I. What is a Donor Agency?

A. Definition A donor agency is an organization that gives funds for projects of a development nature.

B. Function The function of a donor agency is to provide funding. Their funding can be channeled in two ways: official/government channels and private channels. Official/Government channels channeled through government agencies while private funding agencies generally channel funds through non-government organizations (NGOs). A growing amount of development money is being channeled through NGOs to facilitate access to funds at the grass-roots level. Such funding frequently has a cash ceiling which means that funds given to them are limited in a certain amount of money only. It may be limited to a specified percentage of any one project.

C. Kinds There are three kinds of donor agencies. First is from National Governments. Western governments like Japan and the Oil Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) nations are the major national government donor agencies. Funds are usually given through the following government aid departments like Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) from Canada, Official Development Assistance (ODA) from United Kingdom, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) from Norway, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) from Sweden, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) from US and Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) from Australia. Second is from Multilateral Agencies. Some of these were the World Bank (WB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Third is from Charitable Organizations. These include Oxfam International, Kellogg Foundation, Ford Foundation and TEAR Fund. There are a

lot of charitable organizations in the Western world. Many of these exist to distribute funds held in trust, contributed by large companies or received as gifts in response to advertising and fund-raising campaigns. II. Role of Donor Agency to the Development of a Country A. Asian Development Bank What is the Asian Development Bank (ADB)? The Asian Development Bank (ADB) was officially formed in 1966. ADB funds development related projects to countries from the Asia Pacific Region. ADB partners with other financial institutions, other governments or independent specialists in order to create projects which have developmental and economic contributions or effects. The Asian Development Bank aspires a poverty free Asia Pacific. It has 67 members, 48 are within the Asia-Pacific and 19 outside the region. The ABD strives on giving help to member countries to aid them in development, as well as to help them turn into modern economies that communicate well with other nations of the world. These help include lending a hand to the nations in preparing for effects of climate change, or in dealing with their natural resources, investments when it comes to infrastructure, health care services, or financial and public administration systems. The main forms of assistance include loans, grants, policy dialogue, technical assistance and equity investments. In order to reduce poverty in the Asia Pacific, the ADB addresses a lot of development issues. These issues are divided into sectors and themes. These sectors are: Clean Energy, Education, Health Sector, Information and Communication Technology, Law and Policy Reform, Transport and Water. The themes that these sectors give attention to are: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Management, Environment, Gender and Development, Governance, Poverty Reduction, Private Sector Development, Regional Cooperation and Integration, Social Development, Social Protection, and Urban Development. Role of the ADB in the Development of a Country: The ADB was first set up in a way wherein its role was to provide money for projects which promote economic development. But as the situations of the regions evolved, the role of ADB changed its role and added its support for social development. Today, ADB is an institution which play a number of roles and isn’t merely a provider of funds.


The main role of the ADB is to aid and make money available to the countries in the Asia Pacific which will be used in the programs which contribute to development. It provides loans and investment money to provide assistance for the development of countries in Asia, especially the poor ones to improve their conditions in economic and social terms and conditions. It helps in the development of a country because it provides monetary assistance, which at some points does not have to be paid back in full. It also conducts studies which can help other countries in their development, promote investments and others. Its main role in the development of a country is that it partners with the country, in this case, it partners with each of the developing member countries in order to define or make a medium-term development strategy and operational program. This is referred to as Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). The CPS is made through the consultation with the government of the country, and other stakeholders which include civil society, nongovernment organizations and other partners. The ADB has 7 sectors which serve as the main programs and areas which provide assistance to developing countries. These parts also serve as the core areas which are given importance in order to help countries attain sustainable development. Sectors: Clean Energy: The clean energy sector is a program which strives to increase energy efficiency through the adopting of renewable energy resources and to improve access to energy for those who are poor and those in the remote areas. It seeks to meet energy security needs, help in the process to changing into a lowcarbon economy and universal access to energy. Education: The education sector aims to improve access, quality and completion of education. It also aims to give teacher education, develop the materials and the curriculum, and in making education inclusive, including marginalized groups. This sector also aims to promote and facilitate public and private partnerships, other forms of stakeholder partnerships and innovative and cost-efficient information and communication technology for education. Health Sector: ADB gives importance to health because it believes that health promotes productivity and growth, social inclusion, learning capacity, incomes, and gender equity. It has a vision of health services available to all for it is a part of a person’s right, which is part of their physical and mental well-being. ADB helps other countries through technical assistance, development of infrastructure such as water supply, as well as, the cost delivery of programs for expenditure management.

