Logical Database Development

Hallam Accommodation and Housing

Agency
(A CASE STUDY)

. Class diagrams and Use Case diagrams and their implementations related to the HAHA case study with a brief description. It also includes a brief and understandable discussion of above mentioned diagrams and a series of relational table definitions related to ERD which followed by the discussion of how any identified potential problems in the model have been handled and how the hierarchies modeled in class diagram could be handled in the relational implementation. In this study we included a brief introduction to HAHA case study followed by the introduction to Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs). It includes relational table definitions related to the description of the ERD followed by a discussion of the implementation of hierarchies in the class diagram in relational model. It also includes a brief introduction of peer assessment. It is said that the primary customers are the students or groups of students who hires for 1 year contract. Introduction: This project is about the Hallam Accommodation and Housing Agency (HAHA) which presently hire out a range of various varieties of conjugal lodging (flats and houses) to customers. It also includes a brief description of peer assessment and finally concluding the case study. This project on HAHA includes introduction to Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs).Abstract: This is a case study which deals with the Hallam Accommodation and Housing Agency (HAHA). but it changed rapidly from the last 1 and a half year by several specialized and on leave public moving towards the organization looking for leases for everything from 1 week to 2 years. Class diagrams and Use Case diagrams and the designs of them related to the HAHA case study.

attributes and relationships: • Entity: It is defined as “Every differentiated thing which is to be shown in a database.  Irrelevant entity types If an entity type has little or nothing to do with the problem. In addition the information we plan to collect is specifically concerned with prescribing. name and others. weight. repeated in Blaha & Rumbaugh 2005 p 185 -6) provides some guidance as to how to identify appropriate entity types. it is treated as one is related with the other.e. . definite attributes are accumulated CJ Date (1986). when there is a link present in between the two. Usually it is simple to calculate these features like height. often words are used indiscriminately. it should possibly be left out. One is treated as the parent and the other as a child James Martin (1989) Rumbaugh et al (1991 p152-3.Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD): It is a graphical description of the information for a specified database which means a graphical data representation and it corresponds to the information at a top intensity of pensiveness. Every kind of entity will have single or more relationships with the others. In an ERD. He suggests that you consider the following issues:  Redundant entity types Two entity types may express the same information (i. two names for the same concept.  Multiple roles become entity types "The name of a entity type should reflect its intrinsic nature and not a role that it plays.” For each entity type. Rough Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) for HAHA: . • Attributes: Attributes are mostly the qualities. (Blaha & Rumbaugh 2005 p 186). ERD is a method used to give a pictorial explanation of some specified features of the information required for a database Reingruber & Gregory (1994).  Vague entity types In a narrative description. Every ERD must have an entities. • Relationship: It is a technique of relating kinds of entities collectively. or synonyms).  Entity types that are really attributes Often an initial entity type is an attribute.

Owners Id Postal codes Rent State City Address Owners ID Property type Belong s to HAS Property features Property Listing Size Bed Rooms Bath Rooms Reception Rooms Property Photo Kitchen Owns Owner details Name Addres s Phone number Descriptio n Photo ID Visual Paradigm for UML 8.3 Enterprise Edition (VP-UML): .

Property pane. . Toolbar: It is at the bottom of the menu bar which is an addition to the menu bar. Class diagram and the Use case diagram of this case study are drawn by using this tool. Diagram Navigator. Menu bar: It allows us to choose and do different types of actions in VP-UML. Diagram Navigator: In this field diagrams are scheduled and clustered based on their type of which we can access obtainable diagrams and can create new diagrams. 2. 3. Properties Pane: In this field possessions of the outline at present chosen are shown. we will see fields like the Menu bar. Every button is obtainable in group of icons that are willingly accessible. The main parts of this tool are as follows: 1.The designs of ERD. 4. Toolbar. In this VP-UML tool. Message Pane and Diagram Pane.

Address. rent details like weekly. if generated. city. The property listings entity include many attributes like owner id. Coming to property type entity. monthly or longer lets. owner details. Here we produced entities like property listings. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) for HAHA: The ER-diagram above deals explains the HAHA case study clearly by using entities and attributes given in the case study. property photo. postal codes. reception rooms. bathrooms. state. Message Pane: In this field it will display messages or warnings of the system. number of bedrooms.5. size in meters or feet. it includes the details of types like . 6. Diagram Pane: It is a field in which the diagrams are displayed. kitchen with list of appliances and a brief description of the properties included. property type.

