Introduction 1.

1 Statement of the Problem The expansion of service sector facilitated the increase of women's employment by increasing the types of jobs for which employers have traditionally hired women. While the most substantial change occurred among mothers with infants and preschoolers (Hoffman, 1989).there is also a significant increase in employment of mothers with school-aged children—the labor force participation rate for mothers with school-aged children rose 23 percentage points to 78% from 1975 to 1999 (U. S. Department of Labor, 2000). Furthermore, with technological change and the growth of 24-hour economy, opportunities have grown for staggering couples' employment shifts. Thus, not only are the majority of married couples dual earner couples, but also there is a considerable lack of overlap in the time each partner is doing paid work (O'Presser, 2003). Empirical research has examined extensively the determinants and consequences of women's labor force participation and found mixed results on the effects of mother’s employment on children’s well-being (Baum, 2004)), but these studies have focused on employment status or the number of hours worked, not the scheduling of employment time and other job characteristics. Research examining employment scheduling has also tended to focus on its effects on the worker’s wellbeing, such as perceived conflict between work and family roles, not on family relations (Barnett & Gareis, 2006). The growing diversity and flexibility in the temporal structure of the workplace will affect on family life, this thinking has become one of the major concerns among workers, employers, and researchers in recent years. These effects will not be simple given the nature of these changes. Increases in the labor force participation rates of married women have highlighted the connections between paid work and family life, and many scholars have challenged the fallacy that work and family are distinct nonoverlapping domains (Thompson & Walker, 1989). Job characteristics may also affect children’s well-being through the marital relationship of the parents. Various studies has linked parental marital conflict to more


they are happier to play with peers in the absence of their parents (McDevitt & Ormrod. 2005). these bonds translate into real attachment only when parents are warm and attentive to the child this relationship affects many other parts of the child’s development as well. A demanding job schedule which has the potential to claim much of the worker's time. Even less known are the potential long-term consequences of parental employment on children’s well-being (Dunifon et al. show higher social competence. For example. slower cognitive development. Department of Health and Services has found that mothers showing low levels of sensitivity during mother-child interactions are likely to have children with an increased risk of insecure attachment. may cause health problems for workers and leave little time for them to fulfill family responsibilities and to be with their spouse and children (Bumpus et al. The U. Having a full-time job is not just good for the children but also for the mother herself. When parents have demanding and less rewarding jobs. While infants have an inherited capacity to bond to their parents. It has been found that mothers working outside are less prone to depression and stress 2 . With less time to fulfill family responsibilities and to share activities together.1990). which lead to children’ maladjustment (Booth et al.S. when children have loving relationships with parents. 2002). Loving relationships are important for any child in order to develop secure attachments and properly defined emotions.hostile parent-child relationship. The effects of parental job characteristics on children’s well-being have not received adequate attention. This insecure attachment can lead to increased behavioral problems. less warmth and more conflict among siblings. 2004). a schedule extended to weekends. and problematic peer relationship (Papp et al. and fewer negative social behaviors (McDevitt & Ormrod.1999). and emotional instability. such as long job hours. 2002). children with mothers that are warm and expressive tend to be empathetic. However. these optimal parenting practices may be compromised. and multiple jobs. the parents with demanding jobs often experience marital conflict and divorce.

They are more enriched with confidence and empowerment. Phase I of the SECC study followed these children from birth through three years of age and was completed in 1994. was launched with the enrollment of a diverse sample of 1364 children at ten different locations across the United States. Department of Commerce's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) (1997). firefighting. reported that one married father in four provided care for at least one child under the age of 15 while the child's mother was working.2 Literature Review The NICHD Study of Early Child Care or SECC (1991). (A good childcare center should have no more than five children per adult caregiver. Phase III follows the remaining 1100 participating children through 2005. The study found that fathers who provided child care were more likely to be employed in lower-income occupations. more likely to be military veterans. with 50 percent of the children spending 30 hours or more per week in the care of others. 1.) The study found that the type of care (relatives versus nonrelatives) was not significant. S. and more likely to live in the Northeast than in other parts of the United States. maintenance. The report contained three major findings: • A small minority of children (16%) who spent 30 hours or more per week in child care settings were reported to have higher levels of problem behaviors (such as fighting) than children who spent less time in care.The SECC researchers reported in April 2001 that over 90 percent of the children enrolled in the study had spent some time in the care of people other than the mother. They have a high level of morale which they effectively pass on to their offspring. more likely to work in service occupations (police. • The quality of non-maternal child care makes a major difference. security). 3 . Children who were placed in high-quality childcare settings had better language skills and social/emotional development than those who were placed in centers with poorly trained adults or a high number of children per adult caregiver. Phase II followed the 1226 children who remained in the study from age three through second grade between 1995 and 2000.compared to the non-working mothers. The U.