Information Communication and Technology (ICT): For the ADB, ICT is a tool which can help development in the problem of poverty. It gives access to forms of communication, information, connects economies and communities, and helps in fast and cost-effective ways to give public services. ADB supports projects which create telecommunications infrastructure or projects which involve the use of ICT. Law and Policy Reform: ADB helps through publications which help and address regulatory frameworks, policy institutional environments and the fostering of economic activity and sustainable development. This is the sector which addresses the voice, opportunity and justice in the Asia Pacific region through the publication of studies, toolkits and other forms of material. Transport: This sector aims to promote growth and sustainable welfare to its member countries through the development of market opportunities, social services, goods, and information. This includes the constructions of roads and highways, railways, ports and other transport systems which will give access to market opportunities and people. Water: This sector is where ADB seeks, works and creates reforms which address the issue of the access of water. “Water for All” in the Asia-Pacific is the vision and policy of the ADB. There is a Water Financing Program which works to increase investments and support reforms in rural water, urban water and river basin water.

B. International Monetary Fund What is the International Monetary Fund (IMF)? The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was created in the UN Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, US in July 1944. The 44 governments wanted to build a framework for economic cooperation that would avoid repetition of crises such as the Great Depression. The IMF has 187 member countries which promote growth globally and economic stability. It finances and gives policy recommendations to its members which are faced with economic difficulties. It also works with developing nations in order to reduce poverty and increase its stability as a nation. The main purpose of the IMF is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system. The international monetary system is needed for the promotion of economic growth, reducing poverty and the betterment of the standards of living. It ensures stability in the international system through keeping track of the global economy and economies of member countries, lending to countries and practical help. These can be referred to in a

much simpler way as surveillance, lending and technical assistance. Surveillance does the monitoring of financial and economic policies. Lending gives loans to other countries which are having difficulty in their finances and technical assistance to those who are having trouble in managing their economies through training and practical guidance. The IMF also addresses key issues of challenges which the global economy is faced with. They have provided strategies in order to prevent another great crisis from coming to the international community. One of the strategies is to reinforce multilateralism which promotes the benefits of international cooperation. Another is to rethink macroeconomic principles. Principles which should be “re-thinked” include: Safety Nets, Economic Imbalances, Interest Rates and Fiscal Policy. Stepping up crisis lending and the strengthening of the international monetary system are also among the strategies. These strategies become a way wherein the IMF can support countries during global economic crises. Part of strengthening the International Monetary System includes setting up internationally agreed rules, conventions, and supporting institutions. Lastly, the IMF has increased its support for low income countries for they are the ones who are in most need of assistance. Role of the IMF in the Development of a Country: All the facilities that the IMF has strive towards creating sustainable development within a country. It also tries to create policies which are acceptable to the citizens of a nation. The IMF is not an aid agency, and all loans must be paid back. It only offers assistance such as loans. Its assistance is offered as a surveillance which is conducted in a yearly basis. Countries may also ask for financial assistance when there are experiencing problems within their country. Country Surveillance The main role of the IMF in the development of a country is that it provides surveillance of its economic and financial policies. Joining the IMF means that a country accepts its policies and strategies to be critiqued by the international community. Countries also commit to policies which will give economic growth. The role of the IMF is to visit a country and assess its developments economically and financially. It also discusses the policies with the government band bank officials. These reports will tell the officials of the country about the risks, or if there are, to the nation’s stability economically, domestically and externally. The IMF team would then advice whether there needs to be adjustments to the economic and financial policies of a country.