The middle section contains a group of attributes. classes possess attributes (member variables). It can be depicted in UML using a class relationship. Jim Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson. Class Diagram: The need of a class diagram is to represent the classes in a form or model. Aggregation / Association The weak form of aggregation is denoted with an open diamond. This arrowhead. In an object oriented application. address and phone number of the owners of properties. This relationship denotes that the aggregate class (the class with the white diamond touching it) is in some way the “whole”. and the other class in the relationship is somehow “part” of that whole. The rooms also possess heating equipments like radiators. 1997). terraced house and others. Address specifies the area of the property located which can be searched by using postal codes/ district of the areas.flat. Figure 3 shows the composition relationship. The property photo includes the photos of the properties with id which are kept for sale. fire and others. Inheritance The inheritance relationship in UML is depicted by a peculiar triangular arrowhead. . One or more lines proceed from the base of the arrowhead connecting it to the derived classes. A class is represented by a rectangle separated into three partitions: • • • The topmost partition contains the class name. The owner details include the name. Composition Relationships Each instance of type Circle seems to contain an instance of type Point. There are some other details which are not included in the diagram like Furnished / Unfurnished: a further detail of the furnishing is about to keep and the details customers who are buying the properties or hiring rooms. points to the base class. detached house. This is a relationship known as composition. operations (member functions) and relationships with others. The last partition contains a group of operations (Grady Booch. that looks rather like a slice of pizza.

kitchen and description and we have operations like helps customer to buy and helps owner to sell. we have attributes like owner_id. Address. address. size. Bed_rooms. In Property_type class we have owner_id and property_features attributes and operation like show types of properties. .Class Diagram for HAHA: The Class diagram for this case study includes classes like Property_Listings. Reception_rooms. cus_id. in Address class we have postal_codes attribute and operation like find address. address and phone_number attributes along with place a property for sale and sell a property operations and in customer we have name. postal_codes. Property_type. rent. Customer. city. Property_photo. address. bathrooms. In owner_details we have name. In the Property_Listings class. In property_photo class we have photo_id attribute. state. Owner_details.

1998). series of behavior. identify all the significant goals the users have that the system will support. It consists of actors and use cases. bounding the scope of the system. and participates in all relationships of the parent use case” (Booch. and expansion tips defined in the parent use case. • Review and validate with users. They are ‘generalization’. I.. Booch. Rumbaugh. use cases capture who (actor) does what (interaction) with the system. Jacobson and J. Maintain the same level of abstraction throughout the use case. Rumbaugh (1999) provides three relationships which may be used to build use cases. Creation of use cases: The following provides an outline of a process for creating use cases: • Identify all the different users of the system • Create a user profile for each category of user. 1999). G. A statement of the system’s value proposition is useful in identifying significant goals ( Booch. use case steps are written in an easy-to-understand structured narrative using the vocabulary of the domain. I. ‘include’ and ‘extends’ relationships. or other systems. • • Extends: This relationship presents a mode of confining an alternative to the use case (Coleman. • Create a use case for each goal. This is engaging for users who can easily follow and validate the use cases.. including all the roles the users play that are relevant to the system. G. • Structure the use cases. Generalization: This relationship among use cases means. 1999).without dealing with system internals. Actor: An actor is an entity from outside the system who communicates with the system An actor may possibly be a group of users. Jacobson and J. I. Steps in higher-level use cases may be treated as goals for lower level (i. and the accessibility encourages users to be actively involved in defining the requirements. A complete set of use cases specifies all the different ways to use the system. For each role. Avoid over-structuring. for what purpose (goal). and therefore defines all behavior required of the system. . Rumbaugh. • Include: This relationship among two use cases represents that a series of actions expressed in the included (or sub) use case is incorporated in the series of the base (including) use case. G. Jacobson and J. the child use case includes the entire attributes. sub-use cases. roles users can play. Generally. Use Case Diagram: It is defined as a group of connections among external actors and the system at our concern. more detailed). as this can make the use cases harder to follow.phone_number attributes and possess operations like buys a property and rents a property.e. following the use case template.

