Patel College of Engineering



Laboratory manual M.tech.cad-cam (semester-I) Computer integrated manufacturing (3 ME 1 1 5 )

U.V.Patel College Of Engineering GANPAT UNIVERSITY Ganpat Vidyanagar, Mehsana-Gozaria HighwayMehsana - 382711, INDIA

U.V.Patel College of Engineering Mehsana-Gozaria Highway Mehsana - 382711, INDIA


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product design.. robotics.. TECH. Auto factoring includes computer-integrated manufacturing.... is the phrase used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant.CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 1 AIM: TO STUDY INTRODUCTION MANUFACTURING. To achieve these requirements.. automatic storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS). CAD. human operators. adaptable. fragmented markets. and other computer-based manufacturing technology. and their relationships within a total system. numerically controlled machine tools (NCMT). such as quality. known as CIM. but also includes conventional machinery./. The characteristics of the present world market include higher competition.. TO DATE: . innovation and delivery services are the primary determinants of product success in today's global arena . manufacturing companies need to be flexible. flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). Furthermore. non-price factors./.Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M.. with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together.. 1 . computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Greater product diversity.. shorter product life cycles. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) may be viewed as the successor technology which links computer-aided design (CAD).. Computer-integrated manufacturing is also known as integrated computer-aided manufacturing (ICAM).. variety and complexity and smaller hatch sizes to satisfy a variety of customer profiles . COMPUTER INTEGRATED EVOLUTION OF CIM: Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously from cottage industries in the early 16th century to the global force as it stands today.. CIM DEFINATION: Computer Integrated Manufacturing.

proactive and be able to produce variety of products in a short time at a lower cost in addition. In the 1980s. The idea of "Digital Manufacturing is a vision for the 1980s. CIM HARDWARE: CIM hardware includes all the devices which are having physical presence. Joseph Harrington in 1973 in the book "Computer Integrated manufacturing". The most significant outcome of this search resulted in the concept of computer integrated manufacturing (ClM) in the early 1970s. Computer Integrated Manufacturing was developed and promoted by machine tool manufacturers and the CASA/SME (Computer and Automated Systems Association /Society for Manufacturing Engineers). manufacturing companies are compelled to seek advanced technologies as a panacea for all these needs. Majorly we can classify them in this m/c tool format.Computer Integrated Manufacturing responsive to changes. The concept of ClM was initially coined by Dr. until the early 1980s. Hence. complex social issues and concerns. CIM Hardware 2 . CIM did not become a commonly known acronym as it exists today. touch. All the devices which we can see. However. in case of CIM all the applications accept programs are hardware. they should be able to address new environmental requirements. can operate with application of human effort is known as a hardware.

accounts receivable. workflow management. modems . commission calculation Financials: General ledger. VNC systems. inventory. banking. activity management Human resources : 3 . procedures. order entry. comprise an information system. bills of material. supply chain planning. manufacturing process. tracking. capacity. MIS involves all aspects of gathering. and practices that direct an organization's operations and the staff that interact with the information. product configuration.connectors etc…. financial and other records. All the policies.controllers . Inspection machines etc… Computers . PLANNING AND SCHEDULING: It delivers a single database that contains all data for the software modules. storing. Data entry terminals. performance units. fixed assets Project management: Costing. scheduling. which would include: Manufacturing: Engineering. payroll. Printers . billing. cash management.plotters and other peripheral devices. retrieving and using information within a business or organization. cost management. inventory. Bar code readers. quality control. CIM SOFTWARE: CIM software is combination of following function software: MIS (management information system): MIS software helps for managing your accounts. claim processing. stock.CAD/CAM systems . taxation. DNC/FMS systems.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Manufacturing equipment such as machines or computerized work centers. inspection of goods. supplier scheduling. manufacturing projects. accounts payable. combined with the software and hardware. Robotic work cells. purchasing. manufacturing flow Supply chain management: Order to cash. time and expense.cables . Work handling &tool handling devices.work stations/terminals.

roistering. Office Automation software will keep record of all the things that is entered by you. service.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Human resources. The Office Automation software can be used any time and you can store as many data as you want to. benefits Customer relationship management: Sales and marketing. kinetic and dynamic analysis of design. audio and/or video formats between different computers. This Office Automation software is the easier way to store details of the multiple company (you own) or working with. Phesibility of design. machine to person. file transfer programs. OFFICE AUTOMATION: Office Automation software is very beneficial to the company having big kind of business for export and import.This is for creating proper communication between person to person. COMMUNICATION: Communication software is used to provide remote access to systems and exchange files and real-time messages in text. MAJOR AREAS OF CIM: Areas Of CIM includes major four areas which are having their own parts which we can include with them: 4 . customer contact and call center support.. as well as similar functionality integrated within MUDs(multi-user dungeon). machine to machine. commissions. real or virtual. The design of geometric models for object shapes. chat and instant messaging programs. training. This includes terminal emulators. addition. and employees Access control . person to machine.user privilege as per authority levels for process execution Customization . testing as per software programs based on practical observations. Data warehouse and various self-service interfaces for customers. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN: (CAD) Computer-aided design software is the use of computer technology for the design of objects. Static. payroll. change in process flow. suppliers. time and attendance.to meet the extension.

the projection of manufacturing quantities and the strategy for marketing the product are also decided by the marketing dept. The specifications of the product. Material storage units. Job ticketing. Sales Marketing. driving devices MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM: Ordeal entry. DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING SUPPORT SYSTEM: Modeling and Design. Manufacturing facilities. Product Design: The design department of the company establishes the initial database for the production of a proposed product. 5 . MACHINE TOOLS: Work flow automation. Finance. Analysis. Communication. Simulation. Quality management. In CIM system this is accomplished through activities such as geometric modeling and computer aided design while considering the product requirement and concept generated by the creativity of the design engineer. etc….Computer Integrated Manufacturing PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Management information system. ELEMENTS OF CIM: We can say that there are basically nine major elements of CIM system: Marketing: The need for a product is defined by the marketing division. Manufacturing area control Process Planning. Database management. Network management.

resident either in the operator or the equipment to carry out the production process.working capital. finished goods as well as shipment items. accounting.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Planning: The planning department takes the database established by the product design and enriches it with production data and information to produce a plan for the production of product. and allocation of funds are the major task of finance department. Planning of investment . cash flow control. Information Management: It is perhaps one of the crucial tasks in CIM. components. involving further enrichment of the database with performance data and information about the production equipment and processes. Warehousing: Ware housing is the function involving storage and retrieval of raw material. receives the item. Finance: Finance deals with the resource pertaining to money. communication. Manufacturing Engineering: Manufacturing Engineering is activity of carrying out the production of the product. database management.This involves master production schedule. arrange for inspection and supply the items to store for eventual supply to manufacture and assembly. Which can be directly understand by figure 6 . Factory Automation Hardware: Factory automation equipment further enriches the database with equipment and process data. Purchase: The purchase department is responsible for placing the purchase orders and follows up. manufacturing system integration and management information systems.

Scheduling . Purchase.Processplanning.CNC.Analysis.Drafting.FEM. ERP. Finance.FMS. 7 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing ACTIVITIES OF CIM: CIM Technology ties together all the manufacturing related functions in a company: Activities of CIM Cad. Database. Marketing.ToolDesign.Robots. Shipping.AS/RS.Shopdata.MEM.QC. Human Resource.Si-mulation.

but there must always be a competent engineer on hand to handle circumstances which could not be foreseen by the designers of the control software. the more critical is the integrity of the data used to control the machines. In the case of AGVs. 8 ..Material Handling system .. such as CNC.QC.Computer system .ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning) . Computers may be used to assist the human operators of the manufacturing facility. or. even differing lengths of time for charging the batteries may cause problems. While the CIM system saves on labor of operating the machines.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Machine Tool . Process control: Process control is a statistics and engineering discipline that deals with architectures. Data integrity: Data integrity is a term used in computer science and telecommunications that can mean ensuring data is "whole" or complete the condition in which data are identically maintained during any operation. KEY CHALLENGES: There are three major challenges to development of a smoothly operating Computer Integrated Manufacturing system: Integration of components from different suppliers: When different machines.. and the prior expectation of data quality.MEM. Mechanism s. are using different communications protocols. : The higher the degree of automation. and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process.FEM . it requires extra human labor in ensuring that there are proper safeguards for the data signals that are used to control the machines. conveyors and robots. relative to specified operations. the preservation of data for their intended use.Element Modeling .

processing and inspection. Market position. Factory Automation The outer rim represents the upper management functions. Manufacturing. Flexibility. CIM is a closed loop system whose prime inputs are product requiring concept prime output are finished product. Manufacturing planning and control. CIM WHEEL depicts a central core (Integrated System Architecture) That handles the common manufacturing data and is concern with information resources management and communication. Quality. Key Strengths: • CIM creates a database of information. Product process.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Set up time. Manufacturing industry Goals. This activity has been grouped under three categories. Inventory. grouped into four categories: Strategic Planning Marketing Manufacturing and HRManagement The modifications have been done by researchers for making the CIM WHEEL acceptable in all industries as per requirements. the CIM WHEEL to explain the meaning of CIM. Global economy. The radial sectors surrounding the core represent the various activities of manufacturing processing design. and Distance. etc… CIM WHEELS: CASA/SME (Computer and automated system association of society of manufacturing Engineers) has suggested a framework. material. 9 .

Easy to understand islands of the CIM. 1985. No clear instructions are there for implementation. 1986. Declared by CASA/SME in 1980. low effort to get started.Computer Integrated Manufacturing • • • • • CIM Can be applied to other sectors. CASA/SME 1980. It cannot show complete connection between different island of CIM. Key Weaknesses: • • • • • No compelling reason for growers to participate. Manufacturing Planning and Scheduling is possible. Figure:-Wheel-CASA/SME 1980 10 . Needs on-the-ground (arms-&-legs) facilitation. It do not have time constrain so may take months for implementation. CIM is low cost. Resource allocation is easier than conventional method.

CIM ENTRPRISE WHEEL 11 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing CASA/SME 1986 Figure:-CIM Wheel-CASA SME 1986 CASA SME/1985(CIM ENTERPRISE WHEEL) Figure.

the learning organization. suppliers. metrics. 2. analysis. Included here are the means of organizing. The central role of the customer and evolving customer needs. management. Enterprise resources (inputs) and responsibilities (outputs). The role of people and teamwork in the organization. distributors. hiring. Marketing. 6. Resources include capital. ethical. While a company may see itself as selfcontained. There are three main categories of processes: product/process definition. The manufacturing infrastructure includes: customers and their needs. Reciprocal responsibilities include employee. information. The manufacturing infrastructure. measuring. and communicating to ensure teamwork and cooperation. materials. The revolutionary impact of shared knowledge and systems to support people and processes. motivating. investor. Within these categories 15 key processes complete the product life cycle. documentation. design. and customer support. suppliers. This is the bull's-eye. the hub of the Wheel. and other factors in the environment.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Six Perspectives on the New Manufacturing Enterprise: The new Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel describes six fundamental elements for competitive manufacturing: 1. innovation. This side of the enterprise is captured in ideas such as self-directed teams. In the new manufacturing enterprise. training. manufacturing. A clear understanding of the marketplace and customer desires is the key to success. competitors. Included here are both manual and computer tools to aid research. technology. competitors. 5. 4. quality circles. leadership. and corporate culture. manufacturing. and support must be aligned to meet customer needs. teams of teams. decision-making. people. administrative functions are a thin layer around the periphery. 3. They bring new resources into the enterprise and sustain key processes. the vision and mission of the enterprise. and suppliers. its success depends on customers. Key processes from product definition through manufacturing and customer support. rewards. and environmental obligations. and community relations. as well as regulatory. and control of every process in the enterprise. natural 12 . prospective workers.

and applying the knowledge and skills of people. financial markets. The central role of people in the organization forms the inner circle of the Wheel. When venture capitalists consider funding a new company. When successful companies explain their success.Computer Integrated Manufacturing resources. their first consideration are people their knowledge. with some regaining their competitive edge. Providing superior value to the customer generates growth and profits. the answer is much the same: it is "our people and our organization. Start-up companies grew and became giants. and the center of the new Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel. and culture. Huge conglomerates formed from other companies. communities. The role of an enterprise mission and vision is to align all work toward meeting--and surpassing--customer expectations. every activity in the manufacturing enterprise should contribute something of value to the customer. focused on the customer needs. from small niche producers to the largest international firms. their experience. A customer-centered mission provides a clear direction to align activities and empowers the work of teams in the new manufacturing enterprise. The enterprise is only as strong as its people. Giant companies faltered. Others are gone. and educational and research institutions. 1) Customer In the end. This is the bull's-eye. 2) People and Teamwork in the Organization (P-T-O) All members of the organization stake their futures on their ability to deliver value to the customer. Today's highly competitive worldwide markets require a new approach to managing. These successes--and failures--have proven the need for a clear mission and vision." When Japanese or German business leaders explain the manufacturing success of their nations. The globalization of manufacturing continued at a dizzying pace. Recent years have seen unprecedented experimentation in the organization of manufacturing enterprises. organization. with fewer 13 . their motivation. the hub. organizing. and earn profits in return. governments. Profits and growth can only be sustained when customer needs are met or exceeded.

bronze. the dominant material of civilization is information. Manufacturing success builds on the education. a key 14 . and the dominant tool is electronic interchange. Yet. 3) Shared Knowledge and Systems: In the past. In this age of shared knowledge.Computer Integrated Manufacturing natural resources than many. the Iron Age. Indeed. Nearly every job in every company is changing in some way as a result of shared knowledge in the information age. or iron tools of the past. people and systems transform information into better products and services. cooperation. The unique expertise of CASA/SME is understanding information technology and the ways this technology can empower people in the manufacturing enterprise. today. skills. Materials and processes are still evolving. and leadership of people. Computer systems and intelligent machines are as much an influence today as were the stone. epochs were named by the dominant materials and tools of the age: the Stone Age. they again point to people. the Bronze Age. drive.

the ultimate performance and value of the product. to add value to purchased materials and components. The CASA/SME Industry LEAD Award (Leadership and Excellence in the Application and Development of CIM) is given each year to a manufacturing company that exemplifies enterprise integration.Computer Integrated Manufacturing function of the Wheel is to illustrate ways in which computer systems support people and processes in the enterprise. While product/process definition may consume only 5 to 20 percent of the manufacturing enterprise's total resources. office equipment. there are three main groups of processes. and customer service throughout the product life cycle. it casts a long shadow. It defines what is to be built and how it is to be built. sales and promotion. in processes. Second is the lower segment of the wheel. industrial equipment. These customer support processes include global support. First is product/process definition . distribution. and other systems for product and process definition and manufacturing. have already been determined. make it available and useful to the customer. and customer support. manufacturing requires the largest investment of resources. a trinity of actions focused on customer satisfaction. depending upon the level of detail. The CASA/SME-sponsored AUTOFACT Conference and Exposition is the world's leading showcase of CAD. CAM. manufacturing. as well as most manufacturing expenses. The three main process groups are further divided. When product and process definition is complete. These are product/process definition. Together. combined with the manufactured product. In the new Wheel. and appliances. The real manufacturing enterprise might have hundreds or thousands of processes. all 15 processes form a Manufacturing Enterprise value chain: PRODUCT/PROCESS DEFINITION: 1) Business Definition 2) System Design 15 . Processes are the life of the manufacturing enterprise. manufacturing . 4) Processes: The manufacturing enterprise combines people and tools. Third are processes which. For products like automobiles.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing 3) Component Design 4) Continuous Improvement 5) Documentation and Release MANUFACTURING (/Service) 6) Resource Planning 7) Operations Planning 8) Component Fabrication 9) Assembly and Test 10) Material Management CUSTOMER SUPPORT 11) Global Organization 12) Distribution 13) Sales and Promotion 14) Customer Services 15) Life-Cycle Transitions 16 .

The integration of computer.Business. where as in the CIM Enterprise Wheel customer satisfaction was taken into account as a key factor. The CIM Wheel is also concentrated on the factory automation side that portion was not included in CIM Enterprise Wheel. The wheels clearly define the resource required for complete implementation of CIM. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CIM WHEEL AND CIM ENETERPRISE WHEEL: The CIM wheel more emphasis on information system. The organizational goals were set out in the CIM Enterprise Wheel. The islands of CIM WHEEL are same for Designing and manufacturing in all. The integration of systems is frequently hindered by the resistance to converge the activities of different functions within the business. In CIM Wheel there is no portion to taking into account the customer satisfaction. where as in CIM wheel only Operational and financial matter can be clear out only. Organizational integration and the elimination of departmental barriers are proving to be more difficult to achieve in practice and will in turn hinder the technical development of the ` seamless‘ integration required.knowledge management . Therefore. IMPLIMENTATION AND INTEGRATION OF CIM: CIM IMPLEMENTATION: Integration and adaptability are the key issues of the implementation process of CIM. In support of the critical roles that humans play in the 17 . The wheels are customer requirement oriented so are showing proper policy of manufacturing.Computer Integrated Manufacturing SIMILARITIES IN CASA/SME CIM Wheels: In middle rim of the wheel shows the product. Design Manufacturing. process and manufacturing facility requirements for the CIM implementation.Segment where as the CIM Enterprise Wheel emphasis on customer satisfaction . it is appropriate to discuss the main elements of integration and adaptability of CIM and how these issues should be taken into account during the implementation of CIM.Globalization.aided design (CAD) and CNC machines made a huge impact on the development of CIM.

The organization has to develop a strategy which bests the environment in which it operates. small batch production with on. organizational. strategic level issues such as the alignment between business and manufacturing strategies require suitable organizational structure. designing and managing the implementation of CIM systems. Strategic aspects: Top management selects CIM as a manufacturing strategy based on the business strategy considering the internal and external factors. The workers along with middle management are responsible for the implementation of CIM. The details follow here under. and a local area network (LAN) for integrating the information within the organization. There is a number of organizational issues which companies meet when analyzing. For instance. However.g. the most common recommendation found in almost all recent literature is the dire need for education and training in relation to the adoption of CIM. behavioral. FMS) . Therefore. technology. A conceptual model illustrating the integration and adaptability issues of implementing CIM is presented in Figure 1. Each of these elements is discussed from the view of improving integration and adaptation in the implementation of CIM. the major issues in CIM are directly related to information systems. The model presents a set of major elements of CIM implementation that includes strategic. to explain the interaction and dependency between managerial.line production control system (e. Middle management should work out the CIM development programme. The model explains the importance of the alignment between various implementation strategies for improving integration and adaptability of CIM. employee involvement and the nature of production planning and control system. The strategy for the successful implementation of CIM should include the use of computers for integrating information and material. Research in CIM design and implementation has mainly been in the area of production. layout types. knowledge workers. technological and operational level issues. this relation-ship is represented by the closed loop as shown in Figure 1.Computer Integrated Manufacturing success of CIM. The company‘s limitations in terms of capital. etc. should be considered while 18 . A conceptual framework is presented in Figure 2 to explain the main issues involved in improving the integration and adaptability aspects of CIM. technological and operational issues. complexity of the material. It could even mean a redefinition of responsibilities from the top to the bottom of the organization.

government support and regulations tremendously in the implementation process of CIM. and practices should be established. The external factors such as market characteristics. team work. Effective teamwork (with empowerment and responsibility) has to be achieved to successfully implement CIM. Technologies such as Internet. procedures.functional co-operation. To be successful in the implementation of CIM. Top management also invests company resources and accepts long. and network managers and so on. the type and level of training and education required should be determined taking into account the infrastructure. In addition. Organizational aspects: CIM requires cross. In order to include flexibility in CIM. infrastructure and skills available. multimedia and LAN can be used to improve the integration of various business areas of manufacturing organizations. Effective implementation of CIM requires a strong degree of communication and co-ordination among interdependent units in companies. This could be achieved by a collective incentive scheme. cellular manufacturing systems and JIT production systems. the achievement of objectives should be used to justify the adoption of CIM technology. software engineers.Computer Integrated Manufacturing designing and implementing CIM. Therefore. by eventually modifying the company organization as required for a successful CIM. Behavioral aspects: Co-operation among different levels of employees can be achieved by smoother communication systems. manual policies. and high involvement of employees in product development process. The integration and adaptability of CIM can be made considerably easier with FMS. integration and adaptability issues. training and job enrichment. and improving software compatibility. an initiative must have the direct involvement and commitment of top management.term results. The type of workforce involved in the implementation and operation of CIM is knowledge workers such as computer operators. Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVs) using computers can play an important role in improving the integration of material flow within the 19 . the selection of feasible software packages. The internal factors such as product and process characteristics. Technological aspects: A suitable CIM configuration should be decided before the implementation process that generally centers around the identification of tasks to computerize.

