Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report

For

Exploratory Drilling
In

Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram)

Oil India Limited
Duliajan, Assam

GREEN TECH ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER & CONSULTANTS
Guwahati-28 Assam www.greentecheec.org

I

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS  The On-Shore NELP –VI BLOCK: MZ-ONN-2004/1 located in the Aizwal, Lunglei, and Mamit and Serchhip districts of Mizoram has been allotted by Government of India to Oil India Limited (OIL) and M/S Shiv–Vani Oil & Gas Exploration Services Ltd. for exploration and production of hydrocarbons. OIL is the Operator of the onshore block. The area of the block MZ-ONN-2004/1 is 3213 sq. km. and has the following coordinates: Point
A B C D A The Block map is enclosed.

Latitude, N
23 40’00.00” 23000’00.00” 23000’00.00” 23040’00.00” 23040’00.00”
0

Longitude, E
92032’54.85” 92035’58.00” 93000’00.00” 93000’00.00” 92032’54.85”

As per the Minimum Work Program (MWP) of the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) signed with the Government of India, OIL is required to Drill 06 (Six) wells .Three locations have been identified for drilling. The other three locations will be selected after further geo scientific studies and results of the drilled wells. Each drilling location is finalized based on analysis of the seismic and other geo scientific data. Sequential drilling of 06 (six) wells is planned. Tentative time of commencement of drilling is 2012. Drilling and testing of each well is expected to be completed in about 150 days. In order to obtain the Environmental Clearance (EC) from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), OIL is required to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study in the block to establish present baseline environmental scenario and the likely impact on the same as a result of proposed exploratory drilling and testing of the wells. EIA report is prepared using primary baseline data collected at the site for nearly 5 weeks in nonmonsoon season (March and April, 2011) and secondary data collected from various sources in public domain as well as the project information provided by OIL. Drilling rig and associated system will be used for drilling of the exploratory wells. Water Based Mud (WBM) will be used as drilling fluid which is intrinsically safe and causes minimum environmental disturbances. Facilities for production testing will be created within each exploratory well site. The block and adjoining areas belong to warm per-humid eco-region of North-Eastern Hills in Mizoram with red and laterite soils.

II

Tuirial, Mat, Tuikum, Tut and Tuichang rivers flow through and close to the block area. The block area is tortuous undulated forested terrain along with some thinly populated villages/towns and some agricultural fields in the plains portion of the block. Pollution Sources

 

Use of WBM for drilling is very eco-friendly and will cause minimum environmental disturbances. Major liquid effluents during exploratory drilling and testing will be drilling discharges, drainage discharges, used/wasted WBM and domestic waste water. Drilling discharges will have rock cuttings of sandstone, shale, etc. Wasted WBM will have bentonite clay, barite and other nontoxic ingredients. Liquid effluents from effluent pits before discharge will be treated in Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) to meet on-shore discharge limits and treated effluents will be discharged in nearby river/nullah at a controlled rate, if required. Gaseous emissions will be primarily exhaust gases produced from diesel driven power generators for drilling rig operation and for other uses as well as diesel driven vehicles. These exhaust emissions will primarily contain SO2, NOx, CO, unburnt hydrocarbons etc. Dust will also be generated from vehicular movement on unpaved roads in the block area. Formation fluids (Oil/Gas) generated from the exploratory wells will be tested at site for 3 to 4 days to establish the hydrocarbon production potential. Pollution Control

Liquid effluents will be stored in HDPE lined shallow pits constructed within the exploratory drilling location to prevent contamination of ground aquifers. On well completion, effluent pits will be filled with drill cuttings and solid debris, covered with HDPE sheet and thick layer of soil to form a small mound with proper slope for rain water drainage. Organic solid wastes including sewage and food leftovers generated at temporary camp facilities at the exploratory well site will be disposed off as per approved procedure. Exhaust gases from various power generators will be discharged from stacks of appropriate heights for dispersion in a wider area by atmospheric dispersion process and will result in extremely low incremental ground level concentrations of pollutants in nearby area only. Formation water (if any) produced with oil during exploratory production testing of oil/gas will be treated in a clarification system and treated effluents meeting the on-shore discharge standards will be discharged in nearby river/nullah at a controlled rate, if necessary. Associated gas produced with oil during testing shall be separated and flared.

III

Project Benefits Oil and gas production, if commercially viable, will result in additional revenue generation for the State and Central Governments and will assist in providing energy security to the country. It will also generate some employment potential and lead to infrastructure development of the block area. BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Physiography and Topography

The block and surrounding area is a undulated forested terrain. Tuirial, Mat Tuikum, Tut and Tuichang rivers flow through or close to the block area. Some agricultural fields are observed in the plains section of the block area along with some thinly populated villages/towns. Wild life Sanctuaries

  

Dampa Tiger Reserve forest is outside the block boundary and more than 20km away from the proposed location of OIL 4 & 5. Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary is about 15 km from the proposed location OIL 2. Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary is more than 40 Km away from the proposed location OIL 8. Soils

Area has soils derived from siltstones, shales and sandstones having sufficient water holding capacity with relatively low fertility. Water Resources and Water Quality

Surface water is a perennial source of fresh water. The Tuirial, Mat, Tuikum, Tut and Tuichang rivers flow through the block area. The monitored water quality indicates that surface water (rivers,streams) and ground water (handpump and spring) samples meet desirable limits for potable water and is fit for drinking. Climatology and Meteorology

April is the hottest month and January is the coldest month with monthly mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures of nearly 27.2 and 17.90C, and 20.4 and 11.40C, respectively. Average annual rainfall is 2244.7 mm. June month alone accounts for nearly 21.3% and December to January month’s together account for only 0.6% of annual rainfall at Aizawl. Ambient Air Quality

National ambient air quality standards for residential rural and other area are always met for PM10, PM2.5, SO2 NOx, VOC and Methane at all the locations.

IV Land Use  The land use pattern indicates the presence of open forest. Terrestrial Flora  Warm per-humid climate with moderate to heavy rainfall support a wide range of vegetation in the study area. Different types of orchids are also present. Terrestrial Fauna  Existence of extensive forest ranges support fairly large variety of wildlife. Agricultural Crops  Paddy, maize, oil seeds, pulses, vegetables, etc. are grown to limited extent in the block area. Demographic and Socio-Economic   As per Census 2001, the sex ratio is 958 and literacy rate is 72.29%. The study area has 47.06% main workers out of which 78.74% are cultivators, 1.94% are agricultural labourers, 1.70% are household industry workers and rest 17.62% are other workers. It is pertinent to note that agricultural activities are the main occupation in the block area. There is essentially negligible industrial or commercial activity in the block. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Topography and Physiography  Exploratory drilling and testing of the 06 (Six) wells for oil and gas will have negligible impact on topography and physiography of the area. Soils  There will be no impact on soils of the area except for the collection of rock cuttings, bentonite clay and other non-toxic ingredients of wasted WBM in HDPE lined effluents pits due to drilling of the wells. Water Resources and Quality  Tuirial, Mat Tuikum, Tut and Tuichang rivers are perennial rivers flowing in and close to the block area. Water requirement is expected to be about 40 m3/d to meet drilling operations and 10 m3/d during testing operation at each well for a limited period. Further, recycling of treated water is likely to reduce the water requirement by about 10 m3/day. The construction of HDPE lined shallow effluents pits will ensure that there is no adverse impact on ground water or surface water quality of the block area. The discharge, if required, of treated effluents meeting on-shore discharge standards at a controlled rate will ensure that there is no perceptible adverse impact on surface water quality of nearby nullah/river.

V

Ambient Air Quality  Discharge of exhaust gas emissions from the DG Sets of the drilling rig and due to ground flaring of gaseous hydrocarbons produced during exploratory testing for 3 to 4 days at each of the wells using a properly designed flare pit will ensure that the impact of gaseous pollutants in exhaust emissions is insignificant in surrounding area. Dust generated due to vehicular movement on unpaved roads will settle quickly and will not cause any dust problem in the area. Noise Suitable Acoustic enclosure will ensure that the noise levels at the boundary of well site operational area does not exceed 75 dB(A) during exploratory drilling and testing of the wells and this will ensure that there is insignificant impact of drilling on noise levels during day- and night-time in the surrounding village areas, if any . Land Use  There will be negligible impact on land use of the area because total land requirement for each drilling location is expected to be only about 1.65 hectares. However, some additional land would also be required for making approach road to the drilling site. Terrestrial Flora and Fauna  There will not be any perceptible adverse impact on the terrestrial flora and fauna of the area due to exploratory drilling and testing activities. Demographic and Socio-Economic  The demography of the area will not be affected by temporary presence of nearly 40 to 50 persons during drilling and testing operations for about 150 days at each location. No adverse impact can be expected on socio-economic conditions of the area during exploratory drilling and testing operations. Slight beneficial impact on job opportunity may be expected because some local persons may get temporary employment as unskilled or semi-skilled workers during the drilling phase.

VI

Conclusions  The impact due to exploratory drilling and testing of the wells on various attributes of environment is summarized below:
PROJECT ACTIVITY IMPACT

Proposed access Clearing and timber salvage

Some cutting of trees and excavation/filling may be inevitable.

earth

Cutting of some trees and salvage of timber may be involved for preparation of the drill site and approach road. MoEF guidelines will be followed Insignificant impact. Temporary mobile camp facilities will be used for drilling operations. Insignificant temporary localized impact

Wild life and habitat protection Fuel storage and handling Camps and staging Liquid and solid waste disposal Cultural sites and

archaeological Not applicable The exploratory well sites will be selected after analysis of seismic & other Geo Scientific data. Not applicable water Not applicable since drilling effluents will be stored in HDPE lined shallow pits and well casing will protect deeper fresh water horizons. Necessary care will be taken during drilling and blowout preventors (BOP) will be installed at well mouth for any emergency

Selection of drilling sites

Terrain stabilization Protection horizons of fresh

Blowout prevention plan

Flaring during completion and Separated gases will be flared in suitably production testing designed ground flare pit to minimize adverse impact. Abandonment of wells Will be applicable only if commercial production of oil/gas is unviable from the exploratory well. Not applicable at present Necessary measures will be adopted Insignificant localized impact

Reclamation for abandonment Noise control Debris disposal

Protection of natural drainage Natural drainage will be protected and water flow

VII

RISK ANALYSIS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN  Occurrence of blowout is the major hazard during drilling. However, Blow out preventer (BOP) shall be installed on well head to prevent the same. Since only sweet oil and gas is expected in the block area, hazard due to occurrence of H2S is not likely. Adequate fire fighting facilities will be deployed and suitable personal protective equipments including breathing masks will be available at the drilling site. Doctor and First aid facility will be available at drilling site and a 24 hour standby vehicle (ambulance) will also be available at the site for transport of injured persons to nearest hospital. Quantitative risk assessment indicates that three phase separator during exploratory well testing and HSD storage tanks will have light fire and explosion hazard potential and low toxicity hazard potential. On-site disaster management plan is suggested for quick and efficient emergency handling even though OIL already has well formulated on-site and off-site emergency plans. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN  Use of Water Base Mud (WBM) is very eco-friendly as a drilling fluid and does not require any elaborate environmental management plan. Production testing for oil and gas at the exploratory wells will also not require any specific management plan. Effluents pits will be shallow and HDPE lined to avoid contamination of ground aquifers. Cutting of some trees and earth cutting/filling, if considered necessary, should be minimized as far as possible for exploratory drilling operational area and for making approach road for the movement of vehicles. Personal protective equipments for dust and noise should be used whenever required. Efforts should be made by OIL and its contractors to employ local persons for unskilled and semiskilled jobs and support activities. An appropriate environmental monitoring programme during drilling and testing of wells is recommended.

 

 

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INDEX
CHAPTER CONTENT PAGE NO.

1. 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.5 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.2.2 2.5.3 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION OIL INDIA. LTD. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES OF OIL ACTIVITIES OF OIL OBJECTIVE OF EIA STUDY SCOPE OF EIA STUDY INTRODUCTION BLOCK AREA/STUDY AREA POLICY FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE OF EIA STUDY PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT UNDER NELP / NOMINATION ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE PROCEDURE UNDER EIA 2006 STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS LIQUID EFFLUENTS GASEOUS EMISSIONS DG SETS ELEVATED / GROUND FLARES DISPOSAL OF DRILL CUTTING AND DRILLING FLUIDS PROJECT DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION BLOCK MZ-ONN-2004/1 JUSTIFICATION AND BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT DRILLING OF EXPLORATORY WELLS OIL WELL DRILLING ACTIVITIES RIG SELECTION DRILLING OF OIL/GAS WELL WELL EVALUATION COMPLETION OF DRILLING 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-9 3-17 3-18 AND DISCHARGE OF 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4

3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.3.1 4.3.3.2 4.3.3.3 4.3.3.4 4.3.4 4.3.4.1 4.3.5 4.3.5.1 4.3.5.2 4.3.5.3 4.3.5.4 4.3.6 4.3.6.1 4.3.6.2 4.3.6.3 4.3.6.4 4.3.6.5 4.3.6.6 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5

RIG DEMOBILIZATION MANPOWER AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS EXPLORATORY DRILLING POLLUTION SOURCES TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL STRATEGY FOR POLLUTANTS ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

3-19 3-19 3-22 3-24 3-26

BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: PHYSICAL, BIOLIGICAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC INTRODUCTION SAMPLING/MONITORING LOCATIONS PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT TOPOGRAPHY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS WATER RESOURCES AND WATER QUALITY WATER RESOURCES RAINFALL IN THE STUDY AREA SURFACE AND GROUND WATER RESOURCES WATER QUALITY IN STUDY AREA CLIMATOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY INTRODUCTION AMBIENT AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY OF MONITORING AND ANALYSIS AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STATUS AMBIENT NOISE LEVELS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY EQUIVALENT SOUND ENERGY LEVEL OR LEQ AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS IN RESPECT OF NOISE LAND USE LAND USE: SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION TERRESTRIAL FLORA TERRESTRIAL FAUNA AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE STUDY AREA DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-11 4-11 4-11 4-12 4-12 4-13 4-13 4-23 4-23 4-24 4-31 4-39 4-40

4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3.1 4.6.3.2 4.6.5 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.10 5.11 6. 6.1

INTRODUCTION POPULATION POPULATION DENSITY SEX RATIO SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES LITERACY SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION EMPLOYMENT PATTERN EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES MEDICAL FACILITIES INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION TOPOGRAPHY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS WATER RESOURCE AND WATER QUALITY CLIMATOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY NOISE AND VIBRATIONS LAND USE BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT TERRESTRIAL FLORA TERRESTRIAL FAUNA DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT CONCLUSIONS RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT, CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY DURING DRILLING AND PRODUCTION TESTING INTRODUCTION IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS IN DRILLING AND PRODUCTION TESTING MINOR OIL SPILL MAJOR OIL SPILL BLOWOUT HYDROGEN SULPHIDE (H2S)

4-40 4-40 4-41 4-41 4-42 4-42 4-43 4-43 4-43 4-45 4-45 4-45

5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-7

6-1

6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.2.1 6.1.2.2 6.1.2.3 6.1.2.4

6-1 6-2 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-3

6.1.3 6.1.3.1 6.1.3.2 6.1.3.3 6.1.4 6.1.4.1 6.1.4.2 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.1.1 6.4.1.2 6.4.1.3 6.4.1.4 6.4.2 6.4.2.1 6.4.2.2 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 7.5.5 7.5.6 7.5.7 7.5.8 7.5.9

CONTROL MEASURES FOR MAJOR HAZARDS BLOWOUT CONTROL MEASURES FOR H2S DURING DRILLING CONTROL MEASURES FOR H2S DURING PRODUCTION TESTING FIRE FIGHTING FACILITY FIRE WATER SYSTEM FIRST AID FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS AT DRILLING RIG FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS FOR PRODUCTION TESTING FACILITIES MEDICAL FACILITIES QUANTATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX & TOXICITY INDEX HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY F&EI COMPUTATION TOXICITY INDEX (TI) HAZARDS RANKING CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RISK REDUCTION DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM OF OIL EMERGENCY CLASSIFICATION LEVEL 1 EMERGENCY LEVEL 2 EMERGENCY LEVEL 3 EMERGENCY METHODOLOGY OF DMP PREPARATION ON-SITE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN SITE MAIN CONTROLLER THE SITE INCIDENT CONTROLLER TEAM THE AUXILIARY TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES OF SITE MAIN CONTROLLER (SMC) RESPONSIBILITIES OF SITE INCIDENT CONTROLLER (SIC) RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUXILIARY TEAM CONTROLLER (ATC) RESPONSIBILITIES OF SIC SUPERVISORS RESPONSIBILITIES OF ATC SUPERVISORS WARNING SYSTEM

6-4 6-4 6-7 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-11 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-14 6-14 6-14 6-15 6-15

7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-6 7-6

7.5.10 7.5.11 7.5.11.1 7.5.11.2 7.5.11.3 7.5.12 7.5.13 7.6 8 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 9

EMERGENCY PLAN INITIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES LEVEL 1 EMERGENCIES LEVEL 2 EMERGENCIES LEVEL 3 EMERGENCIES ACCIDENT SITE CLEAN UP EMERGENCY RESPONSE PERSONNEL SAFETY ALL CLEAR SIGNAL AND PUBLIC STATEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION MITIGATIVE MEASURES FOR MINIMISING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS GENERAL MEASURES REQUIRED DURING DRILLING AND TESTING SPECIFIC MEASURES REQUIRED DURING DRILLING AND PRODUCTION TESTING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME CONSULTANTS ENGAGED

7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-8

8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-4 8-4 9-1

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4.1 TABLE 4.2 TABLE 4.3 TABLE 4.4 TABLE 4.5 TABLE 4.5 TABLE 4.6(a) TABLE 4.6(b) TABLE 4.7(a) TABLE 4.7(b) TABLE 4.8 TABLE 4.9 TABLE 6.1 TABLE 6.2 TABLE 6.3 TABLE 6.4 TABLE 6.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN STUDY AREA DISTRICT –WISE MONTHLY AVERAGE RAINFALL WATER QUALITY AT STUDY AREA AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN MIZORAM BLOCK AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN MIZORAM BLOCK( VOC) AMBIENT STANDARDS IN RESPECT OF NOISE LIST OF FLORA IN STUDY AREA LIST OF FAUNA STUDY AREA POPULATION OF STUDY AREA (2001) HOUSEHOLD AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE OF STUDY AREA (2001) EDUCATION LEVEL AND WORK STATUS EMPLOYMENT PATTERN CHARACTERISTICS OF H2S GAS DETERMINATION OF THE FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX AND OF THE TOXICITY INDEX HAZARD RANKING TOLERABLE RADIATION INTENSITIES FOR VARIOUS OBJECTS DAMAGE DUE TO INCIDENT RADIATION INTENSITY 4-3 4-2 4-7 4-10 4.11 4-12 4-24 4-31 4-40 4-41 4-42 4.43 6-17 6-18 6-20 6-20 6-21

LIST OF FIGURES FIG 1.1 LOCATION MAP OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT SITE WITH ROAD NETWORK LAYOUT MAP OF BLOCK MZ-ONN-2004/1 DRILLING RIG AND ALLIED EQUIPMENTS DRILLING RIG WELL BORE DIAGRAM A TYPICAL BOP STACK LOCATION MAP OF PROPOSED SITE ETM LAND USE CLASSES AROUND THE PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION MAP OF LOCATION 4 AND 5 ETM OF LOCATION 4 AND 5 LAND USE CLASSES AROUND LOCATION 4 AND 5 LOCATION MAP OF LOCATION 8 ETM OF LOCATION 8 LAND USE CLASSES AROUND LOCATION 8

1-6 1-7 3-5 3-8 3-10 3-16 4-14 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-22

FIG 1.2 FIG 3.1 FIG 3.2 FIG 3.3 FIG 3.4 FIG 4.1 FIG 4.2 FIG 4.3 FIG 4.4 FIG 4.5 FIG 4.6 FIG 4.7 FIG 4.8 FIG 4.9

LIST OF PLATES PLATE 4.1 PLATE 4.2 PLATE 4.3 CARRYING OF WATER IN CART HUMAN SETTLEMENT OPEN FOREST 4-5 4-23 4-23

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION A consortium of Oil India Ltd. (OIL) with 75% participating interest (PI), Shiv-Vani Oil & Gas Exploration Services with 15% PI and Suntera Resources Ltd. with 10% PI has signed a production sharing contract (PSC) with the Government of India for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the Exploration Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 falling in Lunglei, Serchhip, Aizawl and Mamit districts in Mizoram under NELP-VI. PSC designates OIL as the Operator of the block. The block is located in central part of Mizoram primarily within Lunglei, Serchhip and Aizawl districts eventhough a small portion falls in Mamit district. The total area of the block is 3213 sq. km and lies towards south of Aizawl, the capital city of Mizoram. To best of our knowledge, exploratory drilling has not been carried at any place in the block so far. Acquisition, processing and interpretation of 2-D and 3-D Seismic Survey, Gravity Magnetic Survey, Geochemical Survey are in progress for the block MZ-ONN-2004/1. Based on seismic data analysis, OIL is planning to carry out exploratory drilling and testing at 5 promising locations in Phase I within 2007-2012 and at 1 location in Phase II during 2012-15 period within the block area as per the minimum work programme (MWP) outlined in PSC to establish the techno-economic viability for production of hydrocarbons in the block area within a period of 8 years, that is, 2007-15. In addition to these exploratory wells, as per PSC requirement, additional appraisal/delineation wells need to be drilled for commercial production in case of discovery of oil/gas. The location of block MZ-ONN-2004/1 in administrative map of Mizoram, capital city Aizawl and other important town/villages are shown in Fig. 1.1. The Capital city Aizawl is nearly 5 km north of the northern boundary of the block. 1.2 OIL INDIA LTD. The story of Oil India Limited (OIL) symbolizes and traces the development and growth of India’s petroleum industry. From the first commercial discovery of crude oil in the far east of India at Digboi (Assam) to becoming a fully integrated upstream petroleum company, OIL has traversed a great distance. In the process, it has crossed many a milestone. In 1889, crude oil was first discovered in the fields of Digboi. On 18th February, 1959, Oil India Private Limited was incorporated to expand and develop the newly discovered oil fields of Naharkatiya and Moran in the North East of India. In 1961, OIL became a
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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-2 joint venture company between the Government of India and Burmah Oil Company Limited, UK. Two decades later, in 1981, Oil India Limited became a wholly owned Government of India enterprise. Today, Oil India Limited (OIL) is a premier Indian National Oil Company engaged in the business of Exploration, Development and Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, Transportation of Crude Oil and Production of LPG. The Company also provides various E&P related services to the industry and holds 26% equity in Numaligarh Refinery Ltd. 1.2.1 Corporate Objectives of OIL   Exploration for new oil and gas reserves. Development of discovered oil fields and increased recovery from matured and developed fields.        Acquisition of new exploration acreage and oil and gas producing properties. Venturing into oil fields service sector and participation in mainstream activities. Enhanced implementation of EHS measures in operations. Sustain and promote environmental protection. Optimum utilization of human resources. Engage in Corporate Social Responsibility activities in operational areas. Ensure reasonable return on capital and optimize cost of production.

1.2.2 Activities of OIL OIL is operating in 53 blocks and has participating interest in another 16 blocks with a total of over 1,00,000 sq. km of licensed areas. It produces 70,000 bbls/day of crude oil and 260 MMSCFD of natural gas, with a total production of oil and oil equivalent of 1,11,000 bbls/day. To achieve its vision to be the fastest growing company, the company has realized the need to look beyond the shores of India. Aggressively seeking for overseas business opportunity is one of the strategic goals of OIL. Within a short span of 4-5 years, OIL is already present in 6 countries like Iran, Libya, Gabon, Sudan, Yemen and Nigeria. The focus is also on West Africa, CIS countries, Middle-East countries, etc. With the discovery of heavy oil in Farsi Block in Iran, OIL already has tasted its first success overseas.

