RISABHA DEV A


THE
FOUNDER OF JAINISM
BY
CHAMPAT RAI JAIN
VIDYA. V A.RIDBI
1
BARRISTER-AT-LAW.
ALLAHABAD:
THE INDIAN PRESS, LTD.
1929
Printed by X.. llittra., at
the Indian Press, Ltd., Allahabacl,
QONTENTB
Fokiii\VORD i
INTRODUCTION iii
CHAPTER I Glimpses along Life's Journey . 1
, ll Obrlditions or Ehrly Existerlce 50
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III Four and Twenty '.i'iHhaihli:aras .
IV The First Worid Teacher
V Birth and Childhood
VI Family Life .
VII Public Lire ;
VIII WoHd Flight and Saiihyasii
IX fJmiiisdiei:toe
X The Samavasarana
XI Bahubali
x.ti Bharata
XIII Peeping into the Future
•'
XIV The Community of the Faithful
XV Nirvana;
XVI V r i ~ a b h a Sen Galjadhara
il
AnoJiATibN
57
74
83
89
95
107
I
121
126
139
147
160
171
175
188
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE
1. The Colossus of Deva at Ba:rwani
(much damaged by age)
2. The Statue in padnzasa11a (seated) of·
Deva in one or the Temples at Arrah .
3. Tirthamkarn Mahavira (from a Statue in one
74
of the Temples at Arrah) • 113
4. The' Couch' (samavasarmza) of Maha Vratya
(from a painting in the big Jaina Temple at
Seoni) 126
6. The samavasarana after the original in the
Jaina Siddhanta Bhawan, Arrah . . 129
6. Tirthamkara 1\Iahavira in the standing pos-
t.ure (from the Matha Temple at Shravan
Belgola) . 138
7. The Tree whose leaves are for the healing
of nations, from an original design in
bronze in one of the J aina Temples at
Karanja 136
8. Bahubali's Colossus at Shravan Belgola
. 139
9. The Statue of Bharata in the standing pos-
ure (at Shravan Belgola} . 147
10. Deva (from a statue in the Musee
Guimet, Paris) 19 L
ERRATA
Page line
from
for
read
33
8th top
strong prenatal the strong abiding
35
9th bottom
Akamapana Akampana
43
4th
••
Akamapana Akampana
65 1st top Early early
92 8th ,, add: He also came to be known as Anantavirya.
95 lOth
"
rajyabhifleka
101 5th
"
thigh's thighs
102 3rd bottom economical economic
104 1st top
bhangi bhanqis
104 3rd bottom economical economic
105 lOth
"
Harivansa
105 6th ,, Maghavavit Magbava
133 1st top of the movements of volition, that is,
without the volun-
tary movements
150 12th
,
hd had
171 7th
"
Adinatb.- Adinath
186 lOth bottom rescribed described
190 7th
It
for a certain for certain
~ ~ :sm(hu ftr.f m ~ ~ i&trit 1
~ ~ t m ~ ~ ;p{ w ~ ~ m t n
To the first PERFECT MAN, the Lord of
Conquerors, the first most Excellent
.Arranger olf things, the support of Dharma,
the Supreme Teacher,
Salutation I
FOREWORD
Risabha Deva was the Founder of J ainism
.
in the present half-cycle of time. Re was a man,
but became Immortal and a Tirthamkara (Teach-
ing God), and taught the Path of Perfection to
others. Innumerable souls have benefited by his
Teaching. There have been twenty-three subse-
quent Tirthamkaras who re-affirmed His doctrine.
He flourished very very far back in the remote-
ness of hoary antiquity. His life story will be
delineated in the following pages. The account
is based on the J aina scripture entitled the . .A.di
PuraJJ.a. Help has also been taken from an ex-
cellent but all too brief abridgment of the Adi
Pural}.a prepared by Mr. Behari Lal Chaitanya.
The date of R i ~ a b h a Deva's age is simply un-fix-
able; all that can be said about His time is that it
was anterior to all forms of rational religion; tfor
all mythologies, all allegories, of all lands and
peoples, that have a rational interpretation, yield
only fragments of the Truth taught by Him,
when properly interpreted, a.nd would be quite
unintelligible and misleading without the light of
His Word. The J a ina chronology places Him at
an almost immeasurable antiquity in the past ;
11
FOREWORD
but it .is under suspicion of being too methodical
!in its ct?mputations. The Hindus, who recog-
··nize tlie Tirthamkara as one of the incarnations
of hold that he appeared shortly after
the formation of the world, and that no ]ess than
twenty-eight (cycles) have elapsed f3ince
then. All that can be said defmitely about :His
age, then, is that He flourished very very far
back in the hoariest of hoary antiquity; and tl1at
He was prior to al1 systematized forms of
religion!
MARIE VILLA,
Simla, 19tlt ltfay, 19!29.
C. R. JAIN.
INTRODUCTION
Religion originated with man; the first d e i ~
tied man in every cycle of time is the founder of
Religion. Yet as a science, Religion is eternal;
for all sciences are really eternal!
That Religion is a science, need not astonish
us. It is either a fact, grounded on a fact, or
a fiction. There is no intermediate state between
fiction and fact. Whatever is definite, certain
and reliable is always fact; what cannot be con-
ceived definitely and clearly and is consequently
unreliable is not a fact I Fact is ever amenable
to rational explanation and scientific treatment !
The immortal soul that is to become deified
into a God later on in its migratory career, is led
to cultivate such powerful virtues as Study,
Faith, Love, Veneration, Service, Mercy and the
like. In this way it becomes qualified for dei-
fication. Amongst the Deified Ones those who
have been consumed by a buming desire to re-
move the suffering of their fellow-beings and to
carry enlightenment and comfort to their hearts
become the Tirthamkaras. They may be called
,Teaching Gods.
iii
IV INTRODUCTION
Tirthamkaras have only appeared amongst
the Aryan races. They are Omniscient, all-con-
q ~ e r i n g (in the spiritual sense), and attain to all
the most coveted Perfections that the imagina-
tion of man is able to conceive. On the attain-
ment of Omniscience They commence their
upadesa (Instruction). Amongst the non-Aryans
no one has ever clearly claimed that humanity
has attained or may attain to Full Knowledge
and Godhood. Their gods are all descended from
.heavend ready-made, so to speak. They are my-
thological, without exception. It is not the ac-
cepted teaching of any of the non-Aryan Reli-
gions that man can and does become the all-know-
ing, all-perceiving, ever-blissful God. Indeed,
they are all anxious to maintain the supremacy
of a solitary imaginary god whom they regard
as the creator and the manager of the 'vorld-a
claim which they are, however. now abandoning
in the presence of modern science, bit by bit, though
not without a struggle, to be sure. The ma'TV-
made Aryan Religion, like the modern science,
refuses and has always refused to aclmowledge
the existence of a creative or managing god in
the universe. It reduces everything to the
iron laws of nature! Faith, observance, as
well as emotion, and . inner experience, all
come thus under the jurisdiction of systematized
INTRODUCTION·
"fr,
thought. This is naturally the ma1n feature
of a science !
Religion, then, is a science, and originated
amongst the Aryans. An1ongst the Aryans, it
originated with the Jains; not with the non-
J aina Aryans. There are non-J aina Aryans,
too, but it did not have its origin with them.
They, too, are entangled in the superstition of
creative godhood, and pray to a world-manager
for their material and spiritual wants I They,
too, make no claim that religion was founded by
mO!fb. Divine revelation, rather than man's dis-
course, is claimed by tliem as the source of their·
creeds! Surely, there is no feature O!f scientific
thought presented in all this. Who founded
religion 1 Was he a man or some non-human
being, who descended from heaven 1 What did
he teach (in a scientific way) 1 Did any one
benefit by his teaching, and become like him in
all respects 1 are questions which find no satisfac-
tory answer outside Ja,inism, whether amongst
the Aryans or the other races of men.
In J ainism alone will the seeker find a com-
plete answer to all the above questions. Reli-
gion is founded by MAN. It is a perfect
science. There is no creator of the world; and
no one to grant the prayers of humanity l By
following Religion man may become in all respects
.
Vl
INTRODUCTION
like the Teacher. Periodically other Teachers
-small and great ones, bOth-arise and re-affirm
the principles of Truth. Jainism can give the
biographies otf a very large number of souls that
have become deified, and are now living in nir'VOIIJ-a,
enjoying such supremely divine and worshipful
attributes as Omniscience, Immortality, unend-
ing, uninterrupted, uninterruptable, unabating
Bliss!
Jain ism alone, then, is the Scientific Religion,
discovered and disclosed by man, for the benefit
of man, and the advantage of all other living
beings!
Mythological religions, too, will support the
teaching or£ Jainism wherever they are found to·
be still adhering to the grain of the truth
pushed and buried under fiction and fable.
All mythologies, as a matter of fact, staTted with
the teaching of truth as taught by the Tirtham-
karas. This is but natural. From its very na-
ture Scientific Religion could not have been a hole
and corner affair. The attainment of divinity
by man was not intended to be kept and could
not be kept a secret. Its doctrines were bound
to spread-comparatively, very slowly in those
early days of the bullock cart and the camel
cara'Dan. You would, however, get mere frag-
ments, rather than detailed instruction, the fur--
INTRODUCTION
vii
ther you travelled from. the Enlightening Source.
This is precisely what is to be lfouna in the my-
thologies of the world to-day. Bits and frag-
ments are to be found so disconnected and dis-
jointed that it is almost a Herculean task to refit
them into their proper shape. The true prin-
ciples of the interpretation of the my-
thologies and scriptures of the world have been
explained in my earlier works,' The Key of Know-
ledge,' ' The Confluence of Opposites,' and others.
If any one would study religion, as a science
ought t<> he studied, he would not, I am confident,
differ from what has been said in those books,
concerning the nature of religion and the inter-
pretation of the world's scriptures.
Full, penetrating, all-elucidating light is.
only to be found in Jainisrn. Let us, however,
not misdirect ourselves on the subject, and look
out in the existing records of Jainism for a com-
plete or perfectly untampered account of the
Instruction of Truth, as imparted by the first
or even by the last Tirthamkara, Mahavira.
Ma]lavira flourished something like two thousand
five hundred years ago. J ainism has experienced
many vicissitudes since. Bitter persecution of
J ainas at the hands of the devotees and members
of the rival faiths characterized many centuries
Off the Jaina history in the past. Jaina Scriptures
...
Vlll
INTRODUCTION
later were used to kindle the fires in the baths
of. the invading foreign potentates. Much has,· in
this way, disappeared of the teaching of truth.
Much had already been lost ere this on account of
the growing inability of men to retain in their
memories the whole of the Teaching of Truth,
which was for the first time reduced to writing
long long after Mahavira. Interpolations,
embodying Brahmanical ritual, would also appear
to have been made in some of the Jaina Books,
to soften and appease Brahmanical hatred.
Probably this was the only means left under the
circumstances of preserving the Faith n.nd the
community of the Faithful. Some of the Hindu
gods also were given minor seats in the J a ina tem-
ples, about this time, with a similar motive. They
are termed J(shet?·apala (the Protectors of the
place). They certainly protected the temples from
Hindu fury; but failed against the Muslim· on-
slaught. Hindu converts into Jain ism were also
not unlikely to introduce (quite unwittingly
and with the best of motives of course) their earlier
impressions of the Hindu mythology into the
J aina Tradition. All this is quite natural and
intelligible on natural grounds. But notwith-
standing all these drawbacks, J ainism is still
able to present a dignified religion and a doctrine
that is altogether scientific in its exposition, and
INTRODUCTION
lX
which furnishes a practical solution of all of
life's true problems that religion is concerned
with. It is at once a science, a religion, a
philosophy, and a soul-elevating ritual. As such,
'it is capable of raising the worst sinner to the full
'status and dignity of Divinity in the course of,
comparatively speaking, a short time.
The final test of real Truth, I think, should
be the ability of a system to reconcile all others,
that contain the truth or the grain of truUh.. This,
I can say, is a feature of Jainism alone, as has
been demonstrated in the books that have been
named already. .A:ny one can, no doubt, claim
this privilege for his faith; but we do not want
mere talk of large-heartedness and all that sort
of thing. No one who has pinned his faith to
mythology, whether it assume the monotheistic or
polytheistic form or any other, can ever reconcile
himself to others or become the medium of the re-
conciliation otf others. The J aina doctrine of
Relativity of Thought it is which is able to
accomplish this feat; not.hing else ever will I
J ainism originated in India. This is evident
frmn the J aina Books. Besides this two other
considerations fully support the J aina view in
this respect. The first· is the philological, and the
second mythological. Much has ·already been said
on the first ·point by· earlier investigators,
X INTRODUCTION
European and Indian both, to show that traces of
Sanskrit derivation are to be found in the
different languages in a great many countries of
the world. Now, some of these investigators
thought that the home of the Aryan race must
have been somewhere in Central Asia to enable
the subsequent divergences to spread out in all
directions. The argument does not appeal to my
mind, and has not appealed to the minds of many
another thinker. There is no place in Central
Asia (indeed, anywhere outside India) which can
be put down as the home of Sanskrit or of any
other language capable of giving birth to it.
India, on the other hand, actually is the home of
Sanskrit even to-day ! The other consideration
which I regard as conclusive is what I have termed
mythological. This is based upon the undoubted
presence in the mythologies of the world of the
'' grain of Truth," that is to say, of the Ti-rtham-
kara's teaching about the nature of the soul, about
its inherent divinity, about transmigration
and karma, and about the soul's ability to obtain
ni1·vana. Now, it is certain that in no other part
of the World than India was this teaching given
out. In other countries you come across mytho-
logy, not science; and a Tirthamkara would never
preach mytihology or resort to mythological
language to spread His doctrine. This is so
INTRODUCTION xi
because mythology, on account of its endea.vour
to conceal and disguise the truth under the
attractive grurb of allegory, is sure to mislead
humanity in the end. All the chief religious
quarrels of men have risen, without exception,
through mythology, and will end completely the
moment it is thrown away by men. This makes
it quite clear that the source of Truth could never
have arisen outside Jainism or outside India.
Probably the mythological allegorising took place
for the first time in India. Some O!f the
followers of the Tirthamkara's creed took to
allegorising at a time when there were no
Omniscient Teachers to warn them, and the
pastime proved very attractive. They were
fo\llowed by others. Huge pantheons soon rose,
outsiders also copying Aryan allegorists. Later
a sharp division occurred between the Scientific
section and the mythologists. The descendants
of the tformer are termed J ainas to-day; those who
allegorised first of all are the Hindus 1
Thus, no other country than India can be
found that may be termed the birth-place of both
the Sanskrit language and of the Religion of the
people who spoke that tongue. India, then,
must be the real home of the Aryans. It came to
be known as B h a r a t v a r ~ a after Bharata who was
the first great Chakravarti (the term signifies a
·Xii
INTRODUCTION
·great Emperor) of the Aryans and the son of the
first Tirthamkara, Deva. Both the
Hindu and the J aina traditions maintain this
view. The so-called aborigines are really not
the original residents of India. There have been
several influxes into India in the past, according
to J ainism. A very large number of men from
other countries came into India with Bharata
himselft when he returned from his world-
conquest. Then there was a very determined
invasion from the north in subsequent times
which, however, ended in a 'stale mate,' both
parties settling down in the land. These mainly
are the important influxes, according to the past
tradition, and no reason can be found for reject-
ing the account altogether. The other considera-
tions are all minor ones and will not afiect the two
main arguments that have been advanced above,
in support of this view, one way or the other.
The Hindus allegorised Religion itself as
and included Him amongst the incarna-
tions of their chief divinity, They also
make use of the Tirthamkara's distinguishing
mark, namely, the bull, as a symbol for Religion,
thus implicitly acknowledging Him as the founder
of Religion proper (see ' The Confluence of
Opposites,' Lecture . vii, and the ' Permanent
·History of Bharatvarsha/ Vol. I, p. 213).
CHAPTER I
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY
SOME PRE·VIOUS INC.AmATIONS.
1. Jaya Varma
" Arise and conquer while ye can,
The foe that in your midst resides ;
And build within the mind o£ man,
The Empire that abides."
W. Watson.
Long, !ncalculably long, long, ago, Sri Sen
·was the king of Indra puri, in the country of
Gandhila. His queen' was Sundari, who was
really very beautiful, as the name implied. From
her Sri Sen had two sons, Jaya Varma and $ri
Varina who was the younger. The parents were
very fond of their younger son, and appointed
him their successor. Any other prince in p ~ a c e
of Jaya Varma would have resented this unkindly
act, and revolted against the parental authority.
But Jaya Varma \Yas a different being. He did
not cherish resentment or disaffection towards the
authors of his being, and did not seek to oust his
2
RI§ABHA DEVA
younger brother from the throne. The incident
merely filled him with renunciation; he was seized
with the spirit of world-flight, and sought refuge
at the rfeet of a J a ina Saint. He was duly
admitted in the order, and earned much merit as
a yogi (ascetic), by practising the twelve kinds
of asceticism, internal and external. One day
he was bitten by a serpent and died of the venom.
J aya Varma did not attempt to kill the vermin
and cherished no resentment in his heart. He
reincarnated as a son to Atibala, king of Alka-
puri, from his queen Manohara. The fruit of
asceticism usually is a birth in the heavens; but
Jaya Varma failed to secure it, because at the
moment of death he was swayed by the kingly
pomp and splendour of a great VidyadhM' whom
he had seen just about that time, which had made
him long for similar conditions for himself in his
next incarnation !
2. Mahabala
Alkapuri is situated on a hill in one of the
distant Provinces of the J ambu Dvipa. Sahasra-
bala was at one time the king of this place.
VVhen he became old he took to sannyasn
(asceticism), to look after his spiritual well-being.
His son Satabala succeeded him, and, after a
long and prosperous reign, followed in the foot-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 3
steps of his father, and renounced the world.
Atibala, his son, then became the king of Alka-
puri. Re married the fair· princess Manohara.
The soul of Jaya Varma took birth as a son to
Atibala and Manohara, as stated above. They
nailed him Mahabala.
Atibala was a great king, but he, too, at the
.appearance of the signs of old age, took to
asceticism, to rid himself of the enemy, karma.
Mahabala succeeded him. As the fruit of his
previous life's asceticism, Mahabala was endowed
with many great virtues and was surrounded by
all kinds of splendours and the good things of the
world. For a long time he enjoyed life and was
much respected by all.
Mahabala was not only a great king; he was
also a great thinker. He had four ministers who
rfavoured four different creeds. These were:
.Mahamati, who was a materialist, Sambhinna-
m.ati, who held that things were unreal, being
really only so many 'ideas'; Satamati, who
maintained the doctrine of voidness; and Svayam-
buddha, who was a J aina. The family religion
of the king, too, was J ainism; but Svayambuddha
felt inu.ch anxiety about him, and wanted to turn
his thoughts definitely towards dharma (religion),-
so that the possession of wealth might not stand
in the way of the future prosperity of his soul.
4
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
One day the king was celebrating his birth-
day with great pomp. All the leading chieftains.
under him were present in his court, and the
splendour was unequalled. Svayambuddha seiz-
ed hold otf a suitable opportunity to turn the
conversation towards the great need for turning.
to religion. '' All pomp and prosperity," be said,
'' were due to merit acqui.red in the previous life.
Those who squander away their time in the-
pursuit of pleasure have to put up with much
misfortune in the future. Intolerable sufiertng;
is the lot <?f those who are vicious, and who do not.
mend their ways. Your glory, 0 king ! is.
entirely the reward of the merit earned by you in
your past life. Let this thought spur your·
'majesty on to greater effort for the conquest of
the lower nature. For without tapas (austerities).
no n1erit can be acquired by the soull "
''Not so, friend Svayambuddha 1" bToke in
Mahamati, the materialist, '' there is no good in
afflicting oneself with tapaschm·a1J-a. For whose-
benefit are the hardships to be endured 1 ]'or
the soul's 1 Bah ! I tell you there is no such .
thing as a soull No one has ever seen one; and
you cannot prove its existence to me today: One-
should enjoy his days to the best of his ability;
for there is a complete end when once the vital
flame is extinguished."
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 5
'' And I tell you," interposed Sambhinna-
·mati, '' what you call the reality of na:ture is only
~ bundle of ' ideas.' There are no things or
·objects; what you see is only thought! Why,
·then, run after such imaginary shadows as life
after death 1 Why waste your energies in thus
pursuing the will o' the wisp 1 Why not be happy"
-with what you have got, and make the best
of it? "
It was the turn of Satamati now, and he was
-not slow to preach his favourite doctrine of
voidness. ' There is nothing permanent; noth-
ing that can be said to be everlasting; extinction
is the goal of all. What is the good of embark-
·ing on such a wild goose's chase as eternal life in
nirvana 1 '
Svayambuddha heard all that his three
·colleagues had to say against his faith. When
·they ceased talking, he said, '' Sire, the reality
-of the soul is not open to doubt or dispute. It is
·not a mere theory that I have set before your
majesty; in your own illustrious family there is
much biographical matter to demonstrate the
-truth orf the doctrine of the creed. Look at that
rbeautiful string of heavenly gems that is encircl-
·ing your majesty's neck! Was it not given to an
::ilJust-rious ancestor of yours by a resident of the
JJevaloka (heavens) ? And who was that deva
6
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
who gave it to Ma:Q.imali, iJf not his own father
who had re-incarnated in heavens in his third
incarnation 1 I will tell you, sir, the story of
this beautiful necklace, though you have heard
it ere this, no doubt. In his human incarnation
as JVIa"Q.imali's father the deva was called Dnnda.
He was a powerful ldng, and was very fond of
the pleasures of life, so much so that he made
over his throne to his son and abandoned himse1f
to pleasure-seeking with his whole heart. At
last he died, and in consequence of the predomi-
nance of the animal nature was reborn as a huge
serpent in his own treasury. There the sight of
his own riches stimulated his recollection, and he
recovered the memory of his past life. He was
filled with sorrow, and overwhelmed with grief
at the unhappy condition in which he found
himself. About that time Mal}.imali lea.rnt from
a clairvoyant saint that his father had re-
incarnated in his own palace, as a monster
snake, and had also recovered the memory of b1s
past life. He went to the Treasury cl1amber, sat
down quietly there before the snake, and, amid
much sorrow and regret, explained to him the
nature of the scientific dlta1·ma (Jainism) which
alone is helpful to a soul in distress. The serpent
followed him attentively, and was fully convinced
of the folly of a life of pleasure, and sense-grati-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 7
fica tion. He at once adopted the minor vows of
the dltarma, and renouncing tfood and water im-
mediately settled down to perform the sallekhana
vow. In due course he shook off his serpentine
coil, and was immediately reborn among the
as the result of the severe asceticism im-
plied in the accomplishment of the sallekhana
death. The devas are all endowed with clair-
voyance from birth, and Danda's jiva (soul) found
out that the cause of his great good luck was his
son, ].fai).imali, whose preaching had changed
his heart. He then came to thank his son per-
sonally, and presented him with this divine neck-
lace, which has descended to your majesty in due
course! Such is the history of your gu.-eat ances-
tor, Danda. Can you after this doubt that there
is a survival of the soul death 1 Any one
in your kingdom will vouch for the truth of this
matter, as it is not a very old one.
'' I will yet tell you the story of your own
great-grandfather, Sahasrabala. How he renounc-
ed the world, made over his kingdom to your
majesty's grandfather, and, taking to saintly litfe,
became omniscient and obtained salvation, are
lmown to one and all throughout the length and
breadth of your kingdom. Nay they impressed
your wise grandfather so much that he, too, re-
nounced the world and became an ascetic, and,
8
Rif?ABHA DEV A
as clairvoyant saints will tell your majesty, is
now that he is dead here living in one of the higher
heavens! Your majesty's own father, Atibala,
who is still in the flesh, is likewise seeking to
enter nirvana, which he will do in this very life.
All this is the result of severe self -denial on the
proper dl1-a1·mic pa,th. On the other hand, we
have seen how evil leads to degradation in the
scale of life in the case of King Danda, whore-
incarnated as a serpent, in consequence of aban-
doning himself to excessive sense-indulgence.
There is also the story of King Arabinda who
was attacked with some hideous form of disease
and who wanted to bathe himself in the blood of
animals, because he had discovered, accidentally,
that blood relieved his suffering. Accordingly
he asked his son, K.urubinda, to dig a tank and
to fill it up with tlie blood of animals. But Kuru-
binda had a good heart, and would not sacrifice
so many innocent lives, even to please his father.