The owner and the customer are connected through the Hallam Accommodation and Housing Agency (HAHA) website and there is no direct contact between them. In addition to the requirement of the strong aspects of a . The actors are Owner and customer. handled and examined and a relational database satisfies these needs. Relational Databases: All firms need data to be composed. The Customer actor performs four operations like search the properties using search listings. can add desired property to the online cart to buy the property using add listings and can delete the not interested property from the online cart using delete listing use case. The owner performs two operations like entering information using insert property details and sells or leases rooms using sell/lease properties.Use Case Diagram for HAHA: The Use Case diagram for the HAHA case study is very simple diagram in which we have two actors and six use cases. view the property using view property details.

Set of Relational Table Definitions for the ER-Diagram of HAHA: The ER-diagram above deals explains the HAHA case study clearly by using entities and attributes given in the case study.D (1999) the relational database model contains three interior mechanisms: • Gathering of objects / relations. Address. postal codes. we need to expand and maintain it. property type. monthly or longer lets. This ERD can be represented in the form of a set relational table definitions using “ORACLE Database Express Edition 10g. • Operators which perform operations on objects / relations. size in meters or feet. There are some other details which are not included in the diagram like Furnished / Unfurnished: a further detail of the furnishing is about to keep and the details customers who are buying the properties or hiring rooms. rent details like weekly. • Data reliability techniques. city. The hierarchical database is like a file system in nature with an origin or parent node and single or more leaf nodes indicating the parent. bathrooms. Coming to property type entity. it includes the details of types like flat. fire and others. terraced house and others. is short of ad-hoc query capacity. According to Kroenke . address and phone number of the owners of properties. kitchen with list of appliances and a brief description of the properties included. The property photo includes the photos of the properties with id which are kept for sale. number of bedrooms.” . The property listings entity include many attributes like owner id. property photo. reception rooms. It brings in the quickest route for data-access. owner details. detached house. Here we produced entities like property listings.relational database. however with the cons of less flexibility. state. The rooms also possess heating equipments like radiators.D (1999). Address specifies the area of the property located which can be searched by using postal codes/ district of the areas. and elevated application protection Kroenke . The owner details include the name.

. price. construct tables. and see table information. ■ Oracle Database XE Client: Oracle Database Client provides drivers. export. and Oracle Application Express applications. . and tools that enable you to remotely administer the database ■ We used this tool to produce relational table definitions for the ER-diagram of the HAHA case study. bring in. and produce reports. networking components.Oracle® Database Express Edition(XE) 10g for Microsoft Windows: Oracle Database 10g was released in 2003 and it allows grid (the g in 10g) computing. views and other diagram objects. The objective is to offer computing resources which clearly balance to the client group. PHP. One significant input to Oracle Database 10g’s value in grid calculating is the capacity to stipulation CPUs plus data. and difficulty of database managing by introducing self-managing features. and to develop Java. Oracle Database 10g additionally decreases the time. we utilize the Database Start Page to manage the database. so that you can connect to the database from the same computer on which you installed the server component.NET. In Oracle Database express edition. Grid refers to a group of systems which offers required resources for requests. Oracle Database XE has the following components: Oracle Database XE Server: The Oracle Database XE Server component provides both an Oracle database and tools for managing this database. execute queries as well as SQL scripts. It also includes the client component of Oracle Database XE.

state varchar2(25).Creation of Table Definitions: ---> Property_listing table:• create table Property_listing (ownersid varchar2(25) primary key. postcodes number(10). rent number(10).city varchar2(25). .

sitesize number(10). kitchen varchar2(20) . Bathroom number(5). OWNERSID PROPERTYFEATURES VARCHAR2(25) VARCHAR2(250) . propertyfeatures varchar2(250)). Bedrooms number(5). OWNERSID POSTCODES RENT STATE CITY SITESIZE BEDROOMS BATHROOM KITCHEN DESCRITION NOT NULL VARCHAR2(25) NUMBER(10) NUMBER(10) VARCHAR2(25) VARCHAR2(25) NUMBER(10) NUMBER(5) NUMBER(5) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(100) --->property_type table:• create table property_type (ownersid varchar2(25) references propertylisting(ownersid).descrition varchar2(100)).

phoneno NAME ADDRESS PHONENO VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(100) NUMBER(10) ---> property_listing_ownerdetails table:• create table property_listing_ownerdetails (property_listing_owners_id number(10)). no rows selected SQL> desc property_listing. PROPERTY_LISTING_OWNERS_ID NUMBER(10) Generated output for tables created: SQL> select * from property_listing.address varchar2(100).---> owners_details table:• create table owners_details number(10)). (name varchar2(20). .