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-3 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF EIA STUDY It is recognized that the petroleum operations, such as, exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage will cause some impact on the environment of the block area and its surrounding area. It is, therefore, expected that the petroleum operations shall be carried out with proper regard to concerns with respect to protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources in the contract and surrounding areas. Accordingly, the Government of India issued guidelines to the contractor of exploration block for execution of environmental work as a part of the production sharing contract (PSC). Briefly these are as follows:   use of advanced techniques, practices and methods of operation to prevent environmental damage; take measures, in consultation with the Government to minimize adverse impact on the environment where some adverse impact on the environment is unavoidable;  prepare contingency plan for oil spills, fires and other emergencies before commencement of drilling operations; and  remove installation and restore site after the expiry of contract.

OIL desires that the environmental impact assessment (EIA) study should not be limited to areas close to 6 exploratory wells where drilling is likely to commence in the year 2011 but should also include other block area because exact locations are not yet identified and will be finalized only after completion of seismic, gravity magnetic and geochemical data acquisition, processing and interpretation well before the tentative commencement of exploratory drilling in the year 2011. Furthermore, the selection of promising locations is a dynamic process resulting in changes in coordinates of drilling locations on the basis of results of testing of wells already drilled as well as further analysis of seismic and other data. Drilling operation is planned sequentially. EIA study related to exploration drilling and testing operations is required to be completed before commencement of drilling operations under E&P programme and shall be submitted by the Operator and specific approval, that is, environmental clearance (EC) from Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, and consent to establish (NOC) and consent to operate under Air and Water Acts from MSPCB will be required as per EIA notification dated 14th September 2006 (EIA 2006).

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-4 1.4 SCOPE OF EIA STUDY

1.4.1 Introduction The purpose of REIA is to identify and evaluate the potential impacts (beneficial and adverse) of proposed drilling of 8 exploratory wells within 2012 in Phase I and 1 more exploratory well during 2012-15 period in Phase II as a part of proposed E&P programme in the block MZ-ONN-2004/1.The EIA Study to be carried out as per TORs F.No.J-11011/877/2007-IA II (I) dated 24th Dec, 2007 1.5 BLOCK AREA/STUDY AREA Fig. 1.1 shows the administrative map of Mizoram and the location of block MZ-ONN2004/1 in Mamit, Aizawl, Serchhip and Lunglei districts. The block lies in the central part of Mizoram. Mizoram has Bangladesh towards west and Myanmar towards south and east. The block area is well connected by NH-54 and a network of other all weather roads though journey time is quite large due to tortuous undulated forested terrain. The nearest railhead is Silchar in Assam. National Highway (NH-54) runs north-to-south connecting Silchar to Aizawl, Serchhip, Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha and Tuipang V. Aizawl is the capital city of Mizoram and is nearly 5 km north of northern boundary A-D of the block. Aizawl is linked by air to the rest of India and the nearest international airport is located at Kolkata in West Bengal. Fig. 1.2 shows the lay out map of the block MZ-ONN-2004/1. The block has a trapezium shape and lies between 23000’00” to 23040’00” N latitude and 92032’54.85” to 93000’00.00” E longitude and is located on Survey of India toposheets 84 A/10, 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16 (all restricted). The block coordinates are as follows:

Point A B C D A

Latitude, N 23 40’00.00” 23000’00.00” 23000’00.00” 23040’00.00” 23040’00.00”
0

Longitude, E 92032’54.85” 92035’58.00” 93000’00.00” 93000’00.00” 92032’54.85”

Agro-ecologically the block area is North-eastern Hills (Purvanchal), warm, perhumid ecoregion, with red and lateritic soils. Soils have been derived from siltstones,

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-5 sandstones and shales. The climate is tropical warm and per-humid with an average annual rainfall of nearly 2400 to 3500 mm. However, due to complexity of physiography various microclimates prevail from high elevation to low elevation. Since 2-D and 3-D seismic survey, gravity magnetic survey and geochemical survey are likely to cover the entire block area except area under wildlife sanctuary/national park, if any, the entire block area of 3213 sq. km is considered as the study area. The area is thinly populated undulating forested terrain interspersed with rivers/nullahs with some agricultural fields existing in plains section of the block area.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-6 FIG 1.1: LOCATION MAP OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT SITE WITH ROAD NETWORK

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-7

FIG 1.2: LAY OUT MAP OF THE BLOCK MZ-ONN-2004/1

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 1-8

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-1 CHAPTER 2: POLICY FRAMEWORK 2.1 INTRODUCTION In India, Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) was made mandatory as per Environmental Impact Assessment notification dated 27.01.1994 (EIA 1994). Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) issued a new EIA notification on 14.09.2006 (EIA 2006) which supersedes EIA 1994 under the purview of Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986 with the following objectives:  Identify and predict likely impacts based on activities of those components of project which directly interact with the environment.    Find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts. Shape the projects to suit local environment. Present the predictions and options to the decision-makers or statutory bodies, such as, State Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India, Director General of Hydrocarbons (DGH), etc. 2.2 OBJECTIVE OF EIA STUDY The EIA study is expected to cover at least the following matters:  Description of the proposed activities including likely waste generation and measures incorporated to meet environmental standards.   Description of the base environmental and climatic conditions. Analysis of land use pattern, water consumption (and water balance), power consumption, etc. along with the social and health impacts.  An assessment of likely or potential environmental impacts of the proposed activity (like air, water and soil pollution, noise generation) and the alternatives, including the direct or indirect, cumulative, short-term and long-term effects.  An environmental management plan to mitigate or ameliorate negative effects on environment including post implementation monitoring programme. The EIA report for all offshore and onshore oil and gas exploration, development and production projects shall be submitted to MoEF for

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-2 environmental clearance following the procedure prescribed in EIA 2006. The EIA report shall also be submitted to DGH for approval. 2.3 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT UNDER NELP/NOMINATION In early 1990s, Government of India (GOI) formulated a New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) under Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoP&NG) to encourage private sector participation for exploration and production (E&P) of oil and gas both by Indian and foreign E&P operators on Production Sharing Contract (PSC) basis to meet ever rising demand of petroleum products in India. The PSC is a mutual agreement between GOI and an Operator. Article 14 on Protection of Environment is now also applicable to old blocks/areas which were awarded prior to the formulation of NELP for exploration and production of oil and gas and are not under PSC. As per Article 14 on Protection of Environment, the Government and the Contactor (OIL) recognize that the petroleum operations will cause some impact on the environment in the contract or license area. Accordingly in performance of the contract the operator shall conduct its petroleum operations with due regard to concerns with respect to protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources. Environmental clearance is now necessary from the regulatory authority (MoEF) for exploratory surveys and drilling as well as production to be undertaken by the Operator. Conditions as applicable under such environmental clearance based on the Environmental Impact Assessment reports are required to be followed by the Operator. GOI monitors the implementation of these conditions. Some of the conditions include: 1. No survey or drilling or production activity can be conducted in national parks, sanctuaries, mangroves, wetlands of national importance, biossphere reserves and other biologically sensitive areas. 2. Passage through national parks, sanctuaries, mangroves and wetlands of national importance and biosphere reserves would not be permitted. However, if there is no passage other than through these places to reach a particular point of survey or drilling or production beyond, then the

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-3 Operator may obtain the permission of the concerned authorities (Chief Wildlife Warden/ Director of the Biosphere Reserve) 3. In case cutting of trees being involved for survey or drilling or production purpose, compensatory afforestation would be done within a time frame. 4. Approval for diversification of forest land involved, if any, would have to be obtained specifically in each case. 5. Advanced techniques, practices and methods are to be used to prevent environmental damage. 6. Measures are to be taken in consultation with the Government to minimize adverse impact on the environment where some adverse impact on the environment is unavoidable. 7. Three EIA studies are to be carried out as under:  First EIA study is to be carried out before any field work relating to seismic or other survey;  Second EIA study is to be carried out before commencement of exploration drilling operations; and  Third EIA study is to be carried out before commencement of production operations. 8. Contingency plan for oil spills, fires and other emergencies is to be prepared before commencement of drilling and production operations. 9. Installation is to be removed and site is to be restored after the expiry of contract. 10. The Government may revoke clearance if implementation of the above conditions is not satisfactory. 11. The above conditions will be enforced inter alia under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, Air (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act 1981 and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 along with their amendments and rules. 2.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE PROCEDURE UNDER EIA 2006 EIA 2006 categorizes all oil and gas exploration, development and production projects under category A, except for seismic and other exploratory surveys,

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-4 and require project proponents to apply on prescribed Form 1 for prior environmental clearance (EC) to MoEF before commencing any construction activity or preparation of land at the site. EC process will involve three stages, namely, Scoping, Public Consultation and Appraisal. Scoping involves finalization of comprehensive terms of reference (ToR) for the preparation of draft EIA report by the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) of MoEF. Public Consultation, except for seismic and other exploratory, survey will be carried out by the State Pollution Control Board to ascertain the concerns of local affected persons and others who have plausible stake in the environmental impact of the project by making available the Summary of EIA Report and holding a Public Hearing as per the prescribed procedure. EAC will then carry out the appraisal of the application including final EIA report and outcome of public consultation including public hearing proceedings for grant of EC. Environment Impact Assessment Authority (EIAA), that is, MoEF will then consider the recommendation of EAC for the grant of EC. Prescribed time frame for various stages for EC are: 60 days by EAC for finalization of TOR after submission of application on Form 1, 45 days for public consultation after receiving request for the same from project proponent along with EIA report and summary of the EIA report, 60 days by EAC for appraisal after receipt of final EIA report and proceeding of public hearing, and 45 days by MoEF for considering the recommendation of EAC for the grant of EC. It is presumed that the baseline data collection will start after finalization of ToR and time required for the same and for the preparation of draft EIA report as well as that required for preparation of final EIA report after considering material environmental concerns expressed during public consultation will be in addition to the prescribed time frame specified above. 2.5 STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS AND DISCHARGE OF

For the purposes of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing and abating environmental pollution, the standards for emissions and discharge of environmental pollutants from Oil Drilling and Gas Extraction Industry situated on land and away from saline water sink specified by MoEF are as follows
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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-5 2.5.1 Liquid Effluents Industry may opt either for disposal of treated water by on-shore disposal or by re-injection in abandoned well, which is allowed only below a depth of 1000 metres from the ground level. In case of re-injection in abandoned well the effluent have to comply only with respect to suspended solids and oil and grease at 100 mg/l and 10 mg/l, respectively. For on-shore disposal, the permissible limits are given below:

Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Parameter

On-shore discharge standards (Not to Exceed)

pH Temperature Suspended Solids Zinc BOD COD Chlorides Sulphates TDS % Sodium Oil and Grease Phenolics Cyanides Fluorides Sulphides Chromium (Cr+6) Chromium (Total) Copper Lead Mercury Nickel

5.5 - 9.0 400C 100 mg/l 2 mg /l 30 mg/l 100 mg/l 600 mg/l 1000 mg/l 2100 mg/l 60 mg/l 10 mg/l 1.2 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 1.5 mg/l 2.0 mg/l 0.1 mg/l 1.0 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 0.1 mg/l 0.01 mg/l 3.0 mg/l

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-6 2.5.2 Gaseous Emissions 2.5.2.1 DG Sets DG sets at drill site as well as production station shall conform with the norm notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. 2.5.2.2 Elevated/Ground Flares A. Cold Venting of gases shall never be resorted to and all the gaseous emissions are to be flared. B. All flaring shall be done by elevated flares except where there is any effect on crop production in adjoining areas due to the flaring. In such cases, one may adopt ground flaring. C. In case of ground flare, to minimize the effects of flaring, the flare pit at Group Gathering Station (GGS), Oil Collecting Station (OCS) and Group Collection Station (GCS) shall be made of RCC surrounded by a permanent wall (made of refractory brick) of minimum 5 m height to reduce the radiation and glaring effects in the adjoining areas. D. A green belt of 100 m width may be developed around the flare after the refractory wall in case of ground flaring. E. If the ground flaring with provision of green belt is not feasible, enclosed ground flare system shall be adopted, and be designed with proper enclosure height, to meet the ground level concentration (GLC) requirement. F. In case of elevated flaring, the minimum stack height shall be 30 m. Height of the stack shall be such that the maximum GLC never exceeds the prescribed ambient air quality limit. G. Burning of effluent in the pits shall not be carried out at any stage. 2.5.3 Disposal of Drill Cutting and Drilling Fluids A. Drill Cuttings (DC) originating from on-shore or locations close to shore line and separated from Water Base Mud (WBM) should be properly washed and unusable drilling fluids (DF) such as WBM, Oil Base Mud (OBM), Synthetic Base Mud (SBM) should be disposed off in a well designed pit lined with impervious liner located off-site or on-site. The

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-7 disposal pit should be provided additionally with leachate collection system. Design aspects of the impervious waste disposal pit; capping of disposal pit should be informed by the oil industry to State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) at the time of obtaining consent. B. Use of diesel base mud is prohibited. Only WBM should be used for onshore oil drilling operations. C. In case of any problem due to geological formation for drilling, low toxicity OBM having aromatic content <1% should be used. If the operators intend to use such OBM to mitigate specific well problem/SBM it should be intimated to Ministry of Environment and Forests/State Pollution Control Board. D. The chemical additives used for the preparation of DF should have low toxicity i.e. 96 hr LC50 > 30, 000 mg/l as per mysid toxicity or toxicity test conducted on locally available sensitive fish species. The chemicals used (mainly organic constituents) should be biodegradable. E. DC separated from OBM after washing should have oil content at < 10 gm/kg for disposal into disposal pit. F. The waste pit after it is filled up shall be covered with impervious liner, over which, a thick layer of native soil with proper top slope is provided. G. Low toxicity OBM should be made available at installation during drilling operation. H. Drilling wastewater including DC wash water should be collected in the disposal pit evaporated or treated and should comply with the notified standards for on-shore disposal. I. Barite used in preparation of DF shall not contain Hg >1 mg/kg and Cd > 3 mg/kg. J. Total material acquired for preparation of drill site must be restored after completion of drilling operation leaving no waste material at site. SPCB should be informed about the restoration work. K. In case, environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of drill waste such as (a) injection to a formation through casing annuals, if conditions allow (b) land farming at suitable location (c) bio-remediation (d)
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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 2-8 incineration or (e) solidification can be considered, in such cases oil industry is required to submit proposal to Ministry of Environment and Forests/State Pollution Control Board (MoEF/SPCB) for approval.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-1

CHAPTER 3: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1 

INTRODUCTION

The On-Shore NELP –VI BLOCK: MZ-ONN-2004/1 located in the Aizwal, Lunglei, Mamit and Serchhip districts of Mizoram has been allotted by Government of India to Oil India Limited (OIL) and M/S Shiv–Vani Oil & Gas Exploration Services Ltd. for exploration and production of hydrocarbons. OIL is the Operator of the block. As per the Minimum Work Program (MWP) of the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) signed with the Government of India, OIL is required to Drill 06 (Six) wells .Three locations have been identified for drilling. The other three locations will be selected after further geo scientific studies and data gathered from the drilled wells.

Salient features of the project : Five (05) Nos. in phase I Number of wells One (01) No. in phase II

The above is as per MWP Name and area of Block District(s) State Depth Estimated drilling Period Type of Hydrocarbon expected Cost of Project MZ-ONN-2004/1 and 3213 Km2 Aizawl, Mamit, Serchhip and Lunglei Districts. Mizoram 4000 - 5500m ( tentative) 150 days (approx) for each well Oil/Gas INR 300 crores (approx) for Six Wells

3.2

BLOCK MZ-ONN-2004/1 AREA

The block covers an area of 3213 km2 in the central part of the state. It starts from about 5 kms South of Aizawl and ends 6 kms. East of Hnahthial Town, covering four districts, viz. Aizawl. Sechhip, Mamit and Lunglei Districts. The coordinates are given below.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-2

POINTS A B C D A DEG 23 23 23 23 23

LATITUDE MIN 40 00 00 40 40

SEC 00 00 00 00 00

DEG 92 92 93 93 92

LONGITUDE MIN 32 35 00 00 32

SEC 54.85 58 00 00 54.85

Drilling Locations Coordinates of the drilling locations which have been released are as follows: Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 3.3 LOCATIO N OIL 2 OIL 4 OIL 5 OIL 8 Easting 3034138 3009334 3008350 3027949 CO-ORDINATES Northing Longitude 650176 92o51’06.49” 638426 92o36’23.21” 635893 92o35’46.75” 618948 92o47’04.69” Latitude 23 35’00.87” 23o28’55.71” 23o27’33.99” 23o18’10.04”
o

JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT

To determine the presence of hydrocarbons and to evaluate the recoverable reserves in the Mizoram Block, 2D seismic surveys and other Geo-scientific studies have been carried out. OIL is now planning to drill six (6) exploratory wells for obtaining more precise estimate of expected total reserves of hydrocarbon and techno-economic viability of Oil/gas production. 3.4 BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT

Commercially viable production of Oil / Gas from the block is likely to render the following benefits i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Economic assistance to the Govt. of Mizoram from more royalty. Employment potential for local people. Overall infrastructure development. Increase in business opportunities. More assistance from OIL towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). More cess to central Govt. Overall societal benefit.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-3

3.5

DRILLING OF EXPLORATORY WELL

Introduction To establish the presence of hydrocarbon and evaluate its commercial viability Oil/Gas has to be flown from the underground hydrocarbon bearing reservoir to the surface. This is achieved by drilling an oil well. OIL is planning to drill six (6) wells to determine the hydrocarbon prospects and reserves. Drilling operations will be carried out up to a depth range of 4000m to 5000m (approx). The lithological details at the proposed drilling locations are expected to be as follows: Tentative Stratigraphy of Mizoram area

Age

Group

Formation Upper Bhuban

Intervals (m) Surface1200 1200-3200

Lithology Thin bedded to massive s.st. Grossly s.st with interlaminated silt st & shale. Thin bedded shales, s.st & silt st. Predominantly shale with thin beds of s.st & silt st. Dominantly carbonaceous shales, silt st & s.st. Thin bedded s.st, silt st, shales & carbonaceous shale. Predominantly thick unit of dark, indurated shale interbedded with occasional bands of s.st & L.st.

Miocene

Surma

Middle Buhban Lower Bhuban

3200-4200

Renji
Oligocene Barail

4200-5000

Jenam

5000-6200

Laisong PalaeoceneEocene Disang Up. Disang Group Lr. Disang Precambrian

6200-7700

770011000

Basement

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-4

3.6 OIL WELL DRILLING ACTIVITIES Planning and execution of an exploratory drilling well involves the following activities: Geo scientific data acquisition, processing, interpretation / analysis and release of drilling location by Geo-science team. Site survey and access road alignment (if any) - will be undertaken through consultants/contractors.  Land acquisition and removal of vegetation- Necessary approvals and compensatory afforestation etc through concerned forest department.  Access road and well site preparation by civil contractors.  Well design & Planning  Rig Selection  Oil well Drilling.  Production Testing.  Well site restoration.  Rig movement SITE SELECTION The location of the exploratory wells have been released by Geo-science department of OIL based on the geo-scientific survey/studies. Thereafter, the site survey was carried out by approved consultant/contractor and site was finalized considering the following environmental factors:  At a reasonable distance (minimum 500m) from any river or stream.  Minimise cutting of trees and alteration of natural contours.  Avoid National Park/ Wild Life Sanctuary/ Eco-sensitive area.  Without affecting drainage Avoid or minimize detrimental effects on the surrounding environment The exploratory oil well drilling would be a short duration (about150days) activity at each location. SITE ACQUISITION AND SITE PREPARATION

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-5 A flat drilling site of about 2.781 hectares of land which is almost rectangular in shape (175mX140m) would be required to accommodate the drilling rig and allied equipment, effluent pit, flare pit, boiler, office bunk houses etc.Some additional land would also be required for preparation of approach road. WELL DESIGN & PLANNING Before commencing drilling operations the following need to be designed and planned taking into consideration the vital geo-scientific information  Type of well- (Vertical or deviated) & Total depth.  Well bore sizes & Casing setting depths, sizes and grades.  Drill string confugaration.  Drilling fluid (mud) and Hydraulics programme.  Cementing programme  Wire line logging programme.  Well testing programme.  Procurement of various consumables like bits, casing pipes, chemicals, cements etc. 3.7 RIG SELECTION

The Drilling Rig and allied equipment are selected as a package on the basis of total depth of the wells to be drilled, geological formations, downhole pressures and complications that are likely to be encountered. OIL is planning to deploy a suitable 2000HP Diesel- Electric AC SCR Rig. Schematic diagram of rig operation is given below:

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-6

The Rig to be deployed would be required to have the following equipment and rating/ specification.  DRAW WORKS Input horse power (HP) rating - 2000 HP (minimum) with nominal depth rating 5500 m (minimum) with 5” OD drill pipes. Draw works will be operated by minimum two DC motors of GE-752 make or equivalent.  MAST & SUB-STRUCTURE Swing lift cantilever type self elevating mast & substructure with minimum clear height of 147 feet. It will have a hook load capacity (derrick capacity) of 1,000,000 lbs (1000 KPS).Casing capacity 800,000lbs(apprx) simultaneously with 550,000lbs of racked pipes. Substructure to have a clearance of minimum25 feet from ground level to underneath of the rotary table beam.  ROTARY SWIVEL Rotary Swivel to have a minimum API dead load rating of 500 Tons with 5000 Psi working pressure (minimum).  TRAVELLING BLOCK Unitized traveling block and hook assembly of 500 Tons capacity with 6 sheaves grooved suitable for drill line and with minimum 12 lines operation.  POWER PACK Engines minimum 4 (four) numbers turbocharged, after cooled, air start, diesel driven, 1010 hp@1500 rpm. Generators – 1500 kVA (each), 600 V, 1500 rpm, 0.7 PF, 50 Hz.  SCR SYSTEM One RIGHILL electrical SCR system  MUD PUMP

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-7 Two nos of triplex single acting mud pumps with input horse power rating of 1600 (minimum) each driven by 2 DC motors of matching HP rating or equivalent.  DRILL PIPES A minimum of 6000 m of 5” OD drill pipe consisting of 19.5 PPF Grade ‘G’ flash/friction welded, tapered or square shoulder, in range 2 length.  DRILL COLLARS Suitable size and numbers of Drill Collars to be used.  BOP CONTROL UNIT Proper BOP (Blow Out Preventer) stack and associated Well Control Equipment (as per applicable API specification) will be used for the drilling operation to contain any unexpected pressures from the well.  TOTAL TANK VOLUME A mud system having an active capacity of 220 m3 and gross capacity of about 400 m3, including reserve capacity will be used for drilling operation.  Emergency Systems – this includes fire & other hazard detection and protection equipment. MBBS Doctor and an ambulance emergency medical attention, round the clock.  Safety/protective appliances – all the personnel working in the drill site will be provided with safety & protective appliances like helmet,safety boots,hand gloves ,goggles , etc. as per the OMR and other Govt. regulations.  Environmental Protection – Blow Out Prevention (BOP) system, drill cuttings handling equipment, effluent pit with recycling arrangement and other facilities which may be required for protection of environment will be in place.  SUPPORT SYSTEM Portable Living Quarters – to house essential personnel on site on a 24 hour basis. These units are provided with Bath/Washroom. Crane-age – cranes for loading/off loading equipment and supplies. Vehicle requirement for inter location movement (ILM)- The Drilling rig components including associated equipment etc comprise of about 90 truck/trailer loads. will be available at site for

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-8

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-9 TYPICAL DRILLING RIG AND ASSOCIATED SYSTEM 3.8 DRILLING OF OIL/GAS WELL  Well construction: Drilling wells are drilled in sections, with the diameter of each section decreasing with increasing depth. The lengths and diameters of each section of the well are determined prior to drilling through well design. The profile of a typical well ( 5000m) is given below.