20 . Operational aspects: CIM requires the reorganization of the production planning and control system with an objective to simplify the material and information flows. Concurrent design helps to improve the quality of early design decisions and has a tremendous impact on the life cycle cost of the product.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Production system. that is CAD/ CAE. Integration of operational activities with suppliers can be improved by on. These also can play a vital role in an unmanned factory. The essence of CE is the integration of product design and process planning into one common activity. The manufacturing concepts such as JIT and MRP II and technologies such as CE and AGVs provide the base for easy implementation of CIM to improve integration and adaptability.line computer information systems such as an electronic data interchange (EDI). The implementation of CE will facilitate integration and adaption in CIM.

( ii ) Integration and adaptability issues of CIM should be evaluated considering the lack of knowledge about CIM and its potential. ( vii ) There is a need for a unique set of standards that satires‘ all the requirements of a CIM system. and a multifunctional workforce are essential to improve integration and adaptation in the implementation of CIM. ( iv ) Human workers play a significant role in influencing the integration and adaptability issues of CIM especially by co-operative supported work. the experience from practice is that automation is frequently too rigid to adapt to changing market needs and the production of new products. This reveals the importance of providing a comprehensive training to equip workers with the knowledge of automation. System modeling tools It is helpful if the modeling tool is of sufficient sophistication that it exists in three forms:    As a representation of the system As a dynamic model As an executable model 21 . integration requirements.Computer Integrated Manufacturing INTEGRATION: ( I ) CIM should be implemented only after the basic foundations are put in place in the com-pany. not is it the structure presented by the CIM wheel. etc of delaying CIM implementation on company competitiveness and the etc of operations integration. Therefore. ( iii ) The integration and adaptability issues of CIM are in uenced by factors such as the required hardware platform. and data processing skills. rather it is a company’s business strategy. Knowledge workers such as computer operators and software engineers. and manufacturing process. ( v ) Despite the arguments regarding exibility of CIM. strategic implications of longer term planning. Simplification of information and material establish a solid foundation for adopting CIM technology. computer technologies. the starting point for CIM is not islands of automation or software. there is a need to consider these factors while implementing CIM. It may bemore productive to redesign the organizational structure before implementing available technology than to hope the technology will. This indicates the importance of exibility of CIM while designing the system and re-organization of the production planning and control system. The answer to both the questions just posed is no. bring about manufacturing effectiveness.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

IDEF (Integration Definition for Function Modeling ) IDEF initially provided three modeling methods    IDEF0 is used for describing the activities and functions of a system IDEF1 is used for describing the information and its relationships IDEF2 is used for describing the dynamics of a system

Activity cycle diagrams This modeling approach follows the notation of IDEF0 by having activities represented as rectangles and by having the activity names specified inside the rectangle. All resources which are to be represented in the model are classified as entity classes. CIM open system architecture (CIMOSA) CIMOSA was produced as generic reference architecture for CIM integration as part of an ESPRIT project. The architecture is designed to yield executable models or parts of models leading to computerized implementations for managing an enterprise. Manufacturing enterprise wheel The new manufacturing enterprise wheel‘s focus is now the customer at level 1, and it identifies 15 key processes circumferentially at level 4. These are grouped under the headings of customer support, product/process and manufacturing. CIM architecture     Data dictionary Data repository and store A layered structure Repository builder

Product data management (PDM): CIM implementation software The four major modules typically contained within the PDM software are     Process models Process project management Data management Data and information kitting

The PDM environment provides links to a number of software packages used by a company. They are    A CAD package A manufacturing/production management package A word processing package


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

           Topology            

Databases for various applications Life-cycle data A frequency An amplitude A phase which continuously changes A bandwidth An introduction to baseband and broadband Telephone terminology Digital communications Signal transmission, baseband and broadband Interconnection media Star topology Ring topology Bus topology Tree topology Client server architecture Networks and distributed systems Multi-tier and high speed LANs Security and administration Performance Flexibility User interface Installation

Communication fundamentals

Local area networks

LAN implementations

Network management and installation

Opportunities include: • "Best Practice" focus emerging in the industry. • Opportunity to undertake Global benchmarking.


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Main Threats and Restraints are: • Intra-industry competition for funding (both levy and matching). • Industry apathy/scepticism. BENEFITS OF CIM : A reduction in inventory translates into higher profits. Tangible Benefits: Higher Profits, less direct labor ,Increased machine utilization ,Reduced scrap and rework ,Increased factory capacity ,Reduced inventory ,Shortened new product development time, Decreased warranty costs, Shorter lead times for all process. Intangible Benefits : Higher employee moral ,Safer working environment ,Improved customer iage ,Greater Scheduling flexibility ,Grater ease in recruiting new employees, Increased job security ,Moral opportunities for upgrading skills.

Fundamental concept of information and communication technology like Computers, communication and database systems. In CIM-I 4 th generation of computer is used and is called as CIM-I.LSI and VLSI technology is used for CIM-I. In CIM-II the main focus is on flexibility in automated processes of manufacturing that are characterized by the operation of NC-Machines and industrial robots. Typical systems of the flexible automation are FMC (Flexible manufacturing cells), flexible production lines, Flexible production systems. The parallel processing is done in CIM-II with Designing and Modeling or Analysis.


causing some to view EDI and CIM as one and the same. 25 . This has resulted. in the establishment of an EDI environment. to be exchanged electronically. Electronic data interchange aims at single point collection of data for use by various departments participating in an industrial activity. EDI provides an excellent example of a working in an intelligent environment and is a good starting point for application in CIM. This simple set of definitions has spurred a number of components of an industry to put in place an operational environment in which the exchange of electronic form data substitutes for the exchange of paper forms of data. albeit a very important one. We view EDI only as a subset of electronic commerce applied in manufacturing. in some cases.Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIM I & II EDI : Electronic Data Interchange Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is simply a set of data definitions that permit business forms that would have been exchanged using paper in the past. As such. which arguably represents the most advanced state of computer integrity today.

Records need only be kept at the offices of Importers / Exporters for a minimum period..e. Since EDI is based on trust. FUTURE SCENARIO It should be possible to create a few or even a single message/document for the entire process of manufacturing in the course of Automated manufacturing. for verification by concerned authorities. there would be no necessity to submit product design .. EDI transactions and provide for the same by fast settlement of disputes. It is based on the principle of trust and contractual obligations.Computer Integrated Manufacturing OBJECTIVE The basic documents for transaction of manufacturing data will be taken only once by one department of industry and other departments will take the information from the first one electronically. avoiding the need to either physically take the document from one office to another or keying in the data again and again involving the attendant problems of manual labor and errors creeping in at each stage of data entry etc…. 26 . re warehousing certificate for transfer of material. it should be possible to do away with requirements for paper documentation. TRA's could be made immediately. EDI is a way of business life. Therefore it is essential that Govt. end use certificate. if required.scheduling . i.material handling path generation etc in paper. Once VSAT connectivity is established with all Customs / Excise formations in India.manufacturing data . all modal verifications. there would be no need for examination of cargo in a routine manner . trade and transporters recognize the likely benefits and move forward to establish a regime of mutual trust and confidence. Once Evidence act and other laws of the land recognize. Above all there would be uniformity in assessment decision all over India. the facility of Green Channel would apply to almost 80% of cases of regular Importers with a clean tract record.

machine and person. and processing of the messages by computer. EDI implies a sequence of messages between two persons. disassembling. Attitudinal change in the officers and the business people is required to adopt to EDI. methods and procedures. It is the standardization of message formats using a standard syntax. EDI cannot be introduced in a significant way unless we have complete overhaul of working system.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Electronic Data Inter-change (EDI) is a way of business life. the usual processing of received messages is by computer only. full-fledged EDI is not possible. Unless sincere efforts are made to transform the working environment. EDI is a reality. For example. for quality review. Each message is composed. of a sequence of standardized data elements. that makes possible the assembling. and the standardization of data elements within the messages. The formatted data representing the documents may be transmitted from manufacturer to recipient via telecommunications or physically transported on electronic storage media. EDI may be defined as an interchange between computers of a sequence of standardized messages taken from a predetermined set of message types. Standards Required for EDI. with a distinct positive attitude we would be left behind in the interest of the nations economic prosperity we adopt ourselves to global scenario and move towards paperless transaction system. according to a standardized syntax. the transmission of binary or textual data is not EDI as defined here unless the data are treated as one or more data elements of an EDI message and are not normally intended for human interpretation as part of on-line data processing. EDI is the computer-to-computer interchange of strictly formatted messages that represent documents other than monetary instruments. person and machine. and for special situations. whereas in the present manual system the procedures and practices are all based on lack of trust and faith. Above all unless the Laws/Acts governing business in the country are amended to recognize EDI transactions. 27 . Human intervention in the processing of a received message is typically intended only for error conditions. From the point of view of the standards needed. which thrives in an environment based on trust of faith. Definition and Use of EDI. machine and machine either of whom may serve as originator or recipient. In EDI.

but the achievement of a single universally-used family of EDI standards is a longrange goal. There are several different EDI standards in use today. and (d) The definitions and sequence of control data elements in message headers and trailers. it would (a) minimize needs for training of personnel in use and maintenance of EDI standards. A single universally-used family of standards would make use of EDI more efficient and minimize aggregate costs of use. Standards are required for. (b) eliminate duplication of functionality and the costs of achieving that duplication now existing in different systems of standards. and thereby maximize useful information interchange. Specifically. (f) The manner in which more than one message may be included in a single transmission. Additional standards may define: (e) A set of short sequences of data elements called data segments. and authentication into transmitted messages. The Long-Range Goal for EDI Standards. 28 . (a) The syntax used to compose the messages and separate the various parts of a message. confidentiality. and (d) allow for a universal set of data elements that would ease the flow of data among different but interconnected applications. and (g) The manner of adding protective measures for integrity. most of variable length. defined by the identification and sequence of data elements forming each message. (c) minimize requirements for different kinds of translation software.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Implementation of EDI requires the use of a family of interrelated standards. (c) The message types. (b) Types and definitions of application data elements.

customs: release information. c. manifest update. notices of contract solicitation. trading partner profiles. g. maintenance: service schedules and activity. payment information: invoices. purchase orders. f. product data: specifications. court conviction record. forwarding. bills of lading. proposals. contract award: notices of award. safety data. debarment data. healthcare event report.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Application : Examples of applications (not necessarily the subject of current standards) are: a. other government activities: communications license application. shipping. insurance-related data: health care claim. k. shipping status reports. b. warranty data. payment acknowledgments. and receiving: shipping manifests. bids. warehouse activity reports. manufacturing instructions. receiving reports. d. inventory control: stock level reports. mortgage insurance application. vendor search and selection: price/sales catalogs. resupply requests. payment status inquiries. BENEFITS OF EDI: More Secure than paper Cost savings Acknowledgements from receiving institution Speed Easy partner exchange each term Automated transfer articulation Small file size 29 . j. e. reports of test results. h. purchase order acknowledgments. requests for quotations. i. purchase order changes. tax-related data: tax information and filings. remittance advices. hazardous material report.

An FMS relies on principle of group technology. interconnected by automated material handling and storage system and controlled by distributed computer system.. FLEXIBILITIES IN FMS AND ITS MEASUREMENT CRITERION./. consisting of group of processing workstation. NEED OF FMS The key objective in manufacturing is to get the right raw materials or to the right machines at the right time. AIM: TO STUDY INTRODUCTION TO FMS. with minimum lead time between product changes. TECH .. and materials handling equipment. The primary characteristic of an FMS is that it is a computer-controlled manufacturing system that ties together storage.. systems and quantity of production. CAD.Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED M ANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M.. The reason the FMS is called flexible is that it is capable of processing a variety of different part...CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 2 DATE: ... A more appropriate term for an FMS would be flexible automated system to differentiate it from manned GT machine cell of conventional transfer line... manufacturing machines. 30 ../.. inspection. These are limits to the range of parts or products that can be made in an FMS. FMS : FMS is an integrated approach to automating a production. A flexible manufacturing system is highly automated GT machine cell. No manufacturing system can be completely flexible. The FMS is designed to be flexible so that it can manufacture a variety of products at relatively low volumes.. tooling.

3.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Examples indicate the underutilization of equipment and gross inefficiencies existing in a vast majority of Manu factoring industries. Improve operational control through :  Reduction in the number of uncontrollable variables. Reduce direct labor through :  Removing operators from the machining site. regardless of what products a particular company make. There should be minimum delay between order placement and order delivery. Priority changes 2. Changes  Processing changes 31 . This implies that: 1. Improve short-run responsiveness consisting of :  Engg. OBJECTIVES OF FMS : 1.  Eliminating dependence on highly skilled machinists  Providing a catalyst to introduce and support unattended or lightly attended machine operation 3. 4. Design changes 3. Misplaced and scrapped parts 7. Machine breakdowns 5.  Providing tools to recognize and rect quickly to deviations in the manufacturing plan  Reducing dependence on human communication 2. Operating costs should be predictable and under control. Lost. Tooling difficulties 4. 2. The common day to day disturbances within overall manufacturing process consisting of: 1. Eng. Quality and reliability should be high. Replacement parts should be available and accessible on a quick turnaround basis. Processing problems 6. Vendor lateness What is needed in today‘s competitive environment.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing  Machine downtime of unavailability  Cutting tool failure  Late material delivery 4. Reduce inventory by :  Reducing lot sizes  Improving inventory turnovers  Providing the planning tools for just-in-time manufacturing assimilation of : AREAS OF APPLICATIONS OF FMS : The FMS is applicable in other manufacturing & machining: Assembly of equipments Semiconductor component manufacturing Plastic injection molding Sheet metal fabrication Welding Textile machinery manufacture Such systems have proved to be practical and economical for applications with the following characteristics: Families of parts with similar geometric features for require similar types of equipment and processes A moderate number of tools and processes steps Moderate precision requirements 32 . Improve long-run accommodations through quicker and easier  Changing product volumes  New product additions and Introductions  Different part mixes 5. Increase machine utilization by :  Eliminating machine setup  Utilizing automated features to replace manual intervention  Providing quick transfer devices to keep machines in the cutting cycle 6.

Thus. Given these circumstances. error recovery. Flexible manufacturing cell. a specific family of parts and processes. Flexible manufacturing system can be distinguished according to the number of machines in the system. A flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) consists of two or three processing workstations (typically CNC machining centers or turning centers) plus a parts handling system. one would expect to find a great variety of system designs to satisfy a wide variety of application requirements. It is capable of (1) processing different part styles. the system satisfies three of the four flexibility tests. Number of machines. cannot be satisfied because if the single machine breaks down. each FMS is custom-engineered and unique. The parts handling system is connected to a load/unload station. and raw work parts are loaded into it. that is. The following are typical categories: Single machines cell. Completed parts are periodically unloaded from the parts storage unit. Each FMS is designed for a specific application. When operated in a flexible mode. The cell can be designed to operate in a batch mode. a flexible mode. Therefore.Computer Integrated Manufacturing TYPES OF FMS Having considered the issue of flexibility let us now consider the various types of flexible manufacturing systems. The handling system usually includes a limited parts storage capacity. A single machines cell consists of one CNC machining center combined with a parts storage system for unattended operation. (2) responding to changes in production schedule and (4) accepting new part introductions. Criterion (3). Flexible manufacturing system can be distinguished according to following. or a combination of the two. A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) has four or more processing stations connected mechanically by a common parts handling system and electronically by a distributed computer system. production stops. and Flexible manufacturing system. an important distinction 33 . Level of flexibility Number of machines.

These additional functions are needed more in a FMS tha n in a FMC because the FMS is more complex. the random-order FMS must be more flexible than the dedicated FMS. Another difference is that the computer control system of a FMS is generally larger and more sophisticate. There are usually other differences as well. 34 . often including function not always found in a cell. A random-order FMS is more appropriate when the part family is large. new part designs will be introduced into the system and engineering changes will occur in parts currently produced. in which the workstations possess the necessary the machine sequence may be identical or nearly identical for all parts processed. so the system can be designed with a certain amount of process specialization to make the operation more efficient.Computer Integrated Manufacturing between a FMS and a FMC is in the number of machines: a FMC has two or three machines. Instead of being general propose the machines can be designed for the specific processes required to make the machine sequence may be identical or nearly identical for all parts processed. The part family is likely to be based on product commonality rather than geometric similarity. To accommodate these variations. These other stations include part/pallet washing stations. The product design is considered stable. there are substantial variations in part configurations. A dedicate FMS is designed to produce a limited variety of part styles. while a FMS has four of more. so a transfer line may be appropriate. and the complete universe of part to on the system is known in advance. It is equipped with general purpose machines to deal with the variations in product and is capable of processing parts in various sequences (random order). in which the workstations possess the necessary a transfer line may be appropriate. and the production schedule is subject to change from day to day. in which the workstations possess the necessary flexibility to process the different parts in the mix. and so on. such as diagnostics and tool monitoring. One is that the FMS generally includes nonproccesing workstations that support production but do not directly participate in it. A more sophisticated computer control system is required for this FMS type. so a transfer line may be appropriate. coordinate measuring machines.

Open Field layout.Computer Integrated Manufacturing FMS LAYOUT CONFIGURATION : The material handling system establishes the FMS layout. 6. The use of manpower in FMS is attributed to the following functions. Loop layout. 5. 3. Most layout configuration found in today's FMS can be divided into five categories. material handling system and other hardware components. 7. 4. A typical FMS computer system consists of central computer components. Ladder layout. 8. The various control requirements are: 1. Workstation control Distribution of control instruction to work station Production cycle Shuttle control Traffic control W/p monitoring Tool control Performance monitoring & reporting Diagnostics HUMAN RESOURCES: One additional component in the FMS is human labor. 9. Loading/unloading Changing & setting tools Maintenance & repair NC part programming Overall management of system 35 . In-line layout. 2. Robot Controlled cell Computer control system: The FMS includes a distributed computer system that is interfaced to the workstation.