He, therefore, had a tank dug and filled with red-
dish-coloured water. Arabinda discovered the de-
ception practised by his son, and, boiling with
rage, ran, with a drawn sword in his hand, to kill
him. His cup of evil was, however, now full to
the brim; he fell in his haste, and was pierced
with his O'Wn weapon. His soul passed into the
regions known, on account of the terrible condi-
"=---...
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 9
-tions of existence that prevail there, as hells; and
-there he is still! "
After Svayambuddha ceased speaking, there
·was complete silence for some time. The audi-
ence were much jmpressed: but the king did not
·say anything on the subject, and kept his thoughts
-to himJself. Sva.yambuddha, who only desired the
good of .his royal master, did not find his anxiety
·eased. : : ~ n d sought to find out in some way, irf he
could, the real state of the king's thoughts on the
subject. One day he met two clairvoyant saints
who were called Adityagati and Arinjaya, and
related his trouble to them. The saints told him
t,ha t the king had only a month left to live, that
l1e was a great soul and would become the first
·-Tirthamkara in a future cycle of time in his tenth
re-birth 1 They also told him that he had seen
two dreams during the night, which they describ-
ed to him, and advised him to go to him and to
-tell him his dreams and their interpretation, which
they also told him. So Svayambuddha immedi-
ately sought the presence of his master ..
" I have.come," he said, "to give your majesty
news that is very important, indeed. But first of
all let me relate to you the two dreams which you
dreamed last night. You saw yourself thrown
into deep mud and bogs, in the first dream, by my
three colleagues, your majesty's ministers, and saw
10
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
me help you out of it. In the other one you saw
a burning flame, gradually becoming paler, till it
was extinguished. The purport of the first of
these dreams, sire, is that the doctrine that I have
promulgated before your majesty, the noble and
ennobling creed of the Jinas (Conquerors), in
other words, is to help you to attain nir'Dana. I
rejoice to tell you that you will become the first
Tirthamkara of your time in B h a r a t v a r ~ a in your
tenth incarnation from this. The interpretation
of the second dream is tinged with sadness and
sorrow tfor me. It means that the spark of life in
your present body will be extinguished in a
month's time I "
Svayamhuddha then narrated the story of his
interview with the saints to the king, who was
surprised to find his dreams being known to one
of his ministers. The king was much affected by
the information thus miraculously furnished; and
determined from that very moment to embark on
the voyage of soul's prosperity along the path of
sanmyasa. He gave away costly gifts to the de-
serving, made arrangements for the care of his
kingdom, and prepared for the noble sallekltana,
the end that is sought by all the truly great.
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 11
3. Lalitanga
Jainism shows heavens (as also hells) to be
but separate regioiil.S of the universe. The one is·
no more a pleasure garden kept by a supreme king-
like god, than the other is a prison-Siberia of a
divine cresar or czar. Conditions of existence·
are very very pleasant in the heavens; but the
hells are constituted by those regions which are
the reverse otf heavens.
Souls take birth in heavens (also in hells) as
they do here; but there is no conception to be·
undergone. People rise up from a 'bed' in t h ~
heavens; they drop down from a circular bell-like
orifice in hells. Their growth is accomplished al-
most at once-in less than eight and forty minutes
-and the bodies are indestructible, that is, there
is no premature death in either heavens or hells.
No doubt, you can cut up or divide the body in
either place, but it is re-formed immediately; only
the pain is felt and there is no permanent mutila-
tion or deprivation of an organ or limb. The
residents of heavens possess the outer bodies of a
type that is bright and resplendent, and that
readily obeys the impulses of the owner's will. It
can become big or small, light or heavy, at will;
it can pass through space at a rate of speed that
will put the motion of light to shame. All the
residents of heavens are endowed with clairvo!}"-
12
RI§ABHA DEVA
ance from birth. All this is due simply to the
fact that the material of their bodies is not gross
like ours; it is ethereal. The conditions in hells
are different; but we are not concerned with their
description here. For the present let us turn to
the ;fate of the soul whom we left engaged in the
·observance of the death.
Mahabala understood full well the import-
ance of the time that was still left to him for the
shaping of his destiny for the future well-being
'Of his soul. He devoted the whole of that period
to the eradication of his lower nature, the subdu-
ing of his passions and emotional propensities,
and the suppression of private loves and hatreds.
He vmrked under the guidance of Svayambuddha
·all the time. The latter was now his spiritual
counsellor, as he had been his temporal councillor
(minister) when he was a king. Holy meditation,
-adoration of the Great Tirthamkaras, of the
Liberated Ones, of Saint-s and Preceptors a.nd
the ordinary Sadhus (ascetics), collectively term-
ed . Panc)ta-Pa?·anz,e?tlLi, recitation of the great
-obeisance mantram and the cultivation of
the spirit _of from the physical
body occupied his time, to the exclusion of all
other thoughts. He began by giving up solid
food at once; gradually other kinds of diet were
also abandoned. Thereafter his sustenance con-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 13·
sisted only of the a1nbrosia of dharma (the teach-
ing of Truth) 1 He cultivated, to perfection, the
spirit of mercy and compassion for all, especially
for those who were unable to take care of them-
selves. He would not touch anything of worldly
goods now, except written scripture describing
the teaching of the dlzarma. Even this he would
handle extremely carefully to see that by his care-
lessness he should not cause hurt or harm to some.
tiny specimen of life that might be hiding about or
under it. He practised the ten noble virtues, for-
giveness, meekness, straightforwardness, and the·
like, that are the characteristics of the true
dhm·ma. He also practised self-control with
regard to the activities of his body, mind and_
speech. In this way excellence atfter excellence
was attained by him in the course of that month.
Internal peace, strength of character, soul-force.
came to him, as if in exchange for worldly great-
ness and kingly pomp. His mind was at rest; he.
understood the nature of things, and acquired
unruffled mental calm in consequence of the.
understanding !
Thus, the end of t:he m o n ~ h found him a
well-wisher of all, a hater of none! It also· found
him firmly established in the spirit of renuncia-
tion and filled with santi (tranquillity) that
nothing could disturb.
14
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
As sallekhanii ripened into accomplishment,
.culminating in the separation of the old
companions-the spirit and the body of flesh-a
movement was noticed among the lovely
' draperies' of the birth-bed in the heavens.
Instantly the devas surrounded the heavenly
throne, and took their stand in due form round
it. A great deva was expected to grace the
heavens!
Only a moment intervened between the
departure of the great spirit ifrom the body of
flesh and the returning of consciousness. MaJla-
bala, now embodied in the ethereal matter of the
·celestial regions, opened but again ' closed' his
eyes at once. The splendour of deva-life was too
much for his consciousness. He wondered where
he was. Perhaps it was a dream that he beheld.
But whatever it was, it was very fascinating!
He got, however, little or no time to think; the
organising forces were still at work furiously.
" Ah, I now recollect," he said to himseltf, " I
am Mahabala 1 " It was the faculty of clairvoy-
ance which had matured in the interval. He
opened his eyes, got up, and was overwhelmed
with the delightful scenery of the heavens and the
attentions o.f the devas and the heavenly nymphs l
Mahabala was now called Lalitanga (literal-
ly, of attractive limbs). He got up, and, remem-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 15
'bering that his good fortune was due to the effect
·Of the practising of dha1·ma, went to worship the
Tirthaml{aras in the Temples of the devaloka
(heavens). Thence he returned and settled down
to the deva-life which is like one continuous
feast of pleasure.
There is nothing of labour or industry known
in the abodes of devas. They do not have to
.sweat themselves !for their livelihood. The food
that their ethereal bodies need is not like that of
the mortals. In the lower heavens it is taken
once in a thousand years. The quantity, too, is
what would barely suffice the gluttony of a
sparrow on the earth. Amongst the many wonders
of the deva-life is the fact that the devas of the
lowest heavens breathe but once in a fortnight. In
the higher heavens the interval between meals
and breaths increases proportionately.
Fun and frolic characterise the life of those
who find themselves so placed as to have nothing
whatsoever to do. There is not even public work
to be done in the heavens, as there are no needy
folk there. . The troubles are only mental-
jealousy at the greater brilliance and beauty of
another deva, and the like. But no one can
.alleviate such sufferjng.
In the lower heavens both the sexes are
.represented; though the deva-ladies do not
16
DEV A
conceive or give birth to children. They form
companionate marriages, and spend their time in
ease and happiness. The little food that is need-
ed is obtained from certain kinds of trees, that
do not need to be grown or looked after.
The softer sex, it would seem, is represented
much more numerously in the heavens than the
other one. It may be that women are given to
the practising of self-denying austerities in a
greater measure than men all the world over, and,
therefore, readily reach heavens in larger
numbers. However that may be, there are a
larger number of deva-ladies than de-vas, in the
Io,ver heavens.
Mahabala, too, had four thousand compani-
onate wives. in the second heaven. But his
favourite (queen) was the beautiful
8vayam Prabha, who was passionately devoted to
him. She was a very lovely lady. The two
were almost always together, and found much joy
in each other's company. Together they would
resort to the celestial pleasances, and roam
about, hand in hand, over hill and dale, inhaling
the beauty of nature, the beauty which the
eye has not seen nor the · mortal ear heard cf.
Together, too, they would go to worship the God
Arhant Deva (Tirthamkara) in the Celestial
Fanes. In this way they spent the incalculably
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 17 ·
long time of the deva-life enjoying each other's
com.pany, and linking up, unwittingly and auto-
matically, their future destinies!
It is a law mf stern nature that all t h i n g ~
that are not simple substances have sooner or
later to experience dissolution. The deva-body
is also a compouna, and not free from the liabi-
lity to dissolution and disintegration for that
reason. The soul alone is a simple, hence an im-
mortal, item in the compound of spirit and matter
termed embodied life. True, the deva-body is
indestructible from external causation; but it
is not eternal, and must perish when the
forces responsible for the association of spirit
and matter in embodied life cease to function
from within.
When six months of life remain, the signs o.f
approaching end appea,r in the deva-body. The
garland of flowers that is placed round the neck
is the first to fade away. Bodily lustre is then
affected and begins to deteriorate. One morning
Lalitanga, too, noticed the saddening signs in his
body. There was no mistafdng them; they were
there to give a warning of the approaching end !
He was filled with dismay. The thought of
the joys that he will be denied after six months
made him sorrowful. Svayam Prabha and others,
however, consoled him. The King of the six-
F. 2
18 Rif?ABHA DEVA
teenth heaven who was his friend, then took him
to his own region, where Lalitanga spent his clos-
ing hours, worshipping the Divinity in the
Temples of Jinas (Conquerors).
Svayam Prabha was much distressed by the
death of Lalitanga. But she wus somewhat re-
lieved to discover that her own end was to take
place six months later, and soon resigned herself
to stern fate. She spent those remaining months
of her deva-life in constant worship and venera-
tion of the Jina's statues in one of the Heavenly
Temples. Thus did she prepare herself for the
coming, ' dissolution ' of her deva-form.
4. Bajrajangha
In the East Videha of the Jambu Dvipa, there
is a country known as Pu£?kalavati. U tp 1la-
khetaka and Pundarikini are two important king-
doms in it. Emperor Bajradanta reigned in the
last-named kingdom; his sister's husband, Bajra-
bahu, was the king of the other. On the termina-
tion of the deva-life Lalitanga was bo:rn a son to
Bajrabahu from his queen Basundhara. Bajra-
bahu called his son Bajrajangha. The name was
quite appropriate because the janghiis (thighs) of
Bajrajangha were supremely beautiful and strong.
Bajrabahu also had a daughter whom he called
Anundhari.
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY ' 19
Svayam Prabha's soul, too, descended from
'heaven and was born in She became
the daughter of the Emperor Bajradanta, who
·called her Srimati. She had a brother, Amita-
teja.
Srimati was a very beautmul girl. Her face
was like the full moon in brightness. Her man-
ners· were very engaging. She received a good
education, and grew up into a very charming
young lady"the daughter of the greatest king of
her times.
People did not marry their children at an
early age in those ancient days. This practice
grew up under the stress of necessity when the
non-Aryans came and established themselves and
their slaughter houses and 'bloody' altars all
over the land. To raise man-power it was found
desirable to allow no capable female to remain
unproductive. It was then that people said:
' If your daughter is unmarried at the time when
the flow of blood appears you will go to hell with
the whole of your kinsmen and clan.' This was
literally true. For if the ranks of the fighting
men were not filled up, and the people were car-
ried off captives and slaves of war, what else was
to be expected 1 They would be forced to aban-
don their ki.ll poor innocent living beings
for their master's table, and be forced to eat flesh
20 Rif?ABITA DEV A
themselves ! Some wise man, knowing that the·
consequences of such a terrible change can only
be a descent into hell of all those concerned, and
not unoften of many who were no't directly con-
cerned in not assisting in the procreation of fight-
ing men, laid it down, as a scriptural injunction,
that every girl must be married before she become
menstruant. But this was not so in the days of
purely Aryan culture.
Srimati grew up into loveliness and youth,
without any one thinking it necessary to marry
her before the appearance of the signs of full
mature puberty. One morning as sl1e awol{e from
her sleep, she heard a great commotion, music
and voices mingling Ul) indistinctly. She en-
quired the cause, and learnt that during the night
gri Yasodharji Saint had attained Omniscience,
and the deva.s frmn the Celestial regions were
oomring down to worship the Holy One. It w ~ ~
the sound of their jaya-karas (hurrahs of ' Vic-
tory') which, combined with the l1eavenly music,
formed the hubbub that she had heard. Srimati
then saw the devas herself coming down and go-
ing up in the sky. The sight stirred her deeply;
it touched a deep-seated chord somewhere in her
heart. She recollected all at once her past life
as Svayam Prabha ! She remembered Lalitanga,
too, and was reminded of the joys she had experi-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 21
·enced in his company. The recoUection of such
-a past was, surely, too much for her to bear; she
-fainted right away. When she came to she was
.so much overwhelmed with misery that it was im-
possible to explain it to any one. She, therefore,
held her peace; but determined in her mind to
find out, if possible, where Lalitanga was born,
and to marry none else but him.
Her parents noticed the change that had
come over her; but she did not tell them its cause.
Who could be expected to sympathise with such a
wild goose's scheme as hers or to encourage such
a resolve 1 But Svayam Prabha's was not an ordi-
nary soul. She felt that the affinity between her-
self and her deva-lover would in all probability not
-admit of. her taking birth far away from him.
She was now doubly determined to leave no stone
unturned in search of her past-lilfe's lover.
Her father one day, finding no change in her
melancholy, gave her a new nurse who was very
highly gifted. The newcomer proved to be a real
-companion and whole-heartedly entered into
·svayam Prabha's plans.
There was a big Temple called Mahaputa
·chaityalaya in her father's kingdom. Srimati's
nurse one day took a painting executed by Srimati,
her mistress, to this Temple, and placed it on the '
wall in the picture gallery there. It was a series
22 Rif?ABHA DEVA
of panels of scenes from her deva-life which
Srimati had reproduced on the canvas. For days
the picture hung on the wall, with the nurse
watching by its side to catch the remarks of the
spectators. Many passed by taking no notice of.
the picture; some cut jokes at what they termed
the ' silly ideas ' of the artist. Two men on one
occasion thought that the picture represented
scenes from deva-life, and guessed the purpose of
the display. But they rfailed in the test which.
had been subtly contrived by the lovely artist, and
went away crest-fallen before the nurse.
At last the search was rewarded. The hand-
some prince Bajrajangha came one day to the
Temple to worship the Jinas, and sauntered into
the picture gallery after the devotions. He was
attracted by the picture, and as he looked at the
scenic detail a great agitation, mysterious and.
unaccountable, took hold of his mind. Till then
he knew nothing of Svayam Prabha, or even the
fact that he had been a deva in the second heaven
in his previous life. But he felt riveted to the
spot, his mind lingering over the panels, especial-
ly, over those which delineated the detail of the
heavenly life of himself and Svayam Prabha to-
gether.
Bajrajangha's interest and fascination for
the picture grew from moment to moment. He
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 23
forgot himself, and stood like a statue, motion-
less and unmoving. All of a sudden a ray of
light came into his eyes; recognition of the past
shot through his recollection; he felt the warmth
of intimacy grow in his soul ! He immediately
lost conscio111sness, fell senseless to the ground,
and was at once caught in the arms of the watch-
ful nurse!
In the meanwhile the Emperor had discovered
the divine weapon termed cltak1·a in his arsenal.
He first o.f all went to worship the Saint who had
obtained Omniscience as the reward of his tapas-
chara7Ja (austerities). Still greater luck awaited
him for at the very sight of the Arhant
his own mind became so much purified that he
acquired the gift of clairvoyance on the
spot.
He afterwards proceeded to examine the
chakra that had come of its own accord, as the
, reward of great meritorious work in the previous
lives. The chakra is a divine weapon which
would seem to be attracted by the magnetism of
certain really g1·eat kings. Its possessor is known
as chakravm·ti (the owner or wielder of the
cltakra). There have been only twelve chakra-
vartis (emperors) in since the com-
mencement of the present cycle, which began un-
told millions of ages ago !
24
R I ~ : A B H A DEVA
Taking the cltalc1·a with him, the cltak1·a.va'rti
started on the conquest of the world, leaving the
new nurse with his daughter, as already describ-
ed. He returned home on the very day when
Bajrajangha was discovered as the re-incarnated
form of Lalitanga by Srimati's nurse, in the
Mahapiita Chaityalaya.
By the power of clairvoyance he, too, had
come to lmow the real facts about the love
between his daughter and his own sister's son in
their previous lives. On getting home, he com-
tforted her affectionately and told her that he had
come to know all about the discovery of Lalitanga
by her nurse, and assured her that she would be
bringing the glad tidings in the course of the
day to her beloved mistress.
Events shaped themselves as the Chalc1·ava1·ti
had predicted. Srima ti was much rejoiced, and
the general aspect of gloom· was lifted from the
minds of all who were devoted to her. In due
course of time a marriage was proposed and per-
formed of Srimati and Bajrajangha, with great
eclat in Pundarildni; and there were great cele-
brations. Another marriage was arranged
between Amitateja and Anundhari at tlie time.
For months and years the story of the great love
of Srimati and Bajrajangha was related in all
households in the kingdom l
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 25
Lovers from the heavens and reunited lovers
again now, Srimati and Bajrajangha were de-
voted to each other, and spent much of their time
together, enjoying the pleasures of life, and also
worshipping the Lord Arhant, whom they regard-
ed as the source otf their great good luck. Many
children were born to Srimati; and they were all
wise and healthy children.
It used to be the practice, nay the ambition,
of all great men in those days to renounce the
world and to practise tapascltara'l}a for controlling
their destiny. In the fulness of time Bajrabahu
the royal father of Bajrajangha, too, placed the
1 atter on the throne of his ancestors and became
an ascetic saint under Sri Y amadhara Saint.
Sri Gal).adhar Saint initiated the Emperor later.
The latter sought, before renormcing the world,·
to give his kingdom to his sons, Amitateja and
others who were born subsequently; but they
refused to be burdened with worldly filth that
had to be given up ultjmately. They all retired
from the householder's life with their father.
At last he placed his grandson Pundarika on the
throne, and took to saintly life.
Pundarika was, however, too small yet. His
grandmother, Lakshmimati and h i ~ mother
Anundhari, who was the sister of Bajrajangha,
sent urgent messengers to Bajrajangha to take
26
R I ~ A D H A DEVA
care of the child. Bajrajangha and Srimati came
to Pundarildni in con1pliance with the wishes of
these ladies, and Bajrajangha arranged •for the
management of the affairs of the kingdom, and
then went back to his own capital.
While Bajrajangha was going with his queen
to Pundarikini, he had halted for the da.y in a
wood on the way, and had the privilege of giving
food to two Jaina Saints who ha.ppened to come
that way. The Saints were enlightened with
supernal knowledge and Bajrajangha and his
queen were overjoyed at their good luck. Amongst
the faithful adherents of Bajrajangha were his
minister J:ativara. the commander of his fl.rmies.
Akampana, the family Pandit, Ananada, and
a millionaire Dhana litra. These were much
attached to tJheir lcing, and \Vere present at the
feeding of the Saints. At the same time a
r-aDarkable thing was noticed by the company
present. Four members of the animal kingdom,
namely, a l:onkey, a Pig. a Lion and a J:ongoose,
gathered there fearlessly and sat down, watching
the feeding of saints, with apparent satisfaction,
and without molesting any one !
After partaking of the food in the prescrib-
ed manner, the saints whose names were
Damadhara and Sagar Sen, gratified the assembly
with religious discourse. Then Bajrajangha
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 27
who lmew of their inner illumination, sat before
them with foJded hands and prayed them to
narrate his own and Srimati's previous lives. The
Saints related the previous lives of Bajrajangha
from that of J aya Varma., and then described
those of Srimati. She was in one of her past
lives a Vaisya girl, by name Nirnama, and lived
in poverty and squalor. One day she met an
illumined Saint, the Sage Pihitasrava, and asked
him the cause of her ill luck. She was told that.
it was the effect of her insulting an ascetic in
one of her earlier lives, when she was lmown as
Dhanasri. She had on one occasion thrown a dog's
flesh before Sri Samadhigupta saint; but had
immediately repented of it on being gently warned
by the Saint, who also told her how to expiate her
sin by special fasts. She observed the fasts
properly, and became Nirnama; and afterwards
was reborn as Svayam Prabha, in the heavens,
in cmisequence of her asceticism.
Bajrajangha put many questions to the
Saints about the past lives of some of his friends
and companions, and finally asked one of them
to narrate the previous histories of the four
animals that sat so quiet and fearless among men,
and molested no one. The Saint said that the
Lion was one U grasen, a Vaisya by caste, in his
previous incarnation, and was o:f an exceedingly
28 RTf?ABHA DEVA
irascible disposition. He was easily excited and
would then :B.ar.e up vehemently. One day he
forcibly possessed himself of certain provisions
from the royal stores, and was caught and roughly
handled. In consequence of the beating he then
received he died and became a lion. The Monkey
was one Nagdatta in his previous lilfe. He was
a great rogue and given to swindling others by
fraud. He even tried to help himself to tili.e
things that his mother had purchased for the
marriage ceremony of his sister ; but in this he
failed. His low criminal character has dragged
him into a monkey's form after death. The Pig
was a raja's son, and was called Haribahana.
He had a very proud disposition, and showed
much disrespect even to his parents. One day he
was running away in defiance of the parental
authority when he lmocked against a stone pillar
and was killed instantly. Pride has brought
about his fall from the status of a man to that
of a pig ! The Mongoose was a miser, nicknamed
Lolupa. He used to sell eatables in a small way.
One day he induced certain labourers who were
engaged in building a house fo;r the king, by
giving them bread and other eatables, to clandes-
tinely remove some of the old big bricks that were
lying in the debris. These the workmen brouaht
;o
to his place. It so happened that some of the
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 29
bricks were found to contain gqld bars hidden in-
side them. The treasure probably belonged to-
the person who had built the original structure
that was pulled down by the workmen. Lolupa
kept the gold to himself, and made the workmen
remove a few bricks every day to his place, with-
out the lmowledge of any one. For these he gave
cheap food to the men. One day it so happened
that he had to go to his daughter's village, and
he left instructions with his son to ask the
workmen for more bricks; but the latter did not
do so. In the night when Lolupa got back he
was furious to know that his son had not got any
more bricks, and, blinded by rage and the lust
of gold, struck and killed him. Then he struck
a blow with a hatchet on his own legs, because
had they not carried him to his daughter's village
he would not have failed to secure more bricks.
On his death he became a mongoose !
The Saint having narrated these lives, added
that the sight of giving food to the Jaina Saint
in the approved manner had brought to their
recollection their past lives, and this was the
reason why they were sitting fearlessly and
without molesting any one. Their joy at
the reverential offering of food would act
exactly in the same way as if they had them-
selves been the givers, so that they would obtain
30 R I ~ A B H A DEVA
very prosperous and auspicious conditions in their
next lives.
On getting back to Utpalakhetaka .Bajra-
j angha and Srima ti began once more to enjoy the
fruit of their previous good ka1•mas. They were
happy and did what they could to make others
happy, in their turn.
Every thing that has a beginning in time has
also an end sooner or later, except the state of
nirvana, which has a beginning but no end. The
long continuous life of pleasure of Bajrajangha
and Srimati, too, had an end.