Hole Size (Inch) 26” 17-1/2” 12 -1/4” 8-1/2” 5-7/8”

Casing Size (Inch) 20” 13⅜” 9⅝” 7” 4-1/2”

Depth of Shoe (meters below rotary table) 0- 150 0 - 900 0-3000 3000- 4200 4200-5000

Well spudding is the start of drilling activity. Top-hole section will be drilled to a desired depth based on well design. After drilling top-hole section, it will be cased with a pipe called "Casing". The casing provides support to the drill hole wall and secures the hole-section. Other than this, it isolates problematic hole-sections such as loose zones, shale sections, over pressurized formations, etc. After running casing, the space between hole wall and casing (annulus) will be cemented. This process of drilling and casing the hole-sections as per the well design until the final well depth ( target) is achieved.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-10

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-11

Drilling Fluid Plan

During drilling operations a fluid known as drilling fluid (mud) is pumped through the drill string down to the drilling bit and returns between the drill pipe and hole / casing annulus up to surface back into the circulation system after separation of drill cuttings / solids through solids control equipment.    Drilling fluid is essential to the drilling

operation and performs the following functions: Cleans the bottom of the hole by removing the cuttings and carrying them to surface. Cools and lubricates drill bit and string. Continuously builds a wall around the inside of the hole which prevents the hole from caving in.  Counters natural formation pressures, preventing the uncontrolled flow of oil, gas, or water into the borehole.       Holds cuttings and weight material in suspension, when circulation is stopped. Supports part of the weight of drill pipes, casing ,tubing,etc. Transmits hydraulic horse power to the bit. Acts as medium for electrical well logging. Ensures maximum information about the formations penetrated. Prevents corrosion of tubulars

TYPE OF DRILLING FLUID (MUD) An environment-friendly Water-Based Mud (WBM) system will be used for drilling of the proposed wells.It may be noted that a typical WBM may contain nearly 80% water and 20% clay plus chemicals by weight. Some of the typical chemicals including several bio-degradable chemicals which are planned to be used for the drilling campaign are as follows:

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-12 Chemicals Chemical Characteristics

- Barytes - Bentonite - CMC (H) - Guar Gum - PAC (SL) - CMC (SL) - CMC (L) - PAC (R) - XC-Polymer - Linseed Oil - EP-Lube - Drilling Det

Inert Clay Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable Bio-degradable veg-oil lubricant Bio Degradable

The above list of drilling fluid chemical requirements may vary considering situations encountered during drilling. During the operation phase however, chemical usage will be monitored and efforts will be made to conserve or reuse chemicals as much as technically possible.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-13

Mud Circulation & Solid Control System The drilling fluid circulation system consists of several items of equipment as given below:

The mud pumps take drilling fluid from tanks and pump the same to the bit through drill pipes. The mud leaves the well bore through annulus and finally falls over the shale shaker. The mud used during the operation will flush out formation cuttings from the well bore which will be separated from the fluid using solids control system. This will include shale shakers, desanders and. desilters. The process of reusing the drilling fluid during drilling operation is commonly known as “closed loop system”. The system is ideal for drilling operations in sensitive environments as it cuts down immensely on the total water consumption for the formulation of drilling mud and also saves on the consumption of the chemicals. Special applications of Drilling Fluid To overcome various types of well problems, specific components are added to the mud to adjust the properties to ensure that following functions are met:

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-14  Fluid loss control: Bentonite as well as naturally occurring additives such as starch and cellulose are added to the drilling mud to retard fluid loss to the formation.  Lost circulation: Naturally occurring fibrous, granular or flaky materials are used to stop lost circulation when the drill bit enters a highly porous or fractured formation. Typical materials include sawdust, groundnut shells, mica etc.  Lubricity: Normally the drilling fluid is sufficient to lubricate and cool the bit. However, under extreme loading, other lubricants such as EP lube, Linseed oil etc are added to prevent the drill string from becoming stuck.  Shale Control: To control caving, sloughing etc of the well bore shale stabilizer (e.g magcoasphasol) is used.  pH control: Caustic Soda is used to control the alkalinity of the drilling fluid in the range of pH of 9 to 10. This ensures the optimum performance of the polymers in the fluid and controls bacterial activity.  Pressure control: Barite is generally used as a weighting material to control downhole formation pressure and to prevent the ingress of formation fluid into well bore.

The essential ingredients of the WBM are all low toxicity materials, rated either as Grade E products (according to the new OCNS grading system), or Grade O (according to the former OCNS system). These are the two lowest toxicity categories. A variety of other products will be available for various contingencies. Thinners such as chrome free ligno-sulphonates (CFLS) and lignin compounds may be used to control rheology. CEMENTING PROGRAM Oilwell cementing is the process of preparing a slurry of API Class G cement with water and various additives in required quantities as accelerators/ retarders, density adjusters, dispersants, fluid loss additives, anti gas migration additives, etc. This slurry is pumped down through steel casing to cover the critical points in the annulus around the casing in the open hole. Functions of the cementing process Bond and support the casing strings  Isolate oil, gas and water bearing zones.  Protect fresh water bearing zone from contamination.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-15  Prevent Blowouts by quickly forming a seal.  Seal off zones of lost –circulation or thief zones.  Protect casing from corrosion.  Protect casing from shock loads. DRILLING RIG & EQUIPMENT LAYOUT Suitable Diesel- Electrical 2000HP Rig will be used for drilling the proposed well. Cellar of the rig will occupy nearly 2m x 2m and overall exploratory well plinth will be nearly 2.781 hectares. Close to the rig, tanks for recycling of the drilling mud, appropriate waste disposal facilities, suitable storage facilities for chemicals and diesel fuel, office bunk houses etc will be arranged. A typical layout plan of OIL drilling rig and associated facilities is enclosed. WELL CONTROL - BLOWOUT PREVENTION Well control procedures will be conducted as per API 6A and API RP 53 standards. Well control occurs in two forms, namely, primary and secondary. Primary: The influx of formation fluids is prevented by maintaining sufficient down hole pressure with drilling mud of appropriate weight. Secondary: This is applied when primary control has failed and fluids have entered the well bore from a formation. The aim of secondary control is to safely discharge the fluids at the surface while preventing further influx down the hole. This is achieved by using blow out preventors (BOPs). A BOP stack is usually formed of three or more separate hydraulically operated preventors, of which there are two main types:   Annular; and Ram type.

The BOP stack arrangement is selected depending on the expected well pressure. Once assembled, the stack is placed on the well mouth and pressure tested before commencement of drilling.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-16
DERRICK FLOOR

A TYPICAL BOP STACK

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-17 3.9 WELL EVALUATION

Conventional Coring Conventional cores of sub-surface formations are taken on selective basis to carry out Petrophysical and Geoscientific studies.  Well Logging Wireline logging operations are undertaken with specialisd equipment mounted on custom built trucks to provide information on the potential type and quantities of hydrocarbons present in the prospective formations. There are different well logging techniques including electric, electronic, sonic, radioactive logging etc. Logging instruments (sensors) are attached to the bottom of a wire line and lowered to the bottom of the well. They are then slowly brought back, the devices reading different geoscientific parameters as they pass each formation and recording the corresponding data on graphs, which can be interpreted by the exploration team. There are no emissions to the environment associated with wire line logging operations. The radioactive sources required for well logging operations will be kept in specially designed containers, if used. Well Testing In the event that presence of hydrocarbons is detected in reasonable quantities, as determined by wire line logs and other geoscientific techniques production testing of well is undertaken. During testing, pressure control Christmas tree at well head is installed and other well testing equipment are lined up to test the well in a controlled manner. The main purpose of testing the exploratory well is to determine the quality, quantity and commercial viability of oil/gas production. This is done by bringing a controlled flow of well fluids (oil,gas,water) to the surface through a nozzle (called Bean) of appropriate diameter in the flowline of the well. Then the recovered oil/gas along with formation water will be flowed through the piping system to the Separator and other production testing equipment. Hydrocarbon gases will be flared in a suitably designed Flare Pit.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-18 3.10 COMPLETION OF DRILLING On completion of exploratory drilling activities wellsite restoration plan will be prepared for the following two scenarios: i) Commercially viable Hydrocarbons are discovered

In the event that economic quantities of hydrocarbons are found, the well will be shut in with a wellhead / X-mas tree in place, but all other equipment and materials will be removed from present location to the next drilling site. At the end of well testing at each drilling site, the HDPE Lined Secured Pits for Drill Cuttings and Drilling Mud will be covered with a top HDPE lining. The pit will then be backfilled with minimum 300 mm layer of soil. ii) Economic Quantities of Hydrocarbons are not Found In the event that economic quantities of hydrocarbons are not found an abandonment plan will be implemented for the drilling sites in accordance with the applicable Indian regulations, OISD , Oil Mines Regulation(OMR) etc. Plugging requirement of abandoned wells as per Oil Mines Regulation, 1984 are as follows: When it is intended to abandon a well. 1. All permeable formations shall be isolated with cement 2. A cement plug of minimum length of 50 m shall be placed at the bottom of the well 3. A cement plug of a minimum length of 50 m shall be placed across the shoe of surface casing 4. The cellar pit around the well shall be filled up and the land shall be restored to the original level 5. Cased wells may be abandoned by placing a bridge-plug above the top of perforations capped with three-metre cement plug. 6. Every abandoned well shall be clearly identified at site.

In addition to the above, guidelines as advised by MoEF, New Delhi and SPCB, Mizoram shall also be followed. The overriding principle is that the environment should, with time be reinstated broadly to its original condition. Until such time as this is achieved, OIL would actively manage the reinstatement process.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-19 3.11 RIG DEMOBILIZATION

Demobilisation would involve dismantling of the drilling rig, all associated equipments, campsite etc and transporting it out of the last drilling location. Demobilisation process is expected to take about 20 to 30days (Approx) and would require about 90 truck/trailer loads. 3.12 MANPOWER AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS

Manpower Requirement Under normal operation, the project work force will consist of nearly 65 persons distributed as follows: Location Manpower Total Technical Non-Technical 5 -5  Base Office 20 10 30  Camp Office 20 10 30  Well Site Total 45 20 65 Workers will be required to work in 2 shifts on 12-hour basis. At any one time there will be nearly 30 persons at the well site and will be accommodated at the temporary camp/area facilities near the well site. A catering company will be contracted to provide the messing facilities. Vehicles Requirement The following type of vehicles will be required during drilling and testing operations for movement of men and material as detailed below:

Sl. No. 1. 2. 3.

Vehicle Ambulance

Number Purpose 1 Standby at site for emergency. For meeting domestic requirements of the camp site personnel. For transporting cement, chemicals, etc to well site as and when required from base camp godown. For transporting casing pipes, tubulars, other heavy equipment to well site from base camp godown.

TATA Sumo or 1 equivalent Truck 1

4.

Trailer

1

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-20 Time Requirement Time required for actual drilling and completion of one well upto a depth range of 4000 m to 4500m will be nearly five months (150 days).In addition, about 15 to 20 days may be required at each well site for rig & equipment assembling before commencement of drilling and dismantling after completion of drilling.. Water Requirement and Water Balance The water requirement during drilling of exploratory well will be small and is likely to range from 30 to 50 klpd with an average of 40 klpd. Water usage and water balance are as follows:

Item

Inflow Amount Basis klpd

Loss

Outflow

klpd Amount Disposal klpd 5.0 7.5 5.0 Effluent Pit 12.5 Effluent Pit

 

WBM Make-up Fire Water Makeup/Equipment/Floor Washing and Other Uses

10.0 Assumed 20.0 Assumed

Domestic

4.0 For 40 persons @ 100 lpd per person

1.5

2.5 Waste Sewage

Water

&

Disposal

Facilities/Soak Pit

Storage and Other Losses Total

6.0 Assumed @ 15% 40.0

6.0

-- --

20.0

20.0

Water requirement during production testing period will be very small and may not exceed 10 klpd

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-21 Source of water Water for drilling and testing will be supplied by road tankers from nearest sources to drilling site without affecting competitive users. Power Requirement Drilling rig and associated systems will have 4 DG sets, each of 1000 hp (or 750 kW) to meet the total power requirement including drill site & campsite requirement during drilling. A 50 kw DG set will be used to meet power requirement during well testing operations. Fuel Requirement High speed diesel (HSD) requirement will be nearly 3 to 5 klpd during drilling and 1 to 2 klpd during well testing for the operation of drilling rig and to meet other power requirements at drilling site as well as for vehicles used for transport of personnel and material. Diesel will be stored at drilling site in covered MS tanks of 20 to 30 kl capacity. Only low sulphur (<0.05%) HSD will be used. Chemical Requirement Various chemicals that are likely to be used have been listed in Drilling Fluid Plan section. At the planning stage, an estimate of the potential usage for every chemical will be made. During the operation phase chemical usage will be monitored and efforts will be made to reduce or conserve chemical consumption as much as technically possible. Bentonite and barite will be stored in sheds while expensive chemicals required in smaller quantities will be stored in godowns. Storage of Supplies The supplies during well drilling and testing include all fuels and oils, chemicals for drilling mud, spare parts for the rig and vehicles, and food and other supplies for the camp site. Fuels, oils, and chemicals will be unloaded in designated areas with impermeable floors (either concrete or covered with an impermeable material) and lined by dykes or walls to prevent soil and water contamination from spills. Material Supply System Supply of materials, such as, diesel fuel, drilling chemicals, provisions and other supplies to the drilling site will be made by road transport. Road tankers will be used

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-22 for supply of diesel fuel to storage facilities at drilling site. Provisions and other supplies to drilling site will be made by light vehicle. Road transport will also be used for supply of materials and transport of personnel to drilling sites. 3.13 EXPLORATORY DRILLING POLLUTION SOURCES

During drilling and testing of oil/gas at exploratory locations it is unavoidable that there will be requirement for the discharge of waste materials to the environment. The sources and types of wastes that may be generated are noted in the following subsections. Waste generation during drilling operation Solid waste - Nearly 130-150m3 of drill cuttings comprising of clay, sandstone shale, etc. are expected to be generated in the course of drilling of the well. The drill cuttings will be retained in the cuttings retainer pit Liquid waste- Nearly 50 to 75 m3 of wasted WBM is expected to be generated during drilling operation. The same will be disposed in the HDPE lined effluent pit within the drill site area. Drainage Discharges Drainage discharges will occur from a variety of sources .These include:     Cleaning at derrick floor area Machine area floor drains; Cleaning of shale shaker screens General washing/cleaning in the labs, offices, etc.

Domestic Waste Water Domestic wastewater will be generated by general use by work force during drilling and testing operations at the exploratory well site. As part of the site preparation stage, a drainage and sewerage system will be constructed for the camp and the rig. The sewerage system will consist of soak pits for the collection and treatment of wastewater from the camp kitchen, laundry, and showers. Soak pits will be constructed in such a manner so as to avoid any seepage in any surface or ground water source. Gaseous Emissions Emissions generated in a drilling site will consist of the following:

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-23 Exhaust gases from the diesel driven power generators - will include SPM, CO2, NOx, SO2, CO and unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC). HSD with low sulphur content (<0.05%) will be consumed during drilling operation. Exhaust emissions will be discharged from stacks of appropriate heights (5 m or more) for adequate natural dispersion from DG sets. Emissions from flaring of hydrocarbons during well testing - will release NOx, CO2, and SO2. Flare gas quantity will depend upon the extent of gaseous hydrocarbons generated during approximately 5 to 10 days period of testing of oil and gas at each exploratory location. About 10000 m3/d of associated gas is likely to be flared for about 3 to 4 days at one well. Exhaust fumes & dust emission from vehicles –movement of about 3 to 4 passenger and heavy vehicles in a day is not likely to have any adverse impact on the environment. Miscellaneous Emissions - Minor gaseous releases may occur from venting of the tanks, such as, test tank & oil storage tank. Small methane releases may also occur in association with water based mud sediments and it will be released to the atmosphere. Unless significant quantity of methane is released, even on a calm day, it will not constitute a viable combustion hazard because lower flammability limit for methane in air is 5%. Noise Sources of noise at the drilling site include : - Diesel powered generators - Rig pumps - Rotating equipment such as electric motors, mud tank agitators, rotary table, draw works, etc. Noise level at the periphery of the drilling well plinth will not exceed 75 dB (A) and will decrease rapidly on moving away from the well site. . Vehicular traffic on access road is expected to generate temporary noise level of less than 70 dB (A) at about 10 m distance.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-24 Heat Generation The drilling work will generate heat which will be dissipated to the WBM (about 500C at surface) and then to the atmosphere. Hence it is unlikely to have any noticeable effect in the area surrounding the drilling rig. 3.14 TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL STRATEGY FOR POLLUTANTS

Drilling Discharges Drill Cuttings The accumulation of drilled cuttings at the drilling site is unavoidable in any drilling operation. Rock/drill cuttings generated during drilling will be carried to surface with drilling mud where they will be separated from the drilling fluid and cleaned followed by Solar drying. On completion of drilling approximately 130 to 150 m3 will be generated. Attempt is always made to use these cuttings for well plinth/road maintenance, landfill etc. The remaining quantity of cuttings will be placed in HDPE lined impervious effluent pit, covered with HDPE sheet and then with compacted cover of soil and capped as per regulatory pit closure protocol. Wasted WBM About 50 to 75 m3 of WBM is likely to be wasted at each drilling site. Due to moderate to heavy rainfall and humid climate solar drying may not be always possible. Since it is non-toxic, it will be diluted with water and disposed off in HDPE lined mud pit. Pits will be constructed of sufficient capacity to provide safe storage and prevent contamination of surface and ground water. Subsequently, the diluted mud will be treated in the ETP and treated water shall be disposed off suitably. Waste Water Recycling Wastewater from drilling rig drainage discharges and rainwater will be sent to a settling pit, where suspended solids in wastewater will settle. The supernatant will be drained to the second pit for further settling of suspended solids. Subsequently, the supernatant of the second pit will be drained into the third pit. Most of this water will then be reused in washing, process operations, dust suppression, etc.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-25 Domestic Waste Water Domestic waste water disposal for residential facilities at the well site will be handled in a well designed drainage and sewerage system. Used Oil Spent oil generated from oil changes or leakage from equipment or diesel storage tanks, used lubricating oil (from engine oil changes) is designated as hazardous and shall be disposed as per approved guidelines of MOEF. Medical Waste Small amounts of medical waste like used syringes, bandages, empty medicinal bottles, etc. This waste will be treated as per CPCB Guidelines. Camp and Sewage Waste All biodegradable waste (food, kitchen waste etc) will be disposed off into small humus pits in campsite area away from use by rig crew members. The pits are to be covered to avoid any odour nuisance and check contact with flies or insects. The sewerage system will consist of soak pits for collection of waste water from the camp kitchen, laundry and showers .Sewage from toilets will go into septic tanks. Gaseous Emissions The exhaust gases from diesel driven power generators and diesel-powered equipment on the rig will be discharged through stacks of appropriate heights (5 m or more) to achieve adequate natural dispersion. Only low sulphur (<0.05%) HSD will be used. Gaseous hydrocarbons produced during testing will be flared in a multiheader flare pit at a distance of about 90m from well centre. Ground flare will be properly designed and will be surrounded by heat resistant wall as shown in figure enclosed. Small methane releases from drill cuttings and mud sediments at the WBM recirculation tank will rise to surface and will readily transfer to the atmosphere without constituting a viable combustion hazard. Noise Noise level at the periphery of drilling location plinth does not exceed 75 dB.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling in MZ-ONN-2004/1 NELP Block 3-26

Heat Generation Natural heat losses from recirculating WBM will rapidly dissipate the heat generated due to drilling operation to a large mass of WBM and to the atmosphere. Potential Accidental Events Due to observation of necessary safety requirements as per OMR,OISD and other regulations chances of accident occurring are negligible. However, in all aspects of hydrocarbon exploration, there is always a risk of non-routine or accidental events such as   Occurrence of blow out Occurrence of sour gas (H2S)

Blow out followed by ignition can be extremely hazardous. Sour gas (H2S) may also be released from the well along with gaseous hydrocarbons.. However, it is known that crude oil/gas in this region is sweet in nature, i.e there is no presence of H2S in produced oil/gas.  Spillage of diesel fuel is neglibile from storage facilities at the drilling site.

A brief account of these hazards and general safety measures likely to be adopted during drilling and initial testing of the exploratory well is presented in Chapter 6 of this report. 3.15 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

Site Alternative The precise location of a vertical well is dependent upon the characteristics of the underlying geological formations on complete analysis of seismic survey data and other relevant information by OIL. However, in case of logistic problems and other reasons the area from which the prospect can be drilled is restricted to a radius of about 500 m. Technical Alternatives The approach followed in executing the exploratory drilling and testing programme has been to adopt cost effective and environment friendly drilling and testing programmes and equipment.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-1 CHAPTER 4: BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: PHYSICAL, BIOLOGICAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC 4.1 INTRODUCTION

The field studies were carried out in and around the block MZ-ONN-2004/1 for a period of nearly 5 weeks from 24th March’2011 to 30th April’2011 for the Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment (REIA) studies to get necessary baseline data for the present environmental scenario in the study area. 4.2 SAMPLING/MONITORING LOCATIONS

Baseline primary data collection was carried out within the block area as indicated in Sub-section 1.4.3.2 B (I) in Chapter 1. Baseline

sampling/monitoring was carried out as tabulated below: Baseline sampling/monitoring was carried out as tabulated below: Parameter Soil Location Serchhip, Khwalailung, Buarpui, Thenzawl, Chhingchhip, Tlungvel, Aibawk and Sialsuk Fig-4.1 Water Tap: Aibawk and Serchhip River: Turial, Tlawng GPS Map in Fig-4.3 Ground Water : GPS Map in Fig-4.3 Ambient Air Noise 10 location GPS Location Map in Fig-4.2 10 location GPS Location Map in Fig- 4.3

4.3

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

4.3.1 Topography and Physiography The block MZ-ONN-2004/1 falling in Mamit, Aizawl, Serchhip and Lunglei districts of Mizoram having a total area of 3213 sq. km is covered with hilly terrain and is forested. Most of the area falls under reserve forests. The rivers Mat, Tuirial, Tuikum, Tut, Tlawng and Tuichang flow through the block area and are perennial. The area is interspersed with nullahs which are dry in winter and have fordable rain water during monsoon. The area is undulating with topographic lows and highs with elevations reaching approximately upto 1500 m above mean sea level. Some agricultural fields can be found in plains

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-2 section of the block area and the population is thinly dispersed in small towns and villages across the area generally close to roads. The Khawanglung Wildlife Sanctuary having an area of 35 sq. km is located in south-eastern part of the block. The proposed area is well connected by a network of all weather roads which generally run from north to south. 4.3.2 Soils The block area has soils derived from siltstones, shales and sandstones of the Surma and Barail groups. Soils which are derived from sandstone are usually coarse textured, deep and permeable while those derived from shales and siltstones are medium to heavy-textured, moderately deep or shallow and are moderately to slowly permeable. Soils are non-calcareous, acidic and rich in organic carbon. The available phosphate content is usually low. The content of available potash is medium. To understand the soil quality in the study area, soil samples were collected from 8 villages/towns of the block. The soil sampling locations are shown in Fig. 4.1. Composite soil sampling (10-15 cm depth) was carried out at each location. The value of important physical and chemical parameters of these soil samples are given in Table 4.1. From the tabulated values, the following conclusions can be made about the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil samples. A. Physical Parameters

The important physical characteristics of soils are bulk density, moisture content, water holding capacity and texture. The results of analysis are given in Table 4.1 and brief summary of physical characteristics are given below: Moisture Content: Moisture content of soils of the study area ranges from 2.4 to 3.1%. Bulk Density: Bulk Density of soils in the study area is found to be in the range from 1.14 to 1.36 g/cm3. Water Holding Capacity (WHC): Water holding capacity (WHC) of soil samples of the study area ranges between 31.4 to 33.6 percent and these soils are capable of retaining sufficient water quantity during rainfall for facilitation of plant growth.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-3 Texture: Soil samples from all locations are loam to sandy loam in texture.