Lower manufacturing lead times. Machine Flexibility Process Flexibility Product Flexibility Routing Flexibility Volume Flexibility Expansion Flexibility Operation Flexibility Production Flexibility [1] Machine Flexibility "Ease of making change required to produce a given set of part type. FLEXIBLITY IN FMS: Types of Flexibility in FMS are as following :1. So for high productivity for all batch size. 3.Computer Integrated Manufacturing FMS BENEFITS : A number of benefits expected in successful FMS application." Depends of Factors: Setup or change over time. Reduced labor if not altogether avoiding labor. 36 . Reduced inventory requirements. Unity for unattended production. 5. 6. 8. 2. large of small Lower storage costs. 4. Reduced direct labor requirements & higher productivity. 7. Fewer machine required. reduced handling flexible production system to incorporate product changes At short notice to meet customer's specific requirements. Less factory floor space required. Increase machine utilization.

and CNC machining centers. adoptable.Part positioning and releasing . Machine tool setup time . Skill and versatility of workers in the system.Tool preparation . Measures: Time to replace worn-out or broken cutting tools. How to attain process flexibility? By using machine flexibility By using Multi-purpose. 37 .NC part program change over How to attain machine flexibility? By using sophisticated tool-loading and part loading devices(technological progress) Minimize tool changes (proper operation assignment) Bring the part and required tool together to the machine (technological capability) [2] Process Flexibility "Ability to produce a given set of part types in several ways" Depends on Factors: Machine flexibility Skills of workers Measure: The number of part types that can be simultaneously processed without using batches. Tool storage capacity of machines.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Ease of machine reprogramming (ease with which part program can be downloaded to machine). Time to assemble or mount the new fixtures. Time to change tools in a tool magazine.

" . Cross training of manual workers. 38 . [4] Routing Flexibility "Ability to handle breakdowns (machines. etc). Similarity of workstation.Equivalently. Duplication of workstation." Depends on Factors: How closely the new part design matches the existing part family Off-line part program preparation Machine flexibility Measure: The time required from one part mix to another How to attain process flexibility? By using an efficient and automated production planning and control system which containing. Common tooling. each operation can be performed on more than one machine Routing flexibility is of two types: (i) (ii) Potential: . (i) Automatic operation assignment procedure (ii) Automatic pallet distribution calculation capability By using machine flexibility. Depends on Factors: Similarity of parts in the mix. Several routes OR .Either a part type can be processed via. independent of breakdown.Computer Integrated Manufacturing [3] Product Flexibility "Ability to change over to new set of products economically and quickly. tools.part route are fixed but parts are automatically rerouted Actual: .Identical parts are actually processed through different when a breakdown occurs routes.

e. intelligent carts (not fixed-route conveyors) Though routing flexibility [6] Expansion Flexibility "Ease of modularly expanding a system" Depends on Factors : Expense of adding workstation Ease with which layout can be expanded Type of part handling system used Ease with which properly trained workers can be added 39 . automated materials handling system.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Measure : Robustness of FMS (Continuity of production) How to attain process flexibility? By allowing automated and automatic rerouting of parts (potential routing flexibility) Pooling machines into machine groups Duplicating operation assignments (Actual routing flexibility) [5] Volume Flexibility "Ability to operate an FMS profitable at different production volume" Depends on Factors : Level of manual labor performing production Amount invested in capital equipment Measure : Smallest volumes for all part types that allow the system run profitably How to attain volume flexibility ? By using multi purpose machines Layout not dedicated to a particular process By using sophisticated.g.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Measure : How long the FMS can become How to attain volume flexibility ? Non-dedicated. [8] Production Flexibility "The universe of part types that the FMS can produce" Depends on Factors : Machine flexibility of individual station Range of machine flexibilities of all stations in the system Measure : Level of existing technology How to attain volume flexibility ? 40 . busy. [7] Operation Flexibility "Ability to interchange the ordering of (some) operations for each part type" Depends on Factors : Machine flexibility Interchangeability of operation Sequence of operation Measure : Ability and extent of not pre-determining the order of all operations. depending on the system state (idle. each on a particular machine (type) How to attain volume flexibility ? Design a decision system to make decision in real-time determining the 'next' operation and the 'next' machine. bottleneck) of various elements of FMS Through machine flexibility. non-process driven layout Flexible materials handling system containing wire guided carts Modular flexible machining cells with pallet changers Through routing flexibility.

Product flexibility helps the firm to respond to the market by 41 . Different factors which act on volume flexibility system are as followings : 1) level of manual labour performing production. Product flexibility measurement Product flexibility is reflected by the ease with which new parts can be added or substituted for existing parts. 7) Cost implication for lost order in past due to over demand. 2) Amount invested in capital equipment.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Increase the level of technology Increase the versatility of the machine tools All previous flexibilities. 2) Ability to utilized space capacity in case of order shortage. 5) Increment the investment for leading time. It also defined as an ability of a manufacturing system to be operated profitably at different overall output levels. 4) In case of order shortage cost incurred for rescheduling. MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME FLEXIBILITY Volume Flexibility Volume Flexibility is defined as an ability to economically produce parts in high and low total quantities of production. 6) Extra cost involved in sub contracting. 3) In case of under demand utilizing capacity with time rescheduling. given the fixed investment in the system. thus allowing the system to adjust production within a wide range. 9) To minimize fluctuation of demand adopt different strategy. deteriorated quality or increased breakdown to meet the demands. Following are the aspects for which product flexibility is working : 1) Change in production rate in the past & present production levels. 8) Extra cost generated due to overtime.

d) Time & cost required to change tooling and software to accommodate different products. Aspects A (Parameters) Score of X Score of Y Score of Z 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 1 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 B C D E F G H I 42 . It is measured through the response through the response to the question on the following aspects. the score of different aspects as written above are mention in the following table-1 based on the questionnaire for the aspects. & Z) for finding the status of volume flexibility within their company. f) Minor change made in product design. The weightage of each parameter towards volume flexibility has been determined by calculating eight vectors & normalizing it. a) Varity of products being manufactured b) Frequency of producing new products. e) Major change made in product design. Now here there is an example of volume flexibility is as follow : SOLVED PROBLEM (1) A survey is carried out for three companies (X. Table-2 shows the contribution of different factors towards flexibility. Of new products introduced at various intervals.Y. c) No.Computer Integrated Manufacturing enabling it to bring newly designed products quickly to the market.

Show volume flexibility for three companies X.0111 .1084 = 0.0288 . Note : Based on this.0394 x 2) / 4] + [(0. Factor. volume flexibility values of surveyed enterprise are found in a scale of 0 to 1 so found out.1233 . Wx is the weightage of Xth.698925 VFx = 0.0394 .0286 .0122 x 3) / 4] + [(0. Solution: The volume flexibility = wx sx 4 Where.4395 x 2) / 4] + [(0.2121 .0167+0.70 wx sx 4 43 .1204 .0167 .1005 .0167 x 4) / 4] + [(0.0257 x 1) / 4] + [(0.00915+0.0122 .0111 .006425+0.4423 .2151 .4395 .0193 x 3) / 4] + [(0.0193 .1223 x 4) / 4] + [(0.1084 .1233+0.Y.2222 . For Company X : The volume flexibility = Based on above equation.21975+0.0101 B C D E F G H I Find the volume flexibility for three companies and its average value.4531 .2151 x 3) / 4] + [(0. VFx = [(0.0398 .161325+0. and Sx is the score of question based on Xth factor.0394+0.1123 .0156 .01084 x 4) / 4] = 0.0211 . & Z.1102 .0182 .014475+0.0257 .0152 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing Aspects A (Parameters) Weightage X Weightage Y Weightage Z For For For .

009718995+0.0288 x 2) / 4] + [(0.4531 x 3) / 4] [(0. average value of volume flexibility for companies X.0152+0.0111 x 3) / 4] + [(0.015825+0.2222 x 2) / 4] + [(0.0101 x 3) / 4] = 0.1102 x 3) / 4] [(0.1123 x 3) / 4] + [(0.0182 x 2) / 4] + [(0.05025+0.Z is.1204+0.0211 x 3) / 4] + [(0.0117+0.0111) / 4] + [(0.002775+0.4423 x 2) / 4] + [(0.58)/3] 44 .0286+0.0091+0.58 Now.375 + 0.2121 x 2) / 4] = 0.10605 = 0.0398+0.375 For Company Z : wx sx 4 The volume flexibility = Based on above equation.Computer Integrated Manufacturing For Company Y : The volume flexibility = Based on above equation.578625 VFz = 0.55167 VFa = 0.007575 = 0.1204 x 2) / 4] + [(0.552 VFx VFy VFz 3 VFa = [(0.008325+0.22115+0.0288+0.0398 x 4) / 4] [(0.0156 x 3) / 4] + [(0.Y. VFy = [(0.0286 x 4) / 4] + [(0.084225 + 0.0152 x 4) / 4] + [(0. VFa VFa = 0.1005 x 2) / 4] + [(0.08265+0.37461 VFy = 0.70 + 0.1111+0. wx sx 4 VFz = [(0.

Aspects a (Parameters) Score of P Score of Q Score of R 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 1 Table-1 Aspects a (Parameters) Weightage P Weightage Q Weightage R For For For 0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing (2) A survey is carried out for three companies (P.5187 0. Table-2 shows the contribution of different factors towards product flexibility.0747 0.00122 0.2021 0.1795 b c d e f 1 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 b c d e f 45 . and R) for finding the status of product flexibility within their company.0785 0.00095 Table-2 0.6071 0.1055 0.1595 0. Q.1331 0.5567 0.2111 0. The weightage of each parameter towards product flexibility has been determined by calculating.00036 0. based on the questionnaire prepared for these aspects.1125 0. The scope of different aspects (as written above) are mentioned in the following table-1.0858 0.1423 0.1605 0. Eigen vector and normaling it.

1055 x 3) / 4] + [(0. Wx is the Weightage of Xth factor. Show product flexibility and their status on histogram for three P.03735+0. For Company P : The product flexibility = wx sx 4 Based on the above equation.00036 x 3) / 4] VFp = 0.040125+0.419745 VFp = 0.42 For Company Q : The product flexibility = wx sx 4 Based on the above equation.099825+0.00122 x 4) / 4] 46 . VFp = [(0.Q.1125 x 4) / 4] + [(0.0858 x 4) / 4] + [(0.00027 = 0.2111 x 3) / 4] + [(0.6071 x 2) / 4] + [(0.2187 x 1) / 4] + [(0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Find the product flexibility for three companies and its average value.129675+0. and Sx is the score of question based on Xth factor. product flexibility values of surveyed enterprise are found on a scale of 0 to 1 is found out. Note : Based on this.0747 x 2) / 4] + [(0.1595 x 1) / 4] + [(0.1125+0. and R Solution : The product flexibility = wx sx 4 where.1602 x 1) / 4] + [(0. VFQ = [(0.1331 x 3) / 4] + [(0.

VFa VFP VFQ VFR 3 VFa = [(0.67 + 0.1423 x 3) / 4] + [(0.30355+0.079125+0.61 Now.1795 = 0.0785 x 1) / 4] + [(0.567 47 .61) / 3] VFa = 0.2021 x 2) / 4] + [(0.0858+0.10105+0.667895 = 0.00095 x 2) / 4] + [(0.Y.139175+0.106725+0.00122 = 0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing VFQ = 0.5666667 VFa = 0.039875+0. average value of product flexibility for companies X. and Z is.1795 x 4) / 4] VFR = 0.000475+0.158325+0.0785+0.605425 VFR = 0.67 For Company R : The product flexibility = wx sx 4 Based on the above equation. VFR = [(0.42 + 0.5567 x 1) / 4] + [(0.

CAD. and many of the important contributions that are included in list of references. design. including heuristics. (2) Queuing models. (3) Discrete Event Simulation. pallets.. Consequently.. and people.CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 3 AIM: TO STUDY QUANTITATIVE MODEL . TECH .. deterministic models can be used... and that its operation characterized by good management for all resources: machines. INTRODUCTION: Implementation of an FMS represents a major investment and commitment by the user company. Classification of Quantitative Analysis: FMS analysis techniques can be classified as follows: (1) Deterministic models. It is important that the installation of the FMS system be precede by thorough planning and design.. capacity..../. tools../. The deterministic modeling approach is useful in the beginning stages of FMS design to provide rough estimates of system parameters such as production rate. parts.. Most of the operational. and design related FMS problems can be addressed using quantitative analysis techniques. Deterministic models do not permit evaluation pf operating characteristics such as the build up of ques and other dynamics that can impair performance of the production system. and operations. (4) Other approaches. FMS USING BOTTLENECK DETERMINISTIC MODELS: To obtain starting estimates of the system performance. 48 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M. FMSs have constituted an active area of interest in operations research. deterministic models tend to overestimate FMS performance.. But there are always some issues relating with the FMS planning. and utilization.. ANALYSIS O F DATE: .

it may be a sign of either poor system design or poor management of the FMS operation. They permit the inclusion of queues. In his model. multi-tool machine with automated tool changing capabilities) or a group of machines.. a work piece goes through a series of operations at various work centers before it is unloaded from the system. The flexibility of the system allows for various kinds of parts to be processed at the same time. A path for a given work piece is defined as a sequential set of operations.Computer Integrated Manufacturing On the other hand.e. The work center may consist of a single machine capable of performing a single job or multiple jobs (i. These models are based on the mathematical theory of queues. FMSs can be analyzed using queuing network models for performance evaluation and optimization for system design and planning. with all machines at a work center having the same process time for all part types) for an open-queuing network. Probably the most well known of the FMS queuing model is CAN-Q. The pioneering work in the area of analytical modeling of FMS was done by Solberg in 1978. 49 . The performance measures that are calculated are usually average values for steady-state operation of the system. with the development of the CAN-Q model based on a closed queuing network. Hence. if actual system performance is much lower than the estimates provided by these models. Kimemia and Gershwin in 1978 have presented an optimization model with work center level complexity (i. It has been found that variety and fluctuations in the demand of various work pieces or parts being routed influence the nature of the FMS routing procedure. that is closed queuing network and developed by Soldberg in 1978. This is governed by the type of operation required on a job and gives rise to at least one path which the job may follow before being unloaded. Therefore.. the network of work centers and the transportation system (connecting work centers and the load/unload center) allows many possible paths for a work piece to move through the system.e. one was developed by Chatterjee in 1984. but only in a general way and for relatively simple system configurations. a work piece which enters the system has the option of going to several different workstations. Queuing Models: Queuing models can be used to describe some of the dynamics not accounted for in deterministic approaches. Secco Suardo coupled a non-linear programming formulation with a closed-queuing network model for a single class of jobs.

. in turn causing some formerly enabled events to become disabled. or rewards. The computer model can be constructed to closely resemble the details of a complex FMS operation. one where all states and transitions are explicitly enumerated). only a finite but large subset of states is of course explored on any finite run (with some states likely to be visited multiple times).e. those where a global state is described as a vector of local (sub)states. or desired precision of some measures met. but here in this experiment our main focus is on the bottle -neck model (Deterministic model). The simulation ends according to various criteria. For this reason. which in turn are used to compute statistics such as means and variances. A standard simulation engine can then interact with such a high-level model just as with a low-level model. this makes it impossible to use a low-level formalism (i. the simulation can be helpful in determining optimum values for these parameters. though. In practice.lying low-level stochastic processes. the number of possible stateto-state transitions is also large. DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION: In the letter stages of design. we will not go in depth of the other models. While the system model can have an enormous or even infinite state space. The process starts with the initial state. Indeed.. high-level formalisms. and some disabled ones to become enabled.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Each of the FMS models has vast variety of the modeling formulation details.lying flat view of the low-level process. Since the underlying state space of the modeled system is still the same. which is normally an input specified by the model itself. and production scheduling rules can be incorporated into the FMS simulation model. are quite popular. in fact. provided we specify a well-defined interface that maps such a structured model onto the under. the runtime remains large. the current state may change. number of pallets in the system. and.e. As a result. along the way. A discrete-event simulation based on a discrete-state model fires the event with the earliest scheduled time among all scheduled events enabled in the current state. such as maximum number of events or runtime reached. Analogously. they can define complex under. discrete event simulation probably offers the most accurate method for modeling the specific aspects of the given FMS. it is made even 50 . Examples include Petri nets and queuing models: while their description is compact. it accumulates state-dependent measures. i. such that events affect some of these components. Characteristics such layout configuration.

3. the value of the bottleneck model is that it is simple and intuitive. The values of p j must sum to unity: that is.2. The model can be applied to any production system that possesses this bottleneck feature. TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS FOR BOTTLENECK:First we should go through the features. developed by Solberg. terms.………. The subscript j=1. In the terminology of the bottleneck model. OTHER TECHNIQUES: The other techniques that have been applied to analyze FMS design and operational problems include mathematical programming and various heuristic approaches. where P = the total number of different part styles made in the FMS during the time period of interest. Notwithstanding the limitations of a deterministic approach. It can be used to provide starting estimates of FMS design parameters such as production rate and number of workstations. BOTTLENECK MODEL: Important aspects of FMS performance can be mathematically described by a deterministic model called the bottleneck model. and symbols for the bottleneck model as they might be applied to an FMS: Part Mix: The mix of various part or product styles produced by the system is defined by p j = the fraction of the total system output that is of style j.4. It is not limited to FMSs.P. for an instance. each workstation may have more than one 51 .0 Workstations and Servers: The flexible production system has a number of distinctly different workstations n.Computer Integrated Manufacturing worse by the additional overhead introduced by a high-level model. a manually operated machine cell or a production job shop. The term bottleneck refers to the fact that the output of the production system has an upper limit. n Pj i 1 1. given that the product mix flowing through the system is fixed.

j refers to the part product. This value could be computed for each individual transport based on transport velocity and distances between stations in the FMS. Note that process plan j is unique to part j. The bottleneck model does not conveniently allow for alternative process plans for the same part. ant the associated processing times. not counting any waiting time at the station. Work Handling System: The material handling system used to transport part or products within the FMS can be considered to be a special case of workstations. Let tijk = processing time.. etc. and the number of carriers in the system like convey or charts. The sequence includes the loading operations at beginning of processing on the FMS and the unloading operation at the end of the processing. Let sn+1 = the number of carriers in the FMS handling system. but it more convenient to simply use an average transport time for all moves in the FMS. and k refers to the sequence of operations in the process routing. the subscript i refers to a station. where i=1. the process routing defines the sequence of operations. the workstations at which they are performed.…….5 min. is analogous to the umber of servers in a regular workstation. Transport Time: Let tn+1 = the mean transport time required to move a part from one workstation to the next station in the processing route. AGVs.Computer Integrated Manufacturing server. We include the load/unload station as one of the stations in the FMS. which simply means that it is possible to have two or more machines capable of performing the same operations. thus.5 min. Process Routing: For each part or product. 52 . which is the total time that a production unit occupies a given workstation server.n. t2A4 = 8.2. the fourth operation in the process plan for A is performed on machine 2 and taken 8. Using the terms ―stations‖. And it is designated as station n + 1. Let si = the number of servers at workstations i. monorail vehicles. For example. In the notation for tijk. and ―servers‖ in the bottleneck model is a precise way of distinguishing between machines that accomplish identical operations from those that accomplish different operations.

