A tanker is a specialized ship intended for the carriage of bulk liquid cargo.

An Oil tanker again is further divided into 2 basic types, namely Crude Oil Tanker and Product Oil Tanker. For both of the above the cargo of oil is carried within the tanks similar to the holds of other ships, the difference being that the bulkheads are extra strengthened to take in the load, and the hatch or rather the tank openings are very small, the sole purpose of having them is for Man Entry and for small repair work in the dry docks. The cargo of oil is loaded on to the ships tanks by pipelines, which are fixed on the ship (permanent structure), the shore pipelines are connected to the ships pipelines at the manifold on either side of the ship. Note that some special ships also have manifolds at the bow and at the stern. The shore pipelines may be connected using flexible steel rimmed rubber hoses (small ports/ Ship to ship transfers/ SBM) – the flexible come in small lengths are connected to each other to make them long pieces. The shore pipelines may also be connected with rigid loading arms – also called ‘chiksons’, which are remotely controlled and take in the roll of the ship to a certain extent but the fore and aft movement of the ship has to be kept to a minimum. The combined pipeline system of the shore and the ship deliver the oil to the cargo oil tanks directly via the drop lines. These are as the name suggests pipelines, which drop to the bottom of the tanks vertically from the pipeline on deck – thus bypassing the pump room. There are various cross- over valves, which are opened in order to load a group of tanks. The shore system starts to pump/ delivers by gravity (some Persian Gulf ports) at a slow rate, so that any leakages can be detected and to check whether the right tank is receiving the oil or not, once the shore and the shipside are satisfied the pumping – loading of the cargo is increased. In case of any subsequent leakages that are detected the ship valves should not be shut abruptly, rather the shore has to be informed first and then only the ship valves are to shut, this to prevent pressure surge from bursting the pipelines. To prevent this surge from affecting the pipelines the cargo valves have set times at which they close – this depends on the size of the valves – typically a 550mm valve would shut at about 24 seconds, whereas a 250mm valve would shut at 6-8 seconds. After the ship completes her loading the stage is set for the unloading or discharging operation. While loading the cargo had by passed the pump room, now however the cargo from the tanks is allowed to flow to the pump room through the bottom pipelines. Just within the pumproom and at the pumproom bulkhead are situated isolation valves known as ‘Bulkhead Master valves’, by opening the valves the oil is led to the pump suction valve and on opening that the oil flows to the centrifugal pumps. Turbines, which are situated in the Engine Room, commonly drive these pumps; the shaft penetrates the ER bulkhead and drives the pump situated at the bottom of the pumproom.

The pump accelerates the flow of the oil into the discharge pipeline and this oil is thus led on the deck pipelines and to the manifold from where it flow through the flexible pipeline or the hard loading arm to the shore pipeline system. The Pump Room This is a cofferdam kind of space – in fact it is accepted as a cofferdam, which begins on main deck and ends at the keel. It may have more than 2 decks, however these decks are not normally solid decks but are partial decks made of expanded metal, so you are able to see right to the bottom. There would be a companionway leading from the top to the next deck and so on right to the bottom. At the lowermost deck are situated the Cargo Oil Pumps (COP’s). The numbers of pumps vary in number – for crude oil tankers it is normal to have 4 pumps, three being used at any one time. For product oil tankers the number of pumps depend on the number of grade of oil that the ship is capable of carrying. So if the ship can carry 4 grades of oil then she would be having 4 pumps. Once the gravity flow to the COP’s is not possible the stripped pumps are started, these pumps are of the reciprocating type and have great capacity to create partial vacuum to suck out the remaining oil from the tanks. Again on a product oil tanker the number of stripped pumps would be equal to the number of grades of oil that it can carry. Earlier on Crude oil carrier there would be stripper pumps of the reciprocating type however today largely eductors are used to remove the remaining oil from the tank. Generally 2 eductors are provided on each crude oil tanker. However 1 stripper pump is always provided to strip the cargo lines of any residual oil and to pump the same to the shore system. The pumproom is a hazardous area as such the light fittings are gas tight and only tanker safety torches are used. The ventilation system is of the exhaust type and has intakes from all the levels with the intakes being fitted with closing devices so that if required only a certain level can be evacuated. Hydrocarbon gases being heavier than air tend to settle at the bottom of the pumproom as such the main exhaust are always from the bottom level. The pumproom lighting is devised in such a way that the lights do not come on unless the ventilation has been started and is kept on for 15 minutes. AT the top of the pumproom a harness and lifting arrangement is provided to lift out a person from the lowermost deck, for this reason a clear passage is left vertically from the top to the bottom of the pumproom. Fire man’s outfit are also placed at the top of the pumproom, the pumproom may have different types of fixed fire fighting appliances such as total flooding by CO2 or by foam applicators fitted in the bilges (below the floor plates under the lowermost deck).