This helps in the development of a country because it provides an evaluation of the nation in terms of its development and what it needs to do in order to enhance it or prevent it from deteriorating or undergoing a crisis. C. United Nations What is the United Nations? The United Nations (UN) was founded in 1945 after the Second World War. It was originally founded by 51 countries. These countries were committed to promoting peace and international security. It also promotes friendly relationships between countries. It promotes social progress, human rights, and better living standards. It has 193 member states as of today and they provide a forum which consists of the General Assembly, the Security Council, Economic and Social Council and other committees in order to express their views and opinions. The UN has four main purposes which are: to keep peace in the world, develop friendly relationships between nations, help improve lives of the poor, end hunger, disease, illiteracy, encourage respect for the rights and freedoms of others and to harmonize the actions of nations in order to achieve these goals. UN and Development In order to address and promote development, the UN have offices dedicated to it. Examples of these offices include the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Human Settlements (UN-Habitat). The main issues or topics that the UN addresses which concern development are: Advancement of Women, Least Developed Countries, International Trade, Governance and Institution Building, Macroeconomics and Finance, Population, Social Development, Sustainable Development and others. There are also UN Bodies dedicated to development which are: General Assembly Second Committee (Economic and Financial), General Assembly Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural), Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and ECOSOC Commissions and Expert Bodies. Role of the UN in the Development of a Country: The formulations of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) show that the UN supports development. The UN Development Programme advocates for change through campaigns of the MDGs, it also researchers on strategies to meet MDGs though policy reforms and other methods. UNDP also helps track the progress of a country, and lastly, it has operational activities which address challenges and key constraints of the MDGs.


A country can develop through the attainment of the MDGs and the UN System is helping nations in their achievement of the MDGs. The UNDP has designed three pillars which are the basis for their services supporting MDG-based national development strategies. These three pillars are: Diagnostics and investment planning which are financial and technical assistance, the next is attempting to widen policy options and choices through policy reforms and incorporation of frameworks and lastly, strengthening national capacity which will enable effective service delivery to both a national and local level. The UNDP also partners with government and other UN agencies or other organizations and institutions in order to help developing countries attain the MDGs.

D. World Bank What is World Bank (WB)? The World Bank was established in 1944 and was headquartered in Washington, D.C. It has more than 10,000 employees in more than 100 offices worldwide. It is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. World Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free credits and grants to developing countries for a wide array of purposes that include investments in education, health, public administration, infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture and environmental and natural resource management.

Mission: To fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors. (WB, 2011)

Development Institutions: They are not just an ordinary bank. They are made up of two development institutions owned by 187 member countries. These two are 1.) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and 2.) The International


Development Association (IDA). Each institution plays a different but collaborative role in advancing the vision of inclusive and sustainable globalization. 1.) The IBRD aims to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries. 2.) The IDA focuses on the world's poorest countries. Their work is complemented by that of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). (WB, 2011)

Three Pillars of World Bank Group to ensure countries continue to have access to the best global expertise and cutting-edge knowledge: 1.) Results: Together, we are continuing to sharpen our focus on helping developing countries deliver measurable results. 2.) Reform: New reforms at the World Bank Group are aimed at improving every aspect of our work: the way projects are designed (investment lending), how information is made available (access to information), and how our staff are deployed to best assist governments and communities (decentralization). 3.) Open Development: The World Bank is leading the effort toward openness and transparency in development by offering a wealth of tools and knowledge to provide people with the resources they need to help solve the world's development challenges. In 2010, the Bank launched a new Open Data website, providing free access to a comprehensive set of data about development in countries around the globe. Source: The World Bank, 2011

Role of WB to the Development of a Country The lack of consensus about the World Bank's specific role (and how it should be translated into an operational mission, measurable objectives, and policies) has burdened the institution for years. Differences of opinion about the fundamental role of the Bank go beyond the fact that some shareholding countries borrow from the Bank while others provide the funds.