These measures can be calculated under the 53 . utilizations of the different workstations. FMS Operational Parameters: Using the above terms. The average number of transports is equal to the mean number of operations in the process routing minus one. The work holding system (station n + 1) is a special case as noted in the terminology. for a calibration procedure that may have to be performed more than once on average to be completely effective. f ijk = operation frequency for operation k in part j at station I. one can text define certain average operational parameters of the production systems. nt = mean number of transports. an inspection might be performed on a sampling basis. and p j = part mix fraction for part j. The average work load for a given station is defined as the mean total time spent at the station per part. the frequency for this operation would be 0. Where. for example. It is calculated as follows: WLi j k tijk f ijk pi Where WLi = average workload for station i (min). Let f ijk = the operation frequency for operation k in process plan j at station i. nt i j k f ijk p j 1. once every four units: hence. In other cases.25. System Performance Measures: Important measures for assessing the performance of an FMS include production rate of all parts.0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Operation Frequency: The operation frequency is defined as the expected number of times a given operation in the process routing is performed for each work unit. production rate of each part style. The worl load of the handling system is the mean transport time multiplied by the average number of transports required to complete the processing of a workpart. That is. tijk = processing time for operation k in process plan j at station I (min). For example. and number of busy servers at each workstation. the part may have an operation frequency greater than 1.

number of servers.Computer Integrated Manufacturing assumption that the FMS is producing at its maximum possible rate. one simply computes the average value of 54 .can be determined by multiplying R*p by the respective part mix ratios. This rate is constrained by the bottleneck station in the system. That is. Where Ui = utilization of station i. which is the station with the highest workload per server. s*. R* p S* WL* Where R*p = maximum production rate of all part styles produced by the system. Individual part production rates. One should always refer to it as the maximum respectively. The value of the R*p includes parts of all styles produced in the system. The FMS maximum production rate of all parts can be determined as the ratio of production rate because it is limited by the capacity of the bottleneck station. s* to WL*. and t* equal the workload. The utilization of the bottleneck station is 100% at R*p . for the bottleneck station. R* pj Pj R* p Pj S* WL* Where R*pj = maximum production rate of part style j (pc/min). The mean utilization of each workstation is the proportion of time that the servers at the stations are working and not idle. This can be computed as follows. The comparison must include the handling system. To obtain the average station utilization. s* = number of servers at the bottleneck station. since it might be the bottleneck in the station. and processing time. which is determined by the capacity of the bottleneck station (pc/min). The workload per server is simply the ratio WLi Si for each station. Let WL*. Thus the bottleneck is identified by finding the maximum value of the ratio among all stations. and WL* = workload at the bottleneck station (min/pc).

and the transport system is omitted from the system.0 for all operations. and WLi = Workload t station i. Determine: a) maximum production rate of the FMS. Station-2 performs milling operations and consists of two servers. Station-3 has one server that performs drilling. The mean transport time is 3. b) corresponding 55 .0 min. All of the servers at the bottleneck station are busy at the maximum production rate. The values can be calculated as follows: WLi Si BSi WLi R* p Where BSi = number of busy servers on average station I. The FMS produces two parts are presented in the table. The overall FMS utilization is calculated as follows: Where Us = overall FMS utilization. n si ui Us i 1 n si i 1 Finally. This can be calculated as follows: n si ui U i 1 n 1 Where U is an unweighted average of the workstation utilizations. Si = number of servers at station i.Computer Integrated Manufacturing all stations. The operation frequency is 1. where the weighting is based on the number of servers at each station for the n regular systems. the number of busy server at each station is of interest. A more useful measure of overall FMS utilization can be obtained using a weighted average. Bottleneck model on a simple problem: A flexible machining system consists of two machining workstations and a load/unload station. The stations are connected by a plant handling system that has four work carriers. but the servers at the other stations are idle some of the time. including the transport system.

56 .0 = 6. WL1 = (4 + 2) (0. we first need to compute workloads at each station.Computer Integrated Manufacturing production rates of each product c) utilization of each station. nt = 3.6) (1. WL3 = 10 (0.0 min.0 = 13.25 min. WL4 = 3 (3.0 / 2.0 min. For station-2.4) (1. WL1 / S1 = 6.0 / 4 = 2. and d) number of busy servers at each stations.6) (1. WL4 / S4 = 9.4) (1.6) (1. WL2 = 30 (0.4) (1.4) (1.0 / 1.0 min. so that bottleneck station can be identified.0) + 40 (0. For station-4.0) = 9.0 min. the part handling system.0) + 3 (3.0) + (4 + 2) (0.0 min. For station-1. WL3 / S3 = 13.0) = 36.0) = 6.0) = 13.0) (0. SOLUTION: a) To compute the FMS production rate.0 min. There are three moves.0 = 18. WL2 / S2 = 36.6) (1.0) (0.0) + 15 (0. For station-3.0 min. The bottleneck station is identified by finding the largest WLi / Si ratio. The station routing for both parts is the same: 1 → 2→ 3→ 1.0 / 1.

RPa * = 3. BS3 = 13. BS4 = 9.Computer Integrated Manufacturing The maximum ratio occurs at station-2.0 (0.333 pc/ hour.5%) BS2 = WL2 RP* = 36.6) = 2.0/ 4) (0.05555) = 0. (12.7222 (72. c)The utilization of each station: U1 = WL1 RP * 6 = (6.05555) = 1.0/ 1) (0.0 (0. b)To determine production rate of each product.0 (100%) U3 = (13.333 pc / hour.4) = 1.0.05555) = 0.05555) = 0.0 = 0. RPb * = 3.125 d)Mean number of busy servers at each station: BS1 = WL1 RP* = 6.0 (0. RP* = 2/ 36. Extended Bottleneck Model: Some assumptions of the bottleneck models are Sufficient number of parts in the system to avoid starving of workstations 57 .333.2%) U4 = (9.0\ 2) (0.3%) U2 = (36.05555) = 2.0 (0.50.05555) = 0. multiply R*p by its respective part mix fraction.05555 pc/ min = 3.722.0/ 1) (0.333 (33.333 (0.333 (0.05555) = 0.00 pc/ hour.05555) = 0. so it is the bottleneck station that determines the maximum production rate of all parts made by the system.

then some of the stations will be idle Due to starving – even the bottleneck station If N is large. the system parameters (production rate and MLT ) can be calculated. As per Little's law WIP = Throughput Manufacturing Lead Time (MLT) NR p (MLT) n MLT i 1 wli wln 1 Tw Tw . R*p will provide good estimation of the production capacity.Computer Integrated Manufacturing There is no delay due to queues Extended bottleneck approach can overcome some of the assumptions Assumes a closed queuing network with fixed number of parts in the FMS When one part is completed and exits the FMS.Mean waiting time experienced by a part due to queues at the stations Based on the value of N(small or high) and Little‘s law. a new raw workpart Immediately enters the system Let N be the number of parts in the system N plays a critical role in the operation of the system If N is smaller than the number of workstations. 58 . then the system will be fully loaded with queues of parts waiting in front of stations. Long manufacturing lead time.

n MLT1 i 1 wli wln 1 MLT1 .MLT for case 1.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Case 1 (small N): Bottleneck station is not fully utilized. Rp N MLT1 Rpj = pj Rp Case 2 (Large N): • Production rate is constrained by bottleneck station. Production rate is not R*p Tw of a unit is theoretically zero. The MLT can be calculated and the production rate can be calculated using Little‘s law. R* p S* WL* MLT can be calculated using Little‘s law MLT2 N RP* n Tw MLT2 i 1 WLi WLn 1 The dividing line between case 1 and case 2 is depending on the critical value of N Let N* be the critical value of N n N* RP* i 1 WLi WLn 1 RP* ( MLT1 ) 59 .

General behavior of the extended bottleneck model (a) MLT as a function of N and (b) Production rate as a function of N.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Graphical Representation of extended bottleneck model: Fig. Adequacy Factor Anticipated discrepancies with Can-Q 60 . Validity of the model: The author (Mejabi) of the model compared the result with the result obtained from Queuing model (Can-Q) for several thousand problems An adequacy factor is suggested which describe the discrepancies of this model from queuing model Adequacy factor (AF) n AF N /(U i 1 Si ) Anticipated discrepancies between the extended bottleneck model and CAN-Q model as a function of the adequacy factor.

5 Discrepancies > 5% are likely.Specified production rate of all parts to be produced by the system WLi. AF > 1.9 Discrepancies < 5% are likely.Number of servers at station i Rp.5 Discrepancies < 5% are likely. 0. 61 . process routing and processing times Si = Minimum integer > Rp ( WLi ) Si .Computer Integrated Manufacturing AF < 0. Sizing of FMS: Determination of number of servers required at each workstation to achieve a specified production rate Information needed Part mix.9 < AF < 1.Workload at station i.

. A simple change in a n existing design would be much less time consuming that starting from scratch./.. In some plants where GT has been implemented.. The problem is that finding a similar design may be quite difficult and time consuming.. Each family would possess similar design and manufacturing characteristics. improved tool control. lower in-process inventories. TECH. there are also advantages obtained by grouping parts into families.. a design engineer faced wit the task of developing a new part design must either start from scratch or pull an existing drawing from the files and make the necessary changes to conform to the requirements of the new part. the designer may decide that it is easier to start from scratch in developing the new part. and this results in manufacturing efficiencies. and the use of standardized process plans. For example. As a consequence. In product design.Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M. For example. This design-retrieval system 62 AND DATE: . there may be thousands of drawings in the files with no systematic way to locate the desired drawing. INTRODUCTION : Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in manufacturing and design.. the production equipment is arranged into machine groups or cells in order to facilitate work flow and parts handling. Thus consuming valuable time creating duplicate or near-duplicate part designs. the processing of each member of a given family would be similar. STRUCTURE OF CODING .. Similar parts are arranged into part families. If an effective design retrieval system were available. CAD... This decision is replicated many times over in the company...CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 4 AIM: TO STUDY GROUP TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM. Hence.000 different part numbers may be able to group the vast majority of this part into 50 or 60 distinct families. this waste could be avoided by permitting the engineer to determine quickly if a similar part already exists. For a large engineering department.. a plant producing 10./. These efficiencies are achieved in the form of reduced setup times. better scheduling..

This reduces process variations To simplify production scheduling. PART FAMILIES A part family is a collection of parts which are similar either because of geometric shape and size or because similar processing steps are required in their manufacture. the parts are simply scheduled through cell.Computer Integrated Manufacturing is a manifestation of the group technology principle applied to the design function. The similarity among parts in the family reduces the complexity of production scheduling. This is accomplished by allowing each cell to specialize in producing a smaller number of different parts. Smaller batch sizes and shorter lead times reduce work-in-process. Instead of scheduling parts through a sequence of machines in a process-type shop layout. but their similarities are close enough to merit their identification as members of the part family. which is designed for an individual part. To reduce work-in-progress inventory. DEFINATION OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY : Group Technology or GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which the parts having similarities (Geometry. The parts within a family are different. This is accomplished by using group tooling that have been designed to process the part family. work part handling. To implement such a system. To reduce setup times. waiting times and batch sizes. REASONS FOR ADOPTING GROUP TECHNOLOGY : To shorten manufacturing lead times. manufacturing process and/or function) are grouped together to achieve higher level of integration between the design and manufacturing functions of a firm. some form of parts classification and coding is required. To improve quality. rather than part tooling. This reduces the number of individual tools required as well as the time to change tooling between parts. By reducing setup. The two parts shown in fig are similar from a design viewpoint but quite 63 .

and manufacturing part family. The parts shown in fig 2 might constitute apart family in manufacturing. Design part family. 1. it is included in the design part family. As shown in the fig there are two parts which are differing in are and other geometry but they require drilling operation of different size so. EXAMPLE ON PART FAMILY FORMATION The examples are on the basis of the design part family. but their geometry characteristics do not permit them to be grouped as a design part family.Computer Integrated Manufacturing different in terms of manufacturing. 64 .

One advantage of system is that it can represent a large amount of information in very few code positions. most of the common classification and coding systems use number digit only. With the hierarchical structure. However. Hierarchical structure 2. This is called as the manufacturing part family. all alphabetic. CODING SYSTEM STRUCTURE A part coding scheme consist of a sequence of symbol s that identify the parts design and/or manufacturing attributes. Though the parts have different geometry they have same manufacturing characteristics. Other names commonly used for this structure are monocode and tree structure.5mm. Hybrid structure. As shown in fig there are two parts different in the geometric aspect but both the parts require the same operation of drlling +0. In a monocode each number is qualified by the preceding character. Hierarchical structure A hierarchical structure is also called a monocode.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 2. 65 . The symbol in the code can be al numaric. a combination of 1 & 2. There are three basic code structure used in group technology application: 1. Manufacturing part family. the interpretation of each succeeding symbol depends on the value of the preceding symbols. or a combination of both types. A drawback is the potential complexity of the coding system. The hierarchical code provides a relatively compact structure which conveys much information about the part in a limited number of digits. Chain type structure 3. 1.

Another name for this structure is polycode. lower setup times . This results in a significant amount of material handling. with perhaps the same section being visited several times. drill press section. the 5 might indicate some 1/d ratio.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 2. ling manufacturing lead times. Each cell is organized to specialize in the manufacture of a particular part family. but with the machines arranged into cells. and high cost. or wheather the part is rotational or rectangular. the use of a polycode allows for convenient identification of specific parts with similar processing requirements. On the other hand. the digit are independent. but one or more symbols in the complete code number are used to classify the part population into groups. In the chain type structure. Suppose that the first digit stands for general part shape. 3. In a hierarchical code structure the interpretation of second digit would depend on the value of first digit. GT LAYOUT : The various machine tools are arranged by function. This hybrid coding seems to best serve the needs of best serve the needs of both design and production. The major drawback is that they can not be as detailed as hierarchical structures with the same number of coding digits. Fig shows a production shop supposedly equivalent capacity. Chain type structure A chain structure is called a polycode. The hybrid structure is an attempt to achieve the best feature of monocodes. the work piece must be moved between sections. milling machine section.less 66 . The symbol 1 means round work part and 2 means flat rectangular geometry. a large in-process inventory usually more setups than necessary. consider a two-digit code 15 or 25. For example. and so on. To illustrate the difference between two structure. as in the hierarchical structure. Within each of these shorter chains. the symbol 5 would be interpreted the same way regardless the value of the first digit. During the machining of a given part. it might indicate overall part length. the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is fixed and does not depend on the value of preceding digits. If preceded by 1. Advantages are gained in the form of reduced work piece handling. Hybrid structure Most of the commercial parts coding systems used in industry are a combination of two pure structure. There is a lathe section. The problem assosiated with polycode is that they tend to be relatively long. In chain type structure. and if preceded by 2 the 5 might be interpreted to specify some overall length.

less floor space and shorter lead times. parts produced in the shop during a certain given time period could be examined to identify part family categories. For example.Computer Integrated Manufacturing inprocess inventory. Some of the manufacturing cells can be designed to form production flow lines. The attributes of the part are uniquely identified by means of code number. PART CLASSIFICATION AND CODING : This method of grouping parts into families involves an examination of the individual design and/or manufacturing attributes of each part. This classification and coding may be carried out on the entire list of active parts if the firm or a sampling process may be used to establish the part families. with conveyors used to transport work parts between machines in the cell. 67 . The trouble with any sampling procedure so the risk that the sample may be unrepresentative of the entire population.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing However. One of the reasons for this is that a classification and coding system should be custom-engineered for a given company or industry. when compared to the relatively enormous task of coding all the company‘s parts. One system may be best for one company while a different system is more suited to another company. Many parts classification and coding systems have been developed throughout the world. TYPES OF CODING SYSTEM : Three parts classification and coding systems which are widely recognized among people familiar with GT: 1. It should be noted that none of them has been universally adopted. and there are several commercially available packages being sold to industrial concerns. CODE system The Optiz Classification System 68 . Optiz system 2. MICLASS system 3. this risk may be worth taking.

ABCD are referred to as the ―secondary code‖ and are intended to identify the production operation type and sequence. The secondary code can be designed by the firm to serve its own particular needs. It represents one of the pioneering efforts in the group technology are and is perhaps the best known of the classification and coding schemes The optiz coding system uses the following digit sequence 12345 6789 ABCD The basic consists of nine digits. The general interpretation of the nine digits is indicated in Fig. The first five digits. The first none digits intended to convey both design and manufacturing data. 6789. The extra four digits.Computer Integrated Manufacturing This part classification and coding system was developed by H. which can be extended by adding four more digits. constitute the ―supplementary code‖ It indicates some of the attributes that would be of use to manufacturing. 69 . 12345 are called the ―form code‖ and describe the primary design attributes of the part. The next four digits. Optiz of the University of Aachen in West Germany.

piece time. the user responds to a series of questions asked by the computer. as few as seven questions are needed to classify the part. The CODE System The CODE system is a parts classification and coding system developed and marketed by Manufacturing Data Systems. The MICLASS system was developed to help automate and standardize a number of design. Its most universal application is in design engineering for retrieval of part design data. For a simple part. Inc of Ann Arbor Michigan. production and management functions. To classify given part design. and operation sequence might be include in the 18 supplementary digits. The number of questions depends to a the complexity of part.Computer Integrated Manufacturing MICLASS System MICLASS stands for metal institute classification system and was developed by TNO. On the basis of responses to its questions. Up to 18 additional digits can be used to code data that are specific to the particular company or industry. the number of questions ranges between 10-20. The first 12 digits are a universal cod that can be applied to any part. The workpart attributes coded in the first 12 digits of the MICLASS number are as follows as in table given One of the unique features of the MICLASS system is that parts can be cooled using a computer interactively. the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research. tool design. and inventory control. 70 . but it also has applications in manufacturing process planning. For and average part. purchasing. For example lot size. It was started in Europe about five years before being introduced in US in 1974. cost data. the computer assigns a code number to the part. These include Standardization of engineering drawings Retrieval of drawing according to classification number Standardization of process routing Automated process planning Selection of parts for processing on particular groups of machine tools Machine tool investment analysis The MICLASS classification number can range form 12 -30 digits.

grooves. Digits 7 and 8 are used to indicate the overall size of the part by classifying it into one of the 16 size ranges for each of two dimensions. Design features such as inside corner radii. or other. together with a computerized design-retrieval system. The second and third digits provide additional information concerning the basic geometry and principal manufacturing processes such as threads.Computer Integrated Manufacturing The CODE number has eight digits. Fig shows a portion of the definitions for digits. Use of the automated design-retrieval system helps to eliminate design duplication and proliferation of new parts designs. Hence the CODE system posses a hybrid structure. IF the exact part design cannot be found. perhaps a small alteration of the existing design will satisfy the function. When a new part design is required. chamfer and tolerances are more likely to become standardized with GT. improvement and benefits are derived from the use of a parts classification and coding system. slots and so forth. Then the existing part designs that match the code can be retrieved to see if one of the will serve the function desired. The few minutes spent searching the design file with the aid of the coding system may save several hours of the designer‘s time. This digit would be used to specify whether the shape was a cylinder. Other benefits of GT in design are that it improves cost estimating procedures and helps to promote design standardization. 71 . the engineer or draftsman can devote a few minutes to figure the code of the required part. flat piece block. The initial digit position indicates the basic geometry of the part and is called the major division of the CODE system. BENEFITS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY : Product design Tooling and setups Material handling Production and inventory control Employee satisfaction Process planning procedures Product design benefits In the area of production design. The interpretation of the remaining seven digits depends on the value of first digit. For each digit there are 16 possible values which are used to describe the parts design and manufacturing characteristics. but these remaining digits form chain-type structure.