B.

Chemical Parameters

The results of important chemical parameters of soils of the block and surrounding areas are also given in Table 4.1 (annexure II) and a brief summary of chemical characteristics are given below:

pH: pH was determined by taking 1:5 ratio of soil and distilled water. pH of soils in the study area is found to be slightly acidic (pH 5.5 to 6.5) to neutral (pH 6.5 to 7.5) in the range of 6.4 to 6.9.

Calcium: Soluble calcium is a highly essential nutrient to plants and affects the activities of certain enzymes. The soluble calcium content as Ca in the soil samples of study area is found to be in the range of 11.2 to 20.0 mg/100g.

Magnesium: Soluble magnesium is used in plant growth in appreciable amount. It is also active in enzyme system and has a vital part in photosynthetic process. Soluble magnesium content as Mg in the soil samples of study area ranges from 3.9 to 6.3 mg/100g.

Chloride: The role of chloride in plant metabolism is not established but the presence of minute amount of chloride ion is essential. Soluble chloride content in soils of the study area is found to be in the range of 15.6 to 19.9 mg/100g.

Alkalinity: Total alkalinity as CaCO3 of soil samples of the study area ranges from 110 to 150 mg/100g.

Available Phosphorous: Available phosphorous as PO4 of soil samples of the study area is high (>2.99 mg/100g) and ranges from 3.6 to 7.8 mg/100g. Phosphate is an essential nutrient for agricultural production.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-4 Sulphate: Soluble sulphate content in soil samples of the study area as SO4 is found in the range of 4.5 to 7.7 mg/100g. Potassium: Potassium content as K in soil samples varies from 11.7 to 29.7 mg/100g and soil can be categorized to have high K (>11.12 mg/100g). Availability of potassium in soil is essential for agricultural production. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN): TKN concentration in soil samples varies in the range of 0.075 to 0.118%. Availability of nitrogen in soils is one of the main factor in agricultural production. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): Total organic carbon content in soil samples of the study area is found to be low (<0.5%) in the range from 0.20 to 0.23%. Total Organic Matter (TOM): Total organic matter content in soil samples of the study area is found to be in the range of 0.34 to 0.40%. It may be noted that higher organic carbon content in soil shows higher microbial activities and higher availability of nutrients to crop. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC): CEC value in soil samples is found to be in a range of 9.25 to 15.54 meq/100g and indicates very low (CEC <10 meq/100g) to low (10 to 20 meq/100g CEC) productivity. Conclusions: Soils of the study area have low fertility but are suitable for cultivation. 4.3.3 Water Resources And Water Quality 4.3.3.1 Water Resources Water resource of the study area is classified into following categories: a) Surface Water Resources: River, nadi, nullah, ponds, etc. b) Ground Water Resources: Accumulation of water in deeper strata of ground. The only source of recharging for surface water and ground water is from the atmospheric precipitation, which is in the form of rainfall. 4.3.3.2 Rainfall in the Study Area The monthly rainfall data from 2007 to 2009 are given for Aizawl, Mamit and Lunglei and Serchhip in Table 4.2.Tabulated data shows that the annual average rainfall for the period was as high as 3429.2.5 mm at Lunglei and as low as 1486.52 mm at Serchhip. The study area generally receives maximum

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-5 rainfall during June and July (nearly 30 to 41% of annual rainfall) from southwest monsoon, but it may be observed that rainfall is fairly good throughout the year except for three months of winter season from December to February which account for only about 0.07 to 1.7% of annual rainfall. The study area can be categorized as heavy rainfall area.
Table 4.2:DISTRICTS–WISE MONTHLY AVERAGE RAINFALL DURING 2007-2009 (in mm)
Sl. No. District Year 2007 1 Aizawl 2008 2009 2007 2 Lunglei 2008 2009 2007 3 Mamit 2008 2009 2007 4 Serchhip 2008 2009 Jan 0.0 36.65 0.0 0.0 61. 67 0.0 0.0 48.25 2.33 0.0 94.50 0.0 Feb 73.37 44.75 1.38 47.10 9.43 0.0 37.33 13.50 0.17 58.50 7.50 0.0 Mar 18.50 30.78 26.78 28.33 19.00 0.0 76.50 105.00 48.50 12.50 27.00 13.00 April 283.25 107.53 152.47 160.93 19.00 86.80 266.66 279.50 297.67 270.00 27.00 66.40 May 321.97 248.46 169.65 378.00 186.00 102.37 348.50 242.00 206.50 348.00 194.50 147.00 June 508.03 256.18 219.50 558.83 256.37 398.63 425.33 223.75 379.67 524.50 219.00 258.04 July 341.47 262.98 279.05 548.86 393.00 502.67 349.36 647.25 289.47 446.00 330.52 292.06 Aug 376.80 343.78 426.25 584.86 498.37 539.33 411.16 216.00 577.53 372.50 478.02 420.40 Sept 605.30 327.25 223.53 813.43 328.70 431.13 605.66 285.50 549.33 485.50 346.35 120.40 Oct 130.80 101.40 168.53 229.10 88.77 163.73 207.83 257.00 252.91 303.55 131.95 126.00 Nov 107.45 30.50 9.50 86.03 16.77 89.33 67.00 0.0 58.00 121.50 31.00 34.02 Dec 10.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.06 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

SOURCE: Meteorological Data of Mizoram for the Year 2009 published by the Directorate of Economics & Statistics,Mizoram.

4.3.3.3 Surface and Ground Water Resources

Plate:4:1 Women carrying water in Cart In Mizoram Life revolves around availability of Water. The Tuirial, Mat, Tuikum, Tut, Tlawng and Tuichang rivers along with many nullahs are the major surface water sources in the block and study area. All of them are north

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-6 flowing river having high gradient in bed rock channel without alluvial development and virtually nonexistent of flood plain which leads to none retaining of water around river. There is Surface water in the river in the rainy season and they are virtually dry in the lean seasons. Ground water availability in the study area is scares due to 1. Due to High relief ,the surface runoff is not retained 2. Deep topographic gradient facilitate quick and fast transfer of surface runoff. These factors inhabit retaining and replenishment of ground water. There is shortage of water in the region. The People in the region rely on water harvesting and water supply by the government agencies. Tap water supply (river water) is available in the villages/locality for few hours in a day through common taps. In the absence of tap water supply villagers commonly use water from spring and river for drinking and other domestic use. 4.3.3.4 Water Quality In Study Area A. Introduction

Under natural conditions, surface water quality reflects environmental conditions to a great extent. Hydro-geochemical factors influence color, odour, taste, temperature and the degree of mineralization of water derived from surface run off, springs, etc. Besides, human settlements, overall land use, morphology of the basin area, seasonal distribution of rainfall and winds, disposal of industrial effluents and sewage, etc. contribute a great deal in determining the quality of water. The quality of ground water is influenced by surface and sub-surface environmental conditions. The quantity and quality of water entering the underground regime is another important parameter which influences underground water quality. Rainfall absorbs atmospheric pollutants during its descent through the atmosphere. B. Characteristics of Water Samples

The collected water samples were analyzed for selected physical and chemical parameters. Table 4.3 (annexure III) gives the results of water quality analysis.

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D.

Conclusion

Water, both surface and ground, quality in the block and surrounding area is extremely good because all parameter values for all water samples meet desirable limits wherever specified.

4.3.4 Climatology and Meteorology

4.3.4.1 Introduction

The meteorological parameters play a vital role in transport and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The collection and analysis of meteorological data, therefore, is an essential component of environmental impact assessment studies. The long-term and short-term impact assessments could be made through utilization and interpretation of meteorological data collected over long and short periods.

Since the meteorological parameters exhibit significant variation in time and space, meaningful interpretation can only be drawn through a careful analysis of reliable data collected very close to the site.

Climatological (long-term) data is obtained from the closest India Meteorological Department (IMD) station or from any other nearby station which has been collecting meteorological data. Aizawl meteorological station is the closest IMD station and is located at a distance of nearly 5 km in northern direction from the northern boundary of the block MZ-ONN-2004/1. Aizawl IMD station is collecting meteorological data since December 1937. Climatological data of Mizoram is sourced from

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-8 Meteorological Data of Mizoram for the Year 2009 published by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Mizoram

4.3.5 Ambient Air Quality 4.3.5.1 Introduction

To get an idea of baseline air quality scenario in the study areas eight ambient air quality monitoring (AAQM) stations were selected as described in Section 4.2. AAQM locations were largely based on settlement population in different direction and distance to cover the entire block area. Fig. 4.1(Annexure IV) indicates the locations of AAQM stations.

4.3.5.2 Methodology of Monitoring and Analysis

Polltech PM2.5 & PM10 Fine Dust Sampler was deployed for ambient air quality monitoring and monitoring was carried out for three days at each AAQM station in view of topography of the area and distances involved. The Fine Dust Sampler has been located at ground levels where suitable concrete slab roof top was not available at any location in the study area. The VOC and the Methane was collected with hand held portable equipments. Bureau of Indian Standards codes 1S-5182, parts 2, 4, 6 and 14 were used for collection and analysis of samples.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-9 4.3.5.3 Ambient Air Quality The results of 24-hourly SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 concentration measurements during the study period are presented in Table 4.4. On the basis of tabulated data following observations can be made.
4.3.5.4

Particulate Matter (Size less than 10 m) PM10

The 24-hourly PM10 concentration at all AAQM locations is fairly low and varies in a range from 29 to 42 g/m3. Highest 24-hourly concentration of 42 g/m3 is observed at Keifang town. Average 24-houly PM10 concentration is highest at Keifang town (35 g/m3) B. Particulate Matter (Size less than 2.5 m) PM2.5

The PM2.5 24-hourly concentration at all AAQM locations is fairly low and varies in a range from 22 to 32 g/m3. Highest 24-hourly PM2.5 concentration of 32 g/m3 is observed at Thiak. C. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

The 24-hourly concentration of SO2 at all AAQM locations is quite low and varies in a range of 7 to 15 g/m3. Highest average SO2 value of 15 g/m3 is observed at Tlungvel. D. Nitrogen Oxide (Nox)

The 24-hourly concentration of Nox at all AAQM locations is quite low and varies in a range of 7 to 12.0 g/m3. Highest 24-hourly average Nox value of 12 g/m3 is observed at Tlungvel. G. Methane (CH4)

Concentration of grab sample of CH4 for all AAQM locations is BDL in all the locations E. VOC (Volatile Organic Carbon)

The concentration of Volatile Organic Carbon in the study area varies in a range of BDL to 2 ppm. 4.3.5.5 Ambient Air Quality Status

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-10 National ambient air quality standards for PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and Nox are given in Table 4.4 and the Hydrocarbon and VOCs in Table 4.5

TABLE 4.4: AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN MIZORAM BLOCK
Observed Value in µg/m3 Sl. No. SAMPLING LOCATION PM10 Mean 1 2 KEIFANG (A1) N 230 40́ 8” E 920 57́ 46” KEIFANG (A2) N230 40́ 26” E920 57ˊ44” KEIFANG(A 3) N230 39ˊ45” E920 57ˊ 38” TLUNGVEL (A 4) N230 36ˊ24” E920 51́́ 13” TLUNGVEL (A 5) N230 36́ 47” E920 51́́ 18.6” DARLUNG (A 6) N230 27́ 47” E 920 36́ 20” DARLUNG (A 7) N230 27́ 46” E92036́ 20” S SABUAL (A8), N 230 26ˊ 59” E 920 35ˊ57” THIAK (A 9) N230 28ˊ30” E920 42ˊ45” SIALSUK(A 10) N230 24ˊ10” E920 44 ˊ52” THENZAWL N 230 17́ 24" E 920 46́ 59" Max PM2.5 Mean Max SO2 Mean Max NOx Mean Max

35

42

24

28

10

13

7

10

34

36

23

26

11

12

8

9

3

32

34

22

24

11

14

7

11

4

31

33

24

26

12

15

7

10

5

30

32

26

28

9

11

8

12

6

28

31

24

27

10

12

7

11

7

27

29

22

28

11

11

7

11

8

26

32

23

29

9

12

8

12

9

28

34

26

32

10

11

9

11

10

32

36

22

26

9

11

7

12

11

32

35

21

24

9

12

8

11

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TABLE 4.5: AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN MIZORAM BLOCK Observed Value in ppm Sl. No. SAMPLING LOCATION KEIFANG (A1) N 230 40́ 8" E 920 57́ 46" TLUNGVEL (A 4) N230 36ˊ24" E920 51́́ 13" DARLUNG (A 7) N230 27́ 46" E92036́ 20" S SABUAL (A8), N 230 26ˊ 59" E 920 35ˊ57" THIAK (A 9) N230 28ˊ30" E920 42ˊ45" SIALSUK(A 10) N230 24ˊ10" E920 44 ˊ52" VOC CH4

1

BDL

BDL

2

2

BDL

3

BDL

BDL

4

1

BDL

5

BDL

BDL

6

BDL

BDL

4.3.6 Ambient Noise Levels 4.3.6.1 Introduction Noise can be defined as an unwanted sound. It interferes with speech and hearing and if intense enough can damage hearing or is otherwise annoying. The definition of noise as unwanted sound implies that it has an adverse effect on human beings and their environment. Noise can also disturb natural wildlife and ecological system. 4.3.6.2 Methodology To understand the noise environment in the study area, a noise survey was conducted using Sound Level Meter 100 manufactured by Envirotech , New Delhi. Noise measurements were carried out at eight locations as described in Section 4.1.2.

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4.3.6.3 Equivalent Sound Energy Level or Leq In most of the acoustic environments, the sound pressure level fluctuates with time due to changes in noise generation sources. The fluctuating noise levels are reported as equivalent sound energy level or Leq. It is defined as the steady sound pressure levels which would have given the same total energy as the actual time varying sound pressure level over the given time period. 4.3.6.4 Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of Noise Ministry of Environment and Forest has notified the ambient standards in respect of noise and these standards are given in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 Ambient Standards In Respect Of Noise Area Code Category of Area Leq. Limits in dB(A) Day Time A B C D Industrial Area Commercial Area Residential Area Silence Zone 75 65 55 50 Night Time 70 55 45 40

Note: 1. 2. 3.

Day time is reckoned in between 6:00 a.m and 10:00 p.m. Night time is reckoned is between 10:00 p.m and 6.00 a.m. Silence Zone is defined as areas upto 100 m around such premises as hospitals, educational, institutions and Courts. The Silence Zones are to be declared by the competent authority.

Source: Pollution Control Acts, Rules and Notifications Issued Thereunder, Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi, May 1998. Ambient standards in respect of noise both for Lday and Lnight with respect to noise applicable for residential area during day-time [55 dB(A)] and nighttime [45.0 dB(A)] are met at all locations.

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TABLE 4.5 (a) NOISE LEVELS IN STUDY AREA Sl. No.
1 2 3 Location
Leq in dBA (Day time) (0600 to 2100 hrs) Leq in dBA

(Night time) (2100 to 0600 hrs)
40.2 38.8 37.2

4

5

6

7

8 9

10

KEIFANG (A1) N 230 40́ 8" E 920 57́ 46" KEIFANG (A2) N230 40́ 26" E920 57ˊ44" KEIFANG(A 3) N230 39ˊ45" E920 57ˊ 38" TLUNGVEL (A 4) N230 36ˊ24" E920 51́́ 13" TLUNGVEL (A 5) N230 36́ 47" E920 51́́ 18.6" DARLUNG (A 6) N230 27́ 47" E 920 36́ 20" DARLUNG (A 7) N230 27́ 46" E92036́ 20" S SABUAL (A8), N 230 26ˊ 59" E 920 35ˊ57" THIAK (A 9) N230 28ˊ30" E920 42ˊ45" SIALSUK(A 10) N230 24ˊ10" E920 44 ˊ52" THENZAWL N 230 17́ 24" E 920 46́ 59"

43.8 50.9 48.9

42.5

39.6

52.4

39.5

46.2

38.1

44.6

38.9

42.6 43.8

40 41

45

38

11

54

42

4.3.6.5 Land Use 4.3.6.6 Land Use: Scope And Limitations The land use pattern indicates the manner in which parts of land in an area is being utilized or non-utilized. It is an important indicator of environmental health, human activity and a degree of interplay between these two. Even though the soil quality, water availability and climate have strong influence on

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-14 the state of agriculture and vegetation, but the human activity may alter the natural environment to large extent to suit human needs. Unsuitable land use often triggers rapid environmental deterioration and disturbs ecological balance.

FIG 4.1: LOCATION MAP OF PROPOSED LOCATION E 92º51´06.49″ N 23º 35´00.87″

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FIG 4.2: ETM E 92º51´06.49″ N 23º 35´00.87″

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FIG 4.3: LANDUSE CLASSES AROUND THE PROPOSED PROJECT SITE AS INTERPRETED FROM SATELLITE DATA

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FIG 4.4 : LOCATION MAP OF PROPOSED LOCATION 3 E 92°42’20.01” N 23°29’17.12”

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FIG 4.5 :

ETM 4 AROUND 10 KM RADIUS PROPOSED LOCATION 3 E 92°42’20.01” N 23°29’17.12”

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FIG 4.6: LOCATION MAP OF PROPOSED LOCATION 4 (E 92°36´23.21″ N 23°28´55.71″) AND LOCATION 5 (E 92°35´46.75″ N 23°27´33.99″)

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FIG 4.7: ETM 4 LOCATION 4 (E 92°36´23.21″ N 23°28´55.71″) AND LOCATION 5 (E 92°35´46.75″ N 23°27´33.99″)

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FIG 4.8: LANDUSE CLASSES AROUND THE PROPOSED PROJECT SITE AS INTERPRETED FROM SATELLITE DATA AT

LOCATION 4 (E 92°36´23.21″ N 23°28´55.71″) AND LOCATION 5 (E 92°35´46.75″ N 23°27´33.99″)

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FIG 4.9: LOCATION MAP OF PROPOSED LOCATION 8 E 92°47´04.69″ N 23°18´10.04″

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FIG 4.10: ETM 4 AROUND 10 KM RADIUS PROPOSED LOCATION 8 E 92°47´04.69″ N 23°18´10.04″

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FIG 4.11: LANDUSE CLASSES AROUND THE PROPOSED PROJECT SITE AS INTERPRETED FROM SATELLITE DATA AT E

92°47´04.69″ N 23°18´10.04″

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Plate 4.2 Human settlement (Built Up)

Plate 4.3 Open Forest

4.4 4.4.1

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Introduction

The structure and type of vegetation depends on climatic conditions and physiography as well as the requirements of the local inhabitants of an area. The study area is warm per-humid ecoregion with large area under tropical semi-evergreen forests and montane sub-tropical forests. Earlier forests were dense but due to traditional practice of jhumming cultivation from time immemorial, large areas of forests are being converted into barren land. However, forest department is taking steps to regenerate the forest area either naturally and/or artificially through plantation.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-26 4.4.2 Terrestrial Flora The study areas are charactorized as warm per-humid eco-region with red and laterite soils with heavy rainfall and is generally suitable for growth of all types of forest vegetation. Table 4.14 gives the list of trees found in the study area as obtained from the Divisional Forest Office, Aizawl.

TABLE 4.6: LIST OF FLORA IN STUDY AREA
SL. NO. ENGLISH OR COMMON MIZO NAME NAME 1. Australian Wattle Kalsiamthing 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. -Catechu or Khair Soap pod/Shikakai Indian Acalypha Putli --Chaff-flower -Mundani or Shingle --Red wood Forest Ghost Flower Bael tree or Golden apple Century Plant Goat-weed Aglaia or Amari Gokul Siris Siris or Kokko Allamanda Shallot Onion Vawkpui-ruangruh Lawi-thing Khang-thur Thing-thei-hmu-par Thing-khim Thing-phing-phi-hlip Tu-khau Ui-hlo/Ui-ze-hlo Vang-vat-tur/Vang-vat-hlo Nganbawm Rah-var/Par-arsi BOTANICAL NAME Acacia auriculiformis Acacia caesia Acacia spp. Acacia sinuate Acalypha indica Acer laevigatum Acer oblongum Acer thomsoni Achyranthes aspera Achyranthes bidentata Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Acronychia pedunculata

Pem-hlek damdawi/Telenga- Actephila excelsa mai Senmaltet Adenanthera pavonina Sa-nghar-vai-bel Bel-thei Kumza-pal/Sai-dai Vai(h)len-hlo Sa-ha-tah Phuan-berh-pui/Thing-arthau Vang Thing-chawk-e Hrui-pang-par Aeginetia indica Aegle marmelos Agave americana Ageratum conyzoides Aglaia pervirides Ailanthus integrifolia spp. calycina Albizzia chinensis Albizzia lebbeck Allamanda cathartica

Kawl-pu-run/Pu-run-var-sen Allium cepa var. aggregatum Purun-sen Allium cepa var. cepa

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. Garlic -Alder or Utis Gaint taro Java galangal Scholar or Devil tree Tangle Mat Prickly Amaranth --Whitespot arum Cashew-nut tree Pineapple Castard apple -Jewel Orchid Kadam Amti Chinese laurel -Agarwood Groundnut or Peanut --Betel-nut-palm Malay Sago Palm -Indian Worm-wood or Chaplash Jack fruit tree Monkey Jack or Lakooch Gaint reed Blood-flower Pu-run-var Arhrik-bona Hriangpui Sai-dawl/Vandawl Ai-chal Thuamriat An-ngha-ril/Nghate-ril Len-hling Ai-du The-hlei-khak Allium sativum Allophylus zeylanicus Alnus nepalensis Alocasia macrorhiza Alpina galangal Alstonia scholaris Alternanthera sessilis Amaranthus spinosus Amomum dealbatum Amoora chittagonga

Ba-tel-hawng/Tel-hawngbal Amorphophallus paeonifolius Sa-zu-pum-pui-thei La-khuih-thei Thei-ar-bawm Thei-kel-ki-suak Hnah-mawi Banphar Thurte-an Tuai-tit Thei-she-ret Thingrai Badam Va-hrit-thei Nau-nuar Kuhva-kung Thangtung Phel-phek Sai Tat-kawng Lamkhuang/La-ui Thei-tat Pum-phir Dingdi Anacardium occidentale Ananas comosus Annona squamosa Anodendron paniculatum Anoectochilus luteus Anthocephalus chinensis Antidesma acidium Antidesma bunius Aphananthe cuspidata Aquilaria malaccensis Arachis hypogaea Ardisia macrocarpa Ardisia paniculata Areca catechu Arenga pinnata Argyreia splendens Artemisia vulgaris Artocarpus chama Artocarpus integrifolia Artocarpus lakoocha Arundo donax Asclepias curassavica Asparagus racemosus Atalantia monophylla

Spiny Asparagus or Satawar Ar-ke-bawk Wild-lime Ram-ser

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61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. Carambola tree Neem or Margosa tree Lutqua or Bhooby tree Spiny or Thorny Bamboo Tulda Butterfly tree Snake climber Kanchan -Begonia --Khuang-hlang Khuang-hlang Thei-her-awt Nim-thing Pang-kai Vai-rua Raw-lak Vau-fa-vang Zawng-a-lei-lawn Vau-be Lalruanga-dar-nawhna Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Baccaurea ramiflora Bambusa bambos Bambusa tulda Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia variegata Begonia lusshaiensis (Rare) Begonia wengeri (Intermediate) Beilschmiedia gammieana Beilschmiedia roxburghii Benincasa hispida

Ash gourd or Ash Pumpkin Mai-pawl Stone crusher plant Alder birch Darjeeling birch Bishop wood or Uriam Silk cotton tree or Semul Didu Palmyra or Toddy Palm Bougainvillea Mustard Cauliflower Cabbage Knol-kohl or Kohlrabi Broccoli