Name Null? Type ----------------------------------------.---------------------------OWNERSID POSTCODES RENT STATE CITY SITESIZE BEDROOMS BATHROOM KITCHEN DESCRITION NOT NULL VARCHAR2(25) NUMBER(10) NUMBER(10) VARCHAR2(25) VARCHAR2(25) NUMBER(10) NUMBER(5) NUMBER(5) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(100) SQL> desc property_type.-------.---------------------------OWNERSID PROPERTYFEATURES VARCHAR2(25) VARCHAR2(250) SQL> desc owners_details.-------.Name Null? Type ----------------------------------------. Name Null? Type .

---------------------------NAME ADDRESS PHONENO VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(100) NUMBER(10) SQL> desc property_listing_ownerdetails Name Null? Type ----------------------------------------.-------. Team work done for the peer assessment gives information which can be used in conveying the personal grades. acting for an attain. It permits all the team associates to review others including themselves. Though resolving personal levels of efforts put forward by a team is a difficult job.. The learner teams need not gratify with all the necessities of the explanation.---------------------------PROPERTY_LISTING_OWNERS_ID NUMBER(10) SQL> spool off.-------. With the help of peer assessment.. Conclusion: . in the level which they resolve their efficiency.M. Peer assessment: A team is a little group of persons possessing corresponding talent. Felder.B. H. (2000). D. R.----------------------------------------. all personal levels can be resolved. and Fuller. and their move for which they are in grasp of themselves to be jointly accountable Kaufman. dedicated for a general use.

al. Prentice Hall [ISBN 0-1377129-2] Reingruber Michael C. 1995 (6th ed. et. We also included a description of all the designs followed by the relational table definitions of ERD. We also discussed that how the class hierarchies can be implemented using the relational model. Object Oriented Software Engineering. Ivar Jacobson.hpl. James Rumbaugh. • Date C J. • • • • • Martin James 1981. Rumbaugh. Object Oriented Modeling and Design. Benjamin Cummings. (1991). 1999. Available at http://www. An end users guide to data base. Addison Wesley. G. Grady Booch. Gregory William W 1994 The Data Modelling Handbook John Wiley & Sons Chichester.hp.This is a case study is about the Hallam Accommodation and Housing Agency (HAHA) which starts with a brief introduction about the organization followed by explanation of the terms Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs).ppt. pp. (1994). Fusion Newsletter.. Prentice Hall. We also suggest that this case study is good enough in describing the organization. The Unified Modeling Language User Guide..com/fusion/news/apr98. We then dealt with the designs of the above mentioned diagrams related to the HAHA case study. Class diagrams and Use Case diagrams. (1992). but it will be very good if it provides much more information as it lags in some aspects like not including that how the data related customers is implemented in ERD and in the tables and some other details related to owners and properties. Addison-Wesley. Object Oriented Analysis and Design. Derek. . “A Use Case Template: Draft for discussion”. References: • • Booch.. I. Coleman.) An introduction to database systems. Addison-Wesley. Jacobson and J. et. April 1998.219-241. al.

com/catalog/oressentials3/chapter/ch01.pdf.ucv.M.com/media/documents/dbva40dg/pdf/dbva_designer_guide_chapter3.ro/~cstoica/DD/lab1%20DD. • http://media. D. (7th edition) Pearson Publications. 89(2). • • • • • http://images. • • • http://media.com/product_data/excerpt/97/07821418/0782141897.102/b25143.” Journal of Engineering Education. pdf.com/media/documents/dbva40dg/pdf/dbva_designer_guide_chapter1.com/cd/B25329_01/doc/install.pdf . http://www. Kaufman.com/quickstart/vpuml71_quickstart_20100201.D.pdf http://software.oracle. pdf. R. and Fuller. Design and Implementation.• • Kroenke .visual-paradigm.org http://media. H.pdf http://www.com/product/vpuml/tutorials/erd. (2000). (1999)..wiley.pdf http://oreilly.visualparadigm.foundationcoalition.visualparadigm.. 133–140. Felder. Database processing: Fundamentals. “Accounting for Individual Effort in Cooperative Learning Teams.visual-paradigm.B.jsp http://docs.