It came quite unexpectedly. One night the
servants in charge of the sleeping apartments
iforgot to open the ventilators, after lighting the
incense in the braziers that used to diffuse
fragrance throughout the night. The sleeping
eouple lay fast asleep, locked in each other's
embrace. That night's sleep did not have an
awakening for them any more on this earth !
5. The Bhogabhumija
Bajrajangha and Srimati now appear in
what is termed bkogabkumi. The term blwga-
bAumi is a compound of bltoga (enjoyment) and
b!tumi (land), and signifies the region where, like
heavens, the residents have not to earn their
bread by sweating in· any sense. The regions
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 31
where men have to work for their livelihood are
termed ka1''Tna (lands of action). Only
those who have performed highly meritorious
deeds are born in blwgabllumis. The true blwga-
blbumis are, no doubt, heavens alone, where the
conditio!D.s of life are the most pleasant, and
which yield the utmost of satisfaction to the
senses. The come after the heavens,
and are far superior to our earth, in respect of
the pleasures that the people enjoy there.
The birth of blwgabhumija is in the
ma.nner of the flesh in so far as a conception does
take place there. It, however, differs from the
ordinary manner of being boTn for humanity in
so far as the full development of adolescence is
attained only within a period of forty-nine days
from the day of birth. But the parents are never
destined to have the pleasure of beholding the
faces of their progeny. They die the same instant
that the children are born, the mother dying of
a sneeze, and the father, of a yawn. The blwga-
blbumijas are born twins--a male and a female
together. When they grow up they becoma
husband and wife. They do not have to waste
any part of their life in sleep ; they do not perspire;
and excrements are not formed in their bodies.
Their eyes a.re always kept open, and they take
:food after three days. The quantity taken is never
32 Rlf?ABBA DEVA
more than the weight of a plum, though it may
be less in some places. The female bhogabhumija
conceives but once, and that only at the end of
her life!
There are ten kinds of special tree-like
things termed kalpa vrikslws from which the
lucky residents of the bkogabltumis satisfy their
wants. Foods, drinks, clot'hes (from their
silky barks), plates and cups, ornaments
{flowery decorations), flowers, perfumes, musical
instruments (flutes and the like) are all supplied in
abundance by these (trees). There are
trees also that radiate powerful phosphorescence
all round, and the illumin:ltion is strong enough
to outshine the light of the sun and the moon, if
it does penetrate into the regions of the bltoga-
bltumis. These trees also supply residences and
pavilions for the use of the lucky residents.
Probably their hollow trunks have to do duty for
rooms. And if a certain number of them grow
together so as to constitute a compound in the
centre, the systematical lines of the hollow niches
in their trunks would very naturally look like
rows of rooms in a mansion.
There is no sense of property or appropria-
tion known in the bhogabhun-,is. Nature is too
lavishly abundant tfor that to be necessary.
Crimes, too, are not committed by the blwga-
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 33
.bhttmijas. All the three principal causes of
,crime-namely woman, land, and gold-are
wanting there. The two last-named are to be had
in such abundance that nobody cares to be
.burdened with the worry that is implied in put-
ting oneself in proprietary relationship with
them. And 'woman' is not an inducement to
crime inasmuch as strong pre-natal attachment
.of the twins for each other is a guarantee against
moral laxity of every kind. The
as a rule, are intelligent and virtuous. They
know the arts of singing and dancing and are
proficient in other accomplishments.
BajrajSlngili.a and Srimati were born tw1ns
in the bhogabhurni lmown as Uttarakuru. In
seven weeks' time they grew up, became husband
and wife, and began to enjoy the fruits of the
merit acquired by the gift of food to the J aina
They enjoyed long life, and had no
worries or an..xieties of any kind to mar their
.. ]Oy.
One day they were visited by two great
Baints the senior of whom revealed himself as the
.re-incarnated Svayambuddha, who was the
minister of Bajrajangha in his incarnation of
Mahabala. On the termination of the sallekhana
of l\iahabala, Svayambuddha had taken to
.3an'l1l!Jiisa (ascet,icism), and was reborn in the first
F. 3
34 Rlf?ABHA DEVA
heaven. From he descended, in due course
of time, and was born in the palace of a king of
mortal men. He was called Pritamkara. The
old fire of renunciation afterwards led hiin to
seek refuge f.rom the world in retirement. He
entered the holy orders. and acquired clairvoyant
powers by hi·s severe Inner illu-
mination brought back to his mind the knowledge
of his former lives, and he determined to visit
Mahabala) s soul and aid him on to the R.ight
Path, once again, seeking to establish him firmly
in the Hight Faith. fie had also acquired the
power to move in the sky, and this enabled him
to cross the intervening oceans and continents.
His companion was his younger brother. Ha.ving
related all the above, the Saint proceeded to
explain the principles of the true Dlull'ma to the
happy twins, who heard him with full attention
and delight. They were much impressed by h1s
discourse, and expressed their unbounded
· gratitude fur his extreme goodness and regard.
The Saint thereafter returned to his own country
with his companion ascetic.
The blwgabltum.ijas are all reborn in the
heavens on the termination of the life in the
" land of joys." 8rimati's and Bajrajangha's
souls, too, at last departed from the material
blwgablt1.trni bodies and became embodied in the
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE:S JOURNEY 35
ethereal vestments of the heavenly regions once
more.
The four animals, the Lion, the Monkey, the
Pig and the Mongoose, too, had been born in the
bltagabh1.t1ni, because of their delight at the gift
of food to the Saints by Bajrajangha, and re-
incarnated in the second heaven on the termina-
tion of their lives in that land.
6. Sridhara Deva
Bajrajangha is now again in one o.f the
higher heavens. He is this time called 8ridhara.
Srimati has now cast off the female form.
She is re-born in the same heaven as Sridhara,
not as a. devangnii, but as a deva. This is due to
Right Faith, for which Svayambuddha must be
tl1anked!
The four companiOns of their earlier
life, that is to say, 11ativara, the minister,
Akama pan a. the generalissimo, Ananada, the
master of ceremonies, and Dhana the
financier, are all now in one of the superheavens
(called gntiveyilcas), because of their austerities
which they had performed after the sudden death
of Bajrajangl)a and Arimati.
Once more· the two loving souls find them-
selves in surroundings that are obtained only by
the most fortunate among men, and that nre to

36
RISABHA DEVA
. .
be had by severe asceticism, by non-J ainas and
by the Right Faith alone even when unaccom-
panied by austerities, by the Jainas. The lovers
of the past three lives now become intimate
friends, and find much joy in each other's
company. Their lives are spent in the usual
manner of deva-life. They worship the Lord
A'rhant, and spend their time enjoying the
heavenly pleasures.
W"Then Saint Pritamkara succeeded in de-
stroying his gltatiyii (obstructive) ka7'mas by his
tapascha1'01J.a. the devas came down to worship
him, and among them cnme Sridhara. I:Ie learnt
on enquiry from the Saint, who had now become
omniscient, the pitiable fate of his remaining
three ministers of a former life wlhen he was
Mahabala. Mahamati and Sambhinnamati had
sunk back into Nigoda which was involved in
impenetrable darlmess, and Satimati had gone to
the second hell. Sridhara felt much pity for
them, though two of them were quite beyond his
reach and help. He determined to help Satamati.
Accordingly one day he descended into the second
hell and sought out Satamati to whom he revealed
their former identity. Their meeting was very
pathetic. Satamati was overwhelmed with sor-
row, and eagerly listened to Sridhara's advice.
He now readilY believed the teaching of truth,
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 37
and adopted the Faith that is the saviour of souls.
After !further comforting him, Sridhara went
back to his own celestial abode.
When Satamati's term of life in the second
hell came to an end he was born in the house of
a king among men. From his childhood, he was
very thoughtful, and not much given to pleasure-
seeking. When he grew up, his father arranged
for his marriage. Sridhara, coming to know of
it by his avadhijnana (clairvoyance), came down
to the region of the mortal men, and advised him
not to· further entangle himself in worldly life.
The youthful prince recollected his sorrowful ex-
periences in the second hell, and refrained from
marrying.' Soon after this he renounced the
world and became an ascetic saint. He perform-
ed severe tapaschara7Ja, and gave up the ghost in
the appr01ved manner, by the sallekhana process.
His soul then reincarnated in the fufth heaven,
amidst ravishing scenes of brilliancy and splen-
dour. Clairvoyance enabled him to ascertain the
cause of his great good luck. He went and re-
newed his friendship with Sridhara, and thanked
him for all he had done for him.
7. Sub:idhi
In the East Videha of Jambu Dvipa, in the
province of Susim·a, there reigned once upon a
38
'Rli?ABHA DEVA
time a great king who was named Sudrif?ti. His
queen was Sundarananda. Devi; who was as ac-
. complished as she was beautiful. Sridhara 's
sou 1 was born to Sundarananda Devi. on the
termination of his deva.-life. His parents called
him Subidhi. He was a very bright and hand-
some child. and soon acquired profici-
ency in different arts a.nd sciences
When he grew up he was married to his
maternal uncle's daughter whose name was
Manorama.. To-day we do not, in India, coun-
tenance such marria geg a1nongst close relations;
but these were quite common in the past. The
reason why marriages nmongst near kinsmen were
forbidden was raU1er political than religious. If a
king had a dozen boys ::1nd an equal number of
girls. and married them all in his own gotra
(fa.mily), in the moment of need there would be
only his kinsmen to fight his •foes, they -
would have done in nny case. But if he married
his children into families outside l1is own, then
·there would be no less than 12 + 12 + 1 = 25 armies
·of so many tribes or kings to stand by him on the
battlefield ! As marriage furnishes a real op-
pm·tunity of making lasting friendships. the an-
cient law-giver laid down the above rule in the
interest of society and dhanna. To-day we have
lost' sight of its reason. and are blindly following
GI.IMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 39
in the wake of sentiment and usage! It will be
noticed that the avoidance of got'ra aimed at
the Rame result. The Agrawalas of to-day, how-
ever, really marry in their own got1-a, though pro-
fessing to avoid it. The explanation of the
usage is to be found in the loss of their kingdom
and the subsequent change of 'V0-1'1Ja from the
Kshatriya to the Vaisya. They were too proud to
give their daughters to non-ruling classes, and as
reigning princes would not accept them, there was
no alternative left except to n1arry them in the
family, but by avoiding the line of one's own an-
•cestor among tr gra Sen's sons !
. Manorama was a very entertaining girl, and
soon obtained possession over her lord's heart. A
son, Kesn.va, who was beautiful and brave was
born to Subidhi from M anorama. l{esava was
rea.lly Srimati's soul. w·ho had re-incarnated in
the second heaven after the life of a blwgabhumija.
Past love again attracted him in the same family
·with his friend. Formerly the dearly beloved
wife of Bajrajangha, she now became his son in
l1is present incarnation!
Subidhi was much devoted to his son, and
did not take to holy orders even in old age. owing
to the love he bore rfor him. But be practised the
Householder's dharma fully, and observed all the
-vows and the pratimas (stages of advancement on
40
R I ~ A B H A DEVA
the householder's path) regularly. At the end of
his life he performed the sallekkana with full
severity of renunciation, and departed, absorbed
in holy meditation and the contemplation of the
Self!
The souls of the four animals had also des-
cended from. the second heaven, and were born as
princes in the same country. They all led saintly
lives, and in the end withdrew themselves from
the world, to practise austerities.
8. The Achyutendra
On the termination of the earthly lirfe,.
Subidhi's soul appeared in the sixteenth heaven,
the name of which is Achyuta. He became the·
lord (Indra) in this heaven, and enjoyed the dis--
tinction of being the Achyutendra, (.A:chyuta +
Indra). The sixteenth is the highest heaven; be-
yond it there are some super-heavens where-
ladies are not met with. The glory of the Achyut-
endra is indescribable in words. He is invested
with the most wonderful of the riddkis (miracu-
lous faculties and powers), and enjoys unparalleled
splendour and pomp. Sex-matters are also much
rarefied in this heaven, and gratification is not
in the gross form, mere contact, at times oruy
conversation, taking the place of the grosser
forms.
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOi::rnNEY 4:1
K.esava (Srimati's soul) also became Prat-
endra (Prati+ Indra) in this very heaven on. the·
termination of his life in Susima. He had prac-
tised austerities after t.b.e death olf Subidhi, and
was rewarded by a birth in the sixteenth heaven.
The dignity of a Pratendra which he attained was
almost just as high as that of the Indra himself.
~ The four princes, too, who had been the Liont
the Pig, the 1onkey and the Mongoose, respec-
tively, in their earlier incarnations, arrived in
this very heaven, as the result of austerities prac-
tised by them. All of them were great friends,.
and constituted, as it were, one family !
9. Emperor Bajranabhi
All greatness is the result of virtue actively
practised by ihe soul, in some form. Most wonder-
ful good luck results from the observance of the
rules of piety and virtue when observed in the
Right Way. Right Faith in itself is the greatest
of boons, and those who acquire it attain to the
highest positions in life, are secure against de-
gradation in transmigration, and speedily get rid
of the liability to repeated births and deaths, in
the course of a few lives ! The reason for all this·
is that the old kind of bonds are not fo\rged by
the soul after the acquisition of the true insight
or Faith, and the practising of- rigid self-denial
42 DEVA
destroys the existing chains of thraldom in the
course of a few re-incarnations. The re-incarna-
too, that are undergone after tl1e acquisi-
tion of the Right Faith, are all very joyous and
delightful. :1nd steadily raise up the will-power
to defy suffering and mishap, in spite of the
pleasures they afford one in the heavens and on
earth. ·
The Achyutendra becnme the son of ICing
Bajra Sen and Queen Srikanta, on the termination
of his life in the sixteenth heaven. He was nam-
ed Bajranitbhi. His body was resplendent. and
shone like bright gold; lie had many auspicious
marks on his person. and was unusually intelli-
gent and sa.gacious.
The Lion. the Pig. the and the n1on-
-goose were similarly born to Rani Srikanta, as
Vijaya. Vejayanta. Jayanta and Aprajita,
respectively, and thus now became the brothers
of Bajranabhi (the Bajrajangha of a former
life)!
The souls of the four especial favourites of
Bajrajangha, namely, of Mativara, the minister.
Akampana. the generalissimo, Annnada. the
master of ceremonies, and Dhana Mitra. the fin-
ancier, also took birth as Bajranabhi's yotmger
brothers. and were named. respectively, Subahu, .
Mahabahu. Peetha and Mahapeetba.
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4:3
The Pratendra from the sixteenth heaven,
t o o ~ was born in the same land. He· became
Dhanadatta, the ·Son of the great banker l{uber-
datta, from his wife Anantamati. Bajranabhi
lat-er appointed him the lord chamberlain of hi&
household. Thus did km·1na bring the old friends
together once again !
Raja Bajra Sen retired. in the ·fullness of
time. from the concerns of the world, and plac.ed
the crown on the head of Bajranabhi. Hajra-
nabhi later became an emperor, when the cha.T.,ra
{discus) appeared in his arsenal. He then start-ed
for subduing the world, and returned success-
fully after many many years.
In the meanwhile his father had attained to
Omniscience and the divine status of Tirtham-
karahood, as the result of the fruition of highly
meritorious km·mas. Bajranabhi, who had been in-
different to the pleasures of life all along, and
who had only married because of the desire of
his royal father, now found himself more and more
attracted away from the world. One day he plac-
·ed his son, Bajradanta. on the throne, and along
with his eight brothers. namely, the four favour-
ites of his former life, Mativara, Akamapana,
Ananda and Dhana Mitra, and the four re-incar-
nated animal souls. the Lion. the Pjg, the Monkey
and the Wlongoose, adopted the life of austerity
44 DEVA
as a J a ina Saint. Many kings and other great
men folloiWed his example, and entered the order
along with him.
Ti?·tlLamkarapada (the status of a Tirtham-
kara) is the most difficult thing to obtain in the·
world. It is attained only by four and twenty
souls in the course of half a cycle of time com-
prising innumerable millions of years. The causes
that lead to Tirthamkarahood are, among others,
a burning desire to remove the misery of the
world, to carry enlightenment and joy to the hearts
of all living beings, perfect faith, profound vene-
ration for the true objects of veneration, namely,
the Teacher, the Scripture of Truth and the
Saint, Love, Service, and Study (investigation
of Truth). These are collectively known as the
solalt-kara'l}a Bhav{)Jnas (the sixteen special im-
pulses that lead to the glory of Tirthamka1·ahood).
The seed of the Supreme Status is, generally,
sown in the presence of a living Tirthamkara
Himself. It is His example presumably that
fires the mind and stirs up the imagination !
Bajranabhi, too, was fired with the inspira-
tion of the Tirthamkara's example (who was his
own Father). He longed. to become a Tirtham--
kara himself, to save all who were involved in
suffering and misery in the samsara (transmigra-
tion). Henceforth to carry enlightenment
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4:5
joy to all became his noble mission in life. He
had already succeeded in bringing his lower self
under his control; but now he redoubled his efforts
to attain to perfection in self -abnegation and in
impassibility. His life, as a saint, was charac-
terized by watchfulness, study and investigation
of Truth, penances and fasts, service of saints,
and l:}y rigid self-denial, generally. He loosened
his evil ka1·mas considerably, and acquir-
ed the true scientific insight into the causes of em-
bodiment and suffering, that is, Right Faith.
Strictly speaking. Religion is not begun till all
superstitions-including the one that is centred
-round the notion of a creator who made or
makes the world and living beings-are not com-
pletely destroyed. The Faith Bajranabhi now
possessed was without superstition, and steady
like the edge of a sword, in respect of discrimi-
nating intelligence.
At the end of his life, Bajranabhi performed
-the auspicious sallekltana, that is ooveted by all
.seekers after emancipation from the clutches
..of calamity and death. He rose to the region of
.the super-heavens.
The eight brothers of Bajranabhi and the
:Seth's son, Dhana Mitra, also attained to the same
:super-heaven, as the result of the practising of
severe soul-purifying austerities.
DEV A
10. The Ahamindra
· When the noble eklwna culminated in his
soul's departure from the body of gross matter,
Bajranabhi opened his eyes and found himself in
the lovely surroundings of the most coveted
The name literally means ' all
desires gratified.' Those who are born in this
region are literally without any further ambi-
tions. They have practically reached the end of
their journey, and have only one more earth life.
to go through. They know this fact, and are,
consequently, filled with a serenity of mind that
is not easily appreciated, except when actually
realized. The but·den of the soul is much light-
ened already in their case ; the desiring nature
has been almost '\vholly eradicated.
The Place of Nirvana, the Blessed Abode of
the Perfect Men, who are above death, and disease
and decay, in other words, of Immortal Gods, is.
only a few hundred yojanas (one yojana,=
2,000 kosas, or 4,000 above Sarvartha-
siddhi. The land of this super-heaven itself is
of a kind of material that gleams like
precious stones. There are no ladies any-
where in the super-heavens; and Sarvartha-
siddhi is likewise free from their
The devns who are born here are rid of sexual
cravings, and thf\y pass their time in the enjoy--
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4fl
ment of peaceful serenity. They are very very
long-lived, their term of life being measured, not
in years, but, by way of analogy, in oceans of
years. They all live &or thirty-three O.Y .s
(Oceans of Years); and premature death is un-
known, and impossible for them.
The effect of t-he1r meritorious work in the
earlier stages of the Life's Journey, towards the
Goal, enables them to manifest a great deal of the
hidden virtue of the spiritual nature in them;
they enjoy the peaceful bliss, springing from
within their Soul's be1ng, although it is smnewhat
tinged with the material nature, that still remains
to be eradicated. :Sexual era ving is like thirst
when one is suffering from lugh fever, and is only
felt by the man who is a slave to his senses. As
he who has got no fever to make him thirsty does
not regard iced water as gratifying, so will not
he who is not afflicted with sense-craving ever
regard sex-indulgence as adding to his joys.
Thus he who has brought his animal nature fully
under control, is rid of the craving, and will not
miss the excitement any more. The Ahamindras
have no regrets, no needs, nor longings for any
kind of sense-produced pleasure. They do not
even care to visit other places in the heavens or
on earth, and are ever fi1led with the innate de-
light of the soul.
-48 Rli?ABHA DEYA
The Ahamindras take food once 111 thirty-
three thousand years, and breathe after thirty-
three fortnights. They pass no excrements, and
.are not liable to perspire. The amount of the food
taken is much less than in the lower heavens. The
size of an Ahamincha. is only one cubit. But his
.body is resplendent, and symmetrical; and ugli-
ness of feature and form is unlmown. All the
Aha1nindras are gentle, dispassionate, and uu-
.usually wise.
The term altamiwb·a is a compotmd one, sig-
nifying '' I am Indra." Each Ahamindra lmows
.and realizes that he is an Indra (Lord) himself,
and has no lords above him. They treat one
,another as absolute equals.
The relation between the need for food and
breathing in the heavens seems to be a definite
.one. One O.Y. (Ocean of Years) of life requires
feeding once every thousand years and breathing
once a fortnight; and the proportion-one meal
after 24,000 breaths-holds good throughout in
.all the different grades of the dtu:a-life. The
same proportion, it would appear, was intended
by nature for the mortal man: we breathe t w e n ~ y ­
four thousand times in 24 hours, and, therefore,
should need only one meal u day. Perhaps we
have ' evolved ' out too rapidly to remain in touch
with beneficent nature! The .'liJ.dlt'lts (saints) take
GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4'9
only one meal a day, and would seem to be en-
dowed with more energy and capacity lfor work.
Bajranabhi spent his 33 O.Y.s (Oceans of
Years) of life in Sarvarthasiddhi in the .enjoy-
ment of supreme tranquillity and joy. His
friends of the previous lives were also there in .the
same super-heaven with him. They, too, had an
allotment of 33 O.Y.s for their life, and enjoyed
equal status. It is to be noted that, unlike l o ~ e r
heavens, jealousy has and can have no place in
Sa rvarthasiddhi I
F. 4.
II
CONDITIONS OF E.NRiLY EXISTENCE
The present half-cycle of time is known as
A '"nsar71i'l}i krllri. It commenced 10 korli-kori (1
korii-k01·i == 10,00(},000 x 10,000,000} O.Y.s
39,500 years ago. roughly speaking. At its com-
mencement the conditions of thing:; on om· little
enrth tl1ose in a. blwgnblm11d.
There arc six arfls (gpokcs) in n half-t•ycle of
time. The duration of the first. rll'tl of our half-
cycle was 4 korii-l·ori, of the second. :i korii-knri.
of the third. 2 korii-kori. nnd of the fourth, J
0. Y.s less 4-2.000 The durntion
of the fift]l (whieh is now running) wilJ hr 21.000
yenJ's, and of the the :-:ame that of thl"
fifth.
Tl1e A is the descending arc.
it is the nrc of deterioration. All things hnYe
become detrriorated and will further detet·iorn tc
in this period. The other half-cycle will be the-
re,rerse of this. Longevity :md stature well as
the conditions of existence have been a O'ectcd
alike. The blt.O!fa-blmm i like hcgnn to
disappear long long ngo. and wns completely
destroyed before the commencement of the fonrt.h
50
CONDITIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 51
m·a of our half-cycle. People were then forced
to .sweat rfor their living, and the idea of private
proprietorship gradually formed itself in their
minds.
The foundation of the civilisation of law and
order was not laid at once. Wise men arose from
time to time. and kept on enlightening the people.
The number of the sages who thus appeared is
said to be fourteen, the last of whom was one of
the greatest of Enlightened Men. He was called
Nabhi Rai, and was married to a young lady who
has been described as the very soul of fen1ale
loveliness and virtue. Her name was Maru Devi,
and she was destined to give birth to the World
Saviour Sri R i ~ a b h a Deva, the first Tirthamkara
and the original Founder of Dharma (Religion)
in this age.
Nabhi Roai was endowed with clairvoyance
from birth, and effected much reform in the con-
dition of the society which was then beginning
to form. It may be stated that serious crimes
were quite unknown in those days, and but little
need of law had till then been felt by men.
The first kulaka.1·a was Pratisruti. When
the trees that t:hed strong light around them,
in the state of the blwgabhumi disappeared and
the sun and the moon became visible, the people,
who saw them for the first time, were alarmed.
52 RII?ABHA DEVA
It ·was Pratisruti who understood the cause of
their appearance by his superior wisdom. He
explained to them that the light of the trees
had been too powerful thus far to enable the sun
and the moon to be seen but now that that
illumination had paled they became visible. The
division of day and night dates from his time.
It was the day of in the month of
when the sun and the moon became
visible in the sky, and it may be taken to be the
first beginning of unrecorded history and of
measurable time !