Four different models or perspectives are the most common: 1.) The World Bank is a financial intermediary, the Bank-as-a-bank model. - From the Bank-as-bank perspective the World Bank's role is, quite simply, to be a bank. Therefore, maintaining the institution's long-term financial integrity is a crucial purpose on which all other goals depend. 2.) The view of the Bank as an evangelical agent in charge of changing the behavior of governments in developing countries. - The second model views the Bank as an instrument for the advancement of the national interest of the countries with more influence on its decisions. Such national interest is expressed in their policies towards other countries, in procurement goals for their companies in projects financed by the Bank, or even in expanding employment opportunities at the Bank for their nationals. 3.) The view that the World Bank is the evangelical model. - A growing constituency sees the Bank's combination of money, access, knowledge, and expertise as a powerful instrument to convert the souls of governments implementing misguided public policies. This is, in fact, a more concrete manifestation of the expectation that the Bank's main role is to support a liberal (or market-based) economic system, as expressed in the promotion of liberal trade and investment regimes. Another version of this approach sees the Bank as an instrument for the promotion of values not readily accepted by the traditional power structures within developing countries. Increasing investment in and attention to women, environmental protection and better governance in terms of respect for human rights or accountability and transparency in government decisions are the prime examples of the sort of objectives that flow from this perspective of the Bank's role. Still others maintain that the advisory and "imprimatur" roles of the bank will grow even faster in the future, as economic and institutional constraints will increasingly limit its role to act as a financial intermediary. The argument is that the Bank's accumulated developmental expertise and its capacity to generate and disseminate policy-relevant knowledge have been gradually replacing its financial resources as its main assets. As donor

countries face increasing fiscal constraints and aid budgets cannot cope with mounting demands, the Bank's capital will not grow as fast as the needs of the borrowers. This trend will presumably accelerate in the future, pushing the Bank towards its knowledge-intermediary, research-center, and consulting-company role. 4.) The view that the Bank exists to transfer resources to poor countries. - The fourth widely held view is that the Bank exists to transfer resources to poor countries. It is impossible, according to this view, for an institution that has the promotion of development at the core of its existence, not to have the supply of capital to developing countries as its basic function. This perspective stands in sharp contrast with the first model, which takes the view that the Bank is a financial intermediary. These four model or perspectives about the real role of the World Bank to the development of a country contradict each other and became the dilemma to point out the real role of the World Bank. The different assumptions on the basic role of the World engender the different visions about its goals and policies. This is where they depend the standards on how they judge the performance of the organization or the changes or the changes needed to respond to new problems. If their goal is to approve as many loans per year as possible, they should not prioritize the quality of the bank’s loan collection or the resource-transfer model. Also, if maintaining a high credit rating for the Bank by financial markets has nothing to do to the achievement of other developmental objectives or the Bank as bank model, the central objective will be the quality of the loans. Therefore, the quality of the loan collection should be the top priority rather than transferring resources to clients. These objectives don’t need to be mutually exclusive instead; the quality of the portfolio can be interpreted simply as an operational restriction on the goal of maximizing the resources transferred to borrowing countries. But the difficulty on the Bank’s role and objective lies on how some perceived the objectives because for others it is a means or policies to achieve other, for some transferring resources is a goal and for some, poverty reduction is the goal and transferring resources including knowledge is a means to advance towards that objective. An illustrative example of the practical result of the lack of consensus over the Bank’s role is the lending to the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Some governments in the G-7 criticized the World Bank, together with the IMF, for not addressing the needs and the emergencies of their new clients. These critics can be true to those who think that the role of the Bank is to transfer

resources to its clients. However, it is not true for those who think that the Bank is a bank. Also, this can be cited by those who hold the view that the Bank is simply an instrument to advance the interest of its more influential shareholders. The consequences of the lack of consensus among its owner about the fundamental role of the World Bank have become more visible as a result of changing international circumstances especially during the end of the Cold War. But these different views have shaped the evolution of the role of the World Bank and will likely to exist in the future. We should always keep in mind that development is a multi-faceted process and the shareholders of the Bank are political actors who are vulnerable to simultaneous contradictory pressures which limit the Bank’s capacity to focus its efforts and to prioritize things.