Bilge alarms are fitted which give alarms when the bilges are filled – a high level and a low level alarm is fitted which gives indications in the Engine room as well as in the Cargo Control room.

.Picture shows the main deck layout of a Product tanker (capable of carrying 4 grades of oil): The same tanker – with the tank layout.

.And part of the pump room layout of the same tanker. line master. The above shows the location of the drop valves. drop lines. bulkhead master and the bottom lines.

Cargo Oil Pumps (COP) A centrifugal pump. The dark green pipeline is the discharge line. Another detail of the same centrifugal pump. Due to this rotation which is generally about 1000 – 1700 rpm the oil is speeded up and this increase in velocity causes the oil to flow out at a great pressure. . With this type of pump the level of oil has to be above the pump – as such the pump is situated at the bottom of the pump room. These pumps are capable of delivering a very high rate of discharge (up to 4000 m3/hr). in the pumproom bottom platform. The pump consists of an impeller which rotates within the casing.

. The pump is used today on crude tankers to strip out the pipelines after discharging and then collecting these line content (small) and then pumping them to shore. In general these pumps are used to discharge small quantities of oil such as the strippings – the balance that the centrifugal pump cannot discharge due to the oil going below the level of the pump. The shaft passes from the ER to the pumproom through the pumproom bulkhead via a gas and oil tight gasket.The earlier centrifugal pump situated in the pumproom is driven by a shaft which is connected to the steam turbine – situated in the ER. The turbines are driven by superheated steam from the boiler in the ER. Positive displacement pumps such as the reciprocating pump work on the principle of a hand pump – the movement of the piston creates a vacuum which sucks out the fluid. However the size of the pump is dependent on the size of the piston and the length of the strokes so for discharging at a high rate is practically impossible.

the driving fluid is seawater. When used for stripping crude oil. Eductors are simple and rugged. and do not become air locked like other type of pumps. thus creating a vacuum. In the latter case the driving fluid is either crude oil or seawater. A driving fluid is pumped down the main line. and past a relatively smaller opening. with very high velocity. When used for stripping tank washings.Eductors Eductors work on the principles of Bernoulli’s Principle. When eductors are used for clean ballast. the driving fluid is from the secondary slop tank and then re-circulated back to the primary slop tank. depending on the tank cleaning method. through a constriction. They are widely used on tankers of all types and sizes. the driving fluid is the cargo itself. have no moving parts.delivered by means of a bypass from one of the main cargo pumps. .

Basically there are three systems of pipelines found on tankers. This could be the ring main system or in case of a chemical product tanker it could mean an individual pipeline and an individual pump for every tank on board. depending on employment of the tanker. Some product (parcel) tankers may have very sophisticated piping systems.Tank layout of a crude oil tanker: The Pipeline system: Pipeline systems on tankers differ in their degree of sophistication. ULCC’s and VLCC’s have relatively simple pipeline systems usually the direct line system. and the fourth system being the free flow system found on large crude carriers Ring Main System Direct line system Single line to Single tank system (Chemical/Product ship) Free Flow system .

the advantages compensate for the extra cost of the original outlay.Ring Main System: It is generally of a square or circular layout. Though the system is expensive. as segregation of cargo is required. However if the vessel is carrying many grades of cargo. . and extra number valves are used. as more piping. It is used mostly on product tankers.