Two of these areas are tooling and setups. Production and Inventory Control Several benefits accrue to a company‘s production and inventory control function as a consequence of GT. It has been estimated that the use of GT can result in 69% reduction in setup time. In tooling. In effect. Because of the reduced setups and more efficient materials handling with machine cells. work-in process and late deliveries‘ can be reduced. The contrast is sharpest when the flow line cell design is compared to the conventional process type layout. Estimates on what can be expected are provided by DeVries 70% reduction in production times 62% reduction in work-in-process inventories 82% reduction in overdue orders. The machine tools in a GT cell do not require drastic changeovers in setup because of the similarity in the work parts processed on them. more attention can be devoted to the control of these parts. Grouping of parts into families reduces the complexity and size of the parts scheduling problem. 72 . and it becomes more feasible to try to process parts in an order so as to achieve a bare minimum of setup changeovers. The group technology machine layouts lend themselves to efficient flow of material through the shop. grouping of machines into cells reduces the number of production centers that must be scheduled. Work holding devices are designed to use special adapters which convert the general into one that can accept each part family member.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Tooling and Setups GT also tends to promote standardization of several areas of manufacturing. And for those work parts that cannot be processed through any of the machine cells. setup time is saved. Production scheduling is simplified with GT. an effort is made to design group jigs and fixtures that will accommodate every member of a parts family. Material Handling Another advantage in manufacturing is reduction in the work part move and waiting time. production lead times. Hence.

This tends cultivate an improved worker attitude and higher level of job satisfaction. Another employee-related benefits of GT is that more attention tends to be given to product quality. Traceability of part defects is sometimes very difficult in a conventional process-type layout. workers are more responsible for the quality of work they accomplish. A new part design is identified by its cose number as belonging to a certain parts family. Workpart quality is more easily traced to a particular machine cell in GT. and quality control suffers as a result.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Employee Satisfaction The machine cell often allows parts to be processed from raw material to finished sate by small group workers. The workers are able to visualize their contributions to the firm more clearly. Process Planning Procedures The time and cost of the process planning function can be reduced throught standardization associated with group technology. 73 . Consequently. for which into computer software to form a computer-automated process planning system.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing



Manual Material handling operation are carried out in most industrial plant. Each handling task posses unique demand on the worker. However workplaces can help the workers to perform these task safely and easily by implanting and upholding proper policies and procedure.

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c a. b. c. b d. e. 2



Computer Integrated Manufacturing

For last several decades, manual material handling has attracted great interest from researchers in many disciplines, primary because of the huge amount of work and finances losses and human sufferings caused by low back pain and injuries.

In the last several year material handling has become rapidly evolving science. For moving material in and out in warehouse many type of equipment and system are in used, depend on type of material and volume handle. In warehouse, material handling operation are performed by following stage. Unloading the incoming material from transport vehicle Moving unloading material to assign storage section in warehouse Lifting storage material from storage place during its storage packing. Moving the material for inspection and packing Loading packages on transporting vehical. Design of Material Handling is depend on Volumes to be handled Speed in handling Productivity Product characteristics ( weight,size,shape etc) Nature of the product



1. Lifting and Transport System: It is used to move product around the production facility, from loading bay to storage, from storage to production, around production, from production to storage, and from storage to loading bay. The equipment that falls into this category are fork lift, trucks, order picking truck, over hade cranes, tower crane and belt, chain and overhead crane. 2. Storage Equipment : It is used store materials, components, and assemblies. The level of complexity of this type of equipment is wide ranging, from welded cantilever steel rack to hold lengths of stock materials to a powered vertical


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

carousel system. Also within this category are pallet racks, mobile self units, and plastic, wood and steel container. 3. Automated Handling Equipment : Manufacturings of automated handling equipment produce automate guided vehicles, storage and retrieval equipment, conveying systems and product sortation equipment. The level of automation varies depending on the handling requirements. Fully automated handling systems ensure that the materials are deliver to production line when required without significant manual intervention. 4. Automated Guided Vehicles ( AGVs ) : an agv is a material handling device that is used to move part between machines and workcenter. They are small , independently powered vehicle, those are usually guided by cables that are buried in the floor or they use an optical guidance system. They are controlled by receiving instruction either from central computer or from their own boardcomputer. 5. Robotics : in manufacturing application, robot can be used for assembly work ,process such as painting ,welding and for material handling. More resent robots are equipped with sensory feedback through vision. The main advantage of robots is, they can be used for repetitive ,monotonous task that need precision. They can be used in hazardous environment that are not suitable for human operator.

Automated guided vehicles (AGV) are vehicles that are equip with automated guidance Systems and are capable of following prescribed paths. Unlike traditional robots. AGV a re not manipulators, they are driverless vehicle that are programmed to guide path. In automated factories and facilities AGV move pallets and container. The main benefit of AGV is that they reduce labor costs. But in material handling facilities there is another benefit. Material handling handling has always been dangerous. Injuries occure due to lake of driver attention. Obstacle detection is therefore a key to allowing AGVs to interact with personnel not paying attention. Obstacle detection is therefore a key to allowing AGVs to interact with personnel safely while optimizing vehicle speed.

Inertial guided AGVs use a magnet sensing device.lift/lower mechanisms and custom mechanisms. Magnets mounted beneath the floor are detected by the on board magnetic sensing device and combine with the first two readings to give an accurate positional location. carts. Large chassis/unit load AGVs are used to transport heavier loads with various transfer devices such as roller beds.Computer Integrated Manufacturing TYPES OF AGVS: Automated guided vehicle system consists of the computer. The vehicle s location can be determined based on distance to the target and time of Optical guided AGVs the AGV along the course.software and technology that are the brains behind the AGV. There can be manually driven as well as used automatically. are used when precise guidance accuracy is needed.which establish stop locations for 77 . rolls and others. only the simplest AGV functions can be performed Camera guided AGVs the AGV while performing. and have the ability to lift loads to many levels. use mounted laser scanners that emit a laser and reflect back from target.Distance is measured by use of wheel odometers. An on board camera focuses and guides Laser guided AGVs reflection information. use a latex-based photosensitive tape on a facilitys floor for guidance. Forked AGVs are used to pick up and deliver various loads. Without computer software systems and communications networks. such as pallets.such as in crowded environments and smaller sized facilities. a gyroscope that measures the units heading and a wheel odometer that calculates the distance traveled.

while transporting smaller load. The number of AGV required 2. Roller or chain conveyor. telescopic fork. 3. the higher the voltage induced to the coil. and are used to handle pallets .etc. The acceleration and other effects that influence the speed are ignored. Small chassis AGVs are able to maneuver through crowded workplaces through laser sensing. Load capacity up to 12000 lbs. Tug/tow AGVs are used to pull trailers are usually manned by an operator who adds and remove trailers at designated stops.fixed load table. Wire guided AGVs uses charged wire that is buried beneath the floor for proper guidance and has small antenna composed of metal coils mounted on their bottoms.rolls and racks. The stronger the field between the buried wire and antennae. lifting load table or arms. Single or fully by directional. Ideal for material delivery and manufacturing. These can follow a basic loop or more complicated path. ANALYSIS OF AGV SYSTEMS The analysis of AGV systems is used to determine 1. Small vehicle AGVs are capable of determining their own traffic and routing without necessitating a central controller. Unit load carries : Low built vehicle 3 type Unit handler. It is assumed that the vehicle operates at a constant speed of V. Cycle time. handling system efficiency.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Outrigger AGVs have horizontal stabilizing legs to provide lateral support. 78 . which can be fitted with type of load handler on top. There are five wheel version.

So traffic factor accounts and lies between . The possible time losses include availability.85 and 1 So number of deliveries per hour per vehicle = 60 Ft/Tv or Number of deliveries per hours per vehicle = (60 Eh) / (Ld/v) 79 . Tv = Delivery cycle time (min/delivery) Tl = pick up time (min.)] Th=Tl + Tu = Handling time (min. With adjusting for any time losses during the hour. traffic congestion and efficiency of manual drivers.0. Travel time to the drop off station. Empty travel time of the vehicle between deliveries Therefore the total cycle time per delivery per vehicle is given by Tv = Tl + Tu + Ld/v +Le/v Where.) Tu = Drop off time (time. The delivery cycle time can be used to determine the rate of deliveries per vehicle and number of vehicles required. Unloading at the drop of stations.Computer Integrated Manufacturing The time for typical delivery cycle in operation of the vehicle includes Loading at the pick up station. The hourly rate of deliveryies per vehicle is 60 minutes divided by delivery cycle time Tv.) Ld = Distance the vehicle travels between load and unload station (m) Automated Material Movement and Storage system Le = Distance the vehicle travels empty until the start of next delivery cycle (m) V = velocity ( m/min).

9 Total cycle time per delivery per vehicle is given by Tv = Th + Ld/v + Le/v = 0.75 + 0. Also determine the handling system efficiency.9/6.Tl = 45 sec = 0.45 min. Number of vehicles required = Number of deliveries required per hour Number of deliveries/ hour/ vehicle = 40/8. Average distance traveling empty = 90m Traffic factor = 0. Average distance traveled/ delivery= 135m Pick up time = 45 sec. & Ft= 0.37 80 .75 + 0.5 min. v = 45 m/min. Th = Tl + Tu = 0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Where Eh = handling system efficiency = { ( Ld/v) x Ft} / (Ld/v + Th +Le/v) so number of AGVS required = Number of deliveries required per hour ` Example Following are the data for AGV system.45 = 8. Drop off time = 45 sec.9 Number of deliveries/hour/vehicle Determine the number of vehicles required to satisfy the delivery demand if the delivery demand is 40 deliveries per hour.37 deliveries/hour/vehicle. The number of delivery per hour per vehicle = 60 Ft/Tv = 60 x 0.75 + 135/45 + 90/45 = 6.75 = 1.75 min. Vehicle velocity = 45m/min. Solution: Ld = 135m. Le =90m .

5 + (90/45)} = 0.4154 = 41.82 =5 Handling system efficiency = {(Ld/v)xFt}/{(Ld/v) +PTh+ (Le/v)} = { (135/45) x 0. Mini loads may be used in traditional stockroom 81 . There are several classes of automated storage and retrieval (ASRS) that are characterized by weight and size handling characterized by weight and size handling characteristics. The density. security and labour/machinery savings they provide. hands free buffering of materials in distribution and manufacturing environments. make them a good choice in a variety of application from cold storage to general warehousing. Mini load ASRS Mini load ASRS. Unit load ASRS Mini Load ASRS Carousel ASRS Unit Load ASRS Unit Load ASRS machines are generally pallet handling systems with capacities that vary much like lift trucks.Computer Integrated Manufacturing = 4.9 }/ {(135/45) = 1. These typically range from metal trays and totes to shipping cartons. operating on same principles as the Unit loads this unit load machine handle smaller and lighter loads. Unit load ASRS systems are often quit tall and sometimes support the building shell that contains them.54 % AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS (ASRS): Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) are means to high density.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing applications but are also well suited as buffers to support manufacturing processes and shipping systems. 82 . testing. The two type of transaction cycle are: 1. Very often. This technology finds itself at the heart of systems varying widely in application from the food industry to the manufacturing floor. Our innovative equipment can interface with carousels. ANALYSIS OF ASRS: The analysis OF ASRS is used in order to determine the transaction cycle time. Inc. retrieval and handling. Allows parts to be grouped into multiple batches. manufacture and integrates a wide variety of storage and Retrieval machines. and custom configured work cells. live or static rack installations. inc. Industrial Kinetics. provided systems include the most current inventory control technology. work-in-process storage or finished goods with automated storage. or optimization flow. internal database handles all part information including time stamp for accurate retrieval by age. the industrial carousel may be integrated with a specific purpose robotic inserter/ extractor for small load buffering. Industrial Kinetics. In addition to complete line of conveyers. carousel ASRS is applied in lights – out stockroom.density storage of components. Storage and Retrieval (SR) System combined high. Single command cycle: It involves either retrieving a load from the storage or entering a load into the storage but not both in a single cycle. Carousel ASRS Carousel ASRS. ADVANCED AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM: Stores and retrieves production parts for aging. The transaction cycle involves retrieval of load out of storage or delivery of a load out of storage or delivery of a load in to the storage or both of the activities in the single cycle. transfers and ergonomic devices.

In order to compute the transaction cycle time based on the formulas derived by Bozer and Whit following assumptions have to be made. Pick up and delivery station is located at base and end of the aisle Horizontal and vertical speed of the storage/ retrieval machine are constant Simultaneous horizontal and vertical travel For single command cycle. Tds = T ( 4/3 + 0.5 Q2-Q3/30) +4Tpd Where. T = max (th. Ls = Length of aisle Hs = Height of aisle Vh = Average horizontal speed of SR machine Tpd = shuttle time to perform pickup and deposit.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 2. the transaction time is given by. The time required for horizontal and vertical travel in full length of the storage system are given by Th = Ls / Vh Tv = Hs / Vv Using these travel times. It represents the most efficient way to operate the ASRS since two loads are handled in a single transaction. Tsc = T(Q2 /3 + 1) +2 Tpd For dual command cycle .tv) and 83 . Randomized storage of loads in ASRS Storage compartments are of same size. the following parameters are defined. Dual command cycle : It involves both entering a load into storage and retrieval of the load from storage in the same cycle. the transaction time is given by.

sc = C If the number of separate bins hung from a carrier is nb. For the single direction. Hence nc. the total number of bins that is storage compartments on the carousel = nc nb Assumption made to derive the time to perform a transaction are Transaction cycle consists of either a storage or retrieval.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Q min = min (th/T. The individual bins are hung on carriers that revolve around the carousel track. the average travel distance is given by 84 . The circumference of the carousel track is given by C = 2 ( Ls – Ws) + piWs Consider the spacing between carriers around the track be given by Sc and the number of carriers be symbolized as nc. Speed of the carousel is constant. but not both that is single command transactions can be performed. tv/T) QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: The size and capacity of a storage carousel can be determined with reference to the given fig. Random storage is used in the carousel . Let us consider a retrieval cycle and the storage transaction is performed under the same assumption of random storage would be equivalent to retrieval transaction. The average distance that the carousel has to travel to move randomly located bin to the unload station at the end of the carousel depends on whether the carousel revolves in only one or both directions.

25C/Vc) + Tc 85 . For the carousel capable of bi-directional travel. the corresponding average travel distance and retrieval transaction time are Lr = 0.25C Tr = (0.5C And corresponding time complete a retrieval transaction Tr = (0.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Lr = 0.5C/Vc) + Th Where Th – handling time of the picker to remove the item or items from the bin.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing







Computer numerical control is a NC system that utilizes a dedicated, stored program computer to perform some or all of the basic numerical control functions. Because of the trend toward downsizing in computers, most of the CNC systems sold today use a microcomputer based controller unit. Over the years, minicomputers have also been used in CNC controls. In CNC, the program is entered once and then stored in the computer memory. Thus unlike NC, tape reader is used only for the original loading of the part program and data. Compared to regular NC, CNC offers additional flexibility and computational capability. New system options can be incorporated into the CNC controller simply by reprogramming the unit. Because of this reprogramming capacity, both in terms of part programs and system control options, CNC is often referred to by the term ―soft-wired‖ NC .


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

There are a number of functions which CNC is designed to perform. Several of these functions would be either impossible or very difficult to accomplish with conventional NC. The principal functions of CNC are: 1. Machine tool control 2. In-process compensation 3. Improved programming and operating features 4. Diagnostics

The primary function of the CNC system is control of the machine tool. This involves conversion of the part program instructions into machine tool motions through the computer interface and servo system. The capability to conveniently incorporate a variety of control features into the soft wired controller unit is the main advantage of CNC. Some of the control functions, wired circuits than with the computer. This fact has lead to development of two alternative controller designs in CNC: 1. Hybrid CNC 2. Straight CNC In the hybrid CNC system, the controller consists of the soft wired plus hard wired circuits. The hard wired components perform those functions which they do best, such as feed rate generation and circular interpolation. There are several reasons for the popularity of the hybrid CNC configuration. As mentioned previously, certain NC functions can be performed more efficiently with the hard wired circuits. These are functions which are common to most NC systems. Therefore, the circuits that perform these functions can be produced in large quantities at relatively low cost. Use of these hard wired circuits saves the computer from performing these calculation chores. Hence a less expensive computer is required in the hybrid CNC controller. The straight CNC system uses a computer to perform all the NC functions. The only hard wired elements are those required to interface the computer with the machine tool


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

and operator‘s console. Interpolation, tool position feedback, and all the other functions are performed by computer software. It is possible to make changes in the interpolation programs, whereas the logic contained in the hard wired circuits of the hybrid CNC cannot be altered.

A function closely related to machine tool control is in process compensation. This involves the dynamic correction of the machine tool motions for changes or errors which occur during processing. Some of the options included within the category of CNC in process compensation are: Adjustments for errors sensed by in process inspection probes and gauges. Recomputation of axis positions when an inspection probe is used to locate a datum reference on a work parts. Offset adjustments for tool radius and length. Adaptive control adjustments to speed and/or feed. Computation of predicted tool life and selection of alternative tooling when indicated.

The flexibility of the soft wired control has permitted the introduction of many convenient programming and operating features. Included among these are the following: Editing of part programs at the machine. This permits correction or optimization of the program. Graphic display of the tool path to verify the tape. Various types of interpolation circular, parabolic and cubic interpolation. Use of specially written subroutines. Local storage of more than one part program.


One of the more significant advantages of the CNC over conventional NC is its flexibility. 3. Tape editing at the machine site.Computer Integrated Manufacturing DIAGNOSTICS NC machine tools are complex and expensive systems. The risk of obsolescence of the CNC system is thereby reduced. Metric conversion. The NC tape can be corrected and even optimized during tape tryout at the site of the machine tool. CNC can accommodate conversion of tapes prepared in units of inches into the International system of units. These programs generally take the form of MACRO subroutines stored in the CNC memory which can be called by the part program to execute frequently used cutting sequences. 90 . Greater flexibility. User written programs. 2. since the tape reader is commonly considered the least reliable component of a conventional NC system. A possible function which goes beyond the normal diagnostics capability is for the CNC systems to contain a certain amount of redundancy of components which are considered unreliable. the diagnostics subsystems would automatically disconnect the faulty components and activate the redundant component. 5. The complexity increases the risk of components failures which lead to system downtime. The part program tape and tape reader are used only once to enter the program into computer memory. It also requires that the maintenance personnel be trained to a higher level of proficiency in order to make repairs. This flexibility provides the opportunity to introduce new control options with relative ease at low cost. When one of these components fails. ADVANTAGES OF CNC Computer numerical control possesses a number of inherent advantages over conventional NC. These results in improved reliability. The following list of benefits will serve also as a summary of our preceding discussion: 1. 4. One of the possibilities not originally anticipated for CNC was the generation of specialized programs by the user. Repairs could thus be accomplished without any breaks in normal operations.