E. World Health Organization What is World Health Organization (WHO)? WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends. In the 21st century, health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access to essential care and collective defense against transnational threats. (WHO, n.d.)

The WHO Agenda WHO operates in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. The boundaries of public health action have become blurred, extending into other sectors that influence health opportunities and outcomes. WHO responds to these challenges using a six-point agenda. The six points address two health objectives, two strategic needs, and two operational approaches. The overall performance of WHO will be measured by the impact of its work on women's health and health in Africa.

1. Promoting Development During the past decade, health has achieved unprecedented prominence as a key driver of socioeconomic progress, and more resources than ever are being invested in health. Yet poverty continues to contribute to poor health, and poor health anchors large populations in poverty. Health development is directed by the ethical principle of equity: Access to life-saving or health-promoting interventions should not be denied for unfair reasons, including those with economic or social roots. Commitment to this principle ensures that WHO activities aimed at health development give priority to health outcomes in poor, disadvantaged or vulnerable groups. Attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals, preventing and treating chronic diseases and addressing the neglected tropical diseases is the cornerstones of the health and development agenda. 2. Fostering health security Shared vulnerability to health security threats demands collective action. One of the greatest threats to international health security arises from outbreaks of emerging and epidemic-prone diseases. Such outbreaks are occurring in increasing numbers, fuelled by such factors as rapid urbanization, environmental mismanagement, the way food is produced and traded, and the way antibiotics are used and misused. The world's ability to defend itself collectively against outbreaks has been strengthened since June 2007, when the revised International Health Regulations came into force. 3. Strengthening health systems For health improvement to operate as a poverty-reduction strategy, health services must reach poor and underserved populations. Health systems in many parts of the world are unable to do so, making the strengthening of health systems a high priority for WHO. Areas being addressed include the provision of adequate numbers of appropriately trained staff, sufficient financing, suitable systems for


collecting vital statistics, and access to appropriate technology including essential drugs. 4. Harnessing research, information and evidence Evidence provides the foundation for setting priorities, defining strategies, and measuring results. WHO generates authoritative health information, in consultation with leading experts, to set norms and standards, articulate evidencebased policy options and monitor the evolving global heath situation. 5. Enhancing partnerships WHO carries out its work with the support and collaboration of many partners, including UN agencies and other international organizations, donors, civil society and the private sector. WHO uses the strategic power of evidence to encourage partners implementing programmes within countries to align their activities with best technical guidelines and practices, as well as with the priorities established by countries. 6. Improving performance WHO participates in ongoing reforms aimed at improving its efficiency and effectiveness, both at the international level and within countries. WHO aims to ensure that its strongest asset - its staff - works in an environment that is motivating and rewarding. WHO plans its budget and activities through results-based management, with clear expected results to measure performance at country, regional and international levels. Source: World Health Organization

Global Role of WHO to the Development of a Country


During the 21st century, the global health landscape requires effective global action due to globalization of trade, travel, information, human rights, ideas and disease. The new phase in global health is more plural and the number of key actors is rising which requires more coordination of effort, priorities and investments. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays an essential role in the global governance of health and disease; due to its core global functions of establishing, monitoring and enforcing international norms and standards, and coordinating multiple actors toward common goals. Global health governance requires WHO leadership and effective implementation of WHOs core global functions to ensure better effectiveness of all health actors, but achieving this global mission could be hampered by narrowing activities and budget reallocations from core global functions. (Ruger & Yach, 2009) In terms of globalization and health, globalization offers opportunities and challenges for global health and distribution. According to Ruger and Yach, prospects for health improvement are enhanced by the transfer of medical and public health knowledge and technology from one part of the globe to another, through, for example, sharing of best practices, health promotion and prevention strategies and, of course, medical treatments. Furthermore, through international norms and standards, all countries were able to benefit and to sustain their global advocacy for health. Globalization also accelerated the spread of infectious diseases like SARS. It also aggravate existing health inequalities and been associated with global marketing of unhealthy consumption pattern. Thus, the challenge with this relates to global inequalities and externalities. It is not just in terms of health but also other economic and social indicators. The distribution of health benefits that result from the globalization process depends on pre-existing economic, social and political conditions within countries, the fairness of trade and investment agreements, existing political economy and the strength of the multilateral global health system. Globalization made different problems that are beyond the capacity of individual states to address. To avoid the continuation of an international class of poor countries excluded from most of the benefits of the global economy, it


