill inside my counËry.

ValenÈin IEA.D. s"_ social L97 B.: ' s-eniggrlas en la Guinea Espaãola' . DominguezrRamonGarcia:Macías'laleydelsilencio'Plaza&Janes' Barcelona. Madrid.iilliåi-åä"r"" *"i. Aynnæi. Madrid' publicado" "rr@ Balandier. Cocoa.0. +*Hï (srencil)..lil!:-Tinzer. Edm Ndongo Bídyogo.Prader. ' EsPañola' IEA' Madrid' L959' AugusËo: uema de etnologia de 1os Fan de la Gui. D. Armin Eric: La RéPuÞlique et r"iUifitas de--4évelo ementr Berne.r¡.BlackAfrica.r" (Associacion de Arnigos de Guinea Ecuatoriaiìj'. Luis Saez de: de Guinée Equatoriale: ses ressource€ Kobel.l'tanuel de: sintesis_ geograf Tessmann. Madrid.. los articulos Antonío: Los bubis en-J'erla+dg-P99t^l:1t"t"ton 'de 1942' española".Yölkerkund.. Longman' ó¿ nãffi-Eñ-staat.o SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS A56DAGE L).19T0. L923 ' progre-soq valenrin Marirla. na e Amândio. L977 ' de Vol' II IEA (InstiËuto Echegaray.umu Panyella. Herausg' von 1960' Archivos aei run'. . Donato: Hislofia )'-llagedia Editorial Cambio 16' luladrid' L977 ' de Guinea Ecuatorial' Nt. ootentielles et virtuelles r976. R. Carlos Gonsalez: Esttldig9-Guineos' "ssrldios L964' Africanos)' Maãrid' Fernandez. uol-55' Madrid' Whitstable' f975 ' lniood. IEA' Madrid' 1959' icjr de Fernando Poo' rEA' Madrid' L962' Teran.nea Geografi-a e historia dS la Guinea Pujadas.NewYork. G. Günrer: Die Bubi auf Tern?ndg Po:: -. césar: Presença jlo arquiPélagg-de-9t-Toné 3rincipe t "' reuret L/vv' moderna cultural po:ttgue ""u"u.Georges:TheSociologyof. 1968' Govantes.Rafael'SedmayEdiciones'l"ladrid'L976' Guinea' Matilla: E1 pasado-y presente de la sanidad -enGomez. Tomas L' & P-erez' l"lanue1 : Españo1a. A. P Mitogo:Guinea:'decoloniaadictadura'EditorialCuadernosparael Dialogo.

Edíciones del servicio informativo espafol. Madrid.-Afrique. C.atistics. 831 .pubtf"as. Alianza Nacional de Restauracion Democratica recent edrtrons.HANDBOOKS Africa South of the Sahara.ICALS Africa.I Decembet L976' Cotunonwealth Secretariat' London' L976.Oficinaderelaciones --. Iladrid.ocoa. 1964' IEA' Madrid' Labor sanitaría en 1as provincias de 1a regi ' L963. 72L . de-dlf.a.ts -Qta. rEA. Sl. Gil1s & Duf fus. 7963' La region ecuatoríal esPañ-ola al Resumenes ' IEA' Madrid' 1963' --- Estadisticos del Gobierno General de 10s territo d"l crTf. ElplandedesarollodelaGuineaEcuatoría]-. (ANRD). London. Madrid. 83 . Europa Publications' UN London Statistical Yearbook OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS La Educacion en . August L976. Trop ical Prodt. 1957 ' PERIOP.2 November L974.rJ=:JJ.1a region ecuatorial de E-spaña' IEA' España en e1 Iladrid' L96L' Afric?-ec9?!9ria1. I976' Counroditv Yearbook Lg77. Couunodity Research Inc" New York' Jeune. La Yoz del Pueblo.

Tãe lNo. African said to him.t' nor¡? r . even though his conf. HiLler throughout the world' he was human.. Asia ând ernlrica."i¿. but a German should command over Germans' an The English office'.'.'Englanddoesnot\^/anttogiveindependence.lnle are going to destroy Germany because she wishes to officer said to him.. For this reason r say on this I have finished to abolish colonialisrn and totk.. Sut äff tttis has been Guinea which can be equal consider as over. and we all decay' Knowledge is not those who make atom bombs.APPEN.tothedesert.DIX I conference' Extract from a speech by Maclas at the constitutional 3 November 1967: cost over fortY million "Hitler provoked the Second l^/orld I'{ar vihich rnrith all the peoPles more lives and Germany todty is on friendly terms once of the whole world' of Europe.whenGermanyhadbeenfoughtagainst anddestroyed.The the English' command over English officer did not say that the English should empire throughout the world' because the United Kingdom still had a ão1onia1 And so the African officer realised' FollowingtheSecondl^/orldlnlar. GeneralRorrnnelV/enttoAfrica.Nkrumah. 'rs Hitler bad?'' command over all our peop1es.whatisimportantismanandwhatmypeoplewishisthatman be given dignitY. Inlhat he wantedaspect.Ie are all human importanttome..whathewantedlÁIastocombatpeoples wanted to cofnmand all the colonialism but he got confused and then heAmerica united and attacked Germany of Europe and so thã peoples of Europe andforgotten' The colonial problem we and destroyed her. and Everybodydeclared\"/aronAfricaandlwishtosayonething:I because made mistakes consider Hitler to be the saviour of Africa.Lumumba.sekuTouréandXnumberofAfrican pãtiti"ittts will remain in our hearts' AndtheAfrieansaid. Hitlerrs intention was to end colonialism AlthoughitissaidthathepersecutedtheJews.aFrenchmanFrenchmen. Today te wish to build a stable externally' to Spain and can count tn Spain both internally and following sense' I will tell you why Hitler liberated Africa in the for all men are human theologians.AfricabegantoevolveandrequestedEnglandtogranttotal position England maintained a very firm independence to the African countries' againstindependence. command should you said that a German should command over Germans ' an Englishman overEnglishmenandsowhydoyounotv/anttheAfricanstocommandoverAfrica was that Hitler saved Africa.aSpaniardspaniards. Italianltalians.wheretherewasfighting African of ficers' An African and where English officers \^Iere together \'ùith officer and the English officer felc a bond between himseli and an English .aoguther' And B4 . \.sion r^¡hich was human.