Direct Line System: This system is mainly found on crude oil carriers where up to 3 grades of cargo can be carried as most of the direct pipeline systems is fitted with three direct lines. The disadvantages over the ring main system. The disadvantage is the cost factor having a multitude of pumps on board. as the system lacks versatility there is problem with line and valve segregation. . the system has fewer valves which make pipeline leaks difficult to control. This system is cheaper to construct. This system provides the vessel to carry as many grades as there are tanks. is that line washing is more difficult.

gate valves are provided on the bulkheads of the tanks which when opened. pipelines or fittings connected to any of these. Respiratory hazards from a number of sources could be present in an enclosed space. welding operations and paint mists. There are some Product Tankers that have this system fitted on the ships. Instead. This definition includes cargo tanks. toluene. The advantages of this system are primarily the cost factor. residues from inert gas and particulates such as those from asbestos. The rapid rescue of personnel who have collapsed in an enclosed space presents particular risk. These could include one or more of the following: Respiratory contaminants associated with organic vapours including those from aromatic hydrocarbons. Enclosed Space Entry An enclosed space is one with restricted access that is not subject to continuous ventilation and in which the atmosphere may be hazardous due to the presence of hydrocarbon gas. sewage tanks. It is a human reaction to go to the aid of a colleague in difficulties. In almost every case the fatality would have been avoided if the simple guidance in this chapter had been followed. allow the oil to flow freely in the aft most tank and into the COP. Oxygen deficiency caused by. void spaces and trunkings. slop and waste oil tanks. fuel tanks. Disadvantages are of single crude being shipped. Many of the fatalities in enclosed spaces on oil tankers have resulted from entering the space without proper supervision or adherence to agreed procedures. oxidation (rusting) of bare steel surfaces. cofferdams. the presence of inert gas or microbial activity. where the cargo piping is not used for the discharge of cargo. for example. ballast tanks. lubricating oil tanks. This system is quite normal on chemical ships. duct keels. It also includes inert gas scrubbers and water seals and any other item of machinery or equipment that is not routinely ventilated and entered. . benzene. toxic gases. but far too many additional and unnecessary deaths have occurred from impulsive and ill-prepared rescue attempts. This is a single line servicing an individual tank through an independent pump that could be either a submersible pump or a deep well pump. such as boilers and main engine crankcases.Free flow Tanker: This system is usually found on large crude carriers. it allows for fast drainage and efficient means of pumping the cargo tanks. etc. water tanks. gases such as hydrogen sulphide. inert gas or oxygen deficiency. Independent System: This layout is not very common in the tanker trade..

including pumprooms. The presence of gas should also be suspected in empty tanks or compartments if nonvolatile cargoes have been loaded into non-gas free tanks or if there is a common ventilation system which could allow the free passage of vapours from one tank to another.Hydrocarbon Vapours During the carriage and after the discharge of hydrocarbons. Residues may remain in cargo or ballast pipelines and pumps. Sludge and scale in a tank which has been declared gas free may give off further hydrocarbon vapour if disturbed or subjected to a rise in temperature. the presence of hydrocarbon vapour should always be suspected in enclosed spaces for the following reasons: Cargo may have leaked into compartments. even after cleaning and ventilation. permanent ballast tanks and tanks adjacent to those that have carried cargo. . Cargo residues may remain on the internal surfaces of tanks. cofferdams.

the presence of hydrocarbon vapour and. Testing should only be carried out by personnel who have been trained in the use of the equipment and who are competent to interpret the results correctly. pockets of gas should always be suspected. if appropriate. Other Atmospheric Hazards These include toxic contaminants such as benzene or hydrogen sulphide. Frequently checked against standard samples. Regeneration of hydrocarbon gas should always be considered possible. The use of personal detectors capable of continuously monitoring the oxygen content of the atmosphere. further atmosphere tests should be made. While personnel remain in a tank or compartment. when descending to the lower part of a tank or compartment.Oxygen Deficiency Lack of oxygen should always be suspected in all enclosed spaces. ATMOSPHERE TESTS PRIOR TO ENTRY General Any decision to enter an enclosed space should only be taken after the atmosphere within the space has been comprehensively tested from outside the space with test equipment that has recently been calibrated and checked for correct operation. It is essential that all atmosphere testing equipment used is: Suitable for the test required. These instruments will detect any deterioration in the quality of the atmosphere and can provide an audible alarm to warn of the change in conditions. toxic vapour is strongly recommended. In particular. When tests are being carried out from deck level. Correctly maintained. even after loose scale has been removed. tests should always be made before each daily commencement of work or after any interruption or break in the work. . have contained inert gas or are adjacent to. or connected with. ventilation should be stopped and a minimum period of about 10 minutes should be allowed to elapse before readings are taken. A record should be kept of all maintenance work and calibration tests carried out and of the period of their validity. Sufficient samples should be drawn to ensure that the resulting readings are representative of the condition of the entire space. particularly if they have contained water. Even when tests have shown a tank or compartment to be safe for entry. Care should be taken to obtain a representative cross-section of the compartment by sampling at several depths and through as many deck openings as practicable. Of an approved type. Hence. have been subjected to damp or humid conditions. ventilation should be continuous and frequent atmosphere tests should be undertaken. other inerted tanks. which could remain in the space as residues from previous cargoes.