Kham-dam-dawi/Pan-dam- Bergenia ciliata dawi Hriang Betula alnoides Hriang-zau Khuang-thli Phun-chawng Pang Sial-lu Sa-rawn An-tam Par-bawr Zik-hlum Bul-bawk Brokoli Betula cylindrostachys Bischofia javanica Bombax malabaricum Bombax insigne Borassus flabellifer Bougainvillea spectabilis Brassica juncea Brassica oleracea var. botrytis Brassica oleracea var. capitata Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes Brassica oleracea var. italica Brassica rapa Bridelia squamosa Brugmansia suaveolens Butea buteiformis Butea parviflora Caesalpinia spp. Cajanus cajan Calamus acanthospathus

Mustard or Chinese Cabbage An tam Kasi Trumpet flower ---Lentil or Pigeon pea Gouri bet Thing-phak-tel Tawtawrawt par Thual-thu Za-thoh/Ngawi-hrui Hling-khang Be-hliang Mit-perh

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95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. Foetid cassia ---Kel-be Then-ngo/Then-mm Rem-te Puar-peng -Kadam bet Sundi bet Jali or Jalla bet -Bottle-brush tree Madar or Crown plant Kissi Tea-plant Chilli or Red pepper Sweet pepper Carallia or Maniawga Payaya or Papaw-tree -Palm tree Fishtail-palm Ringworm shrub Mawt Hrui-pui Tai-te/Tai-rua Thil-te Hnah-kiah Botol-bras Hnah-pawl Lal-lai Thing-pui Hmar-cha Hmarchapui Thei-ria Thing-fang-hma/Nu-hnun Lalruang-beh-thi Mei-hle Tum Da-du-hlo/Kel-be-bui/ Calamus andamanicus Calamus erectus Calamus guruba Calamus tenuis Callicarpa arborea Callistemon citrinus Calotropis gigantea Camellia kissi Camellia sinensis Capsicum annum Capsicum frutescens Carallia brachiata Carica papaya Caryopteris paniculata Caryota mitis Caryota urens Cassia alata Cassia fistula Cassia nodosa Cassia occidentalis Cassia timoriensis Cassia floribunda Cassia tora Castanopsis echinocarpa Cayratia mollis Cayratia obovata Ceiba pentandra Celosia argentea fa. cristata Celtis australis Centella asiatica Cephalotaxus griffithii Choerospondias axillaris Chromolaena odorata Chrysanthemum indicum Cinnamomum tamala

Indian Laburnum or Amaltas Ngai-ngaw/Phung-ril Pink and White shower Coffee senna -Mak-pa-zang-kang Reng-an Mitthi-zawng-tah/Se-behliang

White cotton tree or Kapok Japan-pang Cock’s comb Nettle tree or Caltis Pennywort Plum-yew Labshi Common Floss Flower Chrysanthemum Bay leaf or Tejpat Zo-ar-chhuang An-ku/Vai-bawng-chaw Lam-bak/Dar-beng-bur Tu-far/Leh-ngo-far Thei-khuang-chawm Tlang-sam/Pho-leng October-par Tespata/Hnah-rimtui

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130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. True cinnamon or Dalchini -Water melon Acid lime Sour lime or Kagzinebu Pumelo or Shaddock Wild Orange Lemon or Bara Nimbu Thak-thing Len-hling/Zo-len-hling Dawn-fawh Ser-tui-bur/Ser-sawr Serte/Champara Ser-tawk/Sai-ser/Sa-hawk Ser Ser (Ser-fang) Cinnamomum verum Cirsium chinense Citrullus lanatus Citrus acida Citrus aurantifolia Citrus grandis Citrus indica Citrus limon Citrus medica var. acida Citrus reticulata Clerodendrum colebrookianum Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum venosum Clerodendrum viscosum Clerodendrum wallichii Cocos nucifera Coelogyne rossiana (Vulnerable) Coffea arabica Coffea khasiana Colocasia esculenta Cordia dichotoma Costus speciosus Crotalaria juncea Croton roxburghii Cryptomeria japonica Cucumis melo var. saccharinus Cucumis sativus Cucurbita maxima Curcuma caesia Curcuma longa Curcumorpha longiflora Cuscuta reflexa Cymbopogon winterianus Cynodon dactylon Cyphomandra betacea

Acid or Sour Lime or Nimbu Limbu Orange or Kamala -Bharangi -Hill clerodendrum -Coconut palm Orchid Coffee -Taro Sebestens Kew Sunn hemp -Japanese cedar or Suji Coffee-thing Chep-ngul Bal/Dawl Muk-fang Sum-bul Tum-thang Ba-pui-ken-hnah-hlai Japan-far Serthlum Phui-hnam Lei-dum-suak Lei-dum Phui-hnam-chhia -Na-rial-thing

Sweet or Honey-dew melon Hma-zil Cucumber Pumpkin or Winter squash Fang-hma Mai/Mai-an

Black zedoary or Kalahaldi Ai-lai-dum Turmeric plant or Haldi -Dodder plant Java citronella Dog grass or Dub-grass Tree tomato Ai-eng Ai-thur Bawirai ral Di-rim-tui/Di-leng-ser Phai-tual-hlo Thing-tomato/Thing-be-ra

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165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. Gola bet Burma rosewood Carrot Gulmohur Orchid Giant Bamboo Rhino bamboo Male Bamboo Devil or fever nettle Telegraph Plant Elephant apple White or Winged Yam Chinese Yam Bulb bearing yam Ebony Wood oil tree or Gurjan Hollong Indian Crab Apple Lampati -Sky flower Devdam Cardamom or Elaichi Amla Gaint’s Rattle --Wild Coriander Coral Tree Lemon-scented gum Blue gum Lal dhudi or Common spurge 197. 198. Poinsettia Banyan tree Mas-par/Hnah-sen Bung Euphorbia pulcherrima Ficus benghalensis Raichhawk Khum Carrot April-par Dang-hang/Lik-dum-dial Vai-mau Phul-rua An-kuang & Tur-sing Thak-pui Tuan-i-them-tang Kawr-thin-deng Ba-chhim & Rambachhim Hra-kai Vawkpui-ba-hra Thei-kum Lawng-thing Thing-sen Sun-hlu-pui Zuang Daemonorops jenkinsianus Dalbergia oliveri Daucus carota Delonix regia Dendrobium spp. Dendrocalamus giganteus Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Dendrocalamus strictus Dendrocnide sinuata Desmodium motorium Dillenia indica Dioscorea alata Dioscorea belophylla Dioscorea bulbifera Diospyros spp. Dipterocarpus indicus Dipterocarpus retusus Docynia indica Duabanga grandiflora

Vai-thei-hmu/Lei-thei-hmu Duchesnea indica Hling-dai/Kawl-dai-hling Sa-ha-tah Alaichi Sun-hlu Kawi-hrui Nghal-chhun Kal Bah-khawr/Ba-chi-khawm Far-tuah Naw-alh-thing Naw-alh-thing Hnute-tui-tam-na Duranta repens Dysoxylum binectariferum Elettaria cardamomum Emblica officinalis Entada scandens Eriobotrya bengalensis Eriolaena spectabilis Eryngium foetidum Erythrina variegata Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus globulus Euphorbia hirta

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-32
199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. Ironwood Champa Mulberry -Mussaenda Patabahar Orchid Orchid Saisu Java fig Indian rubber Cluster fig Pipal Gamboge tree Soyabean Gmelina or Gamari --Tree cotton Silver Oak Chaulmurga Haldu Butterfly Lily Spiked Ginger Lily -Sunflower Bird of Paradise China Rose Chalmoogra Chameli Flame of forest Champa Mango Jungli neem Neem thing Sairil Za-man-hmawng Thel-ret/Thial-ret Thei-chek & Chho-he Hmawng Kawr-vawm-va Be-kang Thlan-vawng Pelh Thal-ping La Silver Oak Sai-thei Lung-khup Ai-nawn Ai-thur Kel-hnam-tur Ni-hawi Chang-el-par Ficus benjamina Ficus elastica Ficus racemosa Ficus religiosa Garcinia morella Glycine max Gmelina arborea Gnetum gnemon Gnetum montanum Gossypium arboreum Grevillea robusta Gynocardia odorata Haldina cordifolia Hedychium coronarium Hedychium spicatum Hedyotis scandens Helianthus annuus Heliconia angustiflolia Hibiscus spp. Hydnocarpus kurzii Jasminum scandens Lagerstroemia flosreginae Magnolia spp. Mangifera indica Melia azedarach Melocalamus compactiflorus Mesua ferrea Michelia champaka Morus indica Musa superba Mussaenda spp. Paederia foetida Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Rare) Paphiopedilum villosom (Vulnerable)

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233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. Ginger Amla Pepper Orchid Sal Amra Hogplum tree Teak Vanda orchid Lalruanga Dawi bur Taitaw Phyllanthus spp. Piper bettleiodes Renanthera imschootiana (Endangered) Shorea robusta Spondiais pinnata Sondia pinnata Tectona grandis Vanda coerulea Zanonia spp. Zingiber officinale

4.4.3 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA Since the study area has extensive forests, the area can support fairly large variety of wild life. Table 4.6 gives the list of wild animals and birds commonly found in the forests of the study area as obtained from the Divisional Forest Office, Aizawl.

TABLE 4.6 FAUNA IN STUDY AREA

SL. NO. ANIMALS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

COMMON NAME

MIZO NAME

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Clawless Otter Binturong or Bear-cat Hog-badger Indian Mole-rat Large Bandicoot Rat Bison or Gaur Red-bellied Palla’s Squirrel Himalayan Striped Squirrel Himalayan Hoary bellied Squirrel Jackal

Sa-hram (Hram-te) Zam-phu Phi-vawk Sa-zu (Zu-pawl) Tam-pui Ram-sial Hlei-kap-sen

Aonix cinerea Arctictis binturong Arctoryx collaris Bandicota bengalensis Bandicota indica Bos gaurus Callosciurus erythraeus

Hlei-mual-rang/Hlei-te Callosciurus macclellandi Hlei-zawng Si-hal Callosciurus pygerythrus Canis aureus

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Bay Bamboo Rat or Lesser Bamboo Rat Sero Sambar Dhole or Wild Dog Orange-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Leopard Cat Jungle Cat Golden Cat Fishing Cat

Bui-sen Sa-za Sa-zuk Ching-hnia Hlei-lu-bial Sa-nghar Nghar-bawr/sa-uak Kei-sen Nghar-buang

Cannomys badius Capricornis sumatraensis Cervus unicolor Cuon alpinus Dremomys lokriah Felis bengalensis (SCARCE) Felis chaus Felis temmincki Felis viverrina Herpestes auropunctatus (SCARCE) Herpestes urva Hylobates hoolock Hylopetes alboniger Hystrix brachyuran

Small Indian Mongoose -Crab-eating Mongoose Sa-phai-ruang Hoolock Gibbon Particoloured Flying Squirrel Crestless Himalayan Porcdupine or Chinese Porcupine Common Otter Stump-tailed Macaque Assamese Macaque Rhesus Macaque Pig-tailed Macaque Chinese Pangolin Hau-huk Biang Sa-kuh

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Sa-hram (Hram-pui) Zawng-mawt Zozawng/Khamzawng Phai-zawng Zawng-hmel-tha/ Zawng-bak-buk Saphu

Lutra lutra Macaca arctoides Macaca assamensis Macaca mulatta Macaca nemestrina Manis pentadactyla

Yellow-throated Marten Sa-fia/Sa-fe-tum-bung- Martes flavigula rang Chinese Ferret-badger Sa-hmai-tha Melogale moschato Barking Deer or Sa-khi Muntjak Yellow-bellied Weasel Sa-ri-vai-thun Stripedbacked Weasel Goral Clouded Leopard Sa-ri-vai-thun Sa-thar Kel-ral/Zawng-ral Muntiacus muntjak Mustela kathiah Mustela strigidorsa Nemorhaedus goral Neofelis nebulosa

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38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Slow Loris Himalayan Palm Civet Leopard or Panther

Sa-huai Sa-zaw (Zaw-buang) Kei-te

Nycticebus coucang (SCARCE) Paguma larvata Panthera pardus (SCARCE) Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Petaurista petaurista

43. 44. 45. 46.

Toddy Cat or Common Sa-zaw (Zaw-hang) Palm Civet Common Giant Flying Va-hluk Squirrel Red Flying Squirrel Silvered Leaf Monkey Ngau Golden Langur Capped Langur Spotted Linsang or Tiger-civet Ngau-sen/Ngau-ir-eng Ngau-buang Nghar-thing-awn

Presbytis geei Presbytis phayrei Presbytis pileatus (SCARCE) Prionodon pardicolor

47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. BIRDS 63. 64.

Indian Flying Fox

Bak-sai

Pteropus giganteus Rattus blanfordi Rattus rattus Ratufa bicolor Rhizomys erythrogenys Rhizomys pruinosus Suncus murinus Sus scrofa Talpa micrura Tupaia belangeri Ursus malayanus

White-tailed Wood Rat Zu-thel House Rat or Black Rat Sa-zu Malayan Giant Squirrel Awr-rang Red-cheeked Bamboo Rat Hoary Bamboo Rat Grey Musk Shrew Wild Boar or Wild Pig Short-tailed Mole Northern Tree-shrew Malayan Sun Bear Himalayan Black Bear Sloth Bear Bui-pui Bui-luang-par Chhim-tir Sa-nghal Bui-ke-lek Che-pa Mang-tir/Sa-mang

Vawm-sai/Vawmkhang Ursus thibetanus Sa-vawm-bak-buk Ursus ursinus Vandeleuria oleracea Viverra zibetha (SCARCE) Viverricula indica (SCARCE) Abroscopus spp. Accipiter badius

Longtailed Tree Mouse Chim-buang Large Indian Civet Small Indian Civet Tlum-pui Tlum-therh

Warbler Shikra

Va-te Mu-te

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65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76.

Besra

Mu-te

Accipiter virgatus Acerois nipalensis (ENDANGERED) Acridotheres tristis Actinodura egertoni Aegithalos concinnus Aegithina tiphia Alcedo atthis Alcippe castaneceps Amaurornis phoenicurus Ampeliceps coronatus Anas acuta Anhinga melanogaster

Rufous-necked Hornbill Va-awk Common Myna Rusty-fronted Barwing Redheaded Tit Common Iora In-vai-va/Phai-vai-va Zo-va-lu-buk Ram-chawngzawng Zai-rum-va

Common or Small Blue Kai-kuang-ral-te-chi Kingfisher Rufous-winged Fulvetta Vate chi khat White-breasted Waterhen Tui-ar Golden-crested Myna Common Pintail Oriental Darter Vai-va-bawi Tui-va-rak Va-ching-ringdiau/Vara

77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92.

Indian Pied Hornbill Ruby-cheeked Sunbird Streaked Spiderhunter Darkbacked Swift House Swift

Va-hai Va-te Ki-reuh Kham-va-mur Va-mur-ngum-var

Anthracoceros albirostris (ENDANGERED) Anthreptes singalensis Arachnothera magna Apus acuticauda Apus affinis Arborophila spp.

White-cheeked Partridge Va-rung Heron Ashy Swallow-shrike Jerdon’s Baza Black Baza Chinese Babax

Ngawi-hup/Kawl-pui- Ardea spp. sa-ruh-hak Leng-der/MurArtamus fuscus pawl/Len-thiam Mu-chi-khat Aviceda jerdoni Mu-kel-rang Aviceda leuphotes

Zova lei-sawt/Ngal-va- Babax ianceolatus pual-nu Assam Bamboo Partridge Va-hlah Bambusicola fytchii hopkinsoni Hodgson’s Frogmouth Va-bak-chi-khat Batrachostomus hodgsoni Bay Woodpecker Lesser Shortwing Forest or Spot-bellied Fang-hmir-thloh Hmun-chhe-ar-pui Chhim-buk-pui Blythipicus pyrrhotis Brachypteryx leucophrys Bubo nipalensis

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-37 Eagle-owl
93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.

(ENDANGERED) Tui-tu Va-pual Mu Mawntaipirtliak Va-lam-bawk/Va-bak Bubo zeylonensis Buceros bicornis (ENDANGERED) Buteo buteo Cacomantis merulinus Caprimulgus spp. Cardeulis spinoides Carpodacus erythrinus Centropus bengalensis

Brown Fish Owl Great Hornbill Common Buzzard Plaintive Cuckoo Nightjar

Yellow-breasted Green- Tep finch Common Rosefinch Va-suih Lesser Coucal Va-darkhuang/Lalruang-sehnawt-te-chi Lalruanga-se-hnawt Va-lim-chho Kai-kuang-ral Chhawl-hring -Thloh-pui Ka-pi-tui-bur-kei-ve Dawn-tliang -Zo-va-chan Ram-va-mur

101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118.

Greater Coucal Brown-throated Treecreeper Crested Kingfisher Leafbird Violet Cuckoo Large Goldenbacked Woodpecker Whitetailed Blue Robin Green Magpie Redwinged Crested Cuckoo Green Cochoa Himalayan Swiftlet Speckled Wood Pigeon Magpie Robin Indian Roller Jungle Crow White-throated Bulbul Common Cuckoo Nepal Cutia

Centropus sinensis Certhia discolor Ceryle lugubris (ENDANGERED) Chloropsis spp. Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus Chrysocolaptes lucidus Cinclidium leucurum Cissa chinensis Clamator coromandus Cochoa viridis Collocalia brevirostris

Zo-bul-lut/Bul-lut-tial Columba hodgsonii Chang-er/Khawmualchinrang Va-pui Cho-ak Daw-kek Riak-maw -Copsychus saularis Coracia benghalensis Corvus macrorhynchos Criniger flaveolus Cuculus canorus Cutia nipalensis

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119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137.

Palm Swift

In-va-mur

Cypsiurus parvus infumatus Delichon urbica Dendrocitta formosae Dicaem spp. Dicrurus hottentottus Ducula aenea (ENDANGERED) Ducula badia (ENDANGERED) Emberiza pusilla Enicurus spp. Erithacus calliope Eurostopodus macrotis Eurystomus orientalis Falco peregrines Ficedula spp. Gallinula chloropus Gallinago gallinago Gallus gallus Gampsorhynchus rufulus Garrulus glandarius interstinctus Gecinulus grantia

Common-House-Martin Fuanhawr Grey Tree-Pie Flower pecker Drongo Green Imperial Pigeon Imperial Pigeon Little Bunting Forktail Siberian Rubythroat Great Eared Nightjar Broad-billed Roller Falcon Flycatcher Common Moorhen Snipe Red Junglefowl White-headed Shrikebabbler East Himalayan Redcrowned Jay Bem-kawng Va-te-awm-tial/Tektek-awm-tial Kul-herh Phai-bul-lut Bul-lut Chip-te Chin-rang Tawk-tawk-awr-sen Va-lam-bawk/Va-bak Va-kek/Va-pui-hmuisen Mu-ngek Va-dum-de-leng-chikhat Dil-ar/Tui-va-rung Chirh-dawt Ram-ar Phai-ko-ro Va-far

138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145.

Pale-headed Woodpecker Fang-hmir-thloh Owlet Barred Owlet Tiger Bittern Hill Myna White-rumped Vulture Scarlet Finch

Hrang-kir/PhawngGlaucidium brodiei phaw-dawt Chhim-buk-te (Vawk- Glaucidium cuculoides chhuk) -Gorsachius melanolophus Vai-va/Ram-vai-va Mu-lu-kawlh Suipui/Va-suiphi Gracula religiosa Gyps bengalensis Haematospiza sipahi Hemipus picatus

Bar-winged Flycatcher- -shrike

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146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156.

Sibia Eagle Needletail Red-rumped Swallow

Sir-bial/Sir-lu-bial/Sir- Heterophasia spp. bawl Mu-ar-la Hieraaetus kienerii Mur-pui Va-mur-ngum-sen Hirundapus spp. Hirundo daurica Hypothymis azurea

Black-naped Flycatcher Va pawl Bulbul Black Eagle Yellow-rumped Honeyguide Fairly Bluebird Black Headed Shrike Assam Silver-eared Mesia Munia

Va-rit/Lian-doHypsipetes spp. rit/Hmui-sen/ Vachiap Lung-dup Ictinaetus malayensis Tep-Va-te-ngum-eng Va-dar-tle Chhem-hur Indicator xanthonotus Irena peulla Lanius schach tricolor

Thlangvaharbeh/Dawk- Leiothrix argentauris vel Pit-sen/Pit-lu-dum aureigularis Lonchura spp. Macronous gularis Megalaima asiatica Melanochlora sultanea Melophus lathami Merops spp. Micropternus brachyurus Milna cyanouroptera Milvus migrans Motacilla spp. Mulleripicus pulverulentus Niltava grandis Nycticorax nycticorax Oriolus tenuirostris Orthotomus atrogularis Otus spilocephalus

157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172.

Yellow-breasted Babbler Va-te-chi-khat Blue throated Barbet Sultan Tit Crested Bunting Chestnutheaded Beeeater Rufous Woodpecker Bluewinged Siva Blackeared or Large Indian Kite White Wagtail Tuk-lo Va-kel-chal Phai-tep Tlak-awrh-lu-sen Thloh-kawr-ha Chang-rual/Darhnawk/Saivate Mu-chhia Lailen

Great Slaty Woodpecker Thloh-sai Large Niltava Night Heron Slender-billed Oriole Va-pawl/Va-dum-deleng Tui-sa-va-var-zanghang Va-mai-tai/Bawngpui

Blacknecked Tailor-bird Hnah-khawr/Hnahfun/Che-de-de Owl Chhim-buk

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173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183.

Grey-headed Parrotbill Burmese Black-spotted Yellow Tit House Sparrow Minivet Green-billed Malkoha Bay-owl Woodpecker Speckled Piculet Woodpecker Hume’s Pheasant Mizo Coral-billed Scimitar-babbler

Va-hnang-hlai Zo-va-kel-chal Chawngzawng Bawng Va-zun/Va-uk Tah-ngai-beng-nei Thloh-kawr-ha Thloh-kawr-ha Thloh-lu-par Va-ri-haw Ngal-va-pual

Paradoxornis gularis Parus spilonotus subviridis Passer domesticus Pericrocotus spp. Phaenicophaeus tristis Phodilus badius Picoides atratus Picumnus innominatus malayorum Picus spp. Polyplectron bicalcaratum bakeri (ENDANGERED) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus phayrei Porphyrio porphyrio poliocephalus Prinia atroigularis khasiana Prinia criniger catharia Psarisomus dalhousiae Psittacula spp.

184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197.

Purple Moorhen

Dum-sava

Assam Blackthroated Hill Zir-ziak Warbler Assam Brown Hill Chang-dawt Warbler Longtailed Broadbill Thi-zil Alexandrine Parakeet White Throated Brown Hornbill Bulbul Wreathed Hornbill Va-ki

Va-khaw-pui/Va-ngai Ptiloaemus tickelli Tlai-berh/Se-tawt Kawl-hawk Pycnonotus spp. Rhyticeros undulates Rikmator malacoptilus Sasia ochracea reichenowi Scolopax rusticola Serilophus lunatus Sitta castanea cinnamoventris Spelaeornis chocolatinus oatesi Spilornis cheela

Longbilled Wren-babbler Hmun-chhe-ar-pui Rufous Piculet Woodcock Luang-tu-bek/Mauthloh Chirh-dawt-lian-chi

Silver-breasted Broadbill Thi-zil-chi-khat Eastern Chestnut-bellied Suk-let Nuthatch Chin Hills Long tailed Valeisawt Wren-babbler Crested Serpent Eagle Mu-van-lai

198.

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199. 200.

Golden Babbler Burmese Spotted Dove

Va-te-chi-khat

(ENDANGERED) Stachyris chrysaea

201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217.