In the time of Pratisruti some sort of king-
ship also came to be recognized and established;
but it was still very inchoate. Offences were rare,
the people being simple folk, who were strangers
to trickery and deception. It was sufficient to
deter them from a wrongful act to say '' ha."
This was the only law that did duty for preventive
measures, during the time of the first five lcula.-
km·as (wise men).
Sanmati was the second lculalcara. In his time
the light of the trees had faded into insignific-
ance, and even the stars became visible in the sky.
He was able to spot the constellations and may be
said to be the first astronomer of the half
Then came l{shemankara, after the lapse of
a long long time. In his time animals oega.n to
CONDITIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 53
be troublesome. Hitherto the feeding-trees had
supplied men and animals with enough food; but
now the conditions were changing, and every one
had to look for himself. The distinction of
domestic and wild animals dates from Ksheman-
kara' s time.
I{shemandhara was the fourth manu who
followed Kshemankara after a long interval of
time. He devised weapons of wood and stone to
drive away wild a.nimals.
The next manu was Seemanka1·a. Quarrels
arose in his time over the kalpa trees, of which
only a few were left now. He fixed the proprie-
tary zones over them cfor different groups and
communities of men. He was called Seemankara,
because he had fixed the seemas (boundaries) of
proprietorship.
Seemandhara was the next in order to appear.
The quarrels had become more intense by his
time over the disa.ppearing kalpa vrikslw,s (trees).
He laid the !foundation of individual ownership
over the trees, and he also set marks on them.
Vimalabahana was the seventh manu. He
taught men how to utilise the services of domestic
animals, and invented the tethering rope, the
bridle and the like to keep them under control.
Chakshuf?mana then appeared after the lapse
of another long period . of time. In his time the
54 Rlf?ABHA DEVA
old order of bll.ogabl1.umi was so far changed that
the parents did not die at the birth of their pro-
geny. Some people were astonished at this and
enquired the cause of the change from
mana, which he explained.
Y a.Sasvana. the ninth k'Ltlaka1·a .. was then born
after the lapse of another long period. He taught
men how to regard their children as their own,
and to bless them.
The tenth man.u was Abhi Chandra. in whose
time the old order of things underwent still fur-
ther changes. The people now lived to play with
their children; they also began to give them use-
ful instruction. Because Abhi Chandra was the
first to play with his rhildren in moonlight he
came to- be lmown as Abhi Chandra (clwruh·a. sig-
nifying the moon).
The eleventh m.anu was Chandrabha, in
whose time children came to be looked after
better. His guidance was also very beneficial
for manldnd in certain other ways.
Tl1e twelfth man?t was Marud Deva. T n his
time state-control was established over all the
kalpa trees that had still remained in the land.
Deva also taught men the art of navigation
and built different kinds of skiffs and boats.
Men now took to scaling high walls and hills.
Many small hills, rivulets and lakes were formed
CONDlTIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 55
in his time, and there was some scanty and
irregular rainfall for the first time.
Prasenaj it was the last but one of the lc'ltla-
ka?·as. In his time children came to be, born
with the prasena (the amnion or membrane in
which a child is born), whence his name, Prasena-
j it. Before his time children were not born wrap-
ped in a membrane.
The last of the kulakaras was Nabhi R.ai, as
already stated. He was the wisest man of his
age. He earned his epithet (Nabhi Rlai) from
the fact that he taught men how to cut the navel
chord termed nabhi (the navel), which had now
got to be cut. Thick rain clouds now began to
gather in the sky freely. It would appear that
perhaps up to the time of Marud Deva the exist-
ence of the lcalpa trees (or may be some other na-
tural force, inimical to cloud-formation) had pre-
-vented rain clouds in the sky; but in his time rain
sometimes fell, and by the time of the fourteenth
manu both rain and clouds became a regular
feature of the natural aspect of things.
Spontaneous cultivation also appeared in the
time of the fourteenth ma'TIIU, as well as fruit
trees.
As regards penal laws there was no need for
elaborate measures thus far. As already stated,
the first five kulaka1YlR f o ~ n d it enough to rebuke
56
RH]ABHA DEVA
the wrong-doer with '' hii " I The. next five had
need of '' mii ." to reinforce the effect of disap-
proval. ' Ma ' signified regret, as if to say : '' I
regret that you should have done such a thing as
this ! " This was enough to keep the culprit
straight for the future. The remaining k'ltlalca1·as
added '' dltilca " to the existing code of penalties,
to express their abhorrence of the evil deed. But
regular laws had to be laid down in the day of
Bharata of whom we shall ha:ve to speak later on.
CHAPTER III
FOUR AND TWENTY TIR!THAMIU.RAS
qomi{)sftt aa:tiUh • 1
u
1
..c.... •t
• '(.W'i41ft'IQ" II
iiwitSifteN' I
g qm;s: u
[Vamana regarded the place as a Tirtha. The
(true) form of Siva, even that digambara (undraped)
fo1'ID. was seen in the Image in the Sun l Recalling the
form of the Lord, seated in the padmasana (the sitting
yoga posture with legs crossed) which is the embodi-
ment of tranquitllity itself, he established the Image
of Basara, and worshipped it! This he did to attain
to the of the wish of his heart: this wish
was fulfilled! That Vamana named Nem.i Nath Siva!]
-The 81rande Purana (Hindu): Prabhasa Part, xvi.
94-96.
There is a special fascination in the number
four and twenty; the Hindus have twenty-four
avata1'as (incarnations) of their favourite god,
there twenty-four counsellor gods of
57
58 DEVA
the ancient Babylonians; the Buddhists posit four-
and twenty previous Buddhas, that is. teaching
gods. The Zoroastrians a1so have twenty-tfour
A:huras who are regarded as ''the mightiest to
, advance desire and Dominion of blessings t "
These Great Ones are thus addressed in one of
the sacred books of the Parsis :-
" Your blessings sha11. ye give us, all ye that are
one iu will, with whom right good thought, Piet;\· nud
(at·e one), according to promise ghing your aid
when worshipped witJ1 reYerence " (Y nsna, !l.i. 20).
But the more remarkable case of identity of
thought between Jainism and a non-Jaina creed
is furnished by Jewish Apocrypha. which acknow-
ledges exactly four and twenty " faces " on the
Ladder of Jacob. The explanation given is as
follows:-
" The 'ladder which thou sn.west which had tweh·e
steps haTing two human faces which changed their ap-
}learance-now this laddet• is t.his ag·e, and the twelve
stepR are the times of this age, and the twenty-four faces
are the kings of the lawless heathen of this age. Under
these kings will be tried (thy children's children and
the line of). thy sons . . . . " (The Lost Apocrypha. of
ilte Old Testament, pages 96, 98 and 99.)
Of course, the language would not have been
apocryphal had it been a little more lucid! But
the true interpretation of the passage is not
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 59
difficult. The term heathen refers to the non.:.
Israelites; and the lawless are those who have
risen above the dead letter of the law, that is to
say, who conform to the spirit of the teaching and
who have rid themselves of the petrifying outer
encrustation, namely, the mere rules and regula-
tions of the scriptures. Hence, those who have
realized the Self, i.e., the divinity of their Soul,
are the lawless, and their four and twenty kings
are the four and twenty TmTHAMKARAS under
whom shall be judged, that is to say, by whose
standard, shall be judged all those who seek to
attain salvation. In other words, the four and
twenty Tirthamkaras are models of Perfection
for men, who must raise themselves to Their
standard to be ' saved.'
' Such is the testimony furnished by the Jewish
Esotericism, which is the only true side of their
religion. 'Its true merit has been lost sight of
owing to the a.Jlegorical vogue. which has
estranged us from one another and from the
Truth. When the true interpretation. of the
world's apocrypha is reached, the differences
will sim·ply n1elt away, leaving men gaping at
each other, in sheer astonishment and wonder!.
Let the reader read' The K.ey of Knowledge,' the
~ Confluence of Opposites' and the ' Glimpses'
of A Hidden Science in . Original Christian
60 RII?ABHA DEVA
Teachings,' to realize this great truth fol'
himself.
But the most remarkable case of this
doctrinal identity is furnished by the Christian
Apocalypse, where the scene and the surround-
ings are purely J ainist. An initiation scene is.
laid in allegorical style. In the centre of a huge
hall is placed a throne on which is placed Life
(J iva) that is Divine; round about the Throne
are four and twenty seats on which sit four and
twenty Elders, robed in white and wearing
crowns of gold. In this Assembly is introduced
the Lamb (the symbol of the soul characterized
with supreme humility) that is to be initiated. In
front of the Throne are four remarkable beasts :
one of them is like a lion, another resembles an
eagle, the third has the appearance of a calf, and
the fourth has the face of a man. These beasts
have six wings each, and are full of eyes all over;
and they rest not night and day, but keep on
blessing the One on the Throne.
Such is the scenic imagery of the hall of ini-
tiation. A detailed elucidation of it is to be
found in the tenth chapter of ' The Key of Know-
ledge ' and the seventh and the ninth lectures of
the ' Confluence of Opposites ' ; but a brief expla-
nation may be attempted ·here. The beasts re-
present the difierept kinds of souls that are em-
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTRA.MKARA.S 61
bodied in the four elements (of matter), namely,
the earth-bodied (represented by the lion, since
he walks on the earth), ·the air--bodied (represent-
ed by the eagle who flies in the air), the water-
bodied (represented by the calf, which is the young
of the sea-mammals), and the fire-bodied (repre-
sented by the sun which is painted as the face of
a man). Wings are a symbol for time, since it
flies; and the number six is descriptive of the six
aras of a half-cycle in which four and twenty
Tirthamkaras appear and preach the Truth.
Plainly put, the significance of the secret teach:.
ing is only this that Life is Divine, and its divi-
nity is mani!fested most perfectly and fully in the
case of four and twenty Tirthamkaras, who ap-
pear in a half -cycle of time, consisting of six
aras, and preach the Noble Truth to and for the
benefit of the souls embodied in material bodies i
·Why these higher truths were couched in the
mystery language that is generally unintelligible
to men, will be found explained in the books
named above,- and cannot be repeated here.
The Tirtkamlcaras, then, are only four and
twenty in each half-cycle of time. But the num-
ber of Siddltas is very great. The Siddhas are
exactly like the Tirthamkaras in all respects in
so far as innate virtues and attainments are con-
cerned. They are all omniscient, and endowed
62
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
:with exactly ·the same attributes as the Tirtham-
karas. But They differ from the latter in this
that teaching is not Their 1nission in life in the
same way as it is .that of the Tirthamkaras, and
therefore They are not surrounded by the Pomp
with which devas and men surround the latter.
The Siddll,as are also referred to both in the
Jewish and the Christian Apocrypha. In the
former it is said :-
" And I Esdras ::mw UllOll the mount Sion a great
multitude whom I could 1•ot number, and they all
Jll'Uised the lord with song-s. .A.nd in the midst of them
the1·e was a young man of high stature, taller than all
the I'est and upon eve1·y one of their heads he set
crowns, and was more exalted; whereat I marvelled
great.ly. So I asked the angel, \llld said, W'h.at are
these, my lord? He answered und said unto me, 'fhese
be they t.ltut have put off morta'l c.lothing, and put on
the immorta1, and ha\e confessed the name oi God:
now nre crowned, und receive palms. 'l''hen "aid
I unto the angel, "What young man is he that setteth
crowns· upon them, and giyeth them palms in tl1eir
hands? So he and said unto me, It is the
sou o£ God, whom they hn'"e confessed in the world."
-II Esdras, Chap. II.
· Briefly the explanation of the above half-
plain half-mystic account is this: by following
the Ideal (in Jewish and Christian terminoloay·
'
the Son of God) souls are crowned into Divinity,
• and the number of Those that have freed and
FOUR AND •rwENTY TIRTHA:M:KARAS 63
·shall thus free themselves from subjection to the
inimical forces is countless. These are the
Siddhas of J ainism !
The Christian description of the Siddhas is
given in the seventh chapter of the Book of Re-
velation in the 9th and 13th to 17th verses, and
runs as follows :-
9. " After this I beheld, and lo u. g·rcat multitude
which no man could number .... l:itood before the
tht•one, . . . . clothed with white rohes, and palms in
their hands.
13. " And one of the elders answered, saying un-
to me, what nre these that are arrayed in white robes?
and whence came they?
. 14. " And I said unto him, Hil·, thou lmowest.
And hi· said to me, these are they wh1eh came out ot
great tribulation, und have washed their robes, and
made them white in the blood of t.he Lamb.
15. " 'fherefore are they befo1·e the th1·one qf
God, and him day and nig·ht in his temple and he
that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them.
16. " They shaH hunger uo more, neither thirst
any more, neither shaH the light on them, nor any
heat. ·
17. " the J.Jamb that is in the midst of: the
th1·one shal'l feed them and shall lead them unto living
:fountains of water, and God shal'l wipe away aU tears
from their eyes."
This is undoubtedly the true of
the status of Siddhaliood, in mystic script. For
64
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
a detailed elucidation of the passage reference
must, again, be made to the books already men-
tioned; for this is no place for the, elaboration of
allegorical exegesis. But it will interest us to
know what Clement of Alexandria, who, accord-
ing to Methodius, was an immediate disciple of
St. Peter himself, says as to the four and twenty
Elders of the Christian Apocalypse. He writes
(see the Ante Nicene Christian Library, Vol.
XII. pp. 365-366) :-
" He then who has first moderated his passion and
trained himself for and deYeloped to the
beneficence of gnostic perfection, is here equal to t.he
angels. Luminous already, nnd like the sun shining in
the exercise of beneficence, he speeds by righteous know-
il.edge through the lo,•e oi God to the sacred abode, like
as the apostles . . . . And nlt1:ough here upon earth
he be not honoured with the chief seat, he will sit down
on the four and twenty thrones, judging the people, as
John says in the Apocalypse."
These thrones, then, are intended for the
greatest Teachers among men, by whose standard,
or norm, men shall have to judge themselves if
they want to attain to divine Perfection. These
are the Tirthamkaras whose number is identically
the same as that of the thrones and of the Elders
who are seated on them !
Concerning the excellence of the condition of
the Siddlta.c; (in Christian terminology, the Saved
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 65
Ones) the Early Chflistian teaching mentioned
the same characteristics of Their Existence in
Nirvana as are given in the Jaina Scriptures:-
" There shall be no mor ~ death, neither sorrow nor
cryiug, ueither shall there be any more p a i ~ . "-Reve-
lation xxi. 4.
" .... in which there is neither sleep, nor pain,
nor coiTuption, nor care, nor night, nor day measured
by time . . . . eye has not seen nor ear heard, neither
has entered into the heart of man, the things which
God has prepared for them that loYe him."-A.N.C.
Lib., Vol. ix. part ii, p. 50.
" For the incorruptible nature is not subject to
generation; it grows not, sleeps not, hungers not, is not
wearied, su:ffereth not, diea not, is not pierced by nails
and spears, sweats not, drops npt with blood. Of such
kind are the natures of angels and of souls released from
the body. For . . . . these are of another kind, and
difierent from these creatures of our world, which are
'•isible and perishing."-Ibid., p. 88.
About the permanence of the condition of
Libera.tion it !is said :-
u • . • • . a n ~ tl1ey shall reign for ever and ever."-
Reveilatton xxil. 5.
The correspondence is marvellous in each
detail! We may, then, take it that the number
of the Perfect Ones, the Siddkas, is very large.
while the Tirthamkaras are only four and
twenty.
F.5
66
Rlf?ADHA DEVA
But what are we to say to those wiseacres
who think that Jainism only came into existence
in the time of Mahavira or at the earliest in that
of Parsva N ath, and the earlier two and twenty
Tirthamkaras are the outcome of the J a ina
imagination ? Some of these intellectual giants
had at one time relegated the J aina Creed to the
position of an offshoot of Buddhism, that was
deemed to have arisen in the sixth century of the
Christian era! But to-day the historicity of
Parsva Nath is beyond dispute. What is really
remarkable about the J aina account is the con-
firmation of the number four and twenty itself
from non-J aina sources. The Hindus, indeed,
never disputed the fact that J ainism was founded
by Rif?abha Deva in this half-cycle, and placed
His time almost at what they conceived to be the
commencement of the world ! They recognised
His Divinity fully, acknowledged that He was
Omniscient, and counted Him amongst their
avataras. They give the same parentage of
Deva as the Jainas do ; they even agree
that His son was the Emperor Bharata who lent
his name to India, that is to say, after whom
India came to be known as If
this is not historv and historical confirmation I
..
do not lmow what else would be covered by these
terms. There is even an old inscription in the
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 67
Khandagiri Hill in which there is a mention of
a consecrated Statue of the first Tirthamkara,
Deva, that had been carried off by King
N anda Vardhana about 2400 years ago, and that
was brought back to (Orissa), by
Kharvale, in the 2nd century B.C., from Pabili-
putra (modern Patna). This Statue most probably
dated bac\c prior to Mahavira's time, and possibly
even to that of Parsva N ath.
As for the other Ti'l'tha?nkaras, N emi
is a name which is quite familiar in' the Hindu
literature including the Vedas, and he would
appear to be identical with the twenty-second
Tirthamkara who bore that name, but was gener-
ally known as Nemi Nath. Modern opinion is
now veering round to regard Nemi Nath as a
real historical person (see "Lord Ariahta-
nemi " by H. Bhattacharya, pp. 88-89). In
the Rig and the Yajur Vedas, too, there
is a mention of the Lord (see the J aina Patha
PradarShak, iii. 94--1 07) ; but no histori-
cal details are given to fix the identity, which is,
however, established by other references. The
Hindu scripture, the Prabhasa (Skande) Pural}a
distinctly acknowledges Nemi Nath, as is evident
from the quotation at the top of this chapter. A
reference to the seventh Tirthamkara, Sri Sup&rs-
va Nath, is to be found in the Buddhist literature
68 DEVA
which shows the existence of a temple of
"Sappu" in Rajagrihi in Buddha's time (Lord
Arishtanemi, p. 86) . In the Rig Veda itself
mention has been made of the first Tirthamkara,
Deva, • by name (Rig VeQ.a, X.12. 168),
though the Hindus now interpret the text in a
way to obliterate the reference. Hindu scholars
are, however, not wanting who have sincerely felt
the identity to be undeniable (Historical Glean·
ings, p. 76; the Jaina Pathapradarsak, Vol. III,
Part 3, p. 106). It is interesting to note that
J aina writers have quoted many other passages
from the Vedas themselves which are no longer
to be found in the current editions. Vv eeding has
very likely been carried out on a large scale. This
may be accounted for by the bitter hostility of the
Hindus towards J ainism in recent historical
times.
Further references to J ainism are to be found
in the Hindu books under various names. The
term '' arhan" repeatedly occurs in the oldest
of the Vedas. There is also the text cnoC!;JifT:
. ......
which is descriptive of J aina Saints (Rig Veda X.
136-2 and Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXX. p. 280),
as Dr. Webber admits. Jaina saints were also
termed sr.(J,manas; and there is a mention, in the
Rig Veda, of sramanas, who interfered in the
Hindu sacrifices ('-' Bhagwan Parsva Nath,"
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 69
p. 21). The sect of Vratyas mentioned in
the Atharva Veda can, again, be the Jainas
and none else. The term means the observer
otf vows, as distinguished from the performer
Oif sacrifices which applied to the Hindus
at the time, and has been commented upon
by a learned scholar, Prof. A. Chakravarti, in
the Jaina Gazette (Vol. XXI Part 6), and by
Babu Kamta Prasad Jain in '' Bhagwan Parsva
Nath" (see the Introduction). The Vratyas"" were
of two kinds, the saints and the householders. In
the fifteenth part of the Atharva Veda there is a
mention of a Mana (great) Vratya who must be
one of the Ti'rthamka1·as, and presumably R i ~ a ­
bha Deva, the first. He is said to have stood in
one (yoga) posture for a whole year, after which
at the request of certain devas, he occupied a seat
furnished by them. The devas are also said to
,. Mr. K. P. J ayaswal gives the following account of
the Vratyas in the Modern Review for 1929 (seep. 499):
" The Lichchhavis ruled opposite Patalil_)utra in the
9-istrict of M uza:ffarpur. They are called V ratyas or
un-Brahmanical Kshatriyas ; they had a republican from
of government; they had their own shrines, their non-
Vedic worship, their own religious leaders; they pat-
ronized Jainism ... Mahavira was born. a.mong them.
Mnnu condemns them as degenerates. Chandragupta's
son, Samudragupta, who acquired the Imperial posi-
t.ion for himseH and his family by establishing an a!N-
India Empire, proudly describes himself as the ifouhiflra
(daughter's son) of the Lichchhavis."
70
DEVA
have attended upon him in his ' rambles.' As
we shall see later on all this tallies with the life of
the first in a very remarkable
manner. Not the least significant is tl1e refer-
ence in the Yoga V (xv. 8) to J ainism,
where Rama himself says :
;nt mir .,- it ;r :q ;r.r: '
:ur.:a ftr.it qqr 11=11
[Tr. Rama. said : I am not Ram a. (object of
meditation for yogis), nor (am I free from)
desires ; I wish to attain, in mine own self, the
tranquillity of the Jina (Conqueror, i. e., Tirtham-
kara) l]
This shows that J a.inism flourishing at
the time of Rama which is very very ancient
according to Hindu reckoning.
The confirmation from outside J ainism of its
sacred tradition is not to be wondered at. It is
precisely what is to be expected if its teaching is
really concerned with Truth, and the emancipa-
tion of souls. The explanation of the differences
of the other religions with J ainism as well as with ·
one another among themselves, is to Ee found in
their resort to allegorical style. ·as has been ex-
plained in my works on comparative religion.
The truth is that different on their outward
surface, they are nevertheless at one with one
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 71
another at the core, and present the same doctrine
and teaching with Jainism.
These World-Teachers, the Jinas, or Tirth-
amkaras, it is to be noticed, are not worship:-seek-
ing. psalm-loving, prayer-granting, wish-fulfil-
ling deities. Their religion forbids all these
things. They will tell you to go away elsewhere
if you want boons from Them ! They only have
Their teaching to give, wliich at once demands the
renunciation of all the ' good ' things of the
world, and will not, in any sense, encourage one's
crying for them. Those who come to worship
Them have to take leave of the world one day !
There is no reason, then, why the J ainas should
falsely insist on positing all the four and twenty
Jinas! One World-Teacher would be quite
enough for the Teaching. His example and
footprints wHl be enough for men's needs ! If
the question was of granting boons or the prayers
'Of the devotees, the larger the number of gods, the
better it would be ifor mankind. But that is not
the case here. As for the lustre of antiquity,
the thirst for which is said to have moved the
Jainas to invent the first twenty-two of the
Tirthamkaras, the historicity o:f the first Holy
Lord being established from the unassailable
testimony · of the Scriptures of Hinduism
·which comes from a rival faith, there could
72
RI!?ABHA DEVA
have been no occasion for ,Jainas to be
worried over the matter. Important evidence,
recently unearthed by the Archaeological De-
partment of Indja, abundantly shows the pre-
valence of Jainism long long before the age which
the modern investigators have assigned to the
oldest of the Vedas. A number of Statuettes have
been recovered at Mohenjo-daro which are charac-
terised by half-shut eyes, the gaze being fixed on
the tip of the nose. " These statuettes clearly in-
dicate that . . . . the people of the Indus Valley
in the Chaloolithic period not only practised yoga
but worshipped the images of the yogis." The
Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of
This takes us several thousandR of vears hevond
. ..
the date of the Statue of the first Tirthamkara.
which was carried off by N anda Vardhana in the
fifth century B.C. These human StntnE'ttes mu&t
be Jaina relics, as they are outside the Vedic
Pantheon and Cult. But all this merely confirms
what an astute and recondite scholar, Major
J.G.R. Forlong, said years ago (see " Short
Studies in the Science of Comparative Religion,"
pages 243-244) :-
"All Upper, "\Vestern, North Central India was
* See the " Survival of the Pre-historic
of the Indus Valley," and the Pioneer, dated November
lOth, 1929.
FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 73
then-say 1500 to 80() H.C. and, indeed, from -pnk.nown
by Turanians, conveniently called Dra'vids,
and given to tree, serpent and pha!lik worship ....
but there also then existed throughout upper India 'ln
ancient and highly organized religion, philosophikal,
ethikal and severely ascetikal, viz., Jainism out of which
cleatly deve'loped the early ascetikal features of Brah-
manism and Buddhism. Long before Aryans reached
the Ganges or even the Sarasvati, J ainas had been
taught by some twenty-two prominent Bodhas, saints or
Tirthamkaras, prior to the historical twenty-third Bodha
Parsva of the eighth or ninth century B.C., and he knew
of all his predecessors-pious Rishis diving at long in-
of time; and of several scriptures even then lmown
as PUI'Vas or Puranas, that is, ' ancient,' which had be •n
handed down for ages in the memory of recognized an-
chorites, Vanaprnsthas or ' forest recluses.' This was
more especiaUy a J aina Order, severely enforced by all
their ' Boclhas ' and particu\l.aJ·ly in the sixth century
B.C. by the twenty-fourth and last, Mahavira of 598-526-
B.C. This ascetik Order continued in Brahmanism and
Buddhism throughout distant Baktria and Dacia ... .''
It would thus that the moderns have to
revise their methods of !easoning and research if
they wish their inferences to a<;cord with solid
facts.
CRAPTERIV
THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER
fcAr 9ft. 1
mftffi u
a..
(Rig Veda X. 12. 166).
[Tr. 0 Rudra-like Divinity ! do thou produce
.amongst us, of high clescent, a Great God, ilike Ri!}abha.
Deva, by becoming A:rhan, which is the epithet of the
first W or.ld Teacher; let Him become the destroyer of
the enemies !]-The Jaina Patha Pradarsaka, ill. 3. 106.•
The reason why the Tirthamkaras are onay
four and twenty while the Perfect Ones (the
Siddllas), who are like Them in all other
are innumerable, consists of two
factors, one internal and the other external.
-· the aspiration to carry happiness and
joy and enlightenment to all living beings on the
pa.rt of the aspiring Soul, and the emulation of
de'DaS and men to glorify the vr ORLD TEA!CHER.
When six months of the long life of the
* The above is the English rendering of the reading
by a lea:ned Hindu Scholar, Prof. Virupaksha Beriyar,
Veda T1rth, M.A.
STATUE OF R I ~ I A J J I I A DEVA IN ONE OF 'rilE
TEl\IPJ.r!.S A'r A RR.\ H
THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER 75
Ahamindra remained to him in the super-heaven
Sarvarthasiddhi, the Indra (ruler) of the first
heaven, who always takes the ·lead in such
matters, gave orders to his subordinate devas to
get ready for the glorification of the. coming
WoRTAD TEACHER. Kubera, the lord of the
celestial treasury then began to rain down choice
gems in the Palace of the fourteenth Manu,
Nabhi Raj a, to announce the coming of the
Master I
Ajudhya, in the country of Kausala (modern
Oudh), was the capital of Nabhi Raja's kingdom,
and it had been built, with the advice of the
heavenly devas, to represent the capital of t h ~
heavenly Kingdom of Indra in the first heaven.
For six months Kubera celebrated the coming of
the Lord in advance, in ,the way stated. All
A judhya loaded themselves with wealth in this
period. Even the walls of many mansions and
palaces were now studded with lustrous gems.
Everywhere there were signs of affluence and
wealth, while poverty and squalor had flown
away, nobody knew where !
In the Sarvarthasiddhi, Bajranabhl's great
Soul perceived his garland losing lustre, and
Qther unmistakable s ~ g n s of the coming transfor-
mation ; but this time he was quite unmoved by
them.... He knew that that would be his last
76
Rlf?ABHA D ~ V A
incarnation, and that he would become a WoRLD
TEACHER the Ri.sa1Jha Deva avatm·a, as the
' .
Hindus call him t His great soul was, if any-
thing, now all the more eager to enter on his
divine mission. He devoted the rest of his days,
as an ahamind1·a, i.n the holy dharma-dhya'TIIL
(religious m'editation), and the worship of the God
of gods, the Arhant, in ihe Temples appertaining
to his region. At last at the end of the six
months, the ethereal deva body was ' dispersed'
in all directions, as rapidly as it was formed; the
A ltOimindra was dead ! At that same moment
the lovely queen of Sri Nabhi Raja dreamt six-
teen wonderful dreams. She saw first of all a
white celestial elephant, making deep sounds.
She next saw a great white bull of beautiful form.
Her third dream consisted in her seeing a white
lion with red shoulders. The Goddess Laksbmi
was seen next, with two large elephants who were
performing her abhi[ielca (bathing) with golden
pitchers. Maru Devi next saw two garlands of
fragrant flowers, with black bees hovering over
them, intoxicated. with their fragrance. In the
sixth dream she saw the Full Moon surrounded
by her satellite stars. The seventh dream consist-
ed in the sight of the Rising Sun in the East, des-
troying the darkness, and rising gloriously in the
sky. In the eighth dream she saw two. golden
THE FIRST ~ O R L D TEACHER 77
vases with a large golden lotus each, on the top.
In her ninth dream she saw fishes sporting in a
lovely tank, bedecked with different kinds of
lotuses. She next saw an effulgent Lake filled
with a pale yellow fluid which shone like liquid
gold. In the eleventh dream she saw a great
Ocean agitated with waves which broke, with
gentle sounds, into small spray. She next saw
a very big Throne that was set with bright stones.
Her thirteenth dream was the sight of a heavenly
Palace ; the fourteenth, of the Residence of the
Nagendra who is the Lord of the devas of the
N aga Kumara clan; the fifteenth, a heap of
glittering Jewels, and the last a Blazing Fire that
burned smokeless and bright 1 After these she
saw one more dream which was the sight of a
large beautiful bull, resplendent like gold, enter-
ing her open mouth I
It was the morning time when the virtuous
Queen of Nabhi Raja saw the above dreams.
Soon she woke up, full of joy. She understood
ber dreams to be the herald of a great joy that
was to come into her life. Who was there in all
her great kingdom who might be ignorant of the
great Event that was going to take place1 She
performed her toilet as usual, and with a light
step and a wildly-beating heart proceeded to-
wards the ldng's apartments. She· found him
78 Rlf?ABHA DEVA
seated in the great Assembly Hall. The king
received her with affectionate esteem, and she sat
down, by his side, on the Throne. She then relat-
ed her wonderful dreams that augured such good
luck. Nabhi Raja was endowed, like all truly
pious and advanced Souls, with clairvoyance, and
she desired to hear the interpretation of her
dreams from his lips. The ministers and others
who were present at the time were filled with
wonderment and extreme joy.
'' Thy first dream, 0 goddess ! " exclaimed
Nabhi Ra.j a, '' presages the birth of an Excellent
Son, the second, that of His Seniority over all
others. That He will be strong as a lion, is im-
plied in the third dream. The garlands indicate
·that thine Son will be the Founder O!f the True
Faith. The significancy of the goddess Lakshmi
whose a b h i ~ e k a was being performed by the two
elephants is that devas will come to perform the
a b h i ~ e k a of thy Son. The full Moon foretells the
fact that the Boy will be the giver of Joy to the
world. That He will be bright like the Sun is to
be understood from the next dream. The pair
of fishes is indicative of the bliss that thy Son will
enjoy, a.nd the fact that He will be further endow-
ed with all the innumerable excellent virtues, is
clear from the dream of the big Lake which thou
sawest. The Ocea.n predicts that He will be the
THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER 79
WORLD TEACHER, and the Lord of Divine
Sovereignty. That he is coming from the heavens
to be born to thee is the. import of the heavenly
Palace which thou sawest, and :the sight of the
Palace of the Nagendra shows that He will be en-
dowed with Clairvoyance from birth. The heap
of glittering Jewels signifies that He will be pos-
sessed of all Divine attributes, while the smoke-
less conflagration that thou sawest indicates that
He will burn up all the host of karmas that hold
the soul in bondage and subject one to transmi-
gration. The additional dream that was seen by
thee indicates that Sri R i ~ a b h a Devaji has been
conceived in thine womb ! ''
Thus did Nabhi Raja who was near to burst-
jng with extreme joy, explain the mystery of the
heavenly dreams to his beloved queen. Their
companions who heard all this were much as-
tonished. All were overwhelmed with gladness
and delight.
The announcement of the good tidings was
received with acclamation throughout the length
and breadth of the royal capital. Men and women
gathered round street corners to express their
great joy, to congratulate one another, to bless
the great Queen !
All of a sudden strains of heavenly music
struC'k the ears of the delighted residents of Nabhi
·-
so
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
Raja's capital; a great rising hum of voices was
heard ; the sky itself became darkened with my-
riads of ethereal forms.! It was the deva hosts
that were coming to celebrate the Great Event.
They had come to know of the Descent into Queen
Maru Devi's Womb of the Coming WoRLD
TEACHER, and had turned out, in haste, to do
reverence to the Mother of God t
There were great celebrations in Ajudhya
that day. The splendour was such as the resi-
dents had never even dreamt of. On the Royal
Throne of Gems in the great Hall of Audience
were installed the Parents of the Lord, and were
worshipped, in all becoming ways, with full devo-
tion. The mortal world had long hankered after
Immortality, and their enthusiasm was unbound
7
ed at the prospect of the speedy arrival of Him
who was going to show them the way to Immor-
tality ! What wonder then that devas came down
to join men in the celebration of the Great Event 1
They, too, are mortals, and feel the approach
of death even more poignantly than ourselves,
because of their having so much more to lose.
Today we wonder why the devas do not come
down to see us on the earth. But whom should
they come down to see here today1 Who is supe-
rior to them in lmowledge or power or greatness
on the earth 1 Should they come down to smell
THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER , 81
the stench of the slaughter houses,· the mea.t- ·
shops, sti;nking kitchens and reeking restaurants 1
Will you have them come down to ignorant
priests, bloated self-complacent tyrants, lying
statesmen, dishonest traders, or kings and e m ~
perors who respect neither their word nor their
signatures? Devus have extremely delicate·
senses, and the stench from the world's latrines
and cess-pools must be quite nauseating to them.
No one is expected to deliberately walk into an
atmosphere reeking with filth and effluvium, ·un-
less for some good and adequate cause. The
devas do come when there is an adequate cause,
e.g., to do- reverence to a WoRLU TEACHER;
but will not enter the atmosphere of corruption
and filth otherwise I
Do ;;he devas exist ? Of course, they do. If
they did not, the world's scriptures wHl not be
filled with accounts of deva life! The Jainas,
too, cannot all be deemed to have been hoodwink-
ed throughout ages as to their existence. But
have they not invented the story to impress
others? But who could be impressed with such
a fiction if totally false 1 They seek, in the. first
instance, only their own salvation, which they
know wi1l not be attained till they confess a lie
like ,this and perform adequate penance I Let
us honestly recognize that there are many wonder-
F. 6
82 Rif?ABHA DEVA
fu1 things in the world, of most of which we are
still ignorant. The blind ant may perhaps ima-
gine that the range of life can embrace nothing
more than a few species of insects and moths, and
a few kinds of larger animals, including perhaps
man l But can we say that there can be no life
on any other planet than the earth, or that there
can be no differences of bodies, functions and
faculties in other regions of space 1 The testi-
mony of the ancients, under the circumstances,
is quite enough to settle the point, especially when
we find it strongly confirmed by the fact that the
limit placed on the number of the Tirthamkaras is
quite unexplainable otherwise than on the suppo-
sition that devas took part in celebrating thetr
kalyanakas (principal events of life), and built
an Assembly Hall for Them to preach the Noble
Truth.
CHAPTER V
BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD
t


I
q eft{: uq_ou
"'..O...C..... • c...
I
iftf U
[Tr. I shaill re'late the famiJly of Nabh1: know· thai;
he flourished in j;he country called Hima ; he begot, on
Maru Devi, Deva of bright radiance, who was
the best of Kings and the Ancestor of the Kshatriya
clan. To was born, Bharata, the eldest of n
hundred sons, and a great Hero. Prompted by the
spirit of wor!ld-fl.ight, Deva gave Hima., which
is in the south, to his son Bharata. ]-The Brahmanda
Pural}-a (Hindu), XIV. 59-61.
It was in the last part of the night of the
dark half of the second of the month o:f A
that the WoRLD TEACHER was conceived by
the illustrious Queen of the l(ulaka.ra !Nabhi Rai.
The moon was at the time tin the constellation
known as the U ttaraqadlw. In the morning the
celebrations were held, as we have already seen,.
83
84:
RI!?ABHA DEVA
Many celestial maidens came to attend on
the Mother of God, of their own accord, at the
instance of the Lord of the first Heaven. They
assisted Maru Devi in all ways, and kept her
cheerful and .br.ight. .
There is always something different in a
WORLD TEACHER to distinguish Him from
the rest of humanity. Deva's embryonic
growth was also mark.ed by many wonderful signs.
There were no signs of pregnancy apparent in the
body of the Mother ; she was cheerful and bright
all the time, and her intelligence, already keen
and penetrating, grew further with the growth
of the Divine Child in her womb. The would-be
Mother of the greatest Hero that was to be born,
.she now discarded the looking glass and began
to look at her face in the lustre of a naked sword !
In this way the days of pregnancy {nine
months and seven days) were passed. The birth
of Bhagwan Deva was marked with
many wonderful signs-the directions were clari-
fied ; a wave of peace passed over the entire uni-
verse, even the denizens of hells experiencing its
electric thrill for a passing moment; the thrones
of the Indras of heavens shook as if by the invisi-
ble agita.tion of a wireless wave !
· Again the devas joined with men in celebrat-
ing the Birth of a God. They assembled in the
BIRTH AND. CHILDHOOD 85
Roya1 Palace; fi.Uing the earth and the sky, and
uttering ceaseless cries of ' Victory.' Then
Sachi. the Queen: of the First Heaven; teok the
new-boJ!n Babe in her and ear:vied Him to
her Consort, the Indra. Together they started for
the ceremony, follawec1 by the entire
host of deva tribes and. clans. There is a v.ast
r0cky p latfGrm on. the top of Mount Meru on
whieh the ceremGny ef bathing the Gods takes
place. The· celestiaili precession soon r.eached this
rocky. platform, there performecli the divine
abhi!felca, amid' great rejoicings. They searted
the Divine Child on a Throne set with· precious
stones, and poured many pitchersful of water
from a distant ocean over His head. The little
div.ine Baby was· not affected· inj;ur.iously· by the
ceremonial bath. All those who are destined to
attain to salv.ation asre· born· in their last earthly
inca:rnation with- a: bony: :fi0rmation1 that is. possess-
ed of adamantine strength. They cannot be
cut, pierced or destroyed in any way. This is the
effect of. the· great austerities they have performed
in their previous lives I The Tirthamkaras have
also got the adamantine formation of the bony
skeleton;· and, are not affected oy. external physi-
ca.l forces or calamity.
Sachi· decorated the person of the Lord of
the Three Yv orlds with her own hands, after the
86

(ablution). Many heavenly jewels were·
put on the person of the Lord. Then the proces-
sionists returned to the Palace of Nabhi Raja.
Great celebrations followed in the Palace. The·
devas organized private theatricals, and much
excellent singing and acting were seen by tlie
mortal man that day. The Indra himself executed
a brilliant dance out of, sheer joy, to the great
delight of all. The lord of a body that instantly
obeys all impulses of the will, his dance was a
wonder in itself. He changed many forms in the
course of his movements, each one more
wonderful than the rest. Such joy, such
happiness, was unheard of In Ajudhya
before I
When the heavenly devotees were gone, some
de·vas remained behind to keep the young Lord
company. They transformed themselves into·
children, and became the playmates of
Deva, looking after Him in possible
way.
The child Tirthamkara was endowed by
birth with clairvoyance and the knowledge of all
kinds of arts and sciences. He needed no in-
struction to acquire wisdom or the knowledge of
the three R.s. All the noble virtues had their
abode, so to speak, in His being. Excrement-
urine, freces and the like-were not !formed in
BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD 87
His body ; His blood was white,* like milk, and
a delightful fragrance emanated from his person.
All the marks of Sainthood and Greatness were
present in His person. As for His disposition,
from His very childhood He had the fewest de-
sires, and was like a saintly recluse at heart. If
it were not the wish of His royal father, He would
probably have refused to enter into matrimony.
Nabhi Blaja had asked Him, saying, " 0 Lord,
Thou really art the Father of the Three V.l orlds,
for Thou art the Preceptor of all living beings; I
am Thy father merely like an accompanying
cause l Be pleased to recognize the need for the
establishment O!f the marriage sacrament, so that
humanity may not misdirect themselves in that
regard, and come to grief, through sheer inability
to follow the example of great Celibates t " Thus
addressed, R i ~ a b h a Deva gave His consent w.ith
silence, accompanied by a very sunny smile, and
the monosyllabic 'Om.'
Two accomplished and beautiful ladies, the
" The Hindu acknowledgment of the fact is to be
found in the chal1lenge of their god Siva, who set up the
fact that his own veins contained no fluid blood, ba.t
on!ly ashes against the white blood of certain Saints.
T:he justification for Siva's boast is furnished by
tapaschara'T)a (vmragya=austerities) which he aUegoric-
adlly represents, inasmuch as it signifies the burning up
of a'll kinds of desires, that is to say in other words,
the reducing of eve1·ything to ashes !
88 Rlf?ABHA DEV A
'
sisters (but according to another version, the
daughters) of the brothers Kachha and Maha-
kachha were soon found for young R i ~ ? a b h a Deva,
and He was married to them under auspicious
constellations. The constellations, indeed, are
neither lucky nor unlucky in themselves ; but
they are regarded as lucky when they become
associated with such great events as constitute the
land-marks in the life of a WORLD TEACHER! No
doubt. stars, too, have a role of their own to play
in the a;ffairs of the world ; because, like other
th[ngs, they affect and are themselves affected by
other things in nature. But Great Men must be
deemed to be an exception to the rule, as they are
above misfortune and ill luck I
CHAPTER VI
FAMILY LIFE
•ni • 1
f6

SfttUtl=&;«fl cfR: l
[Tr. In the ·)and culled Hirua of great
brilrliance was born to the Great Nabhi from Maru
Devi. To was born Bharata, the eldest of a
hundred sons, and u great hero. ]-Tlte Kurma Pural}.a
(Hindu),. IJXI, 37-38.
Srimati Devi was the senior queen
of Devaji. One night she conceived and
saw four wonderful dreams. She first of all saw
the enormous 1!Iountain Meru swallow up the
whole world ; then she saw the Sun and the Moon
and the named ; thereafter, a Lake
dotted with white swans, and last of all an Ocean
agitated with wa:Ves. These were interpreted for
her by her Husband the next day. and meant that
her son would be· the lord of the whole world, that
he.would be surrounded by the greatest glory and
lordly pomp, that he would be endowed with all
89
90 Rlf?ABHA DEVA
the, most excellent qualities and virtues, and that
he would obta.in salvation in that very life.
Yasasvati was overwhelmed with joy, on hearing
the above description of her coming son from her
illustrious Husband.
In the fullness of time a son was born to her,
on the same day as that on which Bhagwan
bha Devaji Himself was born (namely, on the
ninth of the dark half of the month of Chaitra.),
when the moon was in the constella-
tion. Ril?abha. Deva called his name Bharata.
Bharata was one of the all,aminlha-companions of
Sri Ril?abha Deva in the Super-heaven Sarvartha-
siddhi. His previous history from the time when
he was Mativa.ra, the minister of Bajraja.ngha, is
already known. But a few lives earlier he was.
one Atigridha, who ·was the king of Vatsakavati in
the East Videha of the Jambu Dvipa. I-Ie was given
to much sense-indulgence, and died with 1'aud1·a
(immersed in highly evil thoughts). He
found himself cast into the fourth hell. There
he remained for a very very long time, and then
became a lion. One day he saw the Saint Pihit-
asrava, whose sight brought back to him the
knowledge of his past. He was filled with dis-
may, and at once sobered down by the knowledge,
and resolved to desist from evil, from that.
moment. He gave up all food at once, and resolv-
FAMILY LIFE 91
ed to die in the approved wa:y. The result was
that he became a deva in the second heaven, at
the time when Lali.tanga was there, and the two
were thrown together. The friendship then form-
ed continued and grew thereafter ; for he became
in his next life, the minister of Lalitanga who was
re-born as Bajrajangha. We already lmow the
subsequent history of these great Souls, and of
some of their most intimate companions.
Bharata's li.fe may be taken as a fair illus-
tration of the rise and fall which souls experience
in the course of transmigration in the world. No
·one is privileged here ; no one can be said to be
a favourite of Dame Fortune ; no one is secure
against ill-luck and mishap. Kings literally go
to hell, while fierce animals become devas! Truly,
there is no enemy of the soul greater than
falsehood, and no friend more helpful than
Right Faith !
Deva lived for an enormous number
of He had a hundred sons from Y a.Sas-
vati. The number is actually confirmed by the
testimony of the Hindu scriptures. First after
Bharata came Sen, whom we have al-
ready met in his incarnation of Bajrajangha's
Master of Ceremonies, (the Pandit) Ananada.
He, too, was in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi.
· Dhana Mitra's so til whom we recall as the
n.)
H...o
DEVA
Financier of Bajrajangha, was the next son of
Y a8asvati and Deva. He is now called
Ananta vij aya.
The ferocious king of beasts, who was filled
with joy at the gift of food to a Jaina Saint, is
now born as a son to the WoRLD TEA.CHER.
He is younger than Anantavijaya. and his name
is Maha Sen.
The soul of the Pig is also born in the same
family, as Sri Sen (also named ... 1\.chyuta).
The Monkey's soul now becomes Vira (also,
Gu:Q.a Sen). The 1\!l:ongoose appears as Vara-
vira ; and the other friends and companions of
the previous lives EJ·f Devaji and Yasas-
vati Devi, whose histories have not l)een given
here, took birth in their family as the remaining
ninety-three sons of the TiTthamkar.a from the
senior Queen. She also gave birth to a daughter,
who was called Brahmi.
From his other wife, Sunanda, Deva
had one son and one daughter. The son was
Bahuba]i., who was none other than Akampana,
the generalissimo, of. Bajrajangha, whom we have
already met in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi.
The girl was given the name of Sundari by her
worshipful father. Bahubali was the first K.ama-
deva (Apollo) in this age. He w.as exceedingly
handsome, and possessed aU the most excellent
FAMILY LIFE
93
and qualities. In accomplishments he
was unrivalled.
As the sons and daughters grew up they
were given suitable education by their father, the
WoRLD TEA.CTIER, who knew all sciences and
arts, untaught. He wrote out the alphabet for
his daughters, and also taught them the figures.
The alphabet to be known as the Brahmi
script, after Brahmi, who was the first to learn
it. The daughters of the WoRLD TEACHER
proved very intelligent, and speedily mastered
their lessons. In due course of time they became
efficient in a.U household matters, and acquired
a knowledge of the various arts and sciences as
well as all the accomplishments that their parents
desired them to acquire. Music and singing
were naturally included in their attainments.
They also understood the Science of Religion
well ; and were so much impressed with the
transitory nature of the world, that they resolved
not to marry at all. The education of Bharata
received the greatest attention from his parents.
He was taught other things with his brothers ;
but he was especially instructed in Law and the
Science of the polity of kings by the WORLD
TEACHER. Bharata also displayed a taste ·for
dancing, and became very efficient in the art.
Among the younger brothers of Bha.rata,
94
Rif?ABHA DEVA
V r i ~ a b h a Sen excelled in music, Anantavirya, in
drama, Bahubali in medicine, archery, floricul-
ture, and the knowledge of precious gems. He
was also clever in finding out the characters of
men and women from their bodily marks.
The evolutionists are not likely to accept
these statements readily. But they have not
shown how men came to att8Jin to omniscience
when they should be chatting on the branches of
forest trees, visa-vis, with the .gorilla and the
chimpanzee, and how religion came to wear the
scientific aspect in the prehistoric antiquity of the
past I The sanest bit of advice that ca.n be given
to modernity is to unlea.rn their library-loads of
wisdom and to devote at least a couple of years
to the study of books that deal with religion as
a science. Then perhaps they will be qualified
to talk on the subject, and their opinions will not
be lachlng in weight I
CHAPTER VII
PUBLIC LIFE
cftt:


eN fiRn
.
aan=a Cf1i ifmrT u

ilfaqf;r 'Cilfiiiii: I
[Tr. son was Bharata. perform-
ed the (installlation ceremony} of Bhara.ta,
and entered sannyasa (asceticism); and, abiding in the
vanaprastha stage, the Fortunate One performed aus-
terities! The country of Rima, which is to the south,
was given to Bharata by his Father, and came there-
fore, after his name, to be known as
Bharata had a virtuous son by name Sumati ! ]-The
Pur&J.la (Hindu}, L. 39-41.