This allows the speech recognition system to identify boundaries for the uttered command so that its wave characteristics can be compared with words in the reference set for that programmer. INC. the programmer must isolate each word by pausing before and after the word. and ―mill line‖. New Jersey. VNC allows the programmer to avoid steps such as writing the program by hand.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 6. Typical word input rates under this restriction are claimed to be about 70 per minute. a CRT terminal in front of the operator verifies each command and prompts the operator for the next command. The entire vocabulary for the threshold system contains about 100 words. of Delran. Before the voice input system can be used. together with numbers to provide dimensional and coordinate data. ―thread‖. it must be ―trained‖ to recognize and accept the individual programmer‘s voice pattern. One of the principal companies specializing in voice input systems is Threshold Technology. One of the stepping stones toward such a system is the concept of direct numerical control. This is accomplished by repeating each word of the vocabulary about five times to provide a reference set which can subsequently be compared to voice commands given during actual programming. and manual verification. The pause must be only one tenth of a second or longer. the operator speaks into a headband microphone designed to reduce background acoustical noise. As the words are spoken. CNC is more compatible with the use of a computerized factory wide manufacturing system. Total manufacturing system. In talking to the system. 91 . keypunching or typing. VOICE NC PROGRAMMING Voice programming of NC machines involves vocal communication of the machining procedure to a voice input NC tape preparation system. To perform the part programming process with VNC. Most NC programming jobs can be completed by using about 30 of these vocabulary words. Communication of the programming instructions is in shop language with such terms as ―turn‖.

It also receives data back from the machines.Computer Integrated Manufacturing DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL It can be defined as a manufacturing system in which a number of machines are controlled by a computer through direct connections & in real time. which stores the NC part program 3. Machine tools Computer calls the part program instruction from bulk storage and sends them to the individual machine as need arises. The part program is transmitted to the machine tool directly from the computer memory. 92 . Central computer 2. 1. COMPONENT OF DNC SYSTEM It has four basic components. One large computer can be used to control more than 100 separate machines. Telecommunication line 4. Bulk memory. The tape reader is omitted in DNC.

Group of part programs inst are received from the central computer & stored in buffers. TYPES OF DNC 1. Feedback data from the machines are also stored in the satellite buffer before being collected at central computer. NC controller is replaced by special machine control unit. the other is providing control instructions to the machine tool. One buffer is receiving a block of data. Special MCU facilitate communication between the machine tool & the computer special machine MCU configuration achieves a superior balance between accuracy of the interpolation & fast metal removal rates.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Satellites are minicomputers. 93 . Special machine control unit. 2. Here the computer is linked directly to the regular NC controller unit. Each satellite controls several machines. Behind the tape reader (BTR) system. and they serve to take some of the burden off the central computer. There are 2 temporary storage buffers. Tape reader is replaced by telecommunication lines to DNC computer.

The basic purpose is to monitor production in the factory. 4. b) The subsystem must allow for new programs to entered. d) The storage subsystem must be structures to perform certain data processing & management function. NC part program storage Purposes of program storage subsystem structuring are: a) The Programs must be made available for downloading to the NC machine tools. NC without punched tape Several problems of NC are related to the use of punched tape. a) Computer aided design (CAD) system b) Shop floor control system c) Corporate data processing computer d) Remote maintenance diagnostics system 94 . The storage for NC programs not frequently used. Data Collection. Communication Essential communication links in DNC are between the following: a) Central computer & machine tools b) Central computer & NC part programmer terminal c) Central computer & bulk memory  Optional communication links may also be established between the DNC system and. 2. There is also the expense associated with the equipment that produces the punched tape. Data must be processed by DNC computer & reports are prepared to provide management with information necessary for running the plant. 3. Processing & Reporting The transfer of data from the machine tools back to the central computer.Computer Integrated Manufacturing FUNCTIONS OF DNC 1. old programs to be deleted & edited. c) The DNC software must accomplish the post processing function.

95 . adaptive control determines proper speeds &/or feeds during machining as a functioning of variations in such factors as material hardness. 5. 2. Reporting of shop performance is done easily by DNC system. Nearly all the metal cutting variables that can be measured have been tried in experimental adaptive control system. c) Variable work piece rigidity. it can do relatively little to reduce the in process time compared to a conventional machine tool.Computer Integrated Manufacturing ADVANTAGE OF DNC 1. It provides flexibility of production scheduling. 3. depth of cut. Although NC has signification effect on downtime. e) Air gaps during cutting. NC guides the sequence of tool positions or the path of tool during machine. b) Variable work piece hardness & variable machinability. 4. Establishes the framework for the evolution of the future computer automated factory. Greater computational capability & flexibility because computation & data processing function are implemented with software rather than hard wired devices. Convenient storage of NC part programs in computer files. Program stored as CLFILE – part program is stored as cutter path data rather than post processed programs for specific machine tools. 6. Source of variability in machining where adaptive control can be most advantageously applied. a) Variable geometry of cut in the form of changing depth or width of cut. Elimination of punched tapes & tape readers. d) Tool wear. ADAPTIVE CONTROL MACHINING SYSTEM Adaptive control denotes a control system that measures certain output process variables & use these to control speed &/or feed.

Adaptive control with optimization (ACO) Here the performance is optimized accuracy to the given prescribed index of performance. Adaptive control with constrains (ACC) In this system the machining conditions such as feed rate or/and speed are maximized within given limits of machine & tool constrains. Max. IP = MRR/TWR Where. The index of performance is usually an economic function. spindle speed. It is most delicate closed loop control system which optimizes the conditions automatically. 96 . The adaptive controls are feed by signals of following two sensors. b) Spindle torque sensor which measure strain gauges mounted on machine spindle. allowed torque. Max. The system attempts to maximize the ratio of work material removal rate to tool wear rate known as index of performance. a) Tool vibration sensor measuring vibrations of tool by accelerometer mounted on the machine spindle housing. & Min.Computer Integrated Manufacturing TYPES OF ADAPTIVE CONTROL MACHINING SYSTEM 1. 2. IP = Index of performance MRR = Material removal rate TWR = Tool wear rate 2.  Important constraints for ACC system: 1.

Max. Max. 5. Increased tool life: Because adjustments are made in the feed rate to prevent severe loading of the tool. material & tool wear provide the machine with the capacity to achieve highest metal removal rates that are consistent with existing cutting conditions. Increased production rate: On line adjustments to allow for variations in work geometry. Greater part protection: Instead of setting cutter force constraint limit on the basis of max. allowed chip load. & Min. Allowed vibrations. 97 . Less time is needed to generate the program for the job & fewer layouts are required. 2. Advantages of ACM system 1. take less conservative approach. the force limit can be established on the basis of work size tolerance. Less operator invention: Transfer of control over the process into the hands of management via the part programs. 4. 3. 5. permitted feed rate. 4. fewer cutters will be broken. Impact chip load. Max. Easier part programming: The selection of feed is left to the controller unit rather that to the part programmer. 6. Allowable cutter & spindle deflection.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 3. The programmer can afford to.

You can find a range of high technology CNC Lathes that deliver the fastest throughput you need in DX series manufactured by JYOTI.5 kW 98 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing SPECIFICATION AND FEATURES OF CNC M ACHINE JYOTI CNC TURNING CENTER (DX-350) Key Features In today's competitive market. These machines are a result of continuous developments and innovations we have made in the field of machine tool ever since we started manufacturing CNC Lathes. Turning Dia Max.5 / 25. Technical Specifications Capacity Swing Over Bed Maximum Turning Length Std. compiling and considering the customer feedbacks and incorporating our own innovations. you need to produce world class products quickly. 700 mm 1500 mm 400 mm 500 mm Slides X axis Travel Longitudinal (Z axis) Travel Rapid Feed (X & Z axis) 250 mm 1700 mm 24 M/min Main Spindle Spindle Motor Power 18. accurately and with the minimum of non-productive time.Turning Dia.

Boring Bar DIa Tool Size (Cross Sectional) 8 50 mm 25 x 25 mm 80 mm A28 65 mm 50-2500 rpm 500-2500 rpm Accuracy (asper VDI/DGQ 3441) Positioning Uncertainty 0.010 mm.Computer Integrated Manufacturing (Continuous rating/30 min.) (LxWxH) 10000 Kg 4615 x 2081 x 2060 mm Standard Features › AC Spindle Drive › Monoblock Structure 99 . Bar Capacity Speed Range Full Power Speed Range Turret No. Tail Stock Quill Diameter Quill Stroke Thrust (adjustable) (max) 130 mm 150 mm 500 kgf Other Weight (Approx. rating) Spindle Bore Spindle Nose Max.) Dimension (Approx. of Stations Max.

M.802D Productivity Improvement Options › Chip Conveyor › Bar Feeder › Bar Puller › Tool Life Management › Live Tool Turret › 12 Station Bi-Directional Turret › A211 Spindle Nose › FANUC › Live Center › Slant rigid monoblock structure to absorb torsion and vibration enables hard part machining. Guideways (Roller Type) › 8 Station Bi-directional Turret › Tailstock with hydraulic quill Controller System › SINUMERIK .Computer Integrated Manufacturing › L. 100 .

Computer Integrated Manufacturing JYOTI CNC MACHINING CENTER (VMC1260): Key Features To match the demand of greater accuracy and total reliability at higher speeds JYOTI has developed special performance series Vertical Machining Centers.5 kw / 13. with a moving table for easy access.8000 rpm 10. Technical Specifications Table Table Size T-slot-dimension Distance from Floor to Table Max. These rigid machines are broad based C type structure machines.) 101 . The high dynamic structure supports rapid axes take-offs 2 with an acceleration of 5m/s . high speed motorized spindle are incorporated in these machines as available options. load on table 1400 x 630 mm 5 x 18 x 125 mm 1075 mm 1200 kgf Capacity X axis travel Y axis travel Z axis travel Dist. from Spindle Face to table top 1220 mm 600 mm 610 mm 150-760 mm Main Spindle Spindle Speed 0 ./30min. Hi-tech features like linear scale feedback and through coolant.5 kw (Con.

200 Kg 2830 x 3140 x 2990 mm Standard Features › CNC SIEMENS SINUMERIK 810D › AC Spindle Drive › AC SERVO Axis Drive › L. Tool Length Max.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Spindle Power Front Bearing Bore Spindle Nose 70 mm BT-40 Accuracy (as per VDI/DGQ 3441) Positioning Uncertainty 0.) (LxWxH) 10.010 mm. Y & Z) Cutting Feed 24 m/min 10 m/min Automatic Tool Changer Number of Tools Tool Dia. Feed Rapid Traverse (X. Max.M. 20 80 mm 7 kg 250 mm Other Data Weight (Approx. Tool Weight Max.) Dimension (Approx.Guide Ways › Auto & Manual Coolant System › Centralized & Programmable Lubrication 102 .

› Work Light Options › Fully tooled up solutions to meet the customer needs & Tool life management › Chip Conveyor › APC › 4 & 5 axis option › High speed spindle upto 12000 rpm with chiller › Flood Coolant System › Collant through Spindle › CNC System Fanuc 0iMC 103 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing › Laser Calibrated axis for high precise positing accuracy and Repeatability › Electricals with quality devices & panel with A.C.

.. CAD......./... The remaining character may be letters..Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M.. ….. FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC PROGRAMMING: PROGRAM NAMES: When creating a program............../..... the program name can be freely selected if the following conventions are used... :Comment 1 st Block 2 nd Block 3 rd Block :End of program 104 . Each block constitutes a machining step... Maximum 16 or more characters are permitted depending upon the control unit..... The last block on the order of execution of blocks contains a special word for the program end..CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 7 AIM: MANUAL PART-PROGRAMMING MACHINING CENTER... .. ... digits or underscore. TECH...... Program structure Block Block Block Block Block Word N10 N20 N30 N40 Word G00 G01 G91 M2 Word X30 Z58 . First two characters must be letters.. . CNC TURNING CENTER AND PROGRAM STRUCTURE: The NC program consists of a sequence of blocks.... FOR DATE: .... Statements in block are written in the form of words.. Do not use any separators (space) between two characters.. ..

Computer Integrated Manufacturing A word is a block element and mainly constitutes a control command. The block may contain any or all the following: Sequence or block number (N) Preparatory functions (G) These are the codes which prepare the machine to perform a particular function like Positioning. etc) Decimal point (.8 mm Value Word Address F400 limit Feed : 400 mm/min Value BLOCK STRUCTURE: A block structure contains all data required to execute a step of machining. Y. Block generally consists of several words and we are always completed with the end-of-block character “Lf”. contouring. Block Example of block Explanation Word Address G01 Transverse linear interpolation Value Word Address X -23. Z. The word consists of address character and numerical value consists of a sequence of digits. This character is automatically generated when pressing the line space key or the input key on writing. Dimensional information (X. thread cutting and canned cycling.8 using Travel or position for the X axis -23. Spindle speed (S) This may indicate either the spindle rpm or the constant cutting speed in m/min Tool number (T) 105 .) Feed rate (F) The rate at which the cutter travels through the material is specified in mm/min or mm/rev.

can be marked by a slash ― / ‖ in front of the block number. all blocks marked with ― / ‖ are skipped. which are not to be executed with each program run. BLOCK SKIP: Block of a program. the following order is recommended for them. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS (G CODES): G00 – Linear interpolation at rapid transverse G01 – Linear interpolation at given feed rate G02 – Circular interpolation in clockwise direction G03 – Circular interpolation in counter clockwise direction G25 – Lower spindle speed limiting or lower work area limiting G26 – Upper spindle speed limiting or upper work area limiting G33 – Thread cutting with constant lead G40 – Tool radius compensation OFF G41 – Tool radius compensation left to contour G42 – Tool radius compensation right to contour G54 – Select zero offset 1 106 . Miscellaneous functions (M. The program is continued with the next block without marking. etc) End of block (EOB) If a block contains several statements. Tool offset function (D) This word activates the cutter radius and length compensations. H. N… G… X… Z… F… S… T… D… M… H… Block number should be selected in steps of 5 or 10 in ascending order. the T word calls a particular toll that has to be used for cutting.Computer Integrated Manufacturing For machines having automatic tool changers or turrets. If block skip is active during program execution.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing G55 – Select zero offset 2 G56 – Select zero offset 3 G57 – Select zero offset 4 G60 – Exact stop G64 – Continuous path mode control mode G70 – Input data system in inch G71 – Input data system in metric G700.Inch data input also for feed F G710. in clockwise direction M04 – Spindle rotation.Metric data input also for feed F G74 – Reference point approach G75 – Fixed point approach G90 – Absolute dimension programming G91 – Incremental dimension programming G94 – Feed rate F in mm/min G95 – Feed rate F in mm/spindle revolutions G96 – Constant cutting speed ON G97 – Constant cutting speed OFF MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION ( M-CODES ): M00 – Unconditional program stop M01 – Conditional program stop M02 – End of program with return to program start M03 – Spindle rotation. counter clockwise direction M05 – Spindle stop M06 – Tool change at reference point M16 – Tool change at current location M08 – Coolant ON M09 – Coolant OFF M30 – End of program 107 .

Still remains incremental 108 . IC G90 – Absolute data input modal G91 – Incremental data input modal Z=AC(.) Incremental data input for certain axis(here Z-axis). With program start.. G90 is active for all axes and remain active until it is canceled in a later block by G91. non-modal With absolute data input the dimensions are specified with reference to the zero point of the currently active coordinate system. G91 is active for all axes and remains active until it is canceled in a later block by G90. With incremental data input. N40 X=AC(-44) Z12 : X dim. AC. The sign specifies the traversing direction. G90 – Absolute dimension G91 – Incremental dimension PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: N10 X18 Z32 N20 X60 Z=IC(38) N30 G91 X23 Z23 N50 G90 : By default absolute data input : X dim.) Absolute data input for certain axis(here Z-axis) non-modal Z=IC(. Z incremental dimension : Switch over to incremental data input for both X and Z : Switch over to absolute data input for all axis. Still remain absolute.. Absolute Z dim.Computer Integrated Manufacturing ABSOLUTE INCREMENTAL DATA INPUT WITH G90. the numerical value of the positional information corresponds to the distance to be traversed by the axis. G91.

The required conversion into the basic system is carried out by the control system.5 : metric dimension from here Depending on the basic scaling setting. G70 or G71 interprets all geometrical data specified directly with reference to the work piece in inches of metrically. this also applies to the feed F specified in mm/min. G700 If the work piece dimensions are other than the basic system of the control system (inch or mm). the positional data for the x axis are usually programmed with diameter dimensions. the control system interprets all geometrical values as metric or inch dimensions. Programming:DIAMON DIAMOF : Diameter input : Radius input 109 . also for feed F Programming example:N10 G70 X12 Z35 N20 X44 Z55 ….Computer Integrated Manufacturing METRIC AND INCH DIMENSIONS: G71.. G02. also for feed F G710 : metric dimension.: X. Tool offsets and settable zero offsets including the corresponding displayed values are also to be understood as geometrical values. Z. Y. DIAON When parts are machines on turning machines.. Programming:G70 G71 : inch dimensions : metric dimensions G700 : inch dimensions. G01. N80 G71 X21 Z20. G03. G70. You can enter the dimension directly into the program. G710. CT : inch dimension for both X and Z : G70 still active RADIUS DIAMETER PROGRAMMING: DIAMOF. If necessary it is possible to switch over to radius programming DIAMOF and DIAMON will evaluate the specification for the X axis as radius or diameter input. e. CIP. G33.

If two axes simultaneously traverse.g. …. All axes can be traversed at the same time. All axes can be traversed at the same time. G02. G03. it will traverse as its rapid traverse. the programmed F word is decisive. G02.). Programming example:N 10 G00 X110 Z60 LINEAR INTERPOLATION WITH FEED: G01 The tool moves from the starting point to be end of point along a straight path.. For the tool path federate. A programmed feed (F word) is not relevant for G00. If only one axis traverse. not for direct work piece machining. The maximum speed (rapid traverse) for each axis is defined in machine data.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programming Example:N10 DIAMON X35 Z35 N20 X40 Z25 N30 DIAMOF N40 X20 Z35 : For X axis – Diameter input : DIAMON is still active : Switchover to radius input for X axis : DIAMOF is still active LINEAR INTERPOLATION AT RAPID TRAVERSE: G00 The Rapid traverse movement G00 is used for quick positioning of the tool. the tool path federate (e.).. resulting speed at the tool tip) will be selected such that the maximum possible tool path feedrate results. G03. with consideration of all axes involved. resulting in a straight path. …. 110 . G01 is effective until it is cancelled by another statement from the G group (G00. G00 is effective until it is canceled by another statement from this group (G01.

Center and end point specification for circle:- 111 . ….2 mm/rev CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION: With G02 and G03 the tool moves from the starting point to the end point on circular path. For tool path velocity the programmed F word is decisive. The different ways to define a circle are shown below. The direction is determined by the G function. The description of the desired circle can be specified in different ways.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programming example:N10 G54 G00 G90 X45 Z190 S400 M3 N20 G01 Z110 F0.. CW rotation : linear interpolation with feed 0. G02/G03 is active until it is canceled by another statement of this G group (G00.2 N30 X50 Z100 N40 Z85 N50 G00 X 110 N60 M02 : Clearance at rapid traverse : end of program : Tool traverse at rapid traverse spindle speed-500 rpm.). G01.

207 : Start point of circle for block N20 : End point and circle radius Negative sign for the value of CR will select a circle segment greater then a semi circle. End point and aperture angle specification for circle:- 112 .4 N20 G02 Z50 X40 CR=12.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programming Example:N10 G90 Z30 X40 N20 G02 Z50 X40 K10 : Start point of circle for block N20 : End point and centre point End point and radius specification for circle:- Programming Example:N10 G90 G01 Z30 X40 F1.

4 N20 G02 Z50 X40 AR=105 : Start point of circle for block N20 : End point and aperture angle Centre point and aperture angle specification for circle:- Programming Example:N10 G90 G01 Z30 X40 F1.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programming Example:N10 G90 G01 Z30 X40 F1.4 N20 G02 I-7 K10 AR=105 : Start point of circle for block N20 : Centre point and aperture angle Circular interpolation via intermediate point:- 113 .