Rufous Turtle Dove Himalayan Wood Owl Myna Drongo Cuckoo

Thu-ro-nghawngStreptopelia chinensis tigrina tial/Chuk-chu-ru-kurinu Mim-siri-kut Streptopelia orientalis agricola Ching-pi-ri-nu-chi-khat Strix aluco nivicola Vai-va Tui-mal-far-fep-fep Sturnus spp. Surniculus lugubris Syrmaticus humiae humiae (ENDANGERED) Tephrodornis virgatus Terpsiphone paradise saturatior Tesia castaneocoronata

Bhutan Peacock Pheasant Va-vu Large Wood-shrike Thlek-bur

East Himalayan Paradise Thleh-hniar Flycatcher Tesia Va-te-mei tawi River Chat Red-capped Babbler Blyth’s or Greybellied Tragopan Wedge-tailed Pigeon Grey-winged Blackbird Burmese Yellowlegged Buttonquail Barn Owl Assam Slender-billed Scimitar-babbler Smallbilled Mountain Thrush

Va-tui-heng khum/ Va- Thamnolaea leucocephala chal-de Tek-tek Timalia pileata Va-nga/Va-ngai/Vungar Va-hui-(Hui-pui-thlaki-sen) Va-dar-tle/ Chip-puithla-rang Va-hmim Tah-ngai Ngalvapual Ar-chham Tragopan blythii (ENDANGERED) Treron sphenura Turdus boulboul Turnix tanki blanfordii Tyto alba stertens Xiphirhynchus superciliaris Zoothera dauma

4.4.4 AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE STUDY AREA Jhumming and shifting cultivation is the principal method of cultivation and about 80% of the rural population is engaged in cultivation. Paddy, maize, wheat, oil seeds, pulses, peas, groundnut and some cash crops like cotton, sugarcane, potato and pioca and vegetables are grown to some extent in the study area.

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4.5.1 Introduction Baseline environmental scenario in the study area with respect to demographic and socio-economic conditions has been discussed in the subsequent sections of this chapter. Data on number of villages, number of households, population, schedule castes and scheduled tribe population and literacy rate in each village in the block/study area has been obtained from Soft Copy (CD) of Primary Census of Mamit, Aizawl, Serchhip and Lunglei Districts (2001). Demographic details of 105 villages and 2 notified towns, namely, Serchhip and Thenzawl falling in the study area are given in Table 4.7 (a) & (b) 4.5.2 Population Table 4.7 (a) & (b) gives the data on village/town name, number of households and population distribution by sex as per 2001 census records for all villages/towns in the study area. The study area sustains a total population of 95,698 as per 2001 census records. Urban population in 2 notified towns is 22,603 (23.62%) and rural population in 105 villages is 73,095 (76.38%). The male population constitutes nearly 51.08% while female population is 48.92% of the total population in the study area.

TABLE 4.7 (a) : POPULATION OF THE STUDY AREA Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. District Aizawl Aizawl Aizawl Lunglei Lunglei Lunglei TRU Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Persons 325,676 77,531 248,145 137,223 79,267 57,956 Males 166,877 40,333 126,544 71,402 41,283 30,119 Females 158,799 37,198 121,601 65,821 37,984 27,837 ST SC Population Population 303,641 75,024 228,617 130,768 76,971 53,797 182 28 154 33 5 28

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-43 7. 8. 9. Mamit Mamit Mamit Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban 62,785 52,132 10,653 53,861 27,983 25,878 33,114 27,603 5,511 27,380 14,369 13,011 29,671 24,529 5,142 26,481 13,614 12,867 58,950 49,465 9,485 52,830 27,398 25,432 18 16 2 5 5 0

10. Serchhip 11. Serchhip 12. Serchhip

TABLE 4.7 (b) : NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS AND AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE OF THE STUDY AREA Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. District Aizawl Aizawl Aizawl Lunglei Lunglei Lunglei Mamit Mamit Mamit Serchhip Serchhip Serchhip TRU Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban No. of households 64,395 15,546 48,849 27,832 15,516 12,316 12,201 10,060 2,141 10,102 5,205 4,897 Average household size 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.1 4.6 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.3

4.5.3 Population Density Since village land area data is not available, population density in inhabited villages cannot be determined. However, on the basis of total block area of 3213 sq. km, the population density is found to be only 29.8 persons/sq. km. 4.5.4 Sex Ratio As per 2001 census records, sex ratio defined as the number of females per

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-44 1000 males for the study area is nearly 958. 4.5.5 Scheduled Castes/Tribes As per 2001 census records, scheduled castes population is merely 0.03% (0.06% males and 0.00% females) while scheduled tribes population is 98.43% (97.63% males and 99.25% females). 4.5.6 Literacy As per 2001 census records, 79.29% population of the study area of is literate, 80.44% males and 78.09% females.

TABLE 4.8 : EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND WORK STATUS OF MIZORAM SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TRU Total Total Rural Total Urban Total Total Illiterate Rural Illiterate Urban Illiterate Total Literate Rural Literate Urban Literate EDUCATIONAL LEVEL PERSONS MALES FEMALES 362,450 225,428 201,599 120,662 160,851 104,766 39,474 33,783 5,691 20,609 16,782 3,827 137,022 80,937 56,085 18,865 17,001 1,864 118,157 63,936 54,221 95,831 57,217 38,614 13,560 3,611 9,949 152

322,976 204,819 167,816 103,880 155,160 100,939 251,695 155,864 143,427 108,268 42,932 14,123 28,809 834 86,210 69,654 29,372 10,512 18,860 682

10 Total Literate but below matric/secondary 11 Rural Literate but below matric/secondary 12 Urban Literate but below matric/secondary 13 Total Matric/secondary but below graduate 14 Rural Matric/secondary but below graduate 15 Urban Matric/secondary but below graduate 16 Total Technical diploma or certificate not equal to degree

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-45 17 Rural Technical diploma or certificate not equal to degree 18 Urban Technical diploma or certificate not equal to degree 19 Total Graduate and above other than technical degree 20 Rural Graduate and above other than technical degree 21 Urban Graduate and above other than technical degree 22 Total Technical degree or diploma equal to degree or post-graduate degree 23 Rural Technical degree or diploma equal to degree or post-graduate degree 24 Urban Technical degree or diploma equal to degree or post-graduate degree 4.6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 180 654 15,802 3,143 12,659 3,212 834 2,378 166 516 11,091 2,575 8,516 2,549 751 1,798 14 138 4,711 568 4,143 663 83 580

4.6.1 Introduction Data on employment pattern and infrastructure facilities in each of the villages/towns of the study area has been obtained from of Census of Mamit, Aizawl, Serchhip and Lunglei districts (2001). 4.6.2 Employment Pattern The employment pattern in the study area is an indicator of number of persons employed in various sectors. It also indicates the various categories of employment flourishing in the area. The employment pattern in the study area is presented in Table 4.9 as per Census 2001.

TABLE: 4.9 EMPLOYMENT PATTERN EMPLOYMENT PATTERN DISTRICT PERSONS 162,961 71,792 35,165 32,523 MALES 94,481 40,907 19,404 17,104 FEMALES 68,480 30,885 15,761 15,419

Aizawl Lunglei TOTAL WORKERRS Mamit Serchhip

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-46 Aizawl Lunglei Mamit Serchhip Aizawl TOTAL MARGINAL Lunglei WORKERS Mamit Serchhip Aizawl TOTAL NON Lunglei WORKERS Mamit Serchhip Aizawl WORK PARTICIPATION Lunglei RATE Mamit Serchhip Aizawl NO. OF Lunglei CULTIVATORS Mamit Serchhip Aizawl NO. OF AGRICULTURAL Lunglei LABOURERS Mamit Serchhip Aizawl HOUSEHOLD Lunglei INDUSTRY WORKER Mamit Serchhip Aizawl NO. OF OTHER Lunglei WORKERS Mamit Serchhip TOTAL MAIN WORKERS 125,328 60,870 27,428 24,783 37,633 10,922 7,737 7,740 162,715 65,431 27,620 21,338 50.0 52.3 56.0 60.4 50,447 45,813 26,777 23,700 6,751 2,781 2,229 1,420 3,029 597 315 893 102,734 22,601 5,844 6,510 79,579 37,079 17,398 13,971 14,902 3,828 2,006 3,133 72,396 30,495 13,710 10,276 56.6 57.3 58.6 62.5 25,496 23,289 14,050 11,745 3,260 1,307 1,075 725 1,460 325 204 357 64,265 15,986 4,075 4,277 45,749 23,791 10,030 10,812 22,731 7,094 5,731 4,607 90,319 34,936 13,910 11,062 43.1 46.9 53.1 58.2 24,951 22,524 12,727 11,955 3,491 1,474 1,154 695 1,569 272 111 536 38,469 6,615 1,769 2,233

In the study area, total main workers account for 47.06% (53.00% male and 40.86% female) and whereas marginal workers and non-workers respectively account for 14.12% (10.30% males and 18.11% females) and 38.82% (36.70% males and 41.03% females).

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 4-47 In the study area, out of main workers, cultivators account for 78.74% (74.65% males and 84.27% females) followed by agricultural labourers at 1.94% (1.97% males and 1.90% females), household industry workers at 1.70% (1.48% males and 2.00% females) and the rest 17.62% are other workers (21.90% males and 11.83% females). It is, therefore, clear that most of the main workers are engaged in agricultural activities as cultivators. In may be noted that the definition of non-workers in census records includes person engaged in household duties or an infant, or is a student, or a dependent, or a retired person, or a beggar, or engaged in other non-productive economic activity. 4.6.3.1 Educational Facilities As per 2001 Census, out of 105 inhabited villages, 101 villages have one or more primary schools, 88 villages have one or more middle schools, 47 villages have one or more secondary schools and 1 village has senior secondary schools. Only 4 villages do not have any educational facility and can have access to primary school at a distance of 5 to 10 /10+ km. 4.6.3.2 Medical Facilities As per 2001 census records, only 3 villages have health centres, 14 villages have primary health centres and 49 villages have primary health sub-centres. Other villages in the study area can have access to these facilities at a distance of 5 to 10 /+ 10 km. 4.6.5 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES The study area does not have any important industrial or commercial activity.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-1 CHAPTER 5: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 5.1 INTRODUCTION

For proper assessment of impact it becomes essential to understand various activities which may result in environmental pollution during drilling and testing at the promising locations for hydrocarbons availability of the block area. It may be noted that drilling and testing of the exploratory wells are proposed to be carried out within the block area having forested hilly terrain along with valleys of many rivers and some thinly populated villages/towns close to major roads in the block area. Locations of proposed wells are not finalized so far and, therefore, the entire area of the block has been covered in this study. Normal operational pollution sources during drilling and testing are: drilling discharges, drainage discharges, gaseous emissions due to operation of DG sets and movement of vehicles, domestic wastewater, noise and heat generation as well as formation water and gaseous emissions from flare generated during assessment testing for oil and gas. The use of relatively ecofriendly water based mud (WBM) as a drilling fluid and adoption of appropriate strategy for abatement and control of pollution by OIL are expected to minimize the impact of drilling and exploratory testing operations on the surrounding environment of drilling sites. An objective assessment is made in the following sections both for adverse and beneficial impacts on various environmental parameters in the study area due to drilling and testing operations. 5.2 TOPOGRAPHY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY

There will be no impact of drilling at the exploratory locations and assessment testing for oil and gas on topography and physiography of the study area. 5.3 SOILS

Mast cellar of the rig will occupy nearly 5 m x 5 m area and overall operational area at one exploratory drilling site will be nearly 110 m x 150 m (1.65 ha). Therefore, alluvium derived soils of only 1.65 hectare are likely to

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-2 be affected around each of the exploratory drilling locations due to site preparation for drilling and assessment testing activities. Drilling discharges, drainage discharges and wasted WBM will be collected in shallow pits to be located close to the exploratory drilling locations. These shallow effluent pits will have HDPE lining to prevent seepage of effluents into ground aquifers. Clarified water at the top of effluent pits will partly evaporate especially in non-rainy period and remaining treated effluents meeting the discharge limits for on-shore discharge will be discharged in nearby nullah/river at controlled rate, if required. Domestic waste water generated at temporary camp facility in the block will be disposed in septic tank and soak pits. Therefore, soils of the study area may not undergo any adverse impact due to discharge and storage in HDPE lined pits and also if any treated effluents meeting on-shore discharge standards are discharged in nearby nullah/river or by discharge of treated domestic waste water in soak pits near drilling sites. 5.4 WATER RESOURCE AND WATER QUALITY

Total water need of 40 m3/d during drilling for nearly 150 days and only 10 m3/d during assessment testing of 5 to 10 days. Therefore, water resources of the area will not have any adverse impact due to temporary additional water requirement during drilling and assessment testing operations of the wells in during 2011-15 periods. Since the effluents generated during drilling will be stored in shallow HDPE lined effluent pits, no seepage to ground aquifers can occur. Furthermore, treated effluents meeting on-shore discharge limits from drilling sites will be discharged at a low rate in nearby nullah/river, if required. Therefore, no adverse impact either on ground or surface water quality is likely in the study area in view of heavy rainfall and perennial rivers with large flow in the block area.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-3 5.5 CLIMATOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY

There will be no impact of exploratory drilling and assessment testing operations on climatology and meteorology of the study area. 5.6 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

Major sources of gaseous pollution from drilling operations will be the exhaust gases from diesel driven power generators. Major sources of the gaseous pollution from exploratory testing for oil and gas from the exploratory wells will be the exhaust gases from flaring of associated gases produced along with oil for nearly 3 to 4 days at each well. Major pollutants in exhaust gases from these sources will be SO2 and NOx with some CO, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot. These will be discharged from stacks of appropriate heights meeting the statutory requirements. Dispersion and transport of pollutants discharged in exhaust gases from stacks of appropriate heights through ambient air in a largely forested area far away from populated area of villages/towns having an overall population density of only 47.7 persons/km2 are unlikely to have any perceptible adverse impact on the ambient air quality at a distance beyond 500 m from the emission sources. Since the monitored 24-hourly average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 ,SO2 and NOx in most

populated villages/towns in the block area are relatively quite low (refer Subsection 4.3.5.3 in Chapter 4) and wells are proposed to be drilled away from populated areas, therefore, some temporary increase in ground level concentration due to emission of pollutants from stacks of appropriate heights in a forested hilly area away from populated places due to proposed drilling and testing operations will have essentially insignificant adverse impact on ambient air quality in the study area. Use of few diesel driven vehicles for transport of drilling equipments, personnel and material will also generate exhaust gases as well as some dust from unpaved roads. Gaseous pollutants in vehicular exhausts will disperse quickly. Dust generated due to vehicular movement on unpaved roads will be relatively coarse and will settle quickly. The impact of vehicular movement is

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-4 likely to be confined to a distance of nearly 100 m from the source. Therefore, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and hydrocarbons emissions due to vehicular movement during drilling and testing operations will have essentially no adverse impact in the study area. Furthermore, existence of appreciable number of trees with extensive leaf area in the block area will act as a sink for gaseous and particulate pollutants from vehicular movement as well as drilling and assessment testing operations. Since crude oil and/or natural gas likely to be found in the area is expected to be sweet with essentially no sulphur content, there will be no emission of toxic H2S to cause any hazard in the drilling area of the exploratory wells. 5.7 NOISE AND VIBRATIONS

Ambient noise levels are likely to increase temporarily over localized area due to movement of trucks and other vehicles. The built-in shock absorbing system in rig will reduce vibration and noise from rotating equipment to ensure that noise level at the periphery of the drilling well operational area does not exceed 75 dB (A). Noise levels generated by the operation of DG sets for power supply at drilling site will also attenuate to about 75 dB(A) at the periphery of the drilling site/operational area. Assuming that the drilling well site operational area periphery is at a minimum distance of 20 m from noise sources and noting that the noise level decreases by nearly 6 dB (A) with each doubling of distance with no excess attenuation, the noise levels at different distances from a free field noise level of 75 dB (A) at a distance of 20 m from the source are given below: Distance, m Noise Level, dB (A) 40 69 80 63 160 57 320 51 640 45 1280 2560 39 33

Day-time (Lday) monitored ambient noise levels at populated locations in block area varies from to 42.5 to 54 (refer Sub-section 4.3.6.4 in Chapter 4). Therefore, during exploratory drilling and testing, noise levels in populated

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-5 areas lying beyond 475 m from drilling site operational area boundary will remain unaffected during day-time, if baseline noise levels at that position is 43.8 dB(A) or more due to masking effect. Night-time noise levels (Lnight) monitored in the area varies from 37.2 to 42 dB (A). Therefore, only

populated areas lying much beyond 2637 m from drilling site are expected to remain unaffected during night-time as a result of drilling operations due to masking effect. Therefore, only those populated village areas lying within 475 m distance are likely to experience some increase in noise levels during daytime due to drilling operations if baseline noise levels are less than 47.5 dB(A). However, Lday noise levels in villages will be within the residential area limit of 55 dB(A) at day-time at a distance beyond 200 m from drilling site periphery if baseline Lday value is 55 dB(A) or less. Furthermore, Lnight noise level in village area will be within the residential area limit of 45 dB(A) at night-time at a distance beyond 640 m if baseline Lnight value is 45 dB(A) or less at that position. 5.8 LAND USE

Since the land requirement for the drilling is only about 110 m x 150 m (1.65 hectare) at each of the exploratory locations the impact on land use in the study area is expected to be insignificant since exploratory drilling is likely to be carried out in non-populated areas only. For drilling location and access roads falling within the forest area, then necessary permission will be obtained from District Forest Officer for diversion of forest land for industrial activity before commencing any drilling activity. It is, however, recommended that the alignment of access roads and lay-out of drilling site area be so chosen that the cutting of trees may be minimized to the extent possible. If any area chosen for exploratory drilling has agricultural crops, the crops may be affected to some extent due to drilling/testing activities and movement of vehicles, etc. in the area. In all such cases, OIL will adequately compensate owners of damaged crops.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-6 5.9 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

5.9.1 Terrestrial Flora The movement of trucks and other vehicles carrying men and material may require access cutting and clearing of trees in the block area and may, therefore, require timber salvage. These trucks/vehicles can be easily maneuvered and removal of tree/shrub/tall grass lying in path can be avoided to some extent. Some damage of existing crops at some locations in cultivated area may become inevitable for carrying out drilling. However, adequate compensation will be paid to the cultivator by OIL for all such cases depending upon the extent of crop loss or loss of opportunity of cultivation. The drilling of the exploratory wells in during 2011-15 period is not likely to have any significant adverse impact on the flora of the block/study area because only very few trees are likely to be cut in the block area of drilling location for the preparation of the drilling sites and for making suitable passage for the movement of heavy vehicles through the block area to drilling sites. It is, however, recommended that the lay-out plan of drilling sites and alignment of passage for vehicle movement at each drilling location should be so chosen so as to reduce the cutting of trees to bare minimum. OIL will, however, carry out compensatory plantation through Forest Department of Aizawl near each drilling site or at other appropriate locations on completion of drilling and testing, if considered necessary. Flaring of gas produced during assessment testing will be minimized because exploratory testing will be carried out only for about 3 to 4 days at each site and quantity of natural gas likely to be flared will be nearly 10000 m3/d in a properly designed flare pit. 5.9.2 Terrestrial Fauna Drilling activities will generate some noise in an area at least upto 500 m from drilling site. Flaring of gas in a flare during exploratory testing will be fairly small. Noise due to drilling activity may have some adverse impact on

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-7 terrestrial fauna at least upto 500 m from drilling site for the duration of drilling. However, heat radiation and glare effect, if any, will be significantly moderated due to existence of dense vegetation cover in forested area around drilling location. 5.10 DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

Temporary presence of nearly 60 persons in the study area during drilling for a limited period of nearly 150 days at each site is unlikely to have any adverse impact on the demographic environment of the thinly populated villages in the block and surrounding area. No adverse impact can be expected on socioeconomic conditions of the area during the drilling and testing operations. It is, however, possible that some local persons may find temporary direct employment as unskilled labour and some more may find indirect employment for transportation of material and personnel during drilling and testing period at each location which will be of significant economic support to residents in the study area having limited job opportunity. 5.11 CONCLUSIONS

The detailed discussions of impact on various attributes of environment due to drilling and testing operations in previous sections clearly indicate that these activities will not cause any perceptible damage to environment of the study area, as delineated below:   No soil erosion; Insignificant temporary localized air pollution due to exhaust emissions from the diesel driven power generators needed for drilling rig operation at the exploratory locations and DG sets for supplying electric power to meet other project requirements as well as from vehicular movement resulting in some localized SO2, NOx and dust generation;   No contamination of soils because drilling discharges with nontoxic materials will be collected in HDPE lined effluent pits; Insignificant temporary localized generation of small amount of domestic effluents and solid wastes due to establishment of temporary mobile camp facilities in the block/area;

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-8  Insignificant temporary localized generation of noise due to operation of power generators, drilling rig and other machines as well as from vehicular movement;  Insignificant surface or ground water pollution since drilling and testing effluents will be treated to meet on-shore discharge standards before their discharge, if any, in nearby nullah/river at controlled rate;     No disruption of water supply or natural drainage; No impact on local water availability; No damage to archaeological, cultural or paleontological sites; and Only small minor temporary impact on flora and fauna in a limited forested area close to drilling location is anticipated. Some cutting of trees for site preparation in a maximum land area of nearly 1.65 hectare around each exploratory drilling location as well as in the area required for making suitable access routes for movement of heavy vehicles may take place for which adequate compensatory plantation is proposed to be arranged by OIL through Forest Department, Aizawl. Temporary employment of some local persons directly as unskilled labour for project activities and indirect employment for project related work may benefit the local population. The impact due to drilling of the exploratory wells for exploratory hydrocarbons production in the block area is summarized below in a tabular form: Environmental Attribute/ Project Activity Proposed access cutting Clearing salvage Wild life protection and Impact

Some cutting of trees may be inevitable.

timber Cutting of some trees and timber salvage may be necessary. habitat Minor adverse impact upto 500 m from drilling site in forested area is likely. Insignificant impact. Insignificant impact since temporary mobile camp facilities in block area will be used. However,

and

Fuel storage and handling Camps and staging

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 5-9 cutting of some trees may be necessary. Liquid and solid wastes Insignificant temporary localized impact is likely. disposal Cultural archaeological sites Selection of sites and Not applicable.

Two numbers Exploratory drilling sites are identified. The remaining four sites are yet selected. Not applicable.

Terrain stabilization

Protection of fresh water Not applicable since effluents will be stored in horizons HDPE lined shallow pits and well casing will protect water horizons in the drilled well. Blowout prevention plan Necessary care will be taken during drilling and blowout preventors will be installed before drilling to take care of any emergency.

Flaring during drilling and Ground flare will be used with appropriate control production measures. Abandonment of well Will be applicable only if commercial production of oil and/or gas is unviable from any exploratory well.

Rig dismantling and site Insignificant localized impact in 5 m x 5 m rig completion area. Reclamation for abandonment Noise Debris disposal Not applicable at present.

Insignificant temporary localized impact. Insignificant localized impact.