Mothers that are clinically depressed. Telecommuting was the fastest-growing type of alternative work arrangement in the United States as of 2004. These children progress in life and tend to be less cooperative. by e-mail. and environment to the unspoken emotional states of a parent. reported that 97 percent of the companies on their list of the 100 best companies for mothers in the workforce offered compressed workweeks or job sharing opportunities. positive and negative reinforcement. and pager. however. Shaw & Wood (2003). They are able to be there when their children get home from school. attend school plays and other functions. infants are likely to miss the nonverbal learning of sensations connected with loving feelings. encourage open communication. Even when a telecommuting employee is expected to adhere to fixed work hours. and socializing with other employees. Experts caution. have more problem behaviors in school.Amato & Fowler (2002). Mothers who work part-time gain more flexibility and more time with their children. A large body of literature suggests that children appear to do best when parents are warm and supportive. and expect children to follow rules. expressive language. monitor children’s behavior. that a woman who works at home should not expect to 4 . for example. play. are less likely to speak in nurturing tones with their children. It can replace either all or part of one's hours at the workplace. the arrangement still provides a significant savings in time spent dressing for work. and score lower on school readiness. Telecommuters receive and send documents via their company's computer networks and can be available. and verbal comprehension tests. stated that Parental job characteristics may affect children through parenting practices. Working Mother Magazine (2004). stressed that the interaction between parent and child extends beyond talk. and a telecommuter can work either part. Wall Street Journal and the New York Times (2004).or full-time. voice mail. as well as time to devote to their own needs. reported that computer revolution makes possible yet another alternative work option for mothers seeking extra time and a more flexible schedule: telecommuting or working from home. commuting. spend generous amounts of time with children. and take their children to doctor appointments without facing conflicts at work. if necessary. Because of this. and react to misbehavior with discussion rather than harsh punishment.

3 Objectives of the Study Broad Objectives The broad objective of this study is to know the impact of mother’s profession on the health and nutrition of children living in Khulna city.To explor the impact of the profession on their children. 1. They are more enriched with confidence and empowerment. Telecommuting mothers may want to arrange for child care during their working hours and may be interested in establishing boundaries between their work and their family life. 4.To investigate the food and nutrition status of their children. Hoffman (2010). if their wives are working outside. 2.To know about their child caring system. They have a high level of morale which they effectively pass on to their offspring. identified that working moms are more affectionate with their offspring than those who do not have full-time jobs. Specific Objectives 1. 5. 5 . They say that working mothers and their children share more affection between them with more maternal hugs and more expressive verbal affection.To know the health condition of their children. He also reported that more number of husbands come ahead to share a helping hand and lay shoulders to share activities in childcare and household works. It has been found that mothers working outside are less prone to depression and stress compared to the non-working mothers. Lise Youngblade (2010).To evaluate the sufferings of mothers for managing dual function.simultaneously take care of her children. mentioned that having a full-time job is not just good for the children but also for the mother herself. 3.

mental. body and spirit. 6 . or signify group membership in a clan. "Child" may also describe a relationship with a parent or authority figure. of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. it is the general condition of a person in mind. otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Children Children are defined as an individual under the age of 18 years .1. it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time. tribe. a child (plural: children) is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. Nutrition Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision. and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living being. as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties". Some vernacular definitions of a child include the fetus. place.Health in its broader sense is a state of complete physical. or circumstance. as being an unborn child. injury or pain . to cells and organisms.4 Operational definition Professional Mothers Professional mothers refer to women who are mothers and who work outside the home for income in addition to the work they perform at home in raising their children.Biologically. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor. or religion. usually meaning to be free from illness. In humans.