The kalpa trees of the bkogabltumi age had
by this time completely disappeared, and the
spontaneous cultivation also was not yielding
sufficient food for the growing populace.
bha Deva, therefore, taught them agriculture
(cultivation of _sugarcane and other crops) and
other useful crafts ·and arts. He laid the founda-
5
96 Rif?ABHA DEVA
tion of civic life, and taught men how to co-
operate with one another for mutual benefit. The
country was divided into provinces, these into divi-
sions and districts, and the districts, into towns
and villages. Kings a.nd chieftains were ap-
pointed to govern and to regulate the routine of
civic life. In all this R i ~ a b h a Deva was assisted
by the Lord of devas, whose advice was found
very valuable.
The occupations and crafts that were taught
to the people comprised fighting, letters, culti-
,·ation. trades, professions (such as carpentry,
goldsmith's work, and the like), and arts such as
singing, dancing and painting.
Those who fought came to be known as
Kshatriyas, the traders earned the title of
Vaisyas, the rest were at first called jagharvyaja
(small), later, avfh-a (lowest or last), and finally
Sudras. ....t\.t first Vaisyas were also called by
different names, such as a1·yya (gentle), and
varpilca (trader). There were no Brahma1)as
then; all were at liberty to pursue literature and
none were debarred from education. The Sudras
included all those who earned their living by
manual labour or handicraft, and who served the
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas. Those who took to
. wrestling were also counted among the Sudras .
. The date on. which this a.rrangement was
PUBLIC LIFE 97
made was the first of the dark half in the month
of A [fiidha, which is the commencement of the
lcarma-bh?.tmi (sweating) (creation, or or-
der of things) .
The people were now happy, and prosperity
reigned generally in the land. They were very
grateful to the WORLD TEACHER for all that
he had done for them, and never wearied of sing-
ing His praises.
Some time after this Nabhi Raja installed
Deva on the throne, and himself retired
from the active concerns of kingship. Great
celebrations again took place, in which devas
participated. .
It was some time after the installation cere-
mony that the WoRLD TEACHER laid down
the foundation of Aryan stability in the form of
varrpa-v1tavastha (the rale of the caste). Three
1Ja'l''!}as, not four, were luid down, corresponding
to what may be described as the army, the trades
and ]abour (in a comprehensive sense). The
system owed its existence to political foresight
rather than anything else. It'WaS merely a three-
fold conscription. A class was set apart for
warfare and the maintenance of order,
and external ; another, for carrying on trade ;
and the third was to prevent disruption for the
want of servants, attenda.nts, stretcher-bearers,
.... '7
98
R I ~ A B H A DEVA
and the men who knew the arts and crafts. In
times of war especially have all these three func-
tions of the society to be maintained, as was
found out by nct.ual exparience in the last Great
European vVar (of 1914-18). The rule has a
very great advantage over general conscription ;
berause, firstly. general conscription concerns
itself merely with man-power, irrespective of the
question who is to feed the armies and of labour,
without which it is impossible to do anything
practical, especially in times of stress. Secondly,
general conscription attends to the physical side
only of the problem of man-power ; it is incapahle
of training the mind, that is to say, of instilling
the rea.J military instinct in the soldier· s heart.
~
The conscription that was adopted by the
WoRLD TEACHER made a provision for the
preservation of trade and labour at the same time
as it aspired to make every soldier a hero. The
true martial spirit that is wanting in a general
conscription because of the lack of fa.mily tradi-
.
tions in the great majority of cases, is acquired
at home and early ·in childhood by the mere inci-
dent of being born in the military class. There
is none so humble in this group who may not be
able to recall some sort of glorious ancestry to
fire his imagination. Brahmal)as have really no
place in this scheme, for education was neyer a
PUBLIC LIFE
99
monopoly of any one class in the remote past,
and no one was denied literary accomplishment.
The merit 01f the is great ;
it enabled the Aryan Culture to rear its proud
head over the din and fury of wars and the crash
of empires in non-Aryan la.nds, throughout the
long ages that have rolled by. No country in the
whole world can show such long stability of in-
digenous culture as the Abode of the Aryan
race!
The downfall of Aryan Culture within recent
historical times is due to the failure on the part
of the Kshatriyas to maintain their traditions.
They were filled with arrogance, and fell fight-
ing with one another oftener than in defending
the mother-land. They lost the disposition that
would breed amity and good-fellowship, with the
result that they could not generally combine
against powerful foreign foes, and were cut up
individually. Superstition, due to chronic in-
tellectual degeneration, for which the Brahmal}as
are to be blamed whole-heartedly, as professing
to be the sole custodians of the spiritual science,
led them often to disregard the rules of good
generalship, and made them look to the disposi-
tions of the stars before marching out against a
foe! Fanatical spirit, too, had· !its part to play
in the downfall of the Aryan Empire. Generals
100 Rif?ABHA DEVA
are found constantly disregarding the rules of
military strategy ·and sacrificing away their own
and their soldiers' lives in sheer madness of impe-
tuosity. Another cause which played no mean
part in the disruption of the Aryan Empire was
the failure to benefit by experience. The foreign
invaders repeatedly gave evidence of their deter-
mination to stick at nothing, that is to say, to
make no scruples in obtaining the upperhand ;
yet were they always treated as if imbued with
the spirit of Aryan chivalry, and true military
honour I
Will the past glory of the Aryan Culture be
ever re-established in this unfortunate land 1
India may become an equal partner in the Briti 1-1h
Empire or she may even obtain complete in-
dependence, but it seems impossible to think
that we shall ever succeed in completely ridding
the country of the undesirable things and customs
and institutions that have established themselves
in our midst. No doubt, Religion is able to
accomplish miracles! If the whole world accepts
the Teaching of Truth and begins to live up to it,
the face of things will be changed at once, as if
by a magician's wand! But it is easier said than
done.
The Hindus hold that they were the .founders
·of the caste-system; but the account they
PUBLIC LIFE
101
give of it fails to explain the need for its origU:,
is mythological in its nature-Brahmal}.as ori-
ginating from the mouth of Brahma, Kshtriyas,
from his arms, Vaisyas from his belly, and the
Sudras from his thigh's-r.nd ends in making one
section of mankind eternally hate another, on
the ground of blood-inferiority. The ,Jainas. on
the contrary, recognise the basis of the system to
be grounded on occupation, but not on blood,
attribute its origin to man, and explain its need
to lie in the establishment of stable, if not an ever-
lasting, empire !
As for the origin of the BrahmaJ)a caste, it
seems to have come into existence later on under
Bharata. He one day invited the male residents
of his capital to visit him at his palace, and so
arranged things that only a small path was left
for the people to pass along, unless they chose to
go over the extensive grass plots on either side
of the way. His object was to find out those who
were the most tender-hearted among men, and
who recognized the presence of a soul even in the
lowly blade of grass. Those who would not tread
on the grass he called Brahmal}.as; because of
their knowledge of Brahman (the divinity of
life). The WoRLD TEACHER condem.l ... ed
Bharata's action in undisguised language, and
probably in the Jaina scheme of things, the
102 Rif?ABHA DEVA
Brahmal}a class had no place, as an integral
part of the caste system, till the thne of the
author of the Adi Pural}a, who seems to have
again laid some emphasis on the distinction, to
placate the Brahmanical hatred and win them
over to protect the .J ainas against bitter persecu-
tion at the hands of their co-religionists (Hindus).
The distinction of the touchable and the un-
touchable among Sudras seems to have grown
much later. It could not well have been laid
down by the WORLD TEACHER. J magination
is not comforted by the idea of a. Divine Law-
giver declaring all of a sudden that certain
sections of men who had up to that jnstant
been all as much touchable as any o.f the highest
men that could be named, should thenceforth be
deemed pa1·iahs and social outcasts 1 What seems
most likely to have happened is that after a. time,
the duration of which cannot be now fixed by any
known definite land-marks. those of the Sudras
who ·followed such professions and trades as the
sweeper's, the and the like, fell into
filthv habits as a class, and were thenceforth denied
.
social intercourse with the higher va1'7Ja8. Prob-
ably, their exclusion was originally based on econo-
mical factors rather than en any considerations of
blood-inlferiority. Those who today preach a
general levelling down of an differences at once
PUBLIC LIFE 103
forget. one thing: : that the sweeper of India is
not only a sweeper while he works as such, but
all the twenty four hours of his life. His house,
his furniture, his clothes, his surroundings, even
his person, are all a mass of filth from one end of
the year-rather from one end of life-to the
other l Before him his father was exactly like
him ; and if you go back to his past you will al-
ways find his ancestry filthy and unclea.n! It is
very desirable that these people should be treated
as human beings ; but it is not to be supposed
that the cause of cleanliness (said to be a virtue
Dnly next to godliness) can be advanced in any
way by eating food from hands that are covered
with filth or from those that suggest the associa-
tion with filth. The effect of suggestion is well-
known, so that the food that is taken from the
hands of a person whose appearance, name or
even voice is suggestive of filth and filthy sur-
roundings will act exactly as if it consiste<;l of ac-
tual filth! This is a powerful law of nature, as
everv one familiar with the theory and practice
~ '
of hypnotism and auto-suggestion knows. Let
us raise the depressed classes by all means ; but
let us not lower those who are not depressed. The
case of the European sweeper is not an instance
in point. There are i ~ Europe no such sweepers
who can boast of a filthy ancestry as the Indian
104
RI§ABHA DEVA
b·hangi can do ! There a man may do the work
otf a sweeper but he is not a by birth,
ancestry and living!
At the same time we must be on our guard
against stretching the point too far, to suffer an
exaggerated sentiment to mar the progress of an
aspiring soul, which ca.nnot but be productive of
evil result in our own case. It is not every pass-
ing thought that takes effect as a suggestion ;
isolation, intensity and persistence are necessary
for the purpose. And it is not every suggestion
even that will lead to nicl1.a (low) status in
future rebirth ; for a suggestion can always be
eradicated from the mind as easily it can be
formed. Habitual association with actual filth
will be required to produce an effect that is to
accompany the soul after death and to lead to
nicha gotra (status).
If the untouchables will change their condi-
tion and rise higher, let them get rid of their filth
and the filthy surroundings, and so arrange
matters that their appearance should no longer
be suggestive of the extreme filth that it does to-
day. It is not blood prejudice that is really
working against them, but their own unclea.nli-
ness. To what extent the acute economical prob-
lem that is facing us will admit of,their ridding
themselves oi filth, it is difficult to say ; but it is
PUBLIC LIFE 105
certain that they are not very likely to outstrip
the generality of people, about 200,000,000 of
whom do not get one full meal a day! Individual
exceptions there will aways be to this as to all
other rules.
Change of has always been permitted
within certain limits which aimed at securing
what may be termed appropriate samskaras
(mentality, impressions, impulses), and the
change of appearances and surroundings. In
J ainism varna is to be fixed for a new convert,
after a year's probation, according to his occu-
pation.
After establishing the the
WoRLD TEACHER appointed four great Ksha-
triya warriors, namely, Hari, Akampana,
Kasyap3 and Somaprabha, to rule over a
thousand chieftains each. Hari came to be known
as Harikanta, and his house as Harivansa Akam-
pana, who changed his name into Sridhara.
founded the Nathavansa. Kasyapa became the
founder of U gravansa, and was known as
Maghavava. ICururaja, the name adopted by
Somaprabha, is the starting point of Kuruvansa.
Sri Deva then appointed Kachha, Maha
Kachha and many other ICshatriya princes as
Adhirajas -(smaller chieftains) to rule over five
hundred feudat?ry chiefs each. The Adhirajas
106 Rif?ABHA DEVA
were themselves placed the 1\faha-
TaJaS.
The Ikshvaku vansa arose in this way: the
first thing that the WORLD TEACHER had
taught men, on the disappearance of the Kal7Ja
trees, was the use of the ikshurasa (cane-juice),
which earned for him the title of ' Ikshvalrn.'
Subsequently in the course of a few yea.rs the
term came to be applied to the family of Rif3abha
Deva, whence the Ikshvaku vansa. The
Wonr .. n TEACHER also earned the ·titles of
Brahma, Vidhata, and the like, which all
signify creator, because of His being the creator
of the (arrangements of the) J(m·mabh'ltmi
(sweating) civHiza.tion!
The Surya and Chandra vansas arose out
of the Ikshvaku vansa somewhat later. They
were founded by two of the grandsons of the
vVORLD TEACHER, the first-named Bharata's
son Arka Kirti, and the second, by Bahubali's son
Somakirti who was also called Mahabala.
CHAPTER VIII
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNY.ASA
'' T'hil-> man is freed from senile hands
0£ hope to rise, or fear to fall,
Lord of himself, though not of lanes;
And having nothing, yet hath all ! "
-Sir H. TF afton.
" Giving His kingdom to His son Bharatn,
entered the Va7Japrastfza Rtage; and took to austerities
. . . . His body became very feeble on account of
austerities.*
" Deva having ruled with equity and
wisdom . . . . resigned the soTereignty of the ear+h
to ·the het·oic Bhat·ata, . . . . . adopted the life of an
anchoret, practising religious penance, and performing
all prescribed ceremonies, until, emaciated by his aus-
tet·ities, so as to be left n coUection of skin and fibres,
and, naked, went the way of the ' great road '
(tR(I64111+{). "t
Great men cannot remain idle ; tihey have
.their work to do, which they have set before them,
whether in this life or in the previous one or ones!
a major portion of the life of the WORLD
* rrhe Kurma Pura:t;t.a, (Hindu), LXI. 38-39.
t See "\Vilson's Vishnu Vol. II (Book II,
Chapter I), pp. 103-104.
10i
108
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
TEACHER vvas spent, the Indra of the first
heaven came down one day with the materials for·
worship, and arranged a dance in the Assembly
Hall. One of the celestial dancers was a certain
nymph whose clock of life had only a few moments
left to run. She was called Nilanjana. Know-
ing that the time for the WoRLD TEACHER's
Great Renunciation was ripe, Indra had brought.
her with him to inflame the spirit of vairiigya
(detachment or world-flight) in the mind of the
Lord. At a. signal from the Indra, she rose to
dance, and entertained the audience with her
superb performance. She probably knew the
reason why she of all others had been asked to
dance at that particular moment, and she danced
as she had never danced before. The presence
of the WORLD TEACHER in the closing
moments of litfe filled her with courage and
contentment and joy; she knew that her end was
quite safe, and cared for nothing else. All present.
enjoyed her superb performance. All at once,
while still in the middle of a process of crazy
vigorous movements and turns, she staggered,
then reeled back, and stopped, and the next in-
stant her form ' dissolved ' and was no ' more I
Nilanaj ana was dead!
The incident filled the assembled men and
women with a sense of instability of life. They-
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 109
looked on it aghast ! The WORLD TEACHER
needed no reminder, in reality, to detach Himself
front the world. The fire that had been smoulder-
ing, in the secret, in the heart now leaped into a
flame. He made up his mind there and then to
say good bye to the world and to the good things
of the world!
Deva-sages who had been watching the pro-
ceedings from the end region of the fifth heaven,
immediately appeared to worship the WoRLD
TEACHER and to strengthen him in his resolve.
'They adored Him in suitable terms that were cal-
culated to fill the mind with serenity and a sense
of detachment from the perishable world.
The WORLD TEACHER placed Bharata
on the royal seat, and appointed Bahubali the
heir-apparent to the Thro!D.e. He gave His lands
and territory to His other sons and relations,
according to their fitness and needs, and gave
away much wealth in charity. Having done all
this, He took leave from His parents, wives and
kinsmen. The assembled devas and men then
Jlerformed His abhi$eka, and worshipped Him.
R i ~ a b h a Deva then rose and stepped into the
celestial palanquin (Sudarsana by name) which
the devas had brought for the occasion. First of
all certain human kings carried the palanquin.
_After they had gone seven steps it was carried by
110 RI:?ABHA DEVA
the kings of the Vidyadhara class from the dis-
tant Videha Kshetra; then the devas carried it
to the Siddharthaka forest, which is close to
Allahabad. In those days the boundaries of
Ajudhya and Prayag (Allahabad) were prob-
ably conterminous, as the former was something
like 96 miles long and 72 wide.
It was the ninth of the dark half of the month
of with the Moon in the Utta1·ii·
constellation when the \VoRLD TEACHER
turned His back for the last time on the world.
The palanquin was placed on a huge transparent
stone slab which had been placed there for the
occasion, and . the LoRn stepped out and took
His seat on it. It was now the evening time.
The Lord sat under a banyan tree, filled with the
spirit of voi·rii.gya (world-flight) in the sitting
yoga posture, facing the East. He saluted the Per-
fect Souls who had reached safety and ni1'vana be-
fore Him ; and full of cheerfulness and great en-
thusiasm pulled out, in five handfuls, the hairs
of His head and face. The Lord of the celestials
picked up these hairs, and placed them in a
jewelled casket. They were subsequently drop-
ped into the distant Ocean, Kshira Sagar.
After pulling out His hairs in the manner
described above, Deva proceeded to re-
move His clothes and the jewels that He wore.
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 111
He kept nothing with Him of the Worldly goods,
and became a Digambara (destitute of all vestiges
of clothes) . He discarded not only all external
burdens alone, but also as much of the internal
burdens as He could at the time. By birth He
was endowed with Clairvoyance in addition to
the usual forms of knowledge with which huma-
nity is endowed ; and He now acquired Telepathic
Perception (the power to read the innermost
thoughts of living and dead personages) , in conse-
quence of the great Renunciation.
No less than four thousand chiefs and chief-
tains followed Him on the Path ; but they merely
did so either out of the regard they had for the
"'N TEACH:ER, or through a fit of passing
enthusiasm, without really realizing what they
were doing and why.
Knowing the powers of His Great
that had been developed through many lives in
the past, the WoRLD TEACHER became im-
mersed in Holy meditation, resolving not to
break His fast before the end of six months. He
stood in the standing yoga posture, immovable
like a rock. tranquil and undisturbed all the time I
Humanity in that far distant age all attain-
ed to giant stature, and the Lord looked like an
immovable Mountain as He stood ·absorbed in
holy meditation.
112
Rif?ABHA DEVA
The four thousand followers of the Lord
whose hearts were not illumined with knowledge
or faith, soon began to feel uneasy. They tried to
restrain themselves as long as they could ; but
were unable to sta.nd there doing nothing, and
were overpowered by hunger and thirst. They
left the place, one after another, and dispersed
in the forest, their ·fear of the men's ridicule and
of Bharata's displeasure preventing them from
appearing again in the world. Many of them put
on aprons nnd loin-strips made of bark and
leaves, and lived in the forests, each following
his own fancy for becoming like the \VonLn
TEACHER.
It would be wrong to suppose that there was
no real. difference between the tapasclta?'a?Ja of
the WORLD TEACHER and of those who had
merely taken to it in imitation of Him. The
greatest difference between them lay in regard to
the sense of freedom which stirred the WORLD
TEACHER and filled Him with indescribable in-
ward joy. The others had not given up the
world of their own accord, and did not experience
the Joy of Freedom, but sadness and sorrow at
tlieir ·_destitution! The result was that while the
WoRLD TEACHER enjoyed inner happiness all
the time, His imitators were merely regretting
the ' foolish ' step they had taken!
::-I
r-:
-------
. _ ~ T A T U E 01!' MAHAVIRA IN ONE OF THE
' '
TEMPLES AT AnRAH
'
WORLD-FLIGHT AND 113
There was amongst those who, inspired by
the example mf the \VORLD TEACHER, had
taken to sannyiisa with Him· one Marichi, who
was one of the sons of Bharata. He was a great
soul, who ultimately became the last Tirthamkara,
Mahavira ; but at the time he was quite unable
to understand and re'alize the Truth, and failed
to· withstand the affliction of hunger and thirst
that assailed· him. He fell· from· the high position
that he aspired to attain, became a wandering
mendicant, preaching aU sorts of silly sense-
less· in consequence of which he had to
1·eincarnate even in hells many times, a few incar-
nations later·.
The WoRLD TEA.CHER's · . tapasckana'lfa
was a wonderjul sight for all who saw it. . People
did not understand the wllly and the whm·ejo1·e of
the process :at the time ; but they were struck with
the amazing steadiness of that dhyana (medita-
tion) which nothing could disturb. Once there
was some disturbance. Two impetuous youngsters·.
the· sons of Kachha and Maha Kachha, sought
Him with a view to obtain some boons from Him·;
They had got nothing at the when the
WoRLD TEACHER had partitioned His. terri-
tory amongst His sons and kinsmen, and. felt '
that they had a claim on Him, because· of their
aunts who were wives. came, determin-
F. 8
114 RI!?ABHA DEVA
ed not to leave Him without getting a boon from
Him. They caught hold of His legs, and began
to pester Him with their verbal petitions for gifts.
That day the ruler of the devas of the Under-
world (Patala) was sitting !in his Palace when he
felt his throne shake and quiver. With his clair-
voyant vision he scanned the worlds to see what
was happening in the universe that might account
for the incident. He thus discovered the cause of
the disturbance of the 'VORLD TEACHER, and
flew at once to the Siddharthaka forest to see if
he could do anything to remove the element of
disturbance.
The youngsters were still pressing their claims
on their Uncle-in-law, when another devotee ap-
peared on the scene in humble form. The new-
comer worshipped the Lord in a suitable way.
and offered Him adoration from his heart. He
then turned to the young men, asking them not
to molest the Divine Yogi ; but they in effect told
him to mind his. own business, though they used
much flowery style and charming expression.
F!inding them obdurate, the new-comer now as-
sumed his deva-form, and took them with him to
the Mount Vijyardha, in a distant continent,
where he established two kingdoms for them
among the Vidyadhara residents of that place.
He then left for his own place in the Patala-loka.
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 115
The son of Kachha, who was known as N ami,
thus became the king of fifty prov.inces, and Vi-
nami, Maha I(achha's son, of sixty. They were
also instructed in certain mysterious arts by the
deva, and acquired certain strange faculties and
powers.
In this manner did the WoRLD TEACHER
continue with His meditation for the space of six:
months. He then set out to seek some kind of
nourishment. But at that time no one knew what
to give to the Divine Saint, and how.
The WoRLD TEACHER passed through many
villages and towns, but no one was able to
offer Him food in the way in which it could be
accepted. Wherever He went people brought
cash, precious stones, water to bathe, and even
offered to give Him. lands, but He did not w a ~ t
any of these things. Some did bring food to Him
also ; but it was not prepared and offered in the
proper way, and could not be accepted.
Six months more passed away like this,
through which no food or water. was taken by the
Lord. But it was a mere incident for Him ; He
was not disturbed by it in the least. Even ordi-
nary saints are expected to remain unaffected by
the non-obtainment of food. If death occur for
want of nourishment, it will be only an inoident,
and no more ! He who has put his hand to the
116 Rif?ABHA DEVA
plough must, on no account, look back. If the
sa.int die under the circumstances, unmoved and
unaffected by the wa.nt of food, it is a positive
gain ; if he yield to the impulse of hunger, or die
grumbling and cursing his hard luck, it is a
' fall ' !
Deva was absolutely unmindful of the
pangs of hunger, and never once bestowed a
thought on the subject. He moved about still
occupying Himself with Self-contemplation, and
paying no heed to the physical needs.
Only once in the morning when people take,
their breakfast would He visit the habitations of
men, and spend the rest of the time in holy medi-
tation. Even in the morning He would merely pass
through towns and villages without uttering a
word and without asking for food from any one.
In this way He reached the city orf Hastinaput
where lived king Soma Prabha with his younger
brother, Sreyansa. The latter had seen during
the preceding night, towards the early hours of
the morning, several dreams. In the
morning, when he got up he found himself stili
thinking of them, and asked for their interpreta-
tion from his brother to whom he related them all.
" Tl1ey signify," said the court Pandit who
happened to be present at the time and who heard
them all, " they signify the arrival of great gooi
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 117
luck to your royal house. Some great Soul should
~ o r n e to you this day. "
Only a few hours after this the WoRLU
TEACHER entered Hastinapur, and proceeded
towards the royal palace. Sreyansa saw Him
coming from a distance, and ran out to do obeis-
ance to Him, accompanied by his brother and
others. The sight of the Lord agitated him great-
ly ; there was a rush of some powerful emotion ;
an internal commotion possessed him for the
moment. The next instant Sreyansa lmew ·him-
self. He recalled how Bajrajangha ha:d given the
gift of food to two holy saints in a forest one day,
and how he was there, by the side of Bajrajangha l
It was an old affair ; several times since he had
re-incarnated in different forms ; still the memory
came back with a rush, vivid and clear-at first
Svayam Prabha, then Srimati, and now Sreyans1 !