such as that utilizing detector tubes. . and has a delayed action which may be up to 20years) Detector equipment should be provided on board all vessels likely to carry cargoes in which benzene may be present. Tests for benzene vapours can only be undertaken using appropriate detector equipment.Hydrocarbon Vapours To be considered safe for entry. cold work or hot work. Entry should not be permitted without appropriate personal protective equipment if statutory or recommended Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL’s) are likely to be exceeded. Benzene Checks for benzene vapour should be made prior to entering any compartment in which a cargo that may have contained benzene has recently been carried. (Benzene causes cancer. whether for inspection. a reading of not more than 1% LFL must be obtained on suitable monitoring equipment.

A TLV of 300PPM. the atmosphere should be tested with an oxygen analyzer to check that the normal oxygen level in air of 21% by volume is present.Hydrogen Sulphide Although a tank which has contained sour crude or sour products will contain hydrogen sulphide. The use of the term Permissible Exposure Limit refers to the maximum exposure to a toxic substance that is allowed by an appropriate regulatory body. normally averaged over an eight-hour period. benzene) and hydrogen sulphide. the atmosphere should be checked for hydrogen sulphide content prior to entry and entry should be prohibited in the event of any hydrogen sulphide being detected. The values are expressed as parts per million (PPM) by volume of gas in air.g. general practice and experience indicates that. Oxygen Deficiency Before initial entry is allowed into any enclosed space. This is of particular importance when considering entry into any space. However. the hydrogen sulphide should be eliminated. corresponding to about 2%LEL. The term Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is often expressed as a time weighted Average (TWA). is normally expressed as a maximum airborne concentration averaged over a 15-minute period. . is established for gasoline vapours. if the tank is thoroughly washed. The PEL is usually expressed as a Time Weighted Average. tank or compartment that has previously been inerted. Hydrogen sulphide may also be encountered in pumprooms and appropriate precautions should therefore be taken. which is not in daily use. Generally nearly all substances have been assigned Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) and /or Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL). Toxicity can be greatly influenced by the presence of some minor components such as aromatic hydrocarbons (e.

namely oxygen content is 21% by volume. Approved positive pressure breathing apparatus and resuscitation equipment are ready for use at the entrance to the space. cofferdam. Regular atmosphere checks should be carried out all the time personnel are within the space and a full range of tests should be undertaken prior to re-entry into the tank after any break. double bottom or other enclosed space unless an entry permit has been issued by a responsible officer who has ascertained immediately before entry that the atmosphere within the space is in all respects safe for entry. the responsible officer should ensure that: The appropriate atmosphere checks have been carried out. The use of personal detectors and carriage of emergency escape breathing apparatus are recommended. . In the event of an emergency.Entry Procedures General A responsible officer prior to personnel entering an enclosed space should issue an entry permit. No one should enter any cargo tank. An example of an Enclosed Space Entry Permit is provided in ISGOTT. Where possible. Reference should be made to ISGOTT for additional guidance on entry into pumprooms. A responsible member of the crew is in constant attendance outside the enclosed space in the immediate vicinity of the entrance and in direct contact with a responsible officer. The lines of communications for dealing with emergencies should be clearly established and understood by all concerned. Effective ventilation will be maintained continuously while the enclosed space is occupied. Suitable notices should be prominently displayed to inform personnel of the precautions to be taken when entering tanks or other enclosed spaces and of any restrictions placed upon the work permitted therein. under no circumstances should the attending crew member enter the tank before help has arrived and the situation has been evaluated to ensure the safety of those entering the tank to undertake rescue operations. The entry permit should be rendered invalid if ventilation of the space stops or if any of the conditions noted in the checklist change. Before issuing an entry permit. Lifelines and harnesses are ready for immediate use at the entrance to the space. a separate means of access is available for use as an alternative means of escape in an emergency. hydrocarbon vapour concentration is not more than 1% LFL and no toxic or other contaminants are present.