3.1Nature of the Study Since this study was conducted on the health and nutrition of those children whose mothers are involved in many offices or other working sectors.2. Khulna was declared a municipality in 1884.3 Study Area The study area has been selected purposively on the basis of the study. The city originated as a market town and seat of administration. Data were collected from the working mothers who work in different working sectors of Khulna city.2 Method of the Study This study was conducted through survey design which aimed at comprehensive study on specific administrative unit. Industrialization took place in the 1960s. and a city corporation in 1984. 2. criss-crossed by rivers and water channels and surrounded by tidal marshes and swamps. Khulna has a history of about one hundred years. became a railway link in 1985. Khulna City is located on a natural levee of the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers and characterized by Ganges tidal floodplains with low relief. Methodology of the study 2.4 Unit of Analysis 7 . district headquarters in 1961. (FUKUOKA CONFERENCE. Considering all the study objects the study area of this research was selected as 27 and 28 no wards of Khulna City Corporation which was selected purposively. the nature of the study was descriptive which finds out the core nature of the phenomena.2.1: Study Area Profile: Khulna City at a Glance: Khulna is the third largest city in Bangladesh and has been known as an industrial city with a port. During the early days. 2000) 2. tobacco and sugarcane were traded here and it had a shopping link with Calcutta. 2.

2. Here. These are confidence interval and confidence level. Here we can easily determine the sample size from the population. two terms are need. Sample size calculator software is present as a public service of creative research systems. The whole data collection process is based on the study objectives and the respondents of the study were selected simple random sampling method as a sample size of the study. Data were collected from the field using of random sampling method. 2.In order to fulfill the purposes of the study data were collected from those women who are engaged in working sectors aging more than 25 years and have at least one child whose age is under 12.5 Population of the Study All the women who are engaged in work sector having at least one child whose age is under 12 live in Khulna city was considered as the population of the study. Confidence level is 95% Confidence interval is 12 and Total population is 2350 (Sum of two study areas) Now.5 Sampling Procedure and Sample Size Determination Before sampling a census was done by the researcher to identify the respondents and according to the unit of analysis 2350 respondents were identified from the two mentioned wards of Khulna City Corporation. 12 120 8 . Before using the sample size calculator.

Data were collected through interview schedule. which are supplied by some institutions. 2. After the collection of all the data with the help of SPSS and Microsoft office it is arranged and compiled. NGOs and other governmental agencies. Journals and daily newspaper etc. these sources are followingPrimary source: Primary source includes the field where the incidence occurs. 3. which is contained both open and close ended items. 2. The sample size is distributed randomly among the wards based proportionate allocation method. organization. after the cross check of all the data and compiling those data properly. the sample size is 120. 3. which were collected through face to face interaction.So. pamphlets and brochures and from the below department such as-BBS. it is analyzed and 9 . Secondary sources: Secondary data are such a data. For the present study secondary data were collected from some booklets. Books. Again.7 Instrument of Data Collection The study is prepared to modify and finalize through interview schedule.10 Data Analysis and Interpretation All the primary data were collected from the respondents and for the secondary data different sources would be analyzed separately. Here primary sources were working mothers who live in Khulna city.6 Sources of Data There were two sources of data collection from which data were collected for this study. and SPSS. The collection of 120 respondent’s information is collected by simple random sampling method. It is basically primary data. An interview schedule was incorporated in order to data collection. MS EXCEL.9 Data Processing Data were processed through computer with different software like MS WORD.

References 10 . The proposed mathematical model is also estimated by using SPSS 16. 3. finalized and submitted to the supervisor.11 Presentation of Findings Findings are presented through written research report. According to the suggestions the draft report was revised. A draft report is prepared and given to the supervisor for comments and suggestions.processed with appropriate statistical tools.