…. For G33 threads. G01.Computer Integrated Manufacturing With CIP. Thread on cylindrical bodies Thread on taper bodies External and internal threads Single and multiple threads This requires a spindle with position measuring system. G01.. RH or LH threads are defined with the direction of rotation of spindle M03 – CW rotation M04 – CCW rotation For thread length. the velocity of the axis is decided by the set spindle speed and programmed thread lead. G02. G02.). the run-in and run-out travels should be taken into account. CIP is effective until it is canceled by another statement from this group (G00.). the direction of the circle results from the position of the intermediate point. Programming Example:N10 G90 G00 X40 Z30 N20 CIP X40 Z0 K1=40 II=45 : Starting point of circle for N20 : End and intermediate points THE CUTTING WITH CONSTANT LEAD: G33 The function G33 can be used to machine threads with constant lead of the following type. …. 114 .. G33 is effective until it is canceled by another statement of this group (G00.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing STOCK REMOVAL CYCLES: Turning Stock Removal Cycle: CYCLE95 Name of Contour Subroutine In-feed Depth with out sign Finishing allowances along longitudinal axis Finishing allowances along Facing axis Finishing allowances Suitable for Contour Feed Rate for Roughing Feed Rate for Finishing Operation Dwell time to Chip brake during Roughing Path for Roughing interrupted Retract Path from contour. Incremental Thread Cutting Stock Removal Cycle: CYCLE97 Thread Lead as a Value Thread Lead as Thread size Thread Starting Point along longitudinal Axis Thread End Point along longitudinal Axis Diameter as thread starting Diameter at thread end point Run In Path Run Out Path Thread Depth Finishing Allowances In-feed Angle 115 .

Programming Example:N10 G74 X1=0 Z1=0 FEED F: The feed F is the tool path feed rate and represents the amount of geometrical total of the speed component of all axes involved. The feed F is active for the interpolation types G1 G2 G3 CIP CT and remains stored until a new F word is programmed. tool change point. G94 : F as feed in mm/min G95 : F as feed in mm/rev of the spindle It is only active if spindle is rotating Programming Example:N10 G94 F25 : Feed in mm/min 116 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing Number of roughing Cut Number of finishing Cut FIXED-POINT APPROACH: G75 G75 is used to approach a fixed point in the machine. The velocity of each axis is rapid traverse. Direction and speed are stored in machine data. Both G74 and G75 requires separate block and are effective block by block. The position is fixed in the machine data for all axes. The unit of F is determined by G functions.g. In the block following G74 the previous G command of the interpolation type group is active. No offset is effective. e. Programming Example:N10 G75 X1=0 Z1=0 REFERENCE POINT APPROACH: G74 It is used for reference point approach in the NC program.

5 : Fees in mm/rev SPINDLE SPEED S: The speed of the spindle is programmed in revolutions per minute under the address S provided the machine has a controlled spindle. : Spindle speed change : X movement and spindle stop CONSTANT CUTTING SPEED: G96. With the function G96 enabled. 117 . M03 : CW rotation of the spindle M04 : CCW rotation of the spindle M05 : Spindle Stop The axis movements start only if the controlled spindle has accelerated with M03 or M04.8 M03 S300 N20 S500 N30 X100 M05 : First the spindle accelerates in CW direction to 300rpm and then axes X and Z traverse.Computer Integrated Manufacturing N20 S200 M03 : Spindle Rotation N30 G95 F10. G97 Prerequisite: This function requires a controlled spindle. ` The direction of rotation and the beginning or the end of the movement are defined using M commands. the spindle aped will be adapted to the diameter of the work-piece currently machined (face axis) such the a programmed cutting speed S at he tool edge remain constant (spindle speed by diameter = constant). N10 G01 X70 Z20 F1.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

From the block containing G96, the S word will be interpreted as the cutting speed. G96 is modally active until it is disabled by another G function of the group (G94, G95 and G97). G96 S….. LIMS=….. F….. G97 Where, S = Cutting speed, unit m/min LIMS = upper speed limit of spindle F = Feed in mm/rev. as with G95 When traversing with G00 (Rapid traverse), the spindle speed is not changed. When machining from larger diameter towards smaller diameter, the spindle speed may rapidly increase. So it is recommended to specify the upper spindle speed limiting using LIMS. The function constant cutting speed-G96 is disabled by G97. With G97 the S word is treated as spindle speed. Programming Example:N10 M03 N20 G96 S100 LIMS=2000 N30 G00 X100 N40 X60 N50 G01 X30 F0.5 N60 G97 X100 N70 S1000 Round and Chamfer:For chamfer or rounding the corresponding word CHF=….. or RND=….. is programmed in the block containing axis movements leading to the corner. : Constant cutting speed ON 100 m/min, Spindle speed limit = 2000 : No speed change because of G00 : Contour approach. New speed automatically be set such, as required for the start of block N50 : Feed 0.5 mm/rev : Disable constant cutting speed : New spindle speed, rpm : Constant speed ON : Constant cutting speed OFF


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CHF=….. RND=…..

: Insert chamfer with length of chamfer : Insert rounding with radius of rounding

Programming Example for Chamfer:N10 G01 Z10 CHF=5 N20 X20 Z40 Programming Example for Rounding:N10 G01 Z10 RND=8 N20 X20 Z40 : Insert radius with 8 mm radius : Insert chamfer of 5 mm


Computer Integrated Manufacturing




Computer Integrated Manufacturing 121 20/12/2011 .

./.Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M. TECH .. What is CAD/CAM integration? Is it good? Do you need it? It all depends on the type of integration you're thinking about and what your needs are. Integration plays a very important role in the future of CAD/CAM products. To understand CAD/CAM integration today. But now there is a new group of products touting integration as a key issue.. The engineering design function has to be integrated with manufacturing operation to ensure design engineer has knowledge of capabilities of manufacturing to implement specific designs into finished products..." The CAD model data generated during the design process can be utilized further by the Computer Aided Manufacturing process... the manufacturing engineer needs to know the requirements of the design in a clear and legible manner.CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 8 AIM: STUDY OF CAD CAM INTEGRATION. CAD. Similarly. It also provides a consistent finish and predictable results. DATE: . There have been big workstation-based integrated CAD/CAM systems around for many years.. INTRODUCTION TO CAD /CAM INTEGRATION : Automation of computer -aided design and computer aided manufacturing as separate entities do not lead to optimum solutions of manufacturing attributes. it makes sense to start with the functions that need to be integrated. A good CAD/CAM system eliminates the need to manually calculate tangencies or to do the trigonometry required t o calculate tool paths. They pursue integration through other means than single brand products. The biggest change in recent times for the CAD/CAM industry lies with the term "integration. They provide CAD and CAM integration by providing all pieces from the same company../.... saving valuable programming time. 122 ..

This includes adding draft angles or developing 123 . Another common task is to evaluate and repair existing CAD data so that it is usable for manufacturing functions. Manufacturing engineers also sometimes create new part models from the original design to allow for manufacturability. PURPOSES FOR USING CAD/CAM:  Design Modeling:A mechanical design engineer uses CAD software to create a part. 1--This solid model of a plastic remote control housing is a good example of what design engineers create. surfaces or solid models. only mechanical CAD and CAM will be discussed. Perhaps most common is to develop a computer model of a part that was previously defined only by a drawing. CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) is software used to develop NC programs. This model can be represented as a drawing or a CAD data file. This definition of the part can be called its model.  Manufacturing Modeling:A manufacturing engineer or NC programmer uses CAD software for a number of important tasks.) Fig. but for our purposes here.Computer Integrated Manufacturing The term CAD (computer-aided design) is widely used to describe any software capable of defining a mechanical component with geometry. There are other types of CAD and CAM. (See Figure 1.

each ideally suited to one of these functions. mold bases and other tooling. (See Figure 3. 3--These machining routines for the core (left) and cavity are examples of what the NC programmer creates. and they would all interact perfectly. In a perfect world you would select up to three different software products. Unfortunately.Computer Integrated Manufacturing models of the part for different steps in multi-process manufacturing. For these different products to work well 124 . this is not a perfect world. Note that whoever performs manufacturing modeling is usually the same person that performs NC programming. 2--The core (left) and cavity for the remote control show what manufacturing modeling needs to be done before a part can be machined. And. someone on the manufacturing side must design models of fixtures. mold cores and cavities.) Fig.) Fig. methods and procedures to machine the models defined in the manufacturing modeling section described above.  NC Programming:A manufacturing engineer or NC programmer uses CAM software to select tools. (See Figure 2. of course.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing together.) A better means to data integration right now is a proprietary. 4--IGES files often come in with many problems that need to be repaired before the part can be machined. 125 .) Two Parasolid-based software programs sharing one Parasolid data file is even better. Because such formats are tightly defined. A standards-based surface file such as IGES is a relatively poor means to data integration due to the amount of manual repair work frequently required when a file is passed from one system to another. as both model‘s history and associability can be maintained. There are three different types of integration to consider: DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTEGRATION:  Data integration:Data integration is the ability to share part models (common data files or a common database). This is the most important type of integration for CAD/CAM. such as a Parasolid file. but widely available file format. (See Figure 4. (See Figure 5. These pictures show an IGES file for a part with gaps between the surfaces. Fig. data transferred from one Parasolid-based software program to another comes through flawlessly. they need to possess a high level of integration.

It can also be achieved with technology like OLE (object linking and embedding). which allows two different computer programs to work closely together. This reduces the learning curve for a common user of the different modules. and programming parts from drawings. This making of drawings. these 126 . and the integrated CAD/CAM system was born.  Application integration:Application interface is the way in which different software modules work together for a single user. however.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Fig. many of which offer high power and sophistication. integrated CAD/CAM meant buying the same brand of CAD and CAM products. HOW INTEGRATION STARTED:  In the beginning. This can be achieved by having the different functions physically in the same computer program ("same" application or "inside" application integration). 5--Solid modeling is a superior method of data exchange because. but also come at a rather high price and require a workstation computer to run effectively. interface and application integration. Then someone got the bright idea to eliminate this to-and-from drawing step. The first CAM systems helped an NC programmer. appearing seamless to the user (CAM "beside" CAD). machinist or manufacturing engineer program from these drawings. parts are not allowed to contain problems like gaps.  Until recently. A number of software vendors provide such products today.  Interface integration:Interface integration is a common look and feel for different software modules. there were only CAD systems. was (and still is) time consuming and subject to a lot of human error. cracks and overlaps. These products typically provide data. and engineers used them to draw pictures of parts. by definition. Because of their cost and complexity.

And so it didn't take long before someone realized these PCs were now capable of running the same solid modeling technology used in the major workstation-based CAD products.  The disadvantages of the traditional integrated workstation-based CAD/CAM system have contributed to the growth of the stand-alone CAM market as we know it today. Windows NT was estimated to have 23 percent of the CAD/CAM market in 1997. ease of use. In general they are easier to use and less expensive tha n their workstation-based brethren. it did offer an excellent combination of price and performance. helped along by low-priced RAM (random access memory). This CAD software has been primarily 2D drafting and 3D wireframe CAD.  UNIX-based products held 62 percent of the CAD/CAM market in 1997. up from 17 percent in 1996. Then users of workstation-based CAD began to see the benefits of the PC's low purchase cost. efficiency and cost. and a lack of ability to access the CAD market.  It all started with Windows NT and fast PCs like the Pentium Pro. No mixing and matching of products is allowed if the user wants to retain the advantages of full integration.Computer Integrated Manufacturing products do not provide ideal solutions for everyone. once the customer picks the CAD product he likes best. ease of networking and performance. While PC-based CAD has been a success story in its own right. But things have changed in recent times. While the PC was not faster then a workstation yet. This class of product has grown in sophistication to rival the capabilities of the traditional integrated CAD/CAM system. it has never made the step up to providing significant competition to the workstation-based CAD market. The only problem stand-alone CAM systems have suffered from is a lack of integration with the original design modeling CAD system. it is clear that UNIX is rapidly 127 . low maintenance cost. The total number of UNIX seats grew 9 percent in 1997. THE NEW CAD MARKET:  The PC has been home to CAD software for decades. with a few surface modeling products as well. or both manufacturing modeling and NC programming. down from 67 percent in 1996. In addition. while still maintaining the advantages of simplicity. These CAM products focus on NC programming. With such a massive difference in growth rates. The total number of Windows seats grew 59 percent in 1997. he's kind of stuck with whatever CAM product they have. Now that is changing.

it also provides a backbone for seamless data transport between compatible products.  Another key change in the CAD/CAM market is the advent of the third-party solid modeler. Unigraphics (Para solid) and Ricoh (Design base) began selling to solution providers who started focusing on the mid-range CAD market. and was purchased by Parametric Technology. Solid modeler kernel companies like Spatial Technologies (ACIS). 128 . Solid Works and Intergraph Solid Edge were introduced and a new era of solid modeling CAD began. Bentley introduced MicroStation Modeler. In 1995.xmt files) and Ricoh's Designbase.x_t and . with all major CAD companies jumping into this new market.  Not only does solid modeling technology fuel the rapid growth of all of these new products. Any CAD or CAM product based on the same modeler (solid modeling kernel) can exchange data as well as the big workstation systems do. providing a high level of data integration between different brands of products for the first time. SDRC introduced their Artisan series and purchased Camax to provide more CAM technology. There is another alternative. Parametric Technology renamed their Pro/E Jr. Some CAM products have plotted the shortest possible path to a marketing claim of "solids-based solution." In several cases.sat file s) and Parasolid (. (See Figures 6. These standards are becoming widely supported. as PT Modeler to better be perceived as a mid-range CAD player. Computervision introduced DesignWave. New product announcements have become common. Dassault (Catia) has announced their intent to field a Windows NT product and recently purchased SolidWorks. They weren't alone for long.) Solid model standards include Spatial Technologies' ACIS (. this path has lead to an "inside" CAD application version of a product.Computer Integrated Manufacturing being overtaken by Windows NT as the dominant CAD/CAM platform. 7 and 8. where most of the CAM capabilities are actually placed within the CAD software. CAM IN THE NEW CAD MARKET: CAM products are also moving into this solid modeling CAD world.

7--This core was created from the SolidWorks part shown in Figure 6. The data integration between the products high integration.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Fig. or the technical problems of file translations. The part file is courtesy of SolidWorks. 129 . OLE and OLE for D & M (for design and manufacturing) is another Windows technology becoming popular. 6--A part created in SolidWorks Parasolid-based (a CAD system) is directly read by Virtual Gibbs (a Parasolid-based CAM system). 8--Here the core is being machined by Virtual Gibbs. This capability allows a CAM product to directly "ask" a CAD system for model data without the hassles of saving and opening files. It is another powerful tool for providing data and a level of application integration. provides level a of Fig. Fig.

These companies range from job-shop-like departments supporting a wide range of internal CAD formats to departments that utilize the same CAD as the design department for maximum integration. Process planning lists a sequence of manufacturing and assembly processes that will be used to produce a part or assembly. the manufacturing modeling and the NC programming on a single computer—data integration between CAD and CAM is also the most important issue. A job shop does not have a primary design modeling CAD need and therefore derives little value from interface or application integration with other people's CAD systems. manufacturing modeling and CAM. Job shops have to deal with a wide variety of data types from a variety of sources. a company where one person is doing the primary product design modeling. A job shop needs manufacturing modeling and CAM capabilities. which machine will be used. which setting. A general manufacturer has separate individuals performing design modeling. In addition. For a small integrated manufacturer—that is. today's technology provides flexible alternatives to the old same-application approach. and a prime concern. Data integration with other people's CAD systems is very valuable. Windows NT/95 offers excellent interface integration. This is one reason why some people think that there are big advantages with same-application integration for CAD/CAM. 130 . For each operation it describes details such as which material will be used. created on other people's CAD systems. WHO NEEDS AUTOMATION? A job shop machines other people's designs. INTEGRATION BY PROCESS PLANNING: Process planning is the interface between design and manufacturing process. and in many cases these functions are performed in entirely different departments. Solid models and OLE provide excellent integration between different applications. The ability to import and repair data from many sources is vital. However. etc.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Historically. the user gets advantages from application and interface integration with his CAD product. Data integration is the common issue. however. CAD/CAM solutions have achieved high levels of integration by putting all functions in the same computer program.

Identify the set of machining processes from the available standard machining processes that can remove the required volumes. EXAMPLE OF PROCESS PLANNING: 131 . 4.Computer Integrated Manufacturing STEPS: 1. Select raw materials. Identify volumes of material to be removed. 2. Generate the most effective/efficient sequence of machining operations. 3.

5. Variant approach 3. Identify part features. 6. Group features into setups. Manual approach 2. 2.Computer Integrated Manufacturing THREE APPROACHES FOR CAPP: There are three approaches for computer aided process planning. 3. The steps involved are: 1. Determine what stock material is used. Generative approach MANUAL APPROACH: Process plan is developed by skilled operator who is familiar with company‘s manufacturing capabilities. Sequence the operations in setups. 132 . 4. Study the overall shape of part. 1. Identify the datum surfaces for setups.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing 7. Generate the process plan. -recognize the machining features. Retrieve the standard plan. GENERATIVE APPROACH: Generative approach requires the computer to perform the following steps. -determine the optimal sequence of operations -determine the optimal fixtures type and setups. Final check. Planner‘s workbook is stored in computer file. Edit the standard plan if required. 4. VARIANT APPROACH: In variant approach computer sore match the existing process plans. 9. 8. Select tool for each operations. Determine fixtures for each setup. In GT a code is assigned to part based on features it contains. Generative approach is not widely used because -requires information (such as tolerances) which are not available in CAD model. Identify which family the parts belong to. -input/recognize the stock material. In the variant approach. 3. Enter the design specifications. 2. Identify the important features of the part. There is a standard plan for each family. A process plan is found by: 1. parts that have similar features are grouped into families. Variant approach is advanced manual approach to process planning. Group Technology simplifies the problem of finding out which family part belongs to. Variant approach requires standard database of process planning for each family of part. 133 . -determine the optimal setups.

you are ready to make an informed choice. 134 . workstation-based CAD/CAM system if it is not right for your needs. HOW TO DECIDE WHAT IS RIGHT FOR YOU ? The first step in deciding what is right for your shop is to understand that you now have options. Do you get most of your CAD files from a variety of sources? Or do you receive CAD files primarily from a single source? Then look around for the CAD and CAM products that fit the needs of your shop best—focusing on ease of use and suitability to the type of work that you do.Computer Integrated Manufacturing -a lot of knowledge must be added to the system to make it capable to handle different types of parts. -evaluating all the combination of the possibilities is computationally intense. Nor do you have to settle for less than adequate data translations from stand-alone products. expensive. You are no longer trapped into buying a large. Armed with the facts and the new capabilities available to you. Examine your needs.