e. once more invites her to prepare herself politically in the way he has outlined and considers invalid any type of meeting or association in which she has not participated. by th. as used to be given. ill-treatment of \^romen except in cases of subversion. It remains forbidden for those in religious orders to move freely from one place to another.. and never names imported by the colonialists. present at which were H. Benito. Civil . l{acías. these shall be carried out according to the African tradition. prohibited and the activities of private Catholic educational institutions throughout the territory shal 1 be suppressed in order to put an end to the subversive education which is imparted in such establishments and in accordance with Decrero-Ley No. ete. B. Life President of the Republic and the Central Committee of PUNT Honourable and creat ComradeMACIAS NGUEMA BIYOGO NEGUE and the tr^/omenf Revolutionary Section the following counsel was included in that offered to the above mentioned Organisation and hereby brought to the notice of the Governmental Delegates : s The afore mentioned Supreme Authority has abolished totally the l. 6. Macías. The preachings and sermons of Priests shal1 be censored and listened 5. The National Anthem shall be actively encouraged within the Womenrs Revolutionary Section at all official ceremonies as shall the idea that political knowledge for the v/oman is obtained through the Party r¿hich is directed by H. Ndong. 6lls ot 18 l"farch.. 4. The contribution of alms or offerings to the Missions shall remain 3. E. AË fuËure baptisms the names given to those baptised shal1 be African names. etc.Govgrnnsnt SECRET of Rio Muni in 1-975 During the session held in this Capital on 23 March. in his never-ceasing determination to place the woman at the summit of progress. etc. B5 . l.. such as Nguema. 2. to attentively for subsequent analysís. o For work in the fields the Great Master and Father of our Revolution that \^/omerì. Anselm. E. such as Luís. v/ear trousers to a11ow free movement and to protect the The Liberator of our Great People. etc.. recommends body. Mba. As regards funeral ceremonies. as is the doctrine to the revolutionary people that Equatorial Guinea must be commanded and guided by the Guineans themselves and not by aliens. tr^lhere such exception is made a detailed investigation of the faets shall be made beforehand. Daily work sha1l be recommended to the revolutionary people so that the people should never consider it as an activity of slavery but ralher as the basis of man's life.APPENDIX 2 Doculrent issued.

be. oi"iti. and meetulgs r'ghich *endations at all the Both 10. 17 APril 1975 DIRECTOR GENERAL OF THE OFFICE .make f":T:11 they maY have with the .PartY the Governmental Delegates and those these counsels and recomobliged "":-._ ^.. To acknowledge receiPt May God KeeP You for l"lanY Years Bata..n.responsible for the. an LIie urÞ Lt People.--^ IiÏ'.t" shalldiscussions to.

. The 1963 Charter of the OAU affirms that its member states vüill adhere to the principles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. International today (Tuesday. of Equatorial Guinear s independence had been marked by a succession of arbitrary arrests. AI said that the grave and longstanding record of serious sign of human rights violations in EquaÊorial Guinea has shown little improving. Amnesty International said that the 10 years. RIG. lO October f97B) appealed ro the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) to Lake aetion Ëo prevent further violations of human rights in Equatorial Guinea. Amnesty International has also urged other African heads of state to endorse this appeal and Èo influence the government of Equatorial Guinea by exerting diplomatic pressure. and the OAU Secretary-General. which ís celebrating the 10th anniversary of its independence on 12 October. 10 0crober 1978 B7 . despite international appeals.HTS VIOLATIONS IN EQUATORIAL GUINE¡.P3gALS. AmnesËy In cables to the Chairman of OAU.APPENDIX 3 + AMNE.srr TNTERNA'. r0 0êu TO HE-LP END HUMAN. President Jaafar el-Nimeiri of Sudan.TJONAL ê. Edem Kodjo of Togo. and AI said it hoped that the OAU's Chairman and SecretaryGeneral would be able to encourage fundamental improvements in the human rights situation in Equatorial Guinea. deaths from torture and summary executions.