All these were but three phases, or complexions, of
one and the same soul ! Who said that the lot of
woman in J ainism was hopeless 1 Sreyansa knew
it to be otherwise !
Full of affectionate devotion. Srevansa now
..
proceeded to offer the refreshing juice of the
sugarcane to the WoRLD TEACHER, in the approv-
ed way, which he now recollected fully. · There
are many kinds of gifts which people make to one
another ; but of all of them the gift of food to a
118
DEVA
true saint is the most meritorious, and as the Tir-
thamkara is the greatest of all saints, the giving
of food to him with a pure hea.rt that is illumined
with the light of Jnana (knowledge divine) and
filled with reverence and devotion for the Ideal is
the most meritorious of all. The devas witnessed
the sight from the upper air, and rained down
fragrant water, heavenly flowers and small gems
on the assembly. They uttered loud shouts of
'' victory ! victory " and beat the heavenly
drums!
We have already seen the effect of the gift of
food to two J aina Saints in the case of four animal
souls, namely, the Lion, the Pig, the Monkey and
the Mongoose, who reached a blwgabhum,i there-
by ! Of course, merit does not lie in the articles
that are given ; for they might be worth a couple
of farthings and no more, as must have been .the
actual market-value of the sugar-cane juice that
the WORLD TEACHER consumed! It lies in
the purity of thoughts-the recognition of the
recipient as the true Guide, of his dharma as the
true Path, of his example, as the true
(Conduct or Life )-and the enthusiasm and delight
which the act of giving is accompanied.
There is bltogabltumi in the gift only when the
giver looks upon it as his greatest good luck to be
able to serve those in whose footsteps he himself
WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 119
has a longing to There will be no merit
in it if it only amount to the throwing o:f a morsel
to a beggar or a ' dog.' Those who do not give
the food themselves but who rejoice in the act of
giving by another, and entertain the same noble
thoughts which :fill his mind, also attain to the
happiness of a blwgabhumi; for it is only a ques-
tion of the purity of thoughts and feelings. This
is the reason why the de'Vas come rejoicing on such
occasions, when food is offered to some great
Saint or a WoRLD TEACHER.
Deva strolled away again into the
forests after the partaking of the (the
cane j nice). All assembled praised Sreyansa
for his keen .intelligence in finding out what was
to be done on such an occasion and in succeeding
where others had failed. Even Bharata came
down from Ajudhya to congratulate him. To
them Sreyansn related his previous history ::tnt:l
that of the WoRLD TEACHER. They were all
filled with wonder, and understood the reality of
Life-surely, ' dust thou art to dust returnest,
was never said of the soul ! '
. People now understood the manner in which
food should be offered to a Saint. From this time
onward there was no difficulty felt in this regard
by men, when offering food to the WoRLD
TEACHER. The· food-whatever it be-should
120 R I ~ A B H A DEVA
be pure in regard to its materials, pure in regard
to its preparation, and pure in regard to the
actual giving; it should be free from himsii (of-
fence or injury to a moving living being), and
should be given with reverence and respect and
in a manner which does not imply the recipient's
lowering himself in the least degree. For saints
will rather starve than take anything when the
procuring_, the preparing and the giving of it
will lower them. in their own estimation, in the
least degree, or expose them to ridicule or con-
ten\.pt.
It was the third of the bright half in the
month of Baisakh when the WORLD TEACHER
broke I·Iis fast at Hastinapur. That day the
royal kitchen could have fed the whole humanity,
because food became inexhaustible miraculously,
through the merit of the "'\VORLP TEACHER'S
presence. The event is still commemorated on
the dat'e mentioned, which is known as the A kha11a
(inexhaustible) Ti1a fthirrl) I
CHAPTER IX
OMNISCIENCE
"' Wisdom guarded to the end the first-formed Father
'Of the world that was created alone, and delivered him
out of his own transg·ressions, and gave him strength
:f:.o get dominion over all things."-II Eco;dras (.T ewislt
Apocrypha) Chapter X.
" }i'or as the lightning c.omet.h out of the east,
and shineth eYen unto the west; so sha:ll also the com-
ing of the son of man be. "-Matthew :x.xh. 27.
The fourth [(alyiinaka in the life of a Tir-
thamkara is the attainment of Full ... t\..11-embracing
Knowledge, in other words, of Omniscience, by
the destruction of the forces that keep it from
blazing forth. There are four kinds of karmas
termed ghiitiya (inimical or obstructive) which
are responsible for the loss of this great and divine
attribute in our case. They are known as know-
ledge-obstructing, perception-obstructing, sereni-
ty-obstructing (i.e., deluding) and power-obstruct-
ing energies of karmas. These inimical forces
come into being by the fusion of spirit and ~ a . t t e r ,
which is continually taking place in the case of the
unemancipated soul, and are reinforced from
121
122 RI!i!ABHA DEVA
moment to moment, so long as it is not character-
ized by Right Faith, Right l{nowledge and Right
Conduct. Right Faith is acquired only when the
en,ergies of fanaticism, and of the worst forms of
the four principal passions, namely, of anger,
pride, deceit and greed are destroyed. No one
who is filled with fanatical spirit, or is agitated by
the most malignant form of the passions named,
will ever be induced to listen to reason, or to study
Religion in the spirit of sobriety and rationality.
Therefore, these five kinds of forces have to be
destroyed, or subdued, to acquire Right Faith.
The seeker has also to rid himself of the tendency
to compromise between fiction and fact (mixed
truth and falsehood) and of his superstitions, to
be able to take a truly rational view of things.
These seven kinds of km·mic energies gone, he is
qualified to acquire the Right Faith.' Right
Knowledge is really presupposed in Right
Faith, since belief (faith) follows knowledge. But
it does not arise before the acquisition of Right
Faith, inasmuch as it is only knowledge free from
error, doubt. and ignorance that is termed Right
Knowledge, so that before that staae !is reached
• 0
knowledge is merely tantamount to information.
It becomes Right Knowledge as soon as the seal
of belief is placed on it, eliminating the elements:
of agnosticism and doubt.
OMNISCIENCE 123
Right Faith and Right Knowledge being ac-
quired, a beginning has to be made in respect of
Right Conduct sooner or later, for without action
nothing can be accomplished. The forces that
stand in the way of progress on the path now are
the lesser degrees of passions which are neverthe-
less still very powerful, and the energies that
interfere with perfect serenity of mind. These
can only be destroyed by one's turning the back,
on, that is, renouncing the world in the
!fullest sense of the term. Tapasckara?Ja signifies
the determination to have absolutely nothing to do
with the good things of the world, that is to say,
to refuse absolutely to be swayed by its tempta-
tions. If death intervene before success is attain-
ed, it does not matter a bit. The merit acquired
is carried over by the immortal soul, and is so
t
much actual gain, for the future.
R i ~ a b h a Devaji brought much accumulated
merit of ta11asckara?Ja with Him from His previ-
ous lives. His Soul's inner forces were developed
to such an extent that He possessed the most
indomitable will, against which calamity and
trouble knocked their heads in vain. He was even
able to live without food and water for the whole
period that He remmned immersed in holy medita-
tion, and for six months more thereafter
when no one knew how to offer Him food proper-
124 Rlf?ABHA DEVA
ly. Death had itself received a death-blow ,from
His hand ; and starvation could only release Him
for ever from the tyranny of the flesh, if it could
destroy His body I
Fea.rless, self-centred, self-controlled, the
VvoRLD TEACHER moved about for a long
period of time, engaged in holy meditation. He
performed the severest austerities and tapas-
cltn1'mw. to eradicate his and therebv to
. .
separate His Soul from matter. According to tra-
dition. He spent altogether 999* years 11 months
and 2 days in performing the kanna-destroying
austerities. At His tnpal:clut7·nnrt. bore the
desired fruit ; on the eleventh of the first, that is
to say, the dark, half of the month of Phala.guna
in the Uitara!?ad11a Nakslwt1·a (constellation)
Great long·ev'ity beems to haYe been associated
with huge stature of humanity in the remote past. The
following item of news recently in the
(Indian) Statesman in its issue of the 16th October, 1929
Is not unlikely to prove interesting, on fuiler investiga-
tion, in regard to the ai'legecl falmlous ages and heights
attained by men in the remotest past : " It is claimed
that a highly important nnthropologicn:l disco,•ery has
been made on the I Jimpopo bv an Italian scientific
expedition whirh has nnived at This discovery
consist-; of nn imprint in st.one of an enormous human
foot, indicating a type of prehistoric man of which no
trace has hitherto been found. Professor Cipriani, of
Florence Universit'###BOT_TEXT###quot;', wl1o was in charge of the expedi-
tion, is convinced that the foot-print da.tes back hundreds
of. of .rears, and is undoubtedly the most
pnmit1ve In ex1stence."
OMNISCIENCE
125
the veil of the Temple of Divinity was destroyed
completely, and the Effulgence of Knowledge
Divine, that is, full, all-embra.cing OMNi-
SCIENCE, which like lightning, shines in one
part but reveals the whole universe, flooded His
Consciousness from within ! He was then sitting
under a banvun tree in the Sakata forest close t ~
"
the town of Purimatala.
The details of the tapascha1'a"fa need not
detain us here. But such an event as the acquisi-
tion of omniscience was not likely to remain un-
observed. The devas perceived it from the speci-
fic signs which accompany it in their regions, and
flocked to worship the WORLD TEACHER, now
become really qualified to teach and preach the
Truth. Under instructions from the Lord of the
first heaven, a heavenly Pavilion was erected for
the Lord's Preaching, by celestial artisans. The
\VoRLD TEACHER sat in this Pavilion, above a .
huge golden lotus, placed on a throne of heavenly
gems, but so as not to touch it, sitting about
a couple of inches above the lotus in the
air. Here did the devas and men who learnt of
the Illumination of the Lord flock together to
worship the SouRcE of LIFE and LIGHT!
CHAPTER X
THE SAMAV ASARIA.NA
"For a whole year he stood erect. The Gods said
11nto him, V\Thy standest thou, 0 V ratya P He answered
and said, Let them bring my couch. They brought the
.couch for that V 1·atya . . . . The V ratya ascended the
couch. The hosts of Gods were his attendants, solemn
vows his messengers, and all creatures his worshippers
...... Athal'Va Veda, Chapter XV.
The descr·iption of the heavenly Pavilion
erected by the devas for the WoRLD TEACHER's
preaching is beyond words. It was the work of
devas, and excelled everything that the human
"* Griffith has the fol'lowing note on the legend in
his translation of the Atharva Veda {see p. 199, Vol.
II):-
" It is hard to understand, and I do not attempt to
explain, the ideaHzation and the grotesquely ex.t1·a.vagant
glorification of the V ratya or hereticail nomad who
appears at one time to be a supernormal Being endowed
with the attributes of aN-pervading Deity, and at
-another as a human wanderer in need of food and
,
But the story iits, most l1eautifullly, into the frame-
work of the Life of Deva, who was, undoubtedly,
oD!ly a human wanderer at first, and who bec[Ulle, in
consequence of tbe observance of the vratas (vows), nn
alq-knowing (metaphorically, aU-"Pervading) God, and
was then attended upon by devas (gods} and worshippFd
by all creatures.
126
Trn·; ' Coucu ' (s.uuvASARANA) OF MAH-\. VRATYA (FROli A
PAIN'l'ING IN TilE DIG ,J.UNA T.mrPJ,E AT 8F.ONI)
THE SA'MA VASARANA
12.
eye had ever beheld in- the world! It stood
above ground, circular in form, with a diameter,
of 12 yojanas (a small yojana is equal to 8 miles,
and a big one to 4-000 miles). There was first .:>f
all a row of gold pillars surmounted with cro-
codiles' heads, which held strings of dazzling
white pearls in their mouths. Pretty festoons of
pearl-strings hung from these golden pillars and
produced an extremely pleasing effect. Then came
.a wide border made with crushed gems of different
colours, which glistened in the sun, producing
rainbow effects all round. There were four
wide roads, one in each direction, which, crossing
the border of crushed gems, led into the centre.
After the border of gems, on each side, w a ~
raised a huge column, called Manasthamba
(literally, pride pillar), the sight otf which
sufficed to lower the pride of the greatest
of mortals, so lotfty, so elegant and so
-costly was it in construction. Each of these
columns stood on a raised platform of gold which
was reached by a flight of sixteen steps. On their
tops were fixed banners and flags that fluttered in
the breeze, ana festoons of pearls and precious
beads were, suspended from them. The platform
itself was surrounded by three enclosures made
of precious metals, with doors in every direction.
Four beautiful lakes, filled with crystal water,
128
DEVA
surrounded each enclosure on the four sides.
Beyond the lakes was a moat that encircled the
entire area. It was filled with clear water, and
studded with lovely lotuses. On the other side
of the moat, which was crossed by the four roads,
was a forest, exhibiting a mountainous scenic
effect. This was dotted with wooded bowers
and raised platforms in the midst of clear spaces.
Bordering the forest was a wall, made of pure
gold, and set with precious stones, which was
decorated with paintings of animals and female
figures. There were four big gates in this wall,
one in each direction, which were decorated with
costly festoons of pearls and precious beads.
\Vithin the gates there was a theatre on either side
of the road wl1ere devas and deva-ladies reproduc-
ed scenes from the previous lives of the V-l ORLD
TEACHER. As you proceeded further along
the road you came to the place where two huge
vases were placed on the two sides. of the way,
filled with fragrant incense, whose smoke rose,
in thick columns, to the sky. From this place
wooded avcnneR of the loveliest asoka (jones-ia
asoca), clw7npa/ca. (micheUa cha7npaca), mango·
and sazJtapm·1}a* trees led townrds the Hall of the
:r The is a ldnd of tree whoso leaves
l'auge themselvs in clusters of seven, ''hence its nmne,
from sa]Jta, seven nnd pa1'1)a, leaves.

I 'i-
, ...
r

THE SAMAVASARANA
129
Grand Assembly. In the centre of each of these
avenues was a peethikii (platform with an en-
closure-like construction) on whioh stood its
specific tree. There were four Statues of the
worshipful Arhant on each which
attracted devas and men by their supreme lustre,
and which the visitors worshipped with devotion.
Towards the end of the wood, on its four sides,
were four raised platforms on which devas were
engaged in producing excellent music. The doors
of the enclosures of these platforms were of pure
·silver, the walls being made from pure gold. On
emerging from the wood the traveller
across a row of fluttering banners which floated
from golden staffs. They bore ten kinds of
marks, namely, a garland, a ·piece of cloth, a
peacock, the lotus flower, a swan, an a
lion, a bull, an elephant and the discus. There
were 108 flags O!f each specific
1
mark in .each
direction, totalling 1080 of all kinds .on each side,
and 4320 in all the four directions. Behind the
r
row of flags, at a suitable distance was a wall
made from pure silver, which had a silve,r gate
in every direction. This was like the first rampart
in all respects, and also had a theatre on each side
of the gate way, on the inside. At a little distance.
from the theatres were again-•·--pla:ced
Incense Pitchers that filled the aimosphere
F,9
130
Rif?ABHA DEVA
fragrance. Beyond the Incense Pitchers, the
road passed through a forest of kalpa trees of
unsurpassed loveliness. Ten kinds of heavenly
trees were scattered about in the wood in elegant
confusion, and from their decorations and illu-
mination, produced a fairy scene of exquisite
loveliness. The light-trees in themselves produc-
ed the most enchanting scenic effect, surpassing
all that the human imagination is able to conceive
in the shape of fine displays of illumination and
fireworks. Statues of the Holy Tirthamkaras
were !installed on platforms of gold, under trees
of bewitching beauty, in the centre, in suitable
places on all the four sides. Wa.Ils of gold form-
ed the enclosures of the wooded tract.
Bordering the Wood was a row of houses
made from precious metals and stones ; and be-
yond the habitations arose a line of nine stupas,
which were made of saplLatilc mani (white gem)
and had gates of ruby-red gem. Beyond the wall
was open space, one, yojana by one yojana (a
yojana= 8 miles usually), which was set apart
for the Grand Assembly. The ground of the en-
t i r ~ enclosure was composed of blue sapphire,
and looked extremely pretty. In the centre of
this open space was erected a . Sabhii Mandap
(pavilion) on golden pillars. The top of this
inq,ndap -was of the purest. transparent
THE SAMA V' AS ARANA 131
gem; and it was divided into twelve com-
partments or halls, by means of walls of
gold. The Throne was placed in the mid-
dle, on a raised platform, which rose up in three
terraces of gold, set with precious stones.
On the topmost terrace of this platform was
erected a gandkakuti (bower) that attracted
every eye by the loveliness of it-9· design. Exqui-
site !fragrance from lovely censers in which
burned heavenly incense, emanating from it, fill-
ed the atmosphere. In the gandltakuti was plac-
ed the Throne of God, that was of the finest design
and made with the· costliest of gems. Th:e
WoRLD TEACHER eat on this with-
out touching it-about two inches above it. His
face shone radiant like a. thousand suns, shin-
ing in one place. Sixty .. four Indras (Heavenly
Kings) stood iu attendance on Him, waving
ckamaras. Around Him sat the ya'f}adharas
{Apostles) and Saints in first liall, one class
of de'Da ladies• in tlie second haJll, nuns and
women in general in tlre third' hall, three other
classes of devct ladies· in the· next three halls·,
separately, the four(f classes of devas in the next
«' The four cl'asses of devo.s are: (1) the
of heavens, (2)' the dwellers in the suns and moons an'd
the stars, termed ;yoti$i (the (3} the vya'7itaro:s
who loiter abou-t; and live· in secluded' p'laces in
world, and those who' reside· in tb:e· 1lower region (the
132
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
four halls, separately, men in the eleventh hall
and animals in the last one.
Among the wonderful· acquisitions of the
Tirthamkara, which are obtained as the result of
the destruction of the lcarmic energies that stand
in the way of manifestation of the Divinity
of the soul, may be mentioned the following :
They are able to conquer gravitation and possess
the power of Ieviitation ; They live without food
and water; Their eyelids are never closed; shadow .
is not cast by Their bodies; and Their hairs and
nails do not grow ' any more. They are not
liable to be assailed by trouble or distress in any
form. ; and ' peace and plenty ' preva.il wherever
They go! Naturally-hostile animals become as
friends in Their presence ; ferocious natures are
tamed! Flowers and fruits appear out of season
wherever They go! '\Vhen seated in the Sam.a'DO.-
sa?'ana, a Tirthamkara a.ppears to be looking i.n
all the four directions, though He only sits facing
the East. The speech of the Lord is like the
roar of many waters, and is distinctly heard by
every one present. It is. produced independently
patala loka), the uppermost story of the topmost heltl.
Some of tl1e 'VYf!ntaraa and ,the residents of the piitala
loka are seen by men. Some . of them are
and V1c1ous, and at times not averse fu enjoying
a• JOke at. the ·}Ilan, which might account for
.the gen,mne k1n;d of. sp1ntuo.listie phenomena.
THE SAMAVASARANA 133
of the movements of the glottis, and is for tliat
reason termed anakshari (without letters). The
Apostles arrange the teaching of the Truth under
twelve main heads (angas), and it is termed
Sruti or Sruta J 'Tliina, because of its having been
heard (from the TEACHER).
The devas. too, contribute their quota to the
glory of the Tirthamkara. They claDify the
directions for a considerable distance all rouna.,
making the ground look like a polished surface,
devoid of thorns. They also translate the
atnaksll,ari Speech of the God into different
tongues, and place golden lotuses under His feet
when He walks, raining flowers and fragrant
water all the time ! The cries of '' jaya,
jaya" (victory, victory) are also raised by
the · d e v a s ~ men joining them in swelling the
diapason.
All this, no doubt, reads like a romance, but
as stated above the Tirtltam.karas are not ordi-
nary beings ; nor are Their devotees all helpless
and powerless like man. But for the glories
appertaining to the Divine status of these Holy
Ones They would. not have been acknowledged
in other religions, as They have been! The
Hindu Atharva Veda has already been cited to
show that devas attended upon and furnished a
"'seat'· to a 'great Vratya (Jina=Conqueror),
134
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
who is none other than R z i ~ a b b a Deva. the first
WoRLD TEACHER, presumably.
The word samavasarana is derived from
sama, meaning general, that is common, or. a
dispassionate state, and avasa1·a, signifying
opportunity, and meant the place where all have
a common opportunity of acquiring the Wisdom
Divine, or, in the alternative, where souls get
the opportunity to attain to dispassion.
The WoRLD TEACHER sat in Padmiisana
(a sitting posture), with His hands placed, one
on the top of the other, in his lap, in the attitude
of complete relaxation and rest, indicating that
He had now nothing more left to sweat for! He
was truly what is termed k1·ita-k1·it11a (one who
has nothing further left to accomplish) !
Bharata, hearing the good tidings of tiie
attainment by his Divine Father of Self-realiza-
tion, came to worship Him. With reverence and
affection and enthusiasm he offered adoration to
the Master, and sang His praises for a long time.
He then took his seat in the Men's Hall, and
asked to be enlightened on the Spiritual Science
by the WoRLD TEACHER. whQ then began His
Discourse.
The ·Discourse Divine was like a shower of
.amrita (ambrosia), so tranquillizing, so cooling.
so satisfying was it to all! The voice of the
THE SAMAVASARANA
135
Lord could be heard distinctly all round, and it
was also' being rendered into different spoken
tongues by the devas, in different parts of the
Great Hall.
The Lord's Discourse described the mysteries
of the world in plain terms. It dealt with the
nature of the existing substances and their attri-
butes ; and showed how different properties came
into existence when substances· got intermingled.
Amongst the substances the most important are
Spirit and Matter, whose fusion is the cause of
all the misery that there exists in the world. The
Lord described the true tattvas (essentials of
knowledge), and gave a detailed description
of .the entire subject of bondage and release of
the souls. The knowledge imparted, constitutes
what is lmown as S1-uta Jnana, and
all the eleven angas and the fourteen purvas of
the Science of Salvation, as Religion may be
termed. Every one understood what the
WoRLD TEACHER said; no one was mysti-
fied ; no one misled I Tirtham.karas do ·not in ..
dulge !in metaphor and parable, and never· resort
to allegory, to hide the import of a doctrine.
Those who were present were filled. Their
questions were answered there and then, in the
un-akshari speeCh which · has been described
above. Every one understood what was said in
136.
R I ~ A B H A DEVA
answeri.D.g his question. As a m·atter of fact, the
Presence of the Teacher in itself furnished an
answer to a good many questions of the assembl-
age. He was Religion personified in Himselfl
He was also the embodiment of Faith, Knowledge
and Conduct-of the Way, the Truth and the Life,
as some have said! One had simply to see Him
to understand what Salvation meant. His
illimitable Know ledge was reflected to a certain
extent iii the Halo of Glory which surrounded
Him and which depicted the past seven lives of all
living beings l To see Him was to see God, to
hear Him was to be filled with heavenly joy 1
The Lord's Discourse, which is gathered up
by the Chief Disciples, comprises twelve a'T}gas
(departments), and is generally represented by a
tree with twelve branches. It is this Tree of
Wisdom Divine which is the real friend of the
seeker aJfter release from the pain and misery of
embodied life; and it is not a mere coincidence
that we read in the Bible : '' In the midst . . . of
it ·. . ~ ·was there the tree of life, which bare
twelve manner of fruits ... and the leaves of
the tree were for the healing of the nations."
What this means becomes clear with reference to
another ·part of the Bible itself {Proverbs, iii,
13-18): "Happy is the man that findeth wis-
dom; .... Her ways are ways of pleasantness,
1':J:m TREE WIIOSE LEAVES ARE FOR 'rHE HEALING OF NA'.riONS
THE SAMAVASARANA 137
and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of
life to them that lay hold upon her."
Immediately ad:ter the divine preaching,
·many men and women determined to fol-
low the Lord on the Path. The fore-
most among them was Sen, one of the
-younger brothers of the Emperor Bharata. He
was the same who was the favourite pandit af
·the WoRLD TEACHER in His Bajrajangha·s
incarnation. He became the first Apostle of the
God. Soma Prabha and Sreyansa, at whose
Palace the WoRLD TEACHER ·had broken His
first fast likewise became two of the. Apostles.
l3rahmi, the elder daughter of the WORLD
TEAICHER, became the first female saint.