(Pump Glands shall never be adjusted on rotating shafts. inspection plates. drain plugs and lighting are in place and in proper order. especially those on cargo oil pumps. the absence of abnormal sound. The Pump Room may also contain a number of potential ignition sources unless formal. • Bulkhead glands should be inspected to ensure efficient gas-tight seal between the Pump Room and the machinery space. casings should be checked for overheating. plugs. the integrity of pump glands (where fitted). During Cargo Operations (including Loading): • Inspection at regular intervals to check for leakages from glands. especially those fitted on pumps. seals. the bearings.A pump room contains the largest concentration of cargo pipelines of any space within the ship and leakage of a volatile product from any part of this system could lead to the rapid generation of a flammable or toxic atmosphere. Before Starting Cargo Operations (including Loading): • An inspection is to be made to ensure that strainer covers. pipes. the normal function of local and remote pressure gauges. while the pump is in service) . drain valves. • Where pumps are in use. should be firmly closed. • Drain valves in the pump room cargo system. inspection and monitoring procedures are strictly adhered to. structured maintenance.

seals. casings should be checked for overheating. the bearings. pipes. should be firmly closed. plugs. During Cargo Operations (including Loading): • Inspection at regular intervals to check for leakages from glands.• Drain valves in the pump room cargo system. • Where pumps are in use. cargo tanks IG inlet lines to the . drain valves. Following are the basic procedures at various stages of loading oil cargo Line up of the Vent lines • Prior loading operation commence. while the pump is in service) Tanker vessel: Oil Cargo loading operations Loading oil cargo in a tanker ship require utmost diligence in planning and most careful consideration will need to be made for safe operation. especially those on cargo oil pumps. especially those fitted on pumps. the normal function of local and remote pressure gauges. (Pump Glands shall never be adjusted on rotating shafts. • Bulkhead glands should be inspected to ensure efficient gas-tight seal between the Pump Room and the machinery space. the integrity of pump glands (where fitted). the absence of abnormal sound.

Also. he may order the opening of the designated manifold valves and loading operation to commence in accordance with the loading plan. Close watch of the manifold back pressure shall be maintained. • Loading cargo tanks IG back pressure shall be adjusted to maintain . • Close communication to be kept with shore side. Safety Confirmations and Clearance: • Once the Chief Officer is satisfied that all preparations have been made in accordance with the cargo oil loading plan and the shore facility representative has confirmed that the facility is ready to load cargo. watching the manifold back pressure at all times. confirmation of temperature of cargo is as per agreed value and within the Charterer’s instruction. • The first loading tank shall be documented in the ‘Tanker Cargo Log Book’ and the number should be restricted to a minimum. The control of the key to the locking arrangements for cargo tank IG inlet valves shall be with the Chief Officer.G pressure shall be monitored Every 4 hrs. the loaded cargo temperature shall be within the vessel’s design criteria (of valve / tank coating limitations) • Only after receiving reports of all safety checks confirmed from all stations of deck / pump room watch and the chief officer may open other loading tanks and carefully increase the loading rate. until all parameters have stabilized. • In case of heated cargo. • Commence loading at reduced rate (to avoid static generation). • Ullage confirmation shall be carried out to confirm cargo oil flowing as planned into the designated cargo tank. until completion of settling down of final maximum agreed loading rate. the individual I. For tanks which are required to be isolated by vapor (as per the Charterer’s instructions).designated tanks shall be re-checked and confirmed in desired position.

at an early stage of operations. especially when changing over the valves / tanks. Also. Deck Watch and Personnel Arrangement • The deck watch shall check for oil leaks in the cargo area throughout the cargo oil loading operation. Cargo Loading Rates: a) General The vessel’s maximum loading rate and maximum venting capacity . The same shall be monitored. for any change. Tanks not being loaded shall be monitored to ensure that no oil is flowing into tanks other than the loading tanks. until settling down of shore flow rate. and monitor portions where oil is likely to leak. Excessive vibrations on piping systems must be attended to immediately.slight positive. watch oil loading pressure all the time. however small shall be paid attention to. Leakage Monitoring System Cargo leakage. monitor the manifold back pressure. monitor other tanks (unused) for any change in the level. During loading operations. joints and valves shall be monitored. Keep continuous monitoring of the Oil Level of the loading tanks. confirm that no oil leaks from piping joints and that no oil in flowing into tanks other than the tank being loaded. at all times. (including the cargo piping and sea surface around the vessel) the Chief Officer may dismiss the off duty crew and revert to the routine Watch Schedule • During loading operations. • After reaching the desired full loading rate and confirmation reports have been received from all stations at deck / pump room watch. • At the beginning of the operations. Leakages from piping system.