Protection of natural Natural drainage and water flow will be protected. drainage and water flow

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-1

CHAPTER 6: RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

6.1 RISK ASSESSMENT, CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY DURING DRILLING AND PRODUCTION TESTING 6.1.1 INTRODUCTION Hydrocarbon operations are generally hazardous in nature by virtue of intrinsic chemical properties of hydrocarbons or their temperature or pressure of operation or a combination of these. Fire, explosion, hazardous release or a combination of these are the hazards associated with hydrocarbon operations. These have resulted in the development of more comprehensive, systematic and sophisticated methods of Safety Engineering, such as, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment to improve upon the integrity, reliability and safety of hydrocarbon operations. The primary emphasis in safety engineering is to reduce risk to human life and environment. The broad tools attempt to minimize the chances of accidents occurring. Yet, there always exists, no matter how remote, that small probability of a major accident occurring. If the accident involves hydrocarbons in sufficient large quantities, the consequences may be serious to the project, to surrounding area and the population therein. Derrick floor is the center stage of all the drilling operations and it is most susceptible to accidents. Safety precautions with utmost care are required to be taken during drilling as per the prevailing regulations and practices so that accidents can be avoided. Due to advancement in technology, a number of equipments have been developed over a period of time to cater the need of smooth operation on derrick floor. Various standards are required to be referred to cover the variety of equipments used for safe operation in drilling and it is desirable to use a properly prepared manual for occupational safety while working or drilling over a rig. Since drilling of wells is to be carried out by an expert external agency, safety system for drilling rigs and safe working conditions and practices to be adopted during drilling operations and those
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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-2 related to drill stem test, well completion by perforation and well testing and activation are not discussed in this section. Safety systems for exploratory production testing are discussed only briefly in this section because the same will be carried out at each exploratory drilling location. It may, however, be noted that well testing and exploratory production of hydrocarbons require proper analysis of hazards involved in production testing operations and preparation of an appropriate emergency control plan. 6.1.2 IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS PRODUCTION TESTING OPERATIONS IN DRILLING AND

Various hazards associated with drilling and testing operations of hydrocarbons are briefly described in following sub-sections. 6.1.2.1 Minor Oil Spill A minor oil spill is confined within the well site area. The conditions which can result in minor oil spill are as follows:   Diesel Fuel Storage System: Oil spillage from tanker unloading, leaking valves, lines and storage tank. Exploration or Testing Well Site: Drill stem testing leading to an oil spillage from lines, valves, separator and tank failure. During the well testing operation, there exists a possibility of hydrocarbon gases being released from a failure upstream of crude stabilization facilities at the exploratory drilling location. Once the flow of oil from well is stopped, then on-site access for clean-up is possible. If flow from well can not be stopped, a blowout situation exists. 6.1.2.2 Major Oil Spill Significant hydrocarbon inventories will not be maintained at a well site since only exploratory production testing is involved at present for 5 to 10 days at each well site. A major spill can, therefore, only arise as a result of an uncontrolled flow from a well either during drilling or exploratory production test resulting from a failure of the surface equipment. For this to occur would require a combination of mechanical damage, such as, ruptured flow line coupled with failure of the emergency shut down (ESD) system. Oil is produced with some associated gas, therefore, an oil spill arising

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-3 from a failure of the surface equipment upstream of the crude stabilization facilities will result in the release to atmosphere of hydrocarbon vapours together with oil droplets in the form of a mist. Provided that ignition does not take place and the well head is not obstructed the well can be shut in manually at the wellhead. If ignition occurs or other damage prevents access to the wellhead then a blowout situation exists and appropriate measures must be implemented. 6.1.2.3 Blowout Blowout means uncontrolled violent escape of hydrocarbon fluids from a well. Blowout followed by ignition which prevents access to the wellhead is a major hazard. Contributors to blowout are: Primary            Failure to keep the hole full; Mud weight too low; Swabbing during trips; Lost circulation; and Failure of differential fill-up equipment.

Secondary Failure to detect and control a kick as quickly as possible; Mechanical failure of BOP; Failure to test BOP equipment properly; Damage to or failure of wellhead equipment; Failure of casing; and Failure of formation or cement bond around casing.

If the hydrostatic head exerted by the column of drilling fluid is allowed to drop below the formation pressure then formation fluids will enter the wellbore (this is known as a kick) and a potential blowout situation has developed. Fast and efficient action by operating personnel in recognizing the above situations and taking precautionary measure can avert a blowout. 6.1.2.4 Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-4 Hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) is extremely toxic, even very low concentrations can be lethal depending upon the duration of exposure. Without any warning, H2S may render victims unconscious and death can follow shortly afterwards. In addition, it is corrosive and can lead to failure of the drill string or other tubular components in a well. Fortunately, crude oil and natural gas is likely to be sweet, that is, without any sulphur compounds including H2S in the block area. However, following safety measures may become necessary as and when H2S is detected while drilling and testing the exploratory wells in the block area and these are presented. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA regulations) has set a 10 ppm ceiling for an eight hourly continuous exposure (TWA limit), a 15 ppm concentration for short term exposure limit for 15 minutes (STEL) and a peak exposure of 50 ppm for 10 minutes for H2S. Important characteristics of H2S gas are given in the Table 6.1. 6.1.3 CONTROL MEASURES FOR MAJOR HAZARDS Out of four hazards described in Sub-sections 6.1.2.1 to 6.1.2.4, occurrence of (a) blowout and (b) sour gas (H2S) are the two major hazards. Occurrence of H2S along with oil and gas, if detected in any well, is the major hazard during exploratory production testing of the well. Control measures for occurrence of blowout and H2S gas are discussed in following sub-sections: 6.1.3.1 Blowout The precautionary and control measures used for blowout prevention are discussed below: A. Precaution Against Blowout be

1. The following control equipments for drilling mud system shall

installed and kept in use during drilling operations to prevent the blowout:  A pit level indicator registering increase or reduction in the drilling mud volume and shall include a visual and audio –warning device near the driller stand.  A device to accurately measure the volume of mud required to keep the well filled at all times.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-5  A gas detector or explosimeter at the primary shale shaker and connected to audible or visual alarm near the driller stand.  A device to ensure filling of well with mud when the string is being pulled out.  A control device near driller stand to close the mud pump when well kicks. 2. Blowout prevention drill shall be carried out once every week near the well during drilling. 3. Suitable control valves shall be kept available near the well which can be used in case of emergency to control the well. 4. When running in or pulling out tubing, gate valve and tubing hanger shall be pre- assembled and kept readily available at the well. B. Precaution after Blowout

On appearance of any sign indicating the blowout of well, all persons, other than those whose presence is deemed necessary for controlling blowout, shall be withdrawn from the well. During the whole time while any work of controlling a blowout is in progress, the following precautions shall be taken: 1. A competent person shall be present on the spot throughout. 2. An area within the 500 meters of the well in the down wind direction shall be demarcated as danger zone.    All electrical installations shall be de-energized. Approved safety lamps or torches shall only be used within the danger zone. No naked light or vehicular traffic shall be permitted within the danger zone. 3. A competent person shall ascertain the condition of ventilation and presence of gases with an approved instrument as far as safety of persons is concerned.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-6 4. There shall be available at or near the place, two approved type of self containing breathing apparatus or any other breathing apparatus of approved type for use in an emergency. 5. Adequate fire fighting equipment shall be kept readily available for immediate use.

C.

Blowout Preventor Assembly

To prevent the blow out during drilling operations following steps are taken: 1. After the surface casing is set in a well no drilling shall be carried out unless blowout preventor assembly is securely installed and maintained. 2. Blowout preventor assembly shall consist of :  On bag type of preventor for closing regardless whether drilling equipment is in the hole or not.   One blind ram preventor closing against an open hole. One pipe ram preventor closing against drill pipe in use in the hole.

3. In blow out preventor assembly, there shall be provided two seamless steel pipes at least 50 mm of diameter connected below each set of blow out preventor one for bleeding off pressure and the other for killing the well. These pipes shall be straight and lead directly in the well. 4. Each pipeline shall consist of component having a working pressure equal to that of the blowout preventor. D. Blowout Preventor (BOP) Control Units: Location and Conditions

1. BOP control units should be located at a distance of nearly 30 m from well center. 2. Status of following should be checked and maintained in good condition:      E. Pressure Gauges; Pressure steel lines/fire resistant hoses; Level of hydraulic oil; Charging of unit; and Availability of sufficient number of charged bottles. Control System for Blowout Preventors

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-7 1. All manual control for manually operated blowout preventor shall be located at least 0.60 meters out side the derrick substructures. Instructions for operating the controls shall be posted prominently near the control wheel. 2. A control of power operated blowout preventor shall be located within easy reach of driller floor: 3. A remote control panel for blowout preventors shall also be installed around floor level at a safe distance from the derrick floor. 4. All control for blow out preventors shall be clearly identified with suitable markers. 6.1.3.2 Control Measures for H2S During Drilling The following control measures for H2S will become necessary if presence of H2S is detected at an exploratory well. A. H2S Detection System Presence

A four channels H2S gas detection system should be provided. Sensors should be positioned at optimum points for detection, actual locations being decided on site but are likely to be:     Well Nipple Rig Floor Shaker header tank Substructure cellar

The detection system should be connected to an audio visual (siren and lights) alarm system. This system should be set to be activated at a concentration of 15 ppm H2S. The mud logging will have a completely independent detection system which is connected to an alarm in the cabin. This system will be adjusted to sound an alarm at a concentration level of 10 ppm H2S as suggested in the Drilling and Production Safety Code for Onshore Operators issued by The Institute of Petroleum. A stock of H2S scavenger will be kept ready at drilling site for emergency use.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-8 B. Small Levels of H2S

Small levels of H2S (less than 10 ppm) will not activate the well site alarms. Such levels do not create an immediate safety hazard but could be a first indication of high levels of H2S to follow. H2S will cause a sudden drop of mud pH. The mud man will, therefore, organize and supervise continuous pH checks while drilling. Checks should be as frequent as required depending on ROP and always made following a formation change. Following control measures will be taken in case of small level of detection:    Add H2S scavenger to mud. Check H2S levels at regular intervals for possible increase. Inform all personnel of the rig about the presence of H2S and current wind direction.   Commence operations in pairs. Render sub base and cellar out-of-bounds without further checking levels in this area. C. High Levels of H2S

Higher levels of H2S (greater than 10 ppm) do not necessarily cause an immediate safety hazard. However some risk does exist and, therefore, any levels grater than 10 ppm should be treated in the same manner. Occurrence of 10 ppm or greater H2S concentration will sound an alarm in the mud logging unit. If higher levels of H2S greater than 10 ppm are found, following steps will be taken:  One pre-assigned roughneck will go to doghouse and put on breathing apparatus. All other rig personnel will evacuate the rig and move in up-wind direction to designated muster point.  Driller and roughneck will return to the rig floor and commence circulating H2S scavenger slowly.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-9  The level of H2S will be checked in all work areas. H2S scavenger will be added to the mud and circulated. If H2S levels drop, drilling will be continued with scavenger in the mud. Approximately 30 % of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution will neutralize H2S gas in the mud at 20 gallons of barrels of mud. 6.1.3.3 Control Measures for H2S During Production Testing H2S scavenging chemicals (caustic soda solution, calcium hydroxide or iron oxide slurry) are to be continuously injected in the recovered gas/oil/formation water after pressure reduction through choke before sending the same to separator, if H2S is detected during drilling of any exploratory well. 6.1.4 FIRE FIGHTING FACILITY As per Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) Standard, August 2000, for the drilling rigs and well testing following fire fighting system/equipments should be provided:   Fire water system; and First aid fire fighting system. H2O2 per 100

6.1.4.1 Fire Water System  One water tank/pit of minimum capacity of 50 kl should be located at the approach of the drilling site.   For production testing, one additional tank/pit of 50 kl should be provided. One diesel engine driven trailer fire pump of capacity 1800 lpm should be placed at the approach area of drilling site.  One fire water distribution single line with minimum 4 “ size pipe/casing should be installed at drilling site with a minimum distance of 15 m from the well. 6.1.4.2 First Aid Fire Fighting Equipments at Drilling Rig

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-10 Portable fire extinguisher will be installed as per IS: 2190 on the drilling rig. The minimum quantities of fire extinguishers at various locations should be provided as per the following:

Sl. 1. 2.

Type of Area Derrick floor Main Engine Area

Portable Fire Extinguisher 2 nos. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher 1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher for each engine

3.

Electrical motor/pumps 1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher for water circulation for mud pump

4. 5.

Mud gunning pump Electrical Room

1 no.10 kg DCP type extinguisher

Control 1 no. 6.8 kg CO2 type extinguisher for each unit 1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher 1 no. 50 lit mechanical foam 1 no. 50 kg DCP type extinguisher 2 nos. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher 2 nos. sand bucket or ½ sand drum with spade

6. 7.

Mud mixing tank area Diesel storage area

8.

Lube Storage Area

1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher 1 no. sand bucket

9. 10. 11.

Air Compressor area Fire pump area Near Office Dill

1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher 1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher

In-charge One fire extinguisher/shed with 3 nos. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher and 2 sand buckets

12.

Fire bell near bunk 1 no. 10 kg DCP type extinguisher house

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-11 6.2 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS FOR PRODUCTION

TESTING FACILITIES During production testing for an exploratory well, pressure control Christmas tree at well head to test the well at a controlled rate is placed. A flare pit is to be kept ready at a suitable place away from the exploration well at a safe distance as per safety requirement for ground flaring of associated gas especially in case of gas strike. A temporary closed grid hydrant system with monitors, hydrant points and fire hose boxes should be installed to cover the exploratory well as per the need. Portable fire extinguishers of DCP, mechanical foam and CO2 types of sufficient capacity and in sufficient numbers along with sand buckets should be placed at strategic locations at the exploratory drilling location. Electrical and manual siren systems should be provided close to the exploratory production testing facility at the exploratory well. Electrically operated siren of 2000 to 3000 m range along with push buttons at appropriate location to operate the same should be installed and a manual siren of 1000 m range should also be available at the exploratory well site for emergency use. Adequate personal protective equipments including sufficient number of breathing apparatus are to be kept ready in proper working condition. It may be noted that the fire station may not be available anywhere near the exploratory well site in the block area except at major towns, namely, Aizawl and Serchhip. But these fire stations may require at least ½ to 1 hour to reach exploratory drilling well location to provide meaningful assistance. It is, therefore, necessary that adequate fire fighting facilities are kept in operating condition at the exploratory well site to take care of any emergency. Assistance for fire fighting can also be taken, if required, from following fire stations located within 100 km distance from Mizoram block MZ-ONN2004/1: 1. Serchhip Fire Station, Mizoram 2. Aizawl Fire Station, Mizoram For further assistance in an emergency, General Manager (NEF Project) at Duliajan can also be contacted on telephone No. 0374-2800405.
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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-12 6.3 MEDICAL FACILITES

Eventhough negligible accident occurs during drilling and production testing at the well site since observation of necessary safety requirements has to be strictly followed. However, first aid should be made available at the drilling site and a 24 hour standby vehicle (ambulance) should also be available at the well site for quick transfer of any injured personnel to the nearest hospital, in case an accident occurs and medical emergency arises. 6.4 QUANTATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is a formal systemized approach for hazards identification and ranking. The final rating number provides a relative ranking of the hazards. Fire and Explosion Index (F&EI) is an important technique employed for hazards identification process. Consequence analysis then quantifies the vulnerable zone for a conceived incident. Once vulnerable zone is identified for an incident, measures can be formulated to eliminate or reduce damage to plant and potential injury to personnel. 6.4.1 FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX & TOXICITY INDEX Rapid ranking of hazard of an entire installation, if it is small, or a portion of it, if it is large, is often done to obtain a quick assessment of degree of the risk involved. The Dow Fire and Explosion Index (F&EI) and Toxicity Index (TI) are the most popular methods for Rapid Hazard Ranking. These are based on a formal systematized approach, mostly independent of judgemental factors, for determining the relative magnitude of the hazards in an installation using hazardous (inflammable, explosive and toxic) materials. The steps involved in the determination of the F&EI and TI are:     Selection of a pertinent process unit Determination of the Material Factor (MF) Determination of the Toxicity Factor (Th) Determination of the Supplement to Maximum Allowable Concentration (Ts)  Determination of the General Process Hazard Factor (GPH)

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-13     Determination of the Special Process Hazard Factor (SPH) Determination of the F&EI value Determination of the TI value Determination of the Exposure Area

6.4.1.1 Hazardous Material Identification Methodology From the preliminary appraisal of Material Safety Data Sheet, it is observed that both crude oil and natural gas are inflammable and hazardous. Furthermore, three phase separator (TPS) containing gas, oil and water may operate at above atmospheric temperature and large quantity (20 kl) of HSD will be stored at the drilling site. In view of hazards associated with TPS operation and large storage inventory (20 kl) of HSD, F&EI and TI values have been computed for these two units, TPS and HSD storage tanks. In general, the higher is the value of material factor (MF), the more inflammable and explosive is the material. Similarly, higher values of toxicity factor (Th) and supplement to maximum allowable concentration (Ts) indicate higher toxicity of the material. The tabulated values of MF, Th and Ts are given in Dows Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide. For compounds not listed in Dow reference, MF can be computed from the knowledge of flammability and reactivity classification, Th can be computed from the knowledge of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Index and Ts can be obtained from the knowledge of maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values. The MF, Th and Ts values are respectively 16, 0 and 50 for crude oil, 21, 0 and 50 for natural gas, and 10, 0 and 50 for HSD. General process hazards (GPH) are computed by adding the penalties applied for the various process factor. Special process hazards (SPH) are computed by adding the penalties applied for the process and natural factors. Both General process hazards and Special process hazards corresponding to various process and natural factors are used with MF to compute F&EI value and with Th and Ts to compute TI value.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-14 6.4.1.2 F&EI Computation F&EI value computed for TPS and CTT from GPH and SPH values using the following formula are given in Table 6.1: F&EI = MF x [1 + GPH (total)] x [1 + SPH (total)]

6.4.1.3 Toxicity Index (TI) Toxicity index (TI) is computed from toxicity factor (Th) and supplement to maximum allowable concentrations (Ts) using the following relationship:

TI = (Th + Ts) x [1 + GPH (total) + SPH (total)]/100

Table 6.2 also gives the toxicity index (TI) value for two units considered most hazardous at drilling site operational area. 6.4.1.4 Hazards Ranking Table 6.3 gives the hazard ranking based on F&EI values and also on toxicity index values. Table 6.2 shows that for the two process units analyzed, the largest F&EI (48.51) and TI value (1.48) are obtained respectively for TPS in exploratory production testing area and HSD tank (20 kl) in fuel storage area. Therefore, both areas have Light Hazard Potential based on F&EI and Low Hazard Potential based on TI values. In the present case since hazard potential is light/low, there is no cause for any concern. 6.4.2 CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

Consequence analysis quantifies vulnerable zone for a conceived incident and once the vulnerable zone is identified for an incident, measures can be proposed to eliminate damage to plant and potential injury to personnel. For consequence analysis both units chosen for hazards analysis are considered. The following likely scenarios considered for hazard analysis 1. Rupture of one of the nozzle of HSD storage tank in fuel storage area.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-15 2. Bursting / catastrophic rupture of a three phase separator (TPS) at exploratory production testing area. indicates that these incidents have light/low hazards potential and also have <10-6 per tank per year frequency of occurrence which will be reduced further by OIL by ensuring safe design and operating procedures. Therefore, detailed calculations for vulnerable zone analysis are not considered necessary. It may, however, be noted that the vulnerable zones for these accident scenarios are unlikely to extend beyond 40 m from HSD tank dyke or BLEVE fire ball boundary and, therefore, may not extend much beyond the drilling area plinth boundary for each of the exploratory well proposed for drilling and testing during 2007-14 period. Furthermore, well testing is planned for a maximum of 5 to 10 days at each locations, therefore, chances of TPS rupture is further reduced. 6.4.2.1 Conclusions Quantitative risk analysis presented above leads to following conclusions:  Storage of HSD in 20 kl HSD storage tank area has a computed F&EI value of 37.60 and TI value of 1.48 and, therefore, indicates light fire and explosion hazard as well as low toxicity hazard.  Operation in three phase separator in testing area has a computed F&EI value of 48.51 and TI value of 1.10 and, therefore, indicates light fire and explosion hazard as well as low toxicity hazard. 6.4.2.2 Recommendations for Risk Reduction  Hydrocarbon vapour concentration detector should be installed at some critical locations near three phase separator. Lower flammability limits (LFL) and upper flammability limits (UFL) for some gaseous hydrocarbons are as under: Compound Methane Ethane Propane Butane LFL (% in air) 5.0 3.0 2.1 1.6 UFL (% in air) 15.0 12.5 9.5 8.4

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-16

Smoke sensors and thermal detectors may be installed at HSD storage tank area.

Proper fire fighting system (hydrant and fire extinguishers) must be provided for drilling rig, exploratory testing and fuel storage area.

Proper deluge system should be provided to all critical units, such as, three phase separator, HSD storage tank and crude oil storage test tank to avoid cascading effect of fire.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-17 Table 6.1: Characteristics of H2S Gas 1. H2S is a toxic colourless gas heavier than air. 2. It has an odour of rotten eggs but see ‘point 6’ below. 3. In concentrations greater than 100 ppm, it will cause loss of senses in 3 to 15 minutes and death within 48 hours. 4. In concentrations greater than 600 ppm death occurs in less than 2 minutes. 5. The safe concentration for a normal working period without protection is 10 ppm. 6. In concentration greater than 10 ppm, the oil factory sense to smell the gas is lost, the need for detectors is apparent. 7. It attacks the body through the respiratory organs. 8. It dissolves in the blood and attacks through the nervous system. 9. It is very irritating for the eyes as it forms sulphurous acid together with water. 10. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) sets a 10 ppm ceiling for an 8 (eight) hour continuous exposure (TWA limit), a limit of 15 ppm for short term exposure limit for 15 minutes (STEL) and a peak exposure concentration of 50 ppm for 10 minutes. 11. The best protection is breathing apparatus, with mask covering the whole face and a bottle containing breathing air. 12. It burns with a blue flame to sulphur dioxide which is almost as dangerous as H2S. 13. It forms an explosive mixture with air at concentrations from 4% to 46%. 14. Short exposure of high tensile steel to as little as 1 ppm in aqueous solution can cause failures. 15. Concentrations greater than 15 ppm can cause failure to steel harder than Rockwell C-22. High stress levels and corrosive environments accelerate failures. 16. When pH is above 9 and solubility is relatively high, it is readily soluble in mud and especially in oil muds. 17. The compressibility factor (Z) is higher than that for natural gas and H2S will thus expand at rather lower pressures; or further up in the bore hole than natural gas.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-18 18. A 35% hydrogen peroxide solution will neutralize H2S gas in the mud or 20 gallons of H2O2 per 100 barrels of mud. 19. It occurs together with natural gas in all oil provinces of the world. 20. In characteristic H2S gas areas concentration above 42% in natural gas have been reported. 21. H2S may also be formed in significant amounts from the degradation of modified lignosulphonates at temperatures exceeding 4000F or 2040C. 22. Coughing, eye burning and pain, throat irritation, and sleepiness are observed from exposure to low concentrations of H2S. 23. Exposure to high concentrations of H2S produces systems such as panting, pallor, cramps, paralysis of the pupil and loss of speech. This is generally followed by immediate loss of consciousness. Death may occur quickly from respiratory and cardiac paralysis.

Table 6.2: Determination of the Fire and Explosion Index and of the Toxicity Index Crude Oil/Natural HSD Gas in Three Phase Storage Separator Tanks 16/21 10 MATERIAL FACTOR (MF) GENERAL PROCESS HAZARDS (GPH) Exothermic Reactions (Condensation/Hydrolysis) Endothermic Reactions Material Handling and Transfer Process Units within a Building Centrifuging Limited Access Poor Drainage Add: GPH(total) [(1+GPH(total)] x Material Factor = sub-factor SPECIAL PROCESS HAZARDS (SPH) Process Temperature (use highest penalty only) above flash point 0.25 0.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.10 23.1 0 0 0.50 0 0 0 0.10 0.60 16.0

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-19 above boiling point above auto ignition 0 0 0 0

Low Pressure (atmospheric/sub-atmospheric) Hazard of Peroxide Formation Hydrogen Collection Systems Vacuum Distillation at less than 0.67 bar abs. 0 0 0 0 0 0

Operation in or near Flammable Range Storage of Flammable Liquids and LPGs outdoor Reliance on Instrumentation and/or Air Purging to stay out Flammable Range Always in Flammable Range Operating Pressure Low Temperature Between 0 and –30 deg. C Below –30 deg. C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.50 0 0 0 0 0 0

Quantity of Flammable Material In Process Storage 0.65 0 0.10 0.10 1.1 48.51 0 0.50 -0.10 1.35 37.60

Corrosion and Erosion Leakage joints and packing Add: SPH [(1+SPH(total)] x sub-factor = F&EI TOXICITY INDEX TI Toxicity Factor (Th) (Ts) (Ts + Th) ---------- x [(1 + GPH(total) + SPH(total)] = 100 Toxicity Index TI Note
1. 2.