.. a mobile salesman can relay important messages to the 135 . messages can be sent and received. Sharing information: Information on a single computer can be accessed by other computers in the network./.CAM EXPERIMENT NO : 9 DATE: ... microwaves or radio links.. hardware and software is called a Computer Network. The long distance communication link between a computer and a remote terminal was set up around 1965. A stand-alone computer communicates very efficiently by connecting it with other computers... Now networking has become a very important part of computing activity.. ancient civilizations devised drum codes and smoke signals to send information to far off distances.. INTRODUCTION Communication is the desire of man.Computer Integrated Manufacturing GANPAT UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V P ATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COMPUTER INTEGRATED M ANUFACTURING ( 3 ME1 1 5 ) M. CAD.. fiber optic cable. For example several PCs can be connected to a single expensive line printer. SOME IMPORTANT REASONS FOR NETWORKING Sharing of resources: Primary goal of a computer network is to share resources. From a remote location../.. T ECH.. Data in a computer is transmitted to another computer located across continents almost instantaneously using telephone. Communication: When several PCs are connected to each other. When human voice became inadequate. AIM: TO STUDY INTRODUCTION OF NETWORKING AND COMMUNICATIONS. microwave and infrared or through satellite. Duplication of data file on separate PCs can be avoided. NETWORK A large number of computers are interconnected by copper wire. A system consisting of connected nodes made to share data. These primitive methods have given way to sending messages through electronic pulses.

Users can share data and programmes. APPLICATIONS OF NETWORK The following are the areas where computer networks are employed. secure and reliable data transfer. BENEFITS OF NETWORK Effective handling of personal communications Allowing several users to access simultaneously important programs and data: Making it easy for the users to keep all critical data on shared storage device and safeguard the data. Relevant databases are updated and the business commitments are fulfilled. businesses and other organizations have discovered the benefits of computer networks. Theatres and buses Telemedicine ATM Internet banking Several educational institutions. trains. 136 .Computer Integrated Manufacturing central office regarding orders. They can cooperate on projects to maximize the usage of available expertise and talent. Allowing people to share costly equipment. The computer communication should ensure safe. Thus the sender knows whether the receiver got the correct data or not. Reliable: Both the sender and the receiver knows the status of the data sent. Safe: The data received is the same as the data sent Secure : The data being transferred cannot be damaged either will fully or accidentally. marketing and sales Reservation of Airlines. Electronic data interchange Tele-conferencing Cellular telephone Cable Television Financial services.

LAN is generally used to share hardware. A computer sharing software package and hard disk is called a file server or network server. wireless network communicates slowly than a wired network. However. Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) A network connecting systems and devices inside a single building or buildings close to each other is called Local Area Network (LAN). In a wireless LAN.Computer Integrated Manufacturing TYPES OF NETWORK The following are the general types of networks used today. software and data. Generally LANs do not use the telephone network. A Network that spans a geographical area covering a Metropolitan city is called Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A WAN is typically two or more LANs connected together across a wide geographical area. coaxial cables or Fiber Optic cables. connections may be using infrared or radio waves. Wireless networks are useful when computers are portable. 137 . They are connected either by wire or wireless. Wired connection may be using twisted pairs. The number of Computers in the network is between two to several hundreds. fiberoptic cables or satellite links. The individual LANs separated by large distances may be connected by dedicated links.

Each computer in the network is called a node. hybrid and FDDI. with each node serving as a repeater until it reaches the right destination. There is no central Host computer or server. Star Network : In a star network all computers and other communication devices are connected to a central hub. bus. The five common topologies are star.Computer Integrated Manufacturing NETWORK TOPOLOGY The network topology is the structure or layout of the communication channels that connects the various computers on the network. ring. Ring Network: In a ring network computers and other communication devices are connected in a continuous loop Electronic data are passed around the ring in one direction. 138 . type of wiring (physical link) used and the cost. Some of the important consideration is the type of nodes. the expected performance. Such as a file server or host computer usually by a Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables. There are a number of factors that determine the topology suitable for a given situation. Network can be laid out in different ways.

Depending upon the task. 2. FDDI Network: A FDDI network (pronounced as fiddly short for Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a high-speed network using fiber optic cable. Transmission media Transmission media is the pathway for contacting each computer with other. The data transmission is Hybrid Network: A hybrid network is a combination of the above three networks suited to the need.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Bus Network: In a bus network all communication devices are connected to a common cable called bus bidirectional. There is no central computer or server. BASIC ELEMENTS IN NETWORKING All networks require the following three elements 1. 139 . 3. Transmission media include cables and wireless Technologies that allows networked devices to contact each other. network services require data. high-resolution graphics and digital video. The main disadvantage is its high cost. This provides a message delivery path. input/output resources and processing power to accomplish their goal. It is used for high tech purposes such as electronic images. Network services Network services are provided by numerous combinations of computer hardware and software. Protocols A protocol can be one rule or a set of rules and standards that allow different devices to hold conversations.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing COMMON NETWORK SERVICES The following common network services are available. large size formals or colour prints. The service function includes. less expensive media (say an optical disk) is called data migration. distance and Local operating system. File Services Those are the primary services offered by the computer networks. In case of original file getting damaged. Eliminates distance constraints – take a printout at a different location. Using this information. Some data becomes less used after certain time. Network applications are well suited to control data storage activity on different storage systems. when numerous clients are using the network. it automatically updates all file locations with the latest version. This improves the efficient storage and retrieval of computer data. File update synchronization – Network service keeps track of date and time of intermediate changes of a specific file. This practice is called file archiving or file backup. 140 . printer use is optimized. Share specialized equipments-Some printers are designed for specific use such as high-speed output. File archiving becomes easier and safe when storage devices are connected in the Network. Specialised equipments may be costlier or may not be frequently used by the user. use the network) – reduce the number of printers required for the organization. Handle simultaneous requests – queue print jobs reducing the computer time. File storage and data migration – Increasing amount of Computer data has caused the development of several storage devices. For example higher secondary examination result posted on the web becomes less used after a week. The print service function includes · Provide multiple access (more than one user. File archiving – All organizations create duplicate copies of critical data and files in the storage device. · File transfer Rapidly move files from place to place regardless of file size. Print services Network application that control manage access to printers and fax equipments. Computer Operator uses the Network to retrieve the duplicate file. Such data can be moved from one storage media (say hard disc of the computer) to another.

binary. It also makes possible the updating and sharing of data at different locations. This reduces the time and paper handling. graphic digitized video and audio data. COORDINATING DATA COMMUNICATION The device that coordinates the data transfer is called Network interface card (NIC). Unlike file services. In 1978. the International Standards organization proposed protocol known as open system interconnection (OSI). Protocol specifies the procedures for establishing maintaining and terminating data transfer. not just share data. Data communication is the process of sending data electronically from one location to another. Linking one computer to another permits the power and resources of that computer to be apped. The computer in the network sends the digital document image to any location. The seven layers and the respective functions. They are different from file services because they allow computers to share processing power. Ethernet. 141 . accessing and delivering text. The OSI provided network architecture with seven layers. This architecture helps to communicate between Network of dissimilar nodes and channels. Arcnet and token ring are the examples for the NIC. network applications or documents. NIC is fixed in the computer and communication channel is connected to it. Message services Message services include storing. Application Services Application services are the network services that run software for network clients.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Network fax service – Fax service is integrated in the network. message services deal actively with communication interactions between computer users applications.

All computers understand and work only in digital forms 2 Data link Transmits data to Different networks 7 Application Purpose for communication 142 . The telephone system. Digital data transmission as shown in Fig. The distinct electrical state of ‗on‘ and ‗off‘ is represented by 1 and 0 respectively.Computer Integrated Manufacturing FORMS OF DATA TRANSMISSION Data is transmitted in two forms 1. Analog data transmission 2.6 is faster and more efficient than analog.6. Analog signal s are sometimes modulated or encoded to represent binary data. is designed for analog data transmission. for instance. Digital data transmission is the widely used communication system in the world. Digital data transmission Analog data transmission is the transmission of data in a continuous waveform.

The telephone converts the voice at one end into an electric signal that can flow through a telephone cable. The process of converting sound or data into a signal that can flow through the telephone wire is called modulation. It is known that the electrical and sound signals are analog . The telephone at the receiving end converts this electric signal into voice. Hence the receiver could hear the voice. The second modem at the receiving end demodulates into a form that the computer can accept. DTE creates a digital signal and modulates using the modem.which continuously vary with time. 143 . 4 Transport Ensures delivery of Complete message 6 Presentation Rules for data conversion 3 Network Routes data to different networks 1 Physical Passes bits on to Connecting median MODEM Computers at different parts of the world are connected by telephone lines. The device that accomplishes modulation – demodulation process is called a modem. The telephone instrument contains the necessary circuit to perform these activities. Then the signals relayed through an interface. The reverse process is called demodulation. Equipments (DTE) are connected through modem and Telephone line. stops and governs Transmission order. The modems are the Data Circuit Terminating Equipments (DCE).Computer Integrated Manufacturing client/server 5 Session Starts. A modem that has extra functions such as automatic answering and dialing is called intelligent Modems.

In other words a TV cannot send a signal to the transmitter. data can be transmitted in one direction as shown in the figure. But at any point of time data can go in any one direction only. The common example is the walky-talky. 144 . The device using the simplex mode of transmission can either send or receive data. This arrangement resembles traffic on a onelane bridge. There is no return signal.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Data Transmission Rate The speed at which data travel over a communication channel is called the communication rate. in which the signal is sent from the transmitter to the TV. but it cannot do both. The rate at which the data are transferred is expressed in terms of bits per second (bps) Transmission Mode When two computers are in communication. Half duplex mode In Half duplex mode data can be transmitted back and forth between two stations. When traffic moves in one direction. traffic on the opposite direction is to wait and take their turn. n example is the traditional television broadcast. wherein one waits for his turn while the other talks . data transmission ay occur in one of the three modes Simplex mode In simplex mode.

at different speeds and sandwiched in between packets from other messages. The software that is responsible for making the 145 . Some of the Internet users are Students Faculty members Scientists Executives and Corporate members Government employees. Today‘s Internet is a network of about 50 million or more computers spread across 200 countries. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL Internet is a packet-switching network. Each computer on net is called a host. The Internet protocol (IP) addressing system is used to keep track of the million of users. the receiving computer reassembles the packets in proper sequence. This arrangement resembles traffic on a two-way bridge. communicate and access information from any other computer connected to it. Products like ―Microsoft Net Meeting‘ supports such two way interaction INTERNET Several networks. Once the packets arrive at the destination. An example is two people on the telephone talking and listening simultaneously. Here is how packetswitching works: A sending computer breaks an electronic message into packets. The IP addressing system uses the letter addressing system and number addressing systems. are connected together to form a Global network called the Internet. Communication in full duplex mode is faster. The packet switching is suitable for data transmission. traffic moving on both directions simultaneously. small and big all over the world. The various packets are sent through a communication network-often by different routes.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Full duplex mode In full duplex mode a device can simultaneously send or receive data. Full duplex transmission is used in large computer systems. Anyone connected to the Internet can reach.

DATA COMMUNICATION We all are acquainted with some sorts of communication in our day to day life. Now a user sitting at one place can communicate computers of any remote sites through communication channel. For communication of information and messages we use telephone and postal communication systems. The communication between computers has increased and it thus it has extended the power of computer beyond the computer room. TCP/IP is made up of two components. It is responsible for routing the packets to a desired destination IP address. The aim of this chapter is to introduce you the various aspects of computer network. It makes the process appear as if one computer is directly connected to the other providing what appears to be a dedicated connection. IP is a set of conventions used to pass packets from one host to another. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION After going through this lesson you will be in a position to: explain the concept of data communication understand the use of computer network identify different components of computer network identify different types of network explain communication protocols understand what is internet and email and its uses in modern communication appreciate the use of satellite communication. Similarly data and information from one computer system can be transmitted to 146 . It guarantees that any data sent to the destination computer reaches intact. COMMUNICATION Today computer is available in many offices and homes and therefore there is a need to share data and programs among various computers with the advancement of data communication facilities. TCP stands for transmission control protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Internet function efficiently is TCP/IP. TCP breaks up the data to be sent into little packets.

1. The modern form of communication like e-mail and Internet is possible only because of computer networking. 1. Thus irrespective of geographical areas. It is this software that enables us to communicate with other systems. The data transmission software or protocols perform the following functions for the efficient and error free transmission of data. The answer is data communication software. Data sequencing: A long message to be transmitted is broken into smaller packets of fixed size for error free data transmission. computer files and any other program can be transmitted to other computer systems within seconds. the data and information. They are Data: A collection of facts in raw forms that become information after processing. 2. Transmission: Communication of data achieved by the processing of signals. 3. if PCs are connected through communication channel. optical signals along an optical fibers and electromagnetic areas. BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM The following are the basic requirements for working of a communication system. Suppose a manager has to write several letters to various clients. Signaling: Propagation of signals across a communication medium.Computer Integrated Manufacturing other systems across geographical areas. These methods include electrical signals carried along a conductor. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS You may be wondering how do the computers send and receive data across communication links. Signals: Electric or electromagnetic encoding of data. The data communication software instructs computer systems and devices as to how exactly data is to be transferred from one place to another. 147 . First he has to use his PC and Word Processing package to prepare his letter. he can send the letters to all the clients within minutes. The procedure of data transformation in the form of software is commonly called protocol. In data communication four basic terms are frequently used. A sender (source) which creates the message to be transmitted. Thus data transmission is the movement of information using some standard methods. If the PC is connected to all the client's PCs through networking. A receiver (sink) which receives the message. A medium that carries the message.

-directional. Hence the flow control regulates the process of sending data between fast sender and slow receiver.Computer Integrated Manufacturing 2. Example of this mode of transmission is the telephone line. Use of full-duplex line improves the efficiency as the line turn-around time required in half-duplex arrangement is eliminated. It ensures that data are transmitted without any error. 4. Hence it is rarely used for data communication. 3. DATA TRANSMISSION MODES There are three ways for transmitting data from one point to another 1. So one should know the fundamental difference between analog and digital signals. Full-duplex: In full duplex the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time. Flow control: All machines are not equally efficient in terms of speed. DIGITAL AND ANALOG TRANSMISSION Data is transmitted from one point to another point by means of electrical signals that may be in digital and analog form. 2. In this mode the flow of information is Uni. Simplex: In simplex mode the communication can take place in one direction. Thus a half-duplex line can alternately send and receive data. Data Routing: It is the process of finding the most efficient route between source and destination before sending the data. Half-duplex: In half-duplex mode the communication channel is used in both directions. The receiver receives the signal from the transmitting device. 3. Error Control: Error detecting and recovering is the one of the main function of communication software. In analog signal the transmission power varies over a 148 . but only in one direction at a time.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing continuous range with respect to sound. that is the conversion of analog signal to its digital form. In asynchronous transmission data is transmitted character by character as you go on typing on a keyboard. When digital data are to be sent over an analog form the digital signal must be converted to analog form. A digital signal is a sequence of voltage represented in binary form. and the reverse. Analog Signal Digital Signal ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION Data transmission through a medium can be either asynchronous or synchronous. The device. is known as demodulation. Analog signal is measured in Volts and its frequency in Hertz (Hz). in the synchronous mode. as you do not have to save the data before sending. On the other hand a digital signal may assume only discrete set of values within a given range. which converts digital signal into analog. However. it is cheaper to implement. Examples are computer and computer related equipment. So the technique by which a digital signal is converted to analog form is known as modulation. Each block can contain 149 . the saved data is transmitted block by block. is known as modem. light and radio waves. On the other hand. And the reverse process. Hence there is irregular gaps between characters.

The transmitter and receiver of a microwave system should be in line-of-sight because the radio signal cannot bend. COMMUNICATION SATELLITE: The problem of line-sight and repeaters are overcome by using satellites which are the most widely used data transmission media in modern days. If you determine that the twisted pair wire needs to go through walls. simplest. microwave signal is transmitted from a transmitter on earth to the satellite at space. The satellite amplifies the weak signal and transmits it back to the receiver. In microwave the data transmission rate is 16 giga bits per second. Twisted pair is almost a misnomer. In order to overcome the problem of line of sight and power amplification of weak signal. Category 6 twisted pair should support data transmission as high as 200 Mbps for 100 meters while Category 7 twisted pair will support even higher data rates. MICROWAVE: Microwave system uses very high frequency radio signals to transmit data through space. shielded twisted pair can provide a higher level of isolation from that interference than unshielded twisted pair wire. With microwave very long distance transmission is not possible. INSAT-1B is such a satellite that can be accessible from anywhere in India. They are mostly used to link big metropolitan cities. and thus a lower level of errors. or buildings where there is sufficient electromagnetic interference to cause substantial noise problems. TYPES OF CABLES: TWISTED PAIR WIRE The oldest.Computer Integrated Manufacturing many characters. repeaters are used at intervals of 25 to 30 kilometers between the transmitting and receiving end. The main advantage of satellite communication is that it is a single microwave relay station visible from any point of a very large area. In satellite communication. To help simplify the numerous varieties. as one rarely encounters a single pair of wires. A communication satellite is a microwave relay station placed in outer space. rooms. twisted pair can be specified as Category 1 -5 and is abbreviated as CAT 1-5. 150 . and most common type of conducted media is twisted pair wires. While still a little away from being a published specification. Synchronous transmission is well suited for remote communication between a computer and related devices like card reader and printers.

pagers. The braided metal shield is very good at blocking electromagnetic signals from entering the cable and producing noise. infrared transmissions. In addition to having almost errorfree high data transmission rates.Computer Integrated Manufacturing COAXIAL CABLE Coaxial cable. There are two major coaxial cable technologies. is a single wire wrapped in a foam insulation. and multichannel multipoint distribution service Terrestrial microwave transmission systems transmit tightly focused beams of radio signals from one groundbased microwave transmission antenna to another. it is immune to electromagnetic interference and virtually impossible to wiretap. then covered in a plastic jacket. The services covered in this section will include terrestrial microwave transmissions. A light source. Since fiber optic cable passes electrically nonconducting photons through a glass medium. FIBER OPTIC CABLE Fiber optic cable (or optical fiber) is a thin glass cable approximately a little thicker than a human hair surrounded by a plastic coating. WIRELESS MEDIA All wireless systems employ radio waves at differing frequencies. fiber optic cable has a number of other advantages over twisted pair and coaxial cable. satellite transmissions. in its simplest form. Satellites orbit the earth from four possible ranges: low earth 151 . Because of its good shielding properties. The light pulses travel down the glass cable and are detected by an optic sensor called a photo receptor on the receiving end. Fiber optic cable is capable of transmitting data at over 100 Gbps (that‘s 100 billion bits per second!) over several kilometers. coaxial cable is very good at carrying analog signals with a wide range of frequencies. The FCC strictly controls which frequencies are used for each particular type of service. personal communication systems. depending on the type of signal each carries: baseband or broadband. Coaxial cable also comes in two primary physical types: thin coaxial cable and thick coaxial cable. thus achieving much greater distances than line-of-sight transmission. Satellite microwave transmission systems are similar to terrestrial microwave systems except that the signal travels from a ground station on earth to a satellite and back to another ground station on earth. surrounded by a braided metal shield. called a photo diode. cellular radio systems. is placed at the transmitting end and quickly switched on and off.

152 . Cellular digital packet data (CDPD) technology supports a wireless connection for the transfer of computer data from a mobile location to the public telephone network and the Internet. middle earth orbit (MEO). and wireless application protocol will support cellular telephone to Internet connections. Bluetooth transmissions will support the new short-range personal area networks.Computer Integrated Manufacturing orbit (LEO). Infrared transmission is a special form of radio transmission that uses a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency range. Two basic categories of mobile telephone systems currently exist: cellular telephone and personal communication systems (PCS). Another wireless communication technology that has grown immensely in popularity within the last decade is the pager. and highly elliptical earth orbit (HEO). geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A broadband wireless system is one of the latest techniques for delivering Internet services into homes and businesses.