The ability and competence of the vessel’s staff. To allow for generation of gas when loading. The loading rate should also be governed by the age. Gas venting capacity – main system. A cross section of the Pipe [m2] x Instant Flow Rate 7[m/sec] x 3. having regard to: The nature of the cargo to be handled. topping off rates and normal stopping times should be considered. condition and reliability of the vessel’s pipeline system and the gauging system. rates must be reduced accordingly for a smaller number of tanks tank being loaded. Such information. taking into account the vessel’s design parameters and the cargo involved. based on calculations. Builder’s maximum vent pressure may be based on a rate for loading all tanks simultaneously. . shall assist the Master to determine how fast the ship can safely load a particular cargo at a particular facility.600[sec] = Reference Max. Maximum loading rates are affected by a number of factors: Diameter of Manifold valve / line. Group-by-group and Tank-wise loadings. Secondary gas venting capacity. c) Setting Loading Rates The initial and maximum loading rates. The Chief Officer should indicate. Loading Rate Number of tanks being loaded at any one time. b) Theoretical Rates The maximum flow rate into any single tanks shall be less than the maximum venting capacity (SOLAS). rates required at stages throughout the operation.must be posted in the cargo control room giving details of the rates for homogenous(entire the vessel). in the loading plan. The arrangement and capacity of the ship’s cargo lines and gas venting systems: the vent line pressure should not exceed that indicated by the builder and must be closely monitored at terminals where loading rates are known to be high. the venting rate shall be taken as 125% of the oil loading rate.

In principle. De-Ballasting of Segregated Ballast: • Obtain the Berth (Loading) Master’s permission before starting to deballast the segregated ballast tanks. Recording during operations in Tanker Log Book: Following items shall be recorded in Tanker Cargo Log Book hourly. Any other flow control limitations. especially towards the completion of de-ballasting operations. • Draft & Trim • Monitor of levels in tanks not being discharged • The Stress and Stability of the vessel • Tank pressure SBM / FSO position monitoring shall be carried throughout the operations. • De-ballast. If the Duty Deck Officer cannot account for the variation of rate then he must call the Chief Officer immediately. after starting of cargo operations. Such period should be planned well before the level in cargo tanks are near Topping-off ullages. de-ballasting operations should commence. •Loading Quantity (Rate) to compare it with that of the terminal side Regular ship/shore comparisons of loaded cargo figures shall be carried out and changes in difference to be investigated / reported. as per the cargo plan to achieve ample trim. •Manifold Pressure / Temperature.Precautions to avoid accumulation of static electricity. Chief Officer’s Standing order: Chief Officer shall give his written instructions of cargo plan to duty . The crew on watch shall be briefed as to the danger limits for the bearing and distance of the SBM / Hawser to be reported.

in the loading plan. The Duty Deck Officer should calculate when the Topping Off operation will begin and advise the shore terminal well in advance. the Duty Deck Officer should have the deck watch verify and compare the portable gauges with the fixed cargo tank gauge. Loading computer shall be updated hourly for conditions on board. arrange adequate personnel for the operations. As the number of remaining tanks are reducing with progressing of Topping off operations. Trim and draft Ensure the draft maintained. • Well before topping off. Stress monitoring and print-outs of intermediate conditions shall be recorded during regular cargo operation. Confirm the ‘Check items when Topping-Off’. the method he wishes to be used for Topping Off along with the maximum permitted topping off rate(s).officer . • The Chief Officer should indicate to the Duty Deck Officer when he wishes to be called for Topping Off. comparison of real & calculated draft & trim shall be carried out to give proactive warning of any unplanned or unobserved deviation from plan. Where possible. The vessel shall always be maintained well within the operating limits (envelope) of the shore arms. as per “Tanker Loading Checklist” to record the results. He shall complete the “Cargo Tank Level Gauge Check Record at Loading Ports” of the tanks to confirm the accuracy of the CCR tank . Topping Off Before commencement of Topping off operations. is well within the limits of the height limitation of manifold / loading arms. Preparation for Topping Off: • The Chief officer should indicate. lower the loading rate down to have sufficient time to cope with the Final Loading Topping off. after allowing for tidal variation.