0 50

0 50

1.10

1.48

The term “process” includes handling as well as storage. For a number of process hazard the penalty to be used is fixed and can be taken from the preceding column “penalty”.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-20

Table 6.3: Hazard Ranking I. Based on Dow Fire and Explosion Index (F & EI) F & EI Value 1-60 61-96 97-127 128-158 159-up II. Based on Toxicity Index (TI) TI Value < 6 6 – 10 10 – up Hazard Ranking Low Moderate High Light Moderate Intermediate Heavy Severe Hazard Ranking

Table 6.4: Tolerable Radiation Intensities For Various Objects Object Drenched Tank Special Buildings (No windows, fire proof doors) Normal Buildings Vegetation Escape Route Personnel in Emergencies Plastic Cables Stationary Personnel 25 14 10-12 6 (upto 30 seconds) 6 (upto 30 seconds) 2 1.5 Tolerable Radiation Intensity (kW/m2) 38

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 6-21

Table 6.5: Damage Due to Incident Radiation Intensity Incident Radiation Intensity (kW/m2) 62 Type of Damage

Spontaneous ignition of wood

38

Sufficient to cause damage to process equipment

25

Minimum energy required to ignite wood at infinitely long exposure (non piloted)

12.5

Minimum energy required for piloted ignition of wood, melting of plastic tubing, etc.

4.5

Sufficient to cause pain to personnel unable to reach cover within 20 seconds, blistering of skin (1st degree burns) is likely.

1.5

Will cause no discomfort for exposure upto 60 seconds.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-1 CHAPTER 7: DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 7.1 INTRODUCTION

For meeting the emergencies caused by major accidents, planning response strategies are termed as Disaster Management Plans (DMPs). DMPs cannot be considered in isolation or act as a substitute for maintaining good safety standards in a plant. The best way to protect against major accidents occurrence is by maintaining very high levels of safety standards. Generally, the following five phases are involved in an emergency: Discovery and Notification: An event with an imminent threat of turning into an accident must first be discovered and the discoverer quickly notifies the same to the plant safety officer.  Evaluation and Accident Control Initiation: Based on the evaluation of available information, the safety officer makes a rapid assessment of the severity of the likely accident and initiates the best course of action.  Containment and Counter Measures: Action is first taken to contain and control the accident by eliminating the causes which may lead to the spread of accident. Measures are also taken to minimize the damage to personnel, property and environment.  Cleanup and Disposal: After the accident is effectively contained and controlled, the cleanup of the site of the accident and safe disposal of waste generated due to the accident are undertaken.  Documentation: All aspects of accidents, including the way it started and progressed as well as the steps taken to contain and the extent of the damage and injury, must be documented for subsequent analysis of accident for prevention in future, damage estimation, insurance recovery and compensation payment. It may be noted that some aspects of documentation, such as, photographs of the site of accident and main objects involved in the accident, survey for damage estimation, etc. may have to be carried out before the cleanup and disposal phase. However, the effort in all cases is to recommence the operation as soon as possible.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-2

7.2

CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM OF OIL

OIL has developed on site and off site emergency plan. These plans will consider linkages with local administration, local communities, Forest and Wildlife Departments and other operators in the area to provide necessary support to OIL to manage the emergency and also to disseminate information on the hazards associated with the emergency. OIL already has a competent and well trained Crisis Management Team constituted at its NEF Project Office at Duliajan and the same can take control of the situation at drilling site in Mizoram block, if necessary, soon after receiving the information from drill site. Contact person and telephone number at Duliajan for any emergency are:   General Manager (NEF Project), Duliajan Telephone No.: 0374-2800405

Oil will set up emergency response team in Mizoram Even though OIL follows well formulated safety guidelines and emergency response procedures as per the detailed regulations given in the Oil Mines Regulation 1984 and Oil Industry Safety Directorate Standard 2000, but it is still considered appropriate to provide a brief outline of a desirable on-site Disaster Management Plan (DMP) to augment the procedures followed by OIL, if considered necessary. Proposed on site DMP is discussed in the following sub-sections. 7.3 EMERGENCY CLASSIFICATION

Severity of accident and its likely impact area will determine the level of emergency and the disaster management plan required for appropriate handling of an emergency. Emergency levels and the action needed for each level are indicated below: 7.3.1 Level 1 Emergency A local accident with a likely impact only to immediate surroundings of accident site, such as, local fires and limited release of inflammable material. The impact distance may not be more than 15 m from the site of primary

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-3 accident and may require evacuation of the building/area where accident occurred and utmost the adjacent building/area. 7.3.2 Level 2 Emergency A major accident with potential threats to life and property upto 500 m distance requiring the evacuation of all personnel from the threatened area except the emergency response personnel. Larger fires, release of large quantities of inflammable materials may belong to emergency level 2. 7.3.3 Level 3 Emergency An accident involving a very serious hazard and with likely impact area extending beyond 500 m from the operational area, that is, drilling area limits, such as, major fire, very large release of inflammable material. Major fires will usually have the triggering effect resulting in the propagation of explosion. In a level 3 emergency, evacuation of population in villages, if any, adjoining the operational area may sometime become necessary if threatened area extend to populated village area adjoining the site of the primary accident in a direction of maximum impact. On-site Disaster Management Plan (DMP) will meet the hazards created due to all Level 1 emergencies and most of the Level 2 emergencies. In addition to on-site DMP, off-site DMP may also have to be put into operation for some Level 2 and all Level 3 emergencies. 7.4 METHODOLOGY OF DMP PREPARATION

A DMP is usually prepared in two parts: On-site DMP and Off-site DMP. The On-site DMP is administered by the owner or occupier of the hazardous plant/installation, OIL in the present case. OIL management may seek the assistance of other agencies, namely, fire brigade, police and health authorities, if considered necessary. The Off-site DMP is normally administered by the District Magistrate with the assistance of other relevant authorities. Luckily the maximum vulnerable zone may not extend much beyond exploratory drilling and testing area due to BLEVE around TPS area and fire around HSD storage area in a sparsely populated area around chosen drilling locations. Therefore, Level 3 Emergency requiring evacuation of surrounding

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-4 village population is not applicable in case of drilling and testing area. Even the Level 2 emergency is likely to be confined within a limited distance from the TPS area and HSD storage area, the evacuation of personnel only from affected area will be required. Even under the worst accident scenario, evacuation of less than 30 persons may be involved and damage, if any, to nearby installations is expected to remain confined within the operational area. 7.5 ON-SITE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN

7.5.1 Site Main Controller Fig. 7.1 depicts the organizational setup for the on-site DMP. The Party Chief, or the senior most officer in the absence of the Party Chief, will lead this organization as the Site Main Controller (SMC). The SMC will have the following two teams working under him:   Site Incident Controller Team Auxiliary Team

7.5.2 The Site Incident Controller Team This team will be lead by the Site Incident Controller (SIC) and will consist of five supervisors and other supporting personnel. The Site Emergency Controller, or in his absence the HSE Supervisor, will act as SIC. As far as possible, the supervisors should be drawn from the unit in which the primary accident has occurred. 7.5.3 The Auxiliary Team This team will be lead by the Auxiliary Team Controller (ATC) and will consist of five supervisors and other supporting personnel. The ManagerAdministration and Security, or in his absence Administrative Officer will act as ATC. 7.5.4 Responsibilities of Site Main Controller (SMC) The responsibilities of SMC will be as under:   Set up Emergency Control Centre (ECC) to direct emergency operations. Determine the severity of an accident, declare appropriate emergency level and changing the emergency level, if considered essential.  Exercise direct control of units not affected by accident.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-5  Determine most probable course of events by continuously reviewing and assessing the developments.  Direct the safe shutting down of the installations in consultation with SIC, ATC and other important officers, if necessary.   Ensure proper evacuation and treatment to injured personnel. Liaison with District Magistrate, Police, Fire Brigade and other agencies, if necessary.    Maintain emergency logbook. Issue authorized statements to media. Look after safe operation of the plant and rehabilitation of affected persons.  Declare all clear situation after the emergency is cover.

7.5.5 Responsibilities of Site Incident Controller (SIC) The responsibilities of SIC be as under:   Assess the severity of the accident. Initiate emergency actions to ensure the safety of personnel and minimum damage to the installations and material.       Direct rescue and fire fighting operation. Search for casualties. Evacuation of non-essential personnel to assembly area. Setup communication with SMC and ATC. Look after the responsibilities of SMC in his absence. Give information and advice to external emergency services working at the site. 7.5.6 Responsibilities of Auxiliary Team Controller (ATC) The responsibilities of ATC will be as under:  Provide all possible services to SIC so as to enable him to concentrate fully to handle the emergency.    Provide first aid to injured persons. Evacuate seriously injured persons to hospitals. Ensure safe shut down of the installations, if necessary.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-6  Direct precautionary measures to eliminate propagation of accident in unaffected areas.  Ensure availability of water, power, necessary equipments and materials for tackling emergency.  Organize an efficient communication system within the project site and between project site and outside agencies.  Regulate movement of emergency services in and out of the operational area. 7.5.7 Responsibilities of SIC Supervisors Five SIC supervisors will have the following responsibilities: S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Control of emergency including fire fighting Search, rescue and evacuation. Communication with Emergency Control Centre. Liaison with external emergency services, if required. Available for deployment as per the need.

7.5.8 Responsibilities of ATC Supervisors A1 A2 A3 First aid to injured personnel. Evacuation of seriously injured persons to hospital. Ensure safe shut down of the installations and take steps to prevent propagation of accident. A4 Ensure availability of critical facilities, equipments and materials for tackling emergency. A5 Communication within the plant and with outside agencies.

7.5.9 Warning System A high pitch warning system may be installed at exploratory drilling and testing site for announcing the emergency and giving the all clear signal. SMC will declare the emergency level and operational personnel and, if necessary,

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-7 public in surrounding villages will be notified about the nature of the emergency by using alarm system in the following manner: Level 1 Emergency – Single beep every five seconds Level 2 Emergency – Double beep every five seconds Level 3 Emergency – Continuous wailing of alarm 7.5.10 Emergency Plan Initiation On declaration of emergency, SMC, SIC and ATC will take charge in their respective control rooms and confer with one another about the best way to deal with the emergency. Emergency response personnel will report to their respective control centers and immediately take charge of their duties as enumerated in Sections 7.5.4 to 7.5.8. It is of paramount importance that the measures to contain and control the accident as well as those for rescue and evacuation are implemented immediately. 7.5.11 Emergency Procedures 7.5.11.1 Level 1 Emergencies Accident is small and isolated and may not require the shut down of any installation/unit at the drilling/testing site. Effort shall be made to arrest its propagation. Level 1 fire may be extinguished with water, sand, earth or fire extinguishers. Level 1 hazardous chemical release, if any, can be contained and controlled quickly without requiring shut down of any installation/unit or the evacuation of persons working in the affected area. 7.5.11.2 Level 2 Emergencies The affected unit will be brought to a safe shut down while continuing emergency supplies of water and power. Level 2 fires will be extinguished by mobilizing fire tenders and foam extinguishers. Level 2 hazardous chemical release, if any, will require evacuation of personnel including those working in downwind direction towards upwind or cross wind direction to minimize the injurious effect of hazardous gas release. 7.5.11.3 Level 3 Emergencies

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1(Mizoram) 7-8 Level 3 emergencies are not applicable to drilling and testing operational area as indicated in Section 7.3. 7.5.12 Accident Site Clean Up While cleaning the site after explosion and fire accidents, care shall be taken against the probability of fire of flammable material lying buried in the debris of fire accident. Information regarding the cleaning up of spills of hazardous materials, if used, is available in material safety data sheets. 7.5.13 Emergency Response Personnel Safety All emergency response personnel from the OIL and outside agencies shall enter the accident site under instruction of SIC. These persons shall invariably wear appropriate protective gear, such as, fire suits, helmets, boots, respirators and gas masks, before entering the accident site. 7.6 ALL CLEAR SIGNAL AND PUBLIC STATEMENT

For Level 1 and 2 emergencies Site Main Controller will authorize an all clear signal in the form of long high pitched alarm with intermittent pauses, say, two minutes alarm followed by one minute pause repeatedly. Public statements regarding the emergency will be issued only by SMC.

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 8-1 CHAPTER 8: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN 8.1 INTRODUCTION

After the Environmental Impact Assessment process of the proposed exploratory drilling and assessment testing operations for the wells, it is essential to identify project specific actions for implementation during exploratory drilling and assessment testing operations. These actions are compiled in the form of an Environment Management Plan (EMP) which delineates the mitigation measures. Though most of the environmental impacts identified in the proposed exploratory drilling and assessment testing are temporary and localized, project specific recommendations are given below for implementation. 8.2 MITIGATIVE MEASURES FOR MINIMISING

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 8.2.1 General Measures Required During Drilling and Assessment Testing The following environmental management requirements are to be

implemented by the exploratory drilling and production testing personnel: 1. Cutting of trees/shrubs/tall grasses and damage to agricultural crops should be avoided as far as possible. 2. Any loss of agricultural crops due to drilling activities should be compensated. 3. Khawnglang Wildlife Sanctuary lies in the south-eastern part of the block area and no drilling activity should be carried out by OIL in the same. In the forested area chosen for drilling necessary approvals from Chief Conservator of Forests, Mamit, Aizawl, Serchhip and Lunglei districts, shall be taken for the entries into designed forest areas and felling of minimum number of trees necessary for carrying out exploratory/appraisal drilling at each location. Compensatory afforestation should also be planned close to each drilling site through District Forest Departments as per the statutory requirements.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 8-2 4. Domestic waste water as well as food left-over and other organic solid wastes generated in temporary camp facilities at operational area should be disposed off in safe manner as per the approved procedures. 5. Appropriate arrangements should be made for sewage disposal for maintaining hygienic conditions at temporary camp facilities site for exploratory drilling and production testing personnel. 6. Plastic and other hazardous wastes, such as, spent batteries and waste oil, should be disposed off as per approved safe procedures. 7. Transfer of HSD required for trucks/vehicles from storage tank or road tanker should be leak proof to avoid contamination of soil by HSD. 8. Only HSD of low sulphur (0.25% maxm.) content should be used for DG sets and vehicles needed during exploratory drilling and assessment testing operations. 9. Persons working in high noise area should be advised to use ear muffs/plugs. 10. Whenever ambient dust levels in work area become very high and above the safe limit due to natural cause and/or exploratory drilling and testing activities, workers should be encouraged to use dust mask. 11. Workers should not engage in hunting of any wild animal/bird for their meat in the exploratory drilling and adjoining areas. 12. Local persons should be engaged preferably as unskilled and/or semiskilled labour during project period as far as possible. 8.2.2 Specific Measures Required During Exploratory Drilling and Production Testing The following environmental management measures are to be implemented by exploratory drilling and assessment testing personnel: 1. Drilling discharges (rock cuttings) and wasted drilling fluid (WBM) shall always be discharged in HDPE lined impervious shallow effluent pits to be constructed near shale shaker of WBM treatment and recycling system at drilling site.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 8-3

2. On-shore discharge standards should always be met before discharging any treated liquid effluent from effluent pits to nearby nullah/river. The discharge should be at a controlled rate to ensure that the water quality of the nullah/river as a result of discharge of treated effluents is not adversely affected. The treated water from ETP will be recycled and will be used for drilling activities. 3. Because of bedded nature fissility and high angle of dip there may be requirement of grouting in the ETP pits to prevent leaching and contamination of soil and water. .

4. Consumption of water for drilling activities should be minimized which will automatically minimize liquid effluent generation rate. Since the drilling action will require huge amount of water and exploiting ground water seems to be a difficult proposition and only viable option is to tap the monsoonal flow by constructing a series of check dams along the feeder channels. 5. Oil based mud, if used during emergency, should not be discharged in the effluent pits. It should be stored in steel barrels and brought to the base camp for proper disposal. 6. On completion of exploratory drilling and testing of the well, all drill cuttings and other oily solid wastes after requisite treatment should be put in HDPE lined effluent pit, covered on top with HDPE sheet and then with a thick layer of soil and sealed to form a mound with proper slope to prevent rainwater seepage and water source contamination in nearby area. 7. In order to avoid any adverse impact on populated areas of villages, it is desirable to choose drilling locations at 500 m or more but in no case less than 300 m from such an area. 8. Compensatory plantation through the district forest department should be carried out if cutting of significant number of trees and shrubs at road side, agricultural fields and community places becomes necessary.

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 8-4 8.2.3 Environmental Monitoring Monitoring programme is summarized below and should be finalized in consultation with Assam State Pollution Control Board to meet the requirement during exploratory drilling/testing. Sl. No. Description 1. 2. Ambient Air Quality Water Quality Number of Locations 3 near operational area 3 to 4 near exploratory well drilling 2 to 3 near exploratory well drilling 2 to 3 near operational area Parameter to be Frequency Monitored As per MPCB and Quarterly CPCB guidelines As per MPCB and Quarterly CPCB guidelines As per MPCB and Quarterly CPCB guidelines As per MPCB and Quarterly CPCB guidelines

3.

Soil Quality

4.

Noise Level

Post project monitoring programme will depend upon the techno-commercial viability of hydrocarbons production from the exploratory well. If economic quantities of hydrocarbons are not found, then the drilled well will be plugged, clearly identified at site and abandoned after reinstating the drilling site to its near original condition and handing over the same to its owner. Until such time, the monitoring programme summarized above will continue by OIL. If economic quantities of hydrocarbons are found, the well will be suspended with a well head/X-mas tree in place, but all other equipment and material will be removed from the site. HDPE lined Secured Pits will be covered with a top HDPE liner of 1500 microns. The pit will then be backfilled with minimum of 300 mm compacted layer of local top soil to seal the pits as per the regulatory requirement. Further monitoring programme will be decided on the basis of further drilling requirement for hydrocarbons production in the area after obtaining environmental clearance for developmental activities from MoEF. 8.2.4 Occupational Health Surveillance Programme

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 8-5 Exploration and production (E&P) activities do not have any specific occupational health hazards and OIL has proposed to provide health surveillance programme for the officers and workers engaged for exploratory drilling/testing operations consisting of the following: 1. General Health Check-up. 2. Health Awareness Instructions and Suggestions.

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EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 9-1

CHAPTER 9: CONSULTANTS ENGAGED Environmental Impact Assessment study for proposed EXPLORATORY DRILLING IN BLOCK MZ-ONN-2004/1(MIZORAM) of OIL INDIA LTD. DULIAJAN, ASSAM was conducted by GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants, Assam(Sl.No.165 of QCI/NABET List of Applicants). GREENTECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants was set up in the year 1997-98 to fill up the need of environmental parameter monitoring services. The organization started its activities from Sivasagar town in the upper Assam district of Sivasagar and later set up a branch office in Guwahati during 2000-2001. GREENTECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants is offering Environmental Consultancy Services in different sectors spread over the entire North Eastern states. The following personnel were involved in preparing the present report:

SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

NAME Mr. Pranjal Buragohain Dr.(Mrs.) Belinda Lahon Buragoahin Mr. Soumyendra Nath Dutta Mr. Paresh Chandra Baruah Dr. Ratul Mahanta Mr. K. G. Dev Krori Mr. Khira Saikia Mr. Devendra Nath Kalita Mr. Himanshu Phukan Dr. Debraj Das Mr. Sanjib Rajkhowa Mr. Rupam Baruah Mr. Abhijit Rajkonwar

QUALIFICATION BE (Civil) PhD (Science) M.Sc. (Agri. Botany) BE (Chemical) PhD (Social Science) BE (Civil) BE (Chemical) BE (Civil) BE (Chemical) PhD (Economics) B.Sc. (Geology) B.Sc. (Chemistry) HS

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

EIA for Exploratory Drilling & Testing in Block MZ-ONN-2004/1 (Mizoram) 9-1

GREEN TECH Environmental Engineer & Consultants

TABLE 4.4 WATER QUALITY IN THE STUDY AREA
Ground Water FROM PUBLIC WATER POINT CONSTRUCTED BY Darlung Road SOIL DEPARTMENT N 230 30́ 18" 0 0 N 23 41́ 41" E92 53̍ˊ46" E 920 37́ 24" (Road KEIFANG to AIZAL) Surface Water Tlawng (N 230 31ˊ 32" ́ E 920 38ˊ 18")

Sl. No.

Characteristics

Unit

Turial River in Turial (N 230 43́ 39" E92 48.214)

GW1

GW2

River SW1

SW2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 16. 17. 18. 20.

Colour Odour pH Total Hardness (as CaCO3) Iron Chlorides as Cl Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Calcium as Ca Magnesium as Mg Sulphate as SO4 Nitrate as NO3 Total Alkalinity as CaCO3 Phosphate as PO4 Dissolved Oxygen BOD Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

---mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

Colourless Odourless 6.9 116 0.26 36.9 166 19.2 16.6 2.5 .321 110 0.29 1.4 3.2 40

Colourless Odourless 7.2 124 0.21 39.8 188 22.4 16.6 5.8 .264 120 0.30 1.64 2.8 24

Colourless Odourless 6.9 62.5 .12 12.6 102 9.66 8.34 4.4 .198 86.8 .075 6.4 1.1 112

Colourless Odourless 7.78 92 .14 16

9.36 14.6 3.6 .136 59.8 .05 6.2 2.4 54.4

Water samples were collected on 7th & 8th April 2011

TABLE 4.1: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN STUDY AREA
Sl. No. Parameters Unit Serchhip S1 Brown 3.1 32.6 1.21 6.6 11.2 5.9 15.6 150 3.6 4.5 29.7 0.098 0.21 0.36 11.62 Khwalailung S2 Light Brown 2.4 31.4 1.22 6.5 19.2 5.8 18.5 110 6.6 4.8 11.7 0.118 0.22 0.38 12.47 Buarpui S3 Greenish Grey 2.6 32.6 1.36 6.9 16.8 6.3 19.9 120 7.8 4.6 20.8 0.102 0.22 0.38 13.10 Thenzawl S4 Brown 2.7 33.1 1.27 6.7 14.4 4.9 17.0 130 6.6 5.1 27.8 0.076 0.20 0.34 15.54 Chhingchhip S5 Gray 2.5 33.6 1.14 6.5 18.4 3.9 22.7 120 7.0 5.8 21.4 0.104 0.22 0.38 12.52 Tlungvel S6 Gray 3.1 32.2 1.16 6.4 19.2 5.8 18.5 150 6.0 6.2 23.9 0.050 0.20 0.34 14.35 Aibawk S7 Gray 2.6 31.9 1.22 6.6 20.0 5.4 18.5 140 5.0 6.5 24.5 0.102 0.23 0.40 10.40 Sialsuk S8 Light Brown 2.8 32.7 1.15 6.7 19.2 5.4 15.6 130 6.0 7.7 26.2 0.075 0.23 0.40 9.25

Physical Parameters

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Colour Moisture Content Water Holding Capacity Bulk Density pH Calcium (as Ca+) Magnesium (as Mg+) Chloride Total Alkalinity Available Phosphorous Sulphate Potassium (as K) Kjeldahl Nitrogen (as N) Organic Carbon Organic Matter Cation Exchange Capacity

-% % g/cc -mg/100g mg/100g mg/100g mg/100g mg/100g mg/100g mg/100g % w/w % % meq/100g

Chemical Parameters