ENDOCHONDORAL OSSIFICATION

Many of the bones in human body are formed using endochondoral ossification. This method of ossification replaces the cartilage with bones. This ossification process is made of five steps.

a) Development of Cartilage Model

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At the site where the bone going to be formed, the mesenchymal cells will cluster together in the shape of the bone modal. After that, they will differentiate into chondroblasts which will start secreting cartilage matrix. This secretion will cause the formation of cartilage modal made of hyaline cartilage. At the same time, a membrane called the perichondrium forms all over the bone model.

Change in the pH causes the chemical reaction associated with calcification to initiate. they are called as chondrocytes. As the cartilage matrix continues to calcify. As a result of it. This action will release the contents of the chondrocytes. lacunae will form within the matrix and merge together to form small cavities. more of these chondrocytes will die due to their disability to diffuse nutrient.b) Growth of Cartilage Model        The cartilage model continues to grow in size due to the continuous secretion of cartilage matrix and also production of more chondroblasts. As the model continues to elongate. some of the chondrocytes in the middle region will start to grow in size and eventually burst. Thus causing change in the ph level of the matrix. Once the chondroblasts get deeply embedded in the matrix.as. .

c) Primary Ossification Center        A nutrient artery penetrates the perichondrium and stimulates the osteogenic cells in the perichondrium to change into osteoblast. As the cartilage model starts to grow. the capillaries will induce the growth of primary ossification centre. In the primary ossification center. Then the osteoblast secretes a thin shell of compact bone called the perosteal bone collar. . This process continues till all the cartilages are replaced with compact bone. the cartilages will be replaced by the bone tissue. The osteoblast will deposit spongy bone trebeculae. Then osteoclasts digest the newly formed spongy bone and enlarge the medullary cavity and fill it with red bone marrow.

Bone formation of secondary is similar to first ossification but there is one slight difference.d) Development of Secondary Ossification    Secondary ossification center usually develops during the time of birth. . The spongy bones are kept in this ossification process and also no medullary cavities are formed.

This plate also is made of hyaline cartilage. The epiphyseal plate is situated in between the diaphysis and epiphysis region. .e) Formation of Articular Cartilage and Epiphyseal Plate    The hyaline cartilage that covering the epiphyses differentiates into becomes articular cartilage.

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