• It is essential that all the vessel’s valves are not shut against a flow of oil. • Care must be taken when topping off tank(s) to make sure that there are sufficient other valves open. .gauges. in case of a failure in the valve operating system. • After slowing down the loading rate for Topping off. • To avoid this not less than a pre-determined minimum number of valves must be open during periods of maximum flow rate and specified in the loading plan. Topping Off Operation • If at any time the Topping off operation gives significant cause for concern. A portable hydraulic pump must be readily available on deck complete with extra oil and hoses. • On the assumption that the tank to be topped off is not the final tank and that there are other tank valves opened for the grade being loaded. • If the loading rate is still too high. the valve should be operated when there is sufficient ullage remaining in the tank. it should be checked that the loading rate is reduced as requested. to ensure that the valve will close as required. there must be enough personnel available to monitor the operation and provide assistance. • When Topping Off tanks. such as equipment malfunction. It should be remembered that this is a critical point in a loading operation. • The Chief Officer should be notified of any discrepancies when he is called for Topping Off operation. then the shore should be requested to further reduce the pumping rate. STOP LOADING!! Then take the necessary time to get things settled down again before resuming.

close tank valves and vent valves. Care must be taken to make sure that valves are shut properly. the deck watch shifts to the next tank as directed by the Chief Officer and the process is repeated. Completion of Loading • Close the manifold gate valves after confirming the completion of transferring oil from the terminal. and the levels of tanks already topped off must be monitored to make sure there has been no change in the final ullage. • Slack or empty tanks should be monitored to ensure that the set ullage does not change. • On confirming with the manufacturers. to the effect that the valve is to be kept in the closed position on non operational tanks when working / or after finished loading cargo. but the tank pressure should be closely monitored to ensure that the system is not over-pressurized. that have a neutral position on the valve remote control switch. Ensure connection is depressurized and isolated from the internal cargo . • Drain hoses and arms at the manifold. the control switch shall be left in the ‘closed’ position on non operational tanks when working / or after finished loading cargo.• When the first tank has been topped off. • After draining of all oil in pipe lines. • When the final tank is to be topped off. and if possible a system of marking the valves to remain closed should be arranged. to prevent the possibility of the hydraulically operated cargo valve to “creep”. • A warning notice to be posted in the cargo control room of all tankers. this valve should not be closed against the flow of oil. All manifold drain valves are to be operated under the knowledge of the Chief Officer. the duty deck officer must be stationed at the manifold and ensure that the correct valves are opened before confirming to the Chief Officer in the CCR that the valves are opened. or other venting system in use should be closed to reduce the loss of light ends to the atmosphere. • Once cargo operations have ceased the Mast riser. • Care must be taken not to operate the tank valve controls by mistake.

This record shall be in continuous operation until the final discharge port. Case-1 Line Volume: If NOT included in the ship’s individual tank measurement tables and more than one grade loaded. Tank Gauging / Survey upon completion of Loading operations: * Ullage Report The following would need to be considered. measure the temperature and ullage in each tank to work out the loaded quantity. when carrying out accurate cargo measurements. • On completion of gauging and sampling all ullage ports. * Loaded qty of 1st grade= Loaded Tanks Qty of 1st grade + ALL Lines (used for loading) Qty * Loaded qty of 2nd. • Care should be taken to ensure that cargo lines do not become over pressurized due to high ambient temperatures • The IGS recorder shall be switched on to record and monitor the cargo tanks pressure. date and time of turning on and corresponding present pressure. 3rd grades only Case-2 Line Volume: If INCLUDED in the ship’s tank measurement tables and more than one grade loaded. Lines should not be dropped back to the pump room. • In parallel with draining work. * Loaded qty of 1st grade= Loaded Tanks Qty of 1st grade + Empty Tanks only: Lines (used) Qty (A’) . It shall be suitably marked for details of Voyage Number. 3rd grades= Loaded Tanks Qty of 2nd. vapour locks and any other tank openings should be confirmed closed.tank IG pressure • All cargo in deck cargo lines should be dropped by gravity into a designated tank or tanks.