requires versatile and sustained support and cooperation by international health community at large. Health is a development issue because it involves the capacity of the key actors and ordinary individuals that are part of the process of development. WHO, in particular, is advocating for global health and they have many roles to portray to contribute to the development of a country. First is to provide leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. Second is to shape the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge. Third is to set norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation. Fourth is to articulate ethical and evidence-based policy options. Fifth is to provide technical support, to catalyze change, and to build sustainable institutional capacity. And sixth is to monitor the health situation and assessing health trends.

F. U.S. Agency for International Development What is USAID? USAID is an independent federal government agency that receives overall foreign policy guidance from the Secretary of State. Their work supports long-term and equitable economic growth and advances U.S. foreign policy objectives by supporting economic growth, agriculture and trade; global health; and, democracy, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance. (USAID, 2010)

Regions that receive assistance from USAID
 Sub-Saharan Africa;  Asia;  Latin America and the Caribbean,  Europe and Eurasia; and 15

 The Middle East

USAID’s Strength With headquarters in Washington, D.C., USAID's strength is its field offices around the world. They work in close partnership with private voluntary organizations, indigenous organizations, universities, American businesses, international agencies, other governments, and other U.S. government agencies. USAID has working relationships with more than 3,500 American companies and over 300 U.S.-based private voluntary organizations.

Role of USAID to the Development of a Country The role of USAID is still controversial for some because of the confusion of whether it is an aid or for development. According to Lant Pritchett, Professor of the Practice of Economic Development, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, the name of USAID with an “aid” attempts to create a notion of assistance to the world’s poorest which confuses everyone, includes itself, about their actual mission. For Pritchett, there are many ways of providing assistance to people in poor countries that do little or nothing to produce development. The leader of USAID has to face the issue of whether it is about assistance or an agency whose mission is to promote development because the difference matters. Being an agency for international development implies more than providing assistance to improve the well-being of individuals in underdeveloped countries but their main goal is to promote development. For instance, promoting economic development means supporting actions and policies that create widespread opportunities for people to improve their incomes.


A new leader could make USAID exclusively about aid and focus on the goal of making aid effective assistance, but the problem pressing the Obama administration is not about aid as not an effective assistance but that development should happen. Development needs to happen in Pakistan, in Afghanistan, in Iraq, in Somalia, in Zambia, in Guatemala, in Bolivia—and continue to happen in India and China. Even addressing a series of important problems for well-being like vaccinations, schools for girls, HIV/AIDS prevention or malaria does not add up to a development agenda.

G. Japan Bank for International Cooperation

H. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Fund (OFID)

I. Australian Agency for International Development

III. Role of Donor Agency to the Development of the Philippines

IV. Conclusion After the discussion of donor agencies, it has been learned that donor agencies strive to provide many kinds of assistance to countries to help them in their development. These assistances are given in different forms whether it is monetary or technical assistance. Some assistance need to be paid back in full and with interests while others need only be paid a part of the given assistance and others are given as aid.


However different the methods and strategies are in helping countries in their development, these organizations have one goal, which is to help countries in their developments and to help them be able to sustain their nations. These organizations aspire to help nations in terms of sustainable development. Even though organizations exist to help countries in their dilemmas and development, the nations themselves still have to work hard in order to achieve their goals in terms of sustainable development and in progressing as a nation. The country itself still has to do its part and organizations are only there to help them. The success of a project or a program still depends on how a country will implement it and how a country is determined to make it work in order for its nation and people to benefit and live comfortable lives which provide them with their needs, rights and opportunities.

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