Apart from the last cargo line used. 3rd grades= Loaded Tanks Qty only of 2nd. The surveyors Ullage report shall be verified for ullages and temperatures only. cargo lines is critical on a non-SBT tanker which will use its cargo pumps for ballasting. If available. All of the upper cargo lines will require draining.* Loaded qty of 2nd. the line stripping operation will take considerably longer than necessary. If this is not done. Draining the top. * Closed method of dipping such cargo tanks shall be followed. Failure to effectively strip the top lines will create a head of oil in the lower pumproom system what may cause a pollution incident when the sea valve is opened. but one of the most important. 3rd grade – above qty (A’) * The cargo tanks are to be gauged in the presence of the attending Surveyor / Loading master to confirm final ullages. . all lines should be dropped back to the accumulation tank prior to line stripping. temperatures and presence of free water. 5. * The vessel is to prepare the ullage report upon completion of gauging of cargo tanks. or deck.31 STRIPPING PIPELINES The final part of the discharge operation. copy of the surveyors document to be retained onboard. is stripping the remaining cargo from the pumproom piping and cargo piping.

• Open the main cargo pump bypass valve(s). • Open the deck drop valve on the main line. . the pipeline system should also be discharged ashore. (MARPOL). (the pumproom loading/recirculating valve(s)). small diameter discharge (MARPOL). the following procedure can be used: • Close the manifold valve. • Start the stripping pump and run it at slow speed. with connections to each cargo manifold outboard of the manifold valve.Pump and line drainage arrangement and 'small-diameter' drainage discharge line. • Open the small diameter. • Open the stripping pump suction connection to the main cargo line in the pumproom. • Verify that the dock manifold valve is open. in the pumproom. stripping discharge valve outboard of the manifold valve. line to the midship manifold. When cargo discharged has been completed on a cargo system. If that arrangement is available. The ideal arrangement for this operation is a stripping system which includes a separate.

the following procedure can be used: • After the stripping pump has completed enough strokes to have emptied the main cargo line deck and deck drop sections. 6 Open stripping suction to accumulation tank 'E'. close all valves. 10 Stop stripping pump. 9 Strip line residues ashore. The leaking manifold valves should be repaired or replaced during the ballast passage. 8 When tank is empty close valves (D) and (E). Have a bucket or other containment under the vents to catch any spillage. open valve (F). This usually happens when discharge pressures have been high.Method of draining and stripping cargo lines at completion of discharge. • Open the forward-most tank suction valve on the main cargo line. All of the lower pumproom lines containing cargo should be lined up to the stripping pump. The crew member assigned to open the vents should remain at the vent valves during the whole line draining operation. 5 Open cargo line vent valve at manifold (B). the manifold valve closed and the MARPOL line set to discharge ashore outboard of the main manifold valve. 11 Note: If cargo is hi-pour or freezing weather is expected. the MARPOL line must immediately be drained back to the slop/ accumulation tank. close the manifold vent valve. The line should be checked several times during discharge and drained back if necessary. 2 Close manifold valve (A). To ensure that the forward sections of the main cargo line are emptied. 7 Strip accumulation tank ashore via small-bore MARPOL line and valve)(G). As soon as the stripping pump is registering a vacuum. 1 Stop discharge (MCP). 4 Open suction valve to accumulation/slop tank (D). . It is not unusual to find that the MARPOL line has become plugged during the MCP discharge due to one of the MARPOL line manifold valves leaking. the cargo line vents should be carefully opened at the manifold crossovers. 3 Open main cargo pump bypass valve(s) (C). • Allow the stripping pump to develop a partial vacuum on the main cargo line.

so that it is the only one containing cargo when the discharge is finished. Upon completion of line stripping. making it very difficult for the ship's stripping pumps! While the pipelines are being stripped.• Continue operating the stripping pump at slow speed until suction is lost. but it may increase outturn quantities by as much as 600 barrels on a 100. the only cargo remaining in the vessel should be in the MARPOL line. • Stop the pump and close all valves. the cargo tanks should be checked again to ensure that no cargo has drained back into any tank. . If the ship does not have the independent stripping discharge connections to each manifold. shore valve have been closed after receiving such a statement. The ship should not say that 'discharge has been completed. On more than one occasion.re waxy or high-pour crudes were discharged. the lines can be stripped after all cargo systems have completed discharging and the stripping discharge directed to one main line. It is important to fully drain the MARPOL line after the cargo inspection.000 DWT tanker. particularly whe. Precise communication is required between the ship and the shore during cargo line stripping. In the case of a straight cargo. it will not be possible to effectively strip the main lines individually. Stripping lines effectively may take as long as one hour. we are now stripping lines'.

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