·sundari, the second daughter of the Lord, also·
·renounced the world, and joined the sisterhood
of Nuns. A man by name Srutakirti became
the first Householder, and a pious lady, by nama
Priyavarta, became the first lay female follower
of the Lord. Another 01f Bharata's brothers,
name was Anantavirya, at once became a monk ..
He was the first to obtain nirva'l)a in this half-
·cycle of time. We have met him ere this already
and know his life-story from the Lion's incar-
nation I Many others joined the Sangha (Commu-
·nity of the Pious), all desirous of attaining release
:from perpetual slavery. to Death, and bad luck.
138
DEVA
The four thousand chiefs and chieftains who·
had renounced the world with Deva and
who had slunk away from tapaschara7JD- now
came · back . to Him and entered the Sa'Tbg ha_
Marichi, however, kept a;way, and set himself up
sepa.rately as a teacher.
Mter .the departure of Bharata, the Indra
of the first Hea:ven stood up to chant the praises
of the Lord. He composed an adoratipn in
which he described the Holy One by one thousand
and eight auspicious names.
The devas, then, supplicated the WoRLD
TEACHER, tlirough their Leader, in t!he follow-
ing words :-" 0 ·Ma.Ster Divine, 0 Preserver of
_ Souls, 0 Protector of Life, 0 Giver of Joy to all
·Living Beings ! the .bha'Dyas (those who possess.
the realizable potentiality of divinity in their
nature) in other parts of the world are in need
.of Thine D.iscourse Divine. Tliey are like parch-
ed crops; 'which wither without rain and are
l'evived by it-! · Do. Thou now proceed to enlighten
them! ''
'A· procession was at once,· the Lord'
proceeding on His Divine mission, surrounded. by
devas and men, in the midst of great en-
thusiasm and heavenly pomp, which the resi-
brought togetlier to glorify the
V.l ORLD TEACHER.
STATUE oF :M.\.llAVIRA IN STANDING PosTURE
: .. :--··
C'm.oss'(;s oF B.urun.u.z AT Snu 'Y.\X.\ •. \
!.. ..
CHAPTER XI
BAHUBALI
5ftt:r'f1 tU'&q);qf 'if 1 I
q-a: (ft. tJ(I': '
• 0\! Fa
q'f II
mt:
['fr. From Maru Devi was bo:rn To
was born Bhareta; endowed with Lakshmi,
attained to Divinity (Nill'11a'f}a) at Shaligram l
From Bharata came Bharatvarf?a and Sumati; en-
dowed with Lakshmi (Excellence) Bharata attained to-
Divinity at Shaligram !]-The Agneya (Hindu),
CVIII. -11-12.
Three great events had occurred simul-
taneously in the life of Bharata before his_ depar-
ture. to worship the WORLD TEACHER, ' as
described in the last chapter. Each of them was
pregnant with momentous import, and the har-
. .
binger of unparalleled joy. One of them was the-
attainment to Full Knowledge by His Divine
Father, the WoRr .. n TEACHER; the second was the
appearance in his arsenal of the ·heavenly wea.po11,
189
140
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
the irresistible chak'ra (discus), and the third
was the birth of a son to himself I He was literal-
ly overwhelmed with joy on bearing the news,
and did not know at first which event to cele-
brate before the others. He, however, at once
decided to proceed to the Lord's Samavasarana,
to Worship the Divinity Incarnate, ·as the wor-
ship of God was the source of all good in the
world. Today we shall be told that by the birth
of a son as well as by the death of a member of
.
his family a mah becomes impure and disquali-
fied to worship God for a certain number of days,
even when the event occur at a great distance or
in foreign land. Bharata did not stop to trouble
himself about such matters. Perhaps the injunc-
tions were unlmown in his time. Certainly,
the Worshipping of the Deva of devas (God of
gods) would appear to be the harbinger of all
good luck and auspiciousness, and not likely to be
forbidden on any occasion. The reason of the
prohibition against visiting a public place of
worship under the aforesaid circumstances is not
far to seek. It would cause too much commotion
and disturbance in the Temple and in the pro-
.cess of worship if men went there fresh on the
top of an event like the death or the birth of a
member in their family. Men would be eager to
. know what had. happened, and would be prone to
BAHUBALI 141
discuss the particulars of the event, whether good
or bad. To avoid all this hubbub and commotion
was the object of the rule against the admission of
worshippers likely to furnish an occasion tfor dis-
turbance in worship. SimilaT in nature would ba
the explanation of the exclusion of the women
suffering from the monthly effusion of blood. For
the presence of blood on a slovenly woman's clothPs
or of blood drops on the floor of the Adytum and
the courtyard of the Place of Worship can :not
but be an unsightly thing. Today the reasons
for these rules have been forgotten, and that is
why we look upon every infringement of s:uch an
injunction as at once fatal to the Dharma, and
to the transgressor and to everybody else I
When Bharata reached home, he first· visit-
ed his arsenal where he beheld the glorious dis-
cus; and . then went to see his son. He
welcomed the new-comer with paternal affection,.
and afterwards proceeded to his Court House,
where he determined to take to camp. life to
subdue the world.
From the world-conquest Blharata returned
home after ~ h e lapse of very many years, laden
W!i.th booty and costly gifts from the numerous
kings who had paid homage to him, ~ d accom-
panied by many princesses, daughters of the
vanquished foe, whom he married. A g o ~ d
142
Rlf?ABRA DEVA
many of these ladies belonged to the 1na} e k t ~ h a
race; but Bharata did not hesitate to accept them
for wife I At one time such marriages were quite
common, it would seem, but now they have·become
obsolete. The last J aina King to marry a.
maleksha princess was Chandra Gupta who
:flourished about two thousand two hundred
years ago, and who married, as history points·
out, the daughter of the· Greek General
Saleukus Niconar. And Chandra Gupta was·
no ordinary Jaina; h ~ was the favourite·
disciple of Sri Bhadrabahu, the last Sruta-
Ke'Vali (literally all-knowing· by hearsay, that
is indirectly) 1 Here is real food for reflec-
tion for those who pin their faith to blood-
superiority. There is a great deal to be said in
favour of the comparative cleanliness of different
professions and of the habits of men ; but we
must not be carried
1
away by pure sentiment and
place arbitrary va:luation on the higher standards.
It is enough if a girl is allowed to marry high,
though a man may not do so, generally .. For the
girl that enters into a purer atmosphere is cut
off from her lowlier associations, and is soon im'-
proved1, wlierea:s·, in the converse case, the girl
entering into a lower class must become per--
manently debased herself. It will be noticed
that the girl passes completely out of her paternal
BAHUBALI ' 143
family on her marriage, but not so the man! Sa
far as the upper ·classes (Brahmal).as, Kshatriyas
!and V aisyas) are concerned, the discussion is
·almost a purely academical one, except in so far
as the general prejudice against traders has
·everywhere led the aristocracy to close the doors
of society against them. Many instances are
to be !found in the Purai).aS of V aisyas marrying
Kshatriya girls and even the daughters o'f Brah-
·mai).as. The difficulty is only experienced in
·dealing with the cases of inter-marriage between
Sudras and the higher Var7Jas. But the ex-
·amples of Bharata and Chandra Gupta show
·what the practice used to· be in the past.
On returning to his capital, Bha.rata de-
·manded submission from his own brothel's, which
was naturally refused. But all of them, e..ltcept-
ing Bahubali, f ~ l t - that they c(juld not faee
Bharata on the battle-field, and renounced the
world, placing their· sons on their thrones in thei'r
·own places to avoid the humiliation. Bahubali,
·on the other hand, hurled open defiance at the
Emperor and challenged him to a fight. Bha:rata
was indignant at what he regarded as unbrother-
-ly conduct of Bahubiali, and marched against
him at the head of a large army. The tw«> armies
~ a t last came face to face with each other. But. be-
·fore the commencement of open hostilities, the
14.4 DEVA
ministers on both sides met together to see if the
undesirable bloodshed could ;not be avoided in
any way. They came to an agreement that it
would be quite useless to proceed with the war in
the ordinary way. " The brothers themselves,"
they said, '' cannot be killed by any means;
they are in their last incarnations in transmigra-
tion, and possess bodies which no weapon may
mortally wound in warfare! Let them fight out
the issue by themselves in other ways." It was
decided that they should settle their dispute by
means of three kinds of contests, namely, staring
(at each other), water-fight, and wrestling.
Bahubali overcame Bha.rata in all the three
contests, but instead of throwing him down on
the ground in the last one (wrestling), he lifted
him up on his shoulder and then gently placed
·him on the ground, out of an affectionate regard
for his seniority and rank. This infuriated
·Bharata all the more, and he immediately
possessed himself of the irresistible The
weapon whizzed through empty space like a flash
of lightning but it did not strike Bahubali.
Instead of striking him, it merely circled round
him, and then came to rest in front of him!
Bahubali had won ! The explanation of the
behaviour on the part of the terrible
thunderbolt (the chak1·a) prob.a.bly, lies in the
BARUBALI
145
personal magnetism of Bahubali which even over-
mastered and turned off the fiery discus.
Bharata' s action was disliked by all present.
Bahubali was filled with disgust for the world,
whose infatuation could produce such intoxicat-
ing effect even on a good man like Bharata.
" The kingdom," he said, "is for you, brother
mine I I will have nothing more to do with this
~ o r l d of tantalizing shadows I " Saying this he
left the world, went to the WoRLD TEACHER,.
• who had gone to Mount Kailasa in the mean-
while, worshipped the Holy Feet of the Lord, and
discarding all clothes and everything else of the
world, entered the order of homeless monksl
Bharata's heart was softened at his brother's
renunciation ; he apologised for his rashness, but
could not dissuade him from his firm resolve.
For a whole year Bahubali performed the
severest austerities, standing motionless immersed
in contemplation. Creepers grew up round his
legs in this period ; ant hills sprang up about
him. But notwithstanding these austerities he
could not get rid of the irksome little thought that
he stood on Bharata's land. This stood in his
way, and did not admit of his destroying his four
kinds of inimical karmas. At last at the end of
the year, it occurred to him that common lands
were not capable of exclusive proprietary posses-
F. 10
146 RII?ABHA DEVA
sian and that saints could use such lands without
lowering t1iemselves in any way. About the same
time Bharata himself came, in all humility, to
him, and worshipped him with veneration and
respect. Bahubali was then able to quell the
disturbing element in his thoughts, and soon suc-
ceeded in his effort to destroy the karmas named.
According to another version, the thought that
was disturbing Bahubali's ·meditation was a kind
of painful regret that he had been the cause of
h ~ s elder brother's humiliation, which was dis- ·
persed when Bharata came and worshipped him
with reverence and affection.
Bahubali attained Omniscience, as the result
of complete dispassion and the supreme tran-
quillity of the mind I Devas and men now came
to worship Him and to hear His discourse. He
preached the Noble Doctrine for some time, and
finally obtained Complete Release at Mount
Kailasa I He is now abiding eternally, in the
uninterrupted enjoyment of Eternal Life, Perpe-
tual Youth, Omniscience and all other Divine
attributes I And He will stay in the same state
till the End of Time I
STATUE OF BnARATA IN STANDING PosTURE SnRAVANA BELGOL.\
CHAPTER XII
BHARATA.
(! ) 'c) IS' ,..r
li..&S'") cJLso, )'' '-Sii' t!LJLfr.. LQS,t
Bahut '11Ulzbut ghar hai aqebat dar-i-du'lllilua se :
Utha lena yahan se apni daulat oor wahan rakhna!
[Tr. Much sa:fer .js the House o:f the next world than
that of this one ;
You should withdraw your wealth from here, and
place it in the next wozild ! ]
Many people read ' blessed are the meek, for
they shall inherit the world ' ; but it was Bharata
who realized itl Men hear that the fruit of
renunciation is a hundred million fold; Bharata;
actually enjoyed the abundance of' it J
Bharata's wealth was immense. There was
none who could count his treasures. He possess-
ed a countless number of precious gems of great
value. His horses, his elephants, his war and
other kinds of chariots were counted in millions.
Huge armies followed him when he went on war.
Thousands of great kings, and tens of thousands
of smaller chiefs and chieftains were proud to be
147
148 Rif?ABHA DEVA
among his followers. There was no' independent
king in those days to be a rival to Bharata. His
dominions were scattered all over the world ; his
authority was acknowledged both on land and
sea. He had crossed ·high mountains and carried
his campaign successfully on the other side.
There is a mention of certa.O.n hidden passages in
the mountains by means of which he had emerged
in new continents, and brought the lands under
his sceptre.
Bharata was undoubtedly one of the greatest
of human kings tha.t have ever ruled in the world.
His splendour has never been surpassed, and but
rarely equalled. His court was just one d ~ z z l i n g
blaze of brilliancy. The pick of the best of every-
thing was ahyays at · his command. Great
generals and kings vied with one another in
showing him respect I
Bharata had a very amiable nature ; he was
exceedingly forgiving and peaceful, and possess-
ed a spirit of gentility that was very captivating.
Probably the only time when he forgot himself
' was when he felt irritated after his failure in the
trial of strength against Bahubali. But he re-
pented of it almost immediately, and made ample
amends for it subsequently by going to worship
the latter when he· had become a saint. This
shows that he cherished no resentment in his
BHARATA
heart, the fit of irritation haYing completely pass-
ed off without leaving a scar.
Bharata was a perfectly just king. His
sense of impartial justice won for him the esteem
of all his subjects when he reprimanded his own
son and condemned his unwise deed in the spirit
of uncompromising severoity. The incident had
occurred at the swayamvara of a certain young
princess where his son Arkakirti was also present.
The king of Vara:Q.asi (modern Ben ares) in those
days was the founder of the glorious Natha
His name was Akampana, and he had
a daughter, who was accomplished and beautiful
beyond words. When she grew up her father
took counsel of his friends and well-wishers, and
convened a swa;yamvara (literally, the selection
of a bridegroom by oneself) , agreeably to the
world-old practice of the Warrior r·aces. Many
princes and chiefs came to the gathering, conspi-
cuous amongst them being Arkakirti, the
Emperor's son, and Jiayavarma, the son of Soma
Prabha of Hastinapur, at whose House the
WoRLD had partaken of the sugarcane
JUice.
Sulochana, for thl.s was the name of the love-
ly Princess, threw the garland of flowers round
the neck of J.ayavarma, as a mark of her pre-
ference for him. At this Arkakirti became
150
Blf?ABHA DEVA
excited, considering it an insult to himself and to
his illustrious father, and challenged both Jaya-
varma and Akampana to a· fight. These kings
who entertained a great deal of respect for the
Emperor and love for his impetuous son, tried,
in every way, to dissuade him from the course he
desired to take. But all their efforts were fruit-
less; Arkakirti was bent on fighting, and would
not listen to their entreaties.
In the fight that took place the allied armies
of the kings of Hastinapur and Varal}.asi were
victorious. But Akampana hd really the heart
of a Jaina! He conciliated the youthful prince,
and married his ·younger daughter, Akshamala,
to him. After the departure of Arkaldrti with
his bride, J ayavarma and Sulochana were united,
with due pomp.
When Bharata heard of the misbehaviour of
his young son, he was very angry with him, and
bestowed much praise on Jayavarma and Akam-
pana for their restraint. Finally, the incident only
came to be regarded by all the parties concerned
as a happy mishap that ended in permanently
cementing the friendly relations between the two
royal·liouses of Ajudhya ann Hastinapur!
' · Bharata was the first law-giver of the current
half-cycle. He instructed the men of the Ksha-
triya and Brahmal).a classes in the duties
BHARATA
151
pertaining to their var'l}as, and taught them many
things. For this he came to be known as the
sixteenth Manu, the fifteenth being R i ~ a b h a .
Devaji. The law he gave forms part of the
Upa.sakadhyayana Anga, which is now only
ava.ilablle in fragments. The one great point in
respect of which the law he gave to the people
differs from all the other systems that are now
prevailing in India concerned the position of the
woman. He made her a full heiress of her hus-
band's property, and placed her before the son 1
The effect was wonderful ; for it saved the son
from idleness, and taught him to acquire profi-
ciency in work and trade, and endowed him with
pleasing mannerism ! In a joint family the rule
is for the sons to loll about in idleness ; excep-
tions are rare. In the J aina family the rule was
work, efficiency and fitness I Arrogance, even
boorish and unmannerly arrogance, might
develop under the one system, but it would have
nothing to support itself upon in the other.
It would seem that the three kinds of punish-
ments, namely, corporal punishment, physical de-
tention and monetary fine, were known in the time
orf Bharata,. who knew how to temper justice with
mercy, and taught others to do so. He encourag-
ed partition as it tends to increase the mer1t of
individuals; and recognized wills and trusts.
152 DEVA
Bharata is said to have laid down what are
known as the fifty-three kJ·iyfis (rites) for the
followers of the Path. These were described at
the time when he brought the Brahmal}.a varna
into being. He invested the Brahmal}.as with
distinctive sacred threads, comprising one or
more strings, according to the ·number of the
p1·atimli (stage. on the householder's path) the
wearer had attained. Thus a man who wore a
thread of seven strings was a brahmachari
(celibate) on the seventh p1·atima. and he who
wore one with eleven strings was on the eleventh,
or the last, stage of the householder's path, and
only one step removed from sannyasa which he
would enter as soon as he is able to discard the
small strip of the loin cloth that marks the boun-
dary between the and the saint's
careers.
The ideals originally set before the Brab-
mal}.as included, amongst others, the following:-
(1) they must devote themselves to wor-
ship, both regular and· special ;
(2) they might earn their living by the
sword, the pen, agriculture, or
trade, but not by handicrafts or
such other professions as music and
singing;
BHARATA
153
(3) they, should practise charity ;
( 4) they must apply themselves to study
(the scriptures) ;
( 5) they should practise equanimity and
self-control, protecting the 'different
kinds of lives ; and
(6) they should practise tapa8cha?·a'l}a
(austerities) in some form.
It was thus not forbidden to a Brahmal).a to
carry on a trade, or to enter on a inili-
tary career, or to take to literature or even to
plough the land. He was only required to refrain
from pursuing those occupations which though.
not a disgrace in themselves were nevertheless not
adopted by the· higher classes. His self-respect
was thus assured to him, if he did not wish to
accept gifts from others. Today all this is
changed, and the modern Brahmal).a is very near
satisfying Akbar's description of a pir (saint),
a. bavarch'i (cook), a (water-carrier). and
a (donkey), all rolled into a single being 1
Another point in respect of which the modern
differs from his ancestor of the past
is about the sacred thread which was not to be
worn unless attained a.t least the first
pratimii, but which is now worn by not only all
Brahmal)as but also by all the members_ of the
154
RIE?ABHA DEVA
three higher var7Jas. As a matter of fact there
was no Brahmal}.a class at the time of Bharata
Chakravarti, strictly speaking, for any one could
qualify himself for the sacred t h r e a ~ by observ-
ing the p1·atimas, it not being forbidden to Sudras
to observe the pratimlis.
The reason for the establishment of the-
Brahmal}.a class lay in the necessity of finding
out suitable donees for gifts which householders
are enjoined to make every day. Bharata, who
wanted to earn merit for himself, by making-
proper use of his immense wealth, established the
class, or rather the order of the pious men, and
gave them the sacred threads to indicate their-
rise !in the spiritual scale. None who did not
excel in the practising of the D ll,a1'1na (religion)
were to be considered Brahmal}.as. '' By birth,"
says the author of the Adi Pur8J}.a, '' are all men.
equal unto one another ; but they differ in res-
P..ect of the progress they might make on the
spiritual path I ''
The llindhs, who are really J ainas-not
J aina dissenters, but J aina Allegorists-and the
originators of the Allegorical vogue, allegorised
the va1''1Jli8rama institution, which came, after
the lapse of a long time, when the original nature-
of. the teaching underlying the allegory was lost
sight of, to be viewed as grounded on birth-dis-
BHARATA
155
tinction. This is the reason why Hindus have
been eternally finding fault with the Jainas and
accusing them of " caste-lessness," that is, of
being the destroyer of the caste system. The
author of the Adi Pural).a, who was alive to the
need of propitiating Brahma:r;ta opinion in
times of persecution, probably laid stress on the
importance of the Brahmal}.a caste to paci.!fy them
a bit, and is for that reason forced to have re-
course to a language which is ambiguous to say
the least of it. Bharata's preference for the
Warrior class is obvious from the t e r m ~ in whicli
he speaks of tJhem in the forty-second parva
(part) of the Adi Pural).a; but he distinctly says
even with regard to them that merit, and not
birth, is the principle of excellence. '' Whoso-
ever is admitted into the J"aina Dharma," he
makes Bharata say, "and takes to the observ-
ance .of vows becomes a Kshatriya !" The con-
ferment of special privileges· in regard to crimi-
nal responsibility on Brahmal).as might thus be the
work of the Brahma.J).as themselves, when they
got into power later on ; but it might as well be
due to an impulse on the part of Bharata himself.
If we remember that Bharata's Brahma-Q.as were
all saintly householders, who would be eager to
r confess their crimes and to make ample amends
for the deed, we can readily !imagine justice tak-
156
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
ing a lenient view of their guilt, and' a pious king
pardoning the unfortunate offender altogether.
Probably there would be in such a case a general
petition for mercy, in which t:he injured man, or
his heirs, would not unlikely join 1
The scheme of the rites which Bharata taught
his subjects is grounded entirely on what is lmown
to the moderns as the Law of Suggestion. From
the very inception of life an endeavour is made
to impress it on t i u ~ mind of the individual tl1at
he belongs to the noblest of all races, the Aryan,
and that he is going to be a great ma.n, and may
even become a cl1akravarti, and a Tirthamkara I
The ma.nt1·as, too. which are uttered and recited
on ceremonial occasions are intended to serve the
same purpose, at the same time ns they tend to
inculcate a belief in the Divinity of the Soul. and
the Principles of Dharma. There can be no doubt-
ing the fact that a child that l1as grown up under
the influence of such powerful suggestions must,
sooner or later, acquire and display something of
that greatness which his Imagination has been
impressed with. In the Aryan Culture sams-
karas (impressions, convictions) it were that
counted the most ; they could make or mar a
life, without a doubt I Here again it must be
said that the moderns have completely misunder-
stood the purpose- of· these rites, and of the
BHARATA
15'7
mant1·as with which they are accompanied. They
think that power lies in the matntras themselves;
but how can misunderstood formulas help any
one in acquiring greatness 1 Mere sounds (mOJn-
t'l·as in a tongue that is not understood) count for
nothing ; it would be foolish to expect them to
make a proper impression on any one's mind,
much less on that of a small child. And what
force can a few muttered or mumbled sounds pos-
sess against persistent intelligible suggestion to
the contrary which is dinned into one's ears daily 1
For no sooner does the mystified child go out 1nto
the world outside, after the ceremony at home,
than his friends and associates do not leave a stone
unturned in impressing upon his mind that he i.s
a big idiot, a dullard and a dunce, and an impu-
dent imp ! Today the harmful suggestion, con-
veyed in the vulgar language of the street, as a
matter of fact, takes deep root and produces men
that are nothing but burning libels on the Aryan
name I This is because it is persistent and in-
telligible, while the really healthy one is lost in
the mist of unintelligibility and 'hieroglyphics.
Let us be warned in time, before further damage
is done l
Bharata was endowed with clairvoyance
which he evolved out on one of the occasions when
he went to worship the WORLD TEA.CHER.
158 R I ~ A B H A DEVA
He taught men the science known as N imitta
Jnii/fUJ., which is not the art of !foretelling future
but that of predicting the occurrence of certain
events by means of their appropriate charac-
teristic forerunners (signs). He also instructed
men in the Sciences of astronomy and medicine.
Bharata was an accomplished master and a.
perfect judge of the elephant and the horse ; and
understood all about their marks and 'ailments,
in which he also instructed his people.
In regard to religion Bharata was devoted
with all his heart to His Divine Father whose
Image he had installed on the altar of his heart,
where he worshipped Him day and night, when-
ever he got time to do so. Filled, from his child-
hood, with the spirit of world-flight, he adopted
the five vows of the householder's course, early in
his career, and observed them, with-
out blemish and faltering, throughout life, irres-
pective of the fact whether he was at home or
on the battlefield. He lived in the world but
without being attached to it as ordinary men
are. A saint at heart, he never abandoned him-
self to sense-indulgence, or allowed his better
nature to be overpowered by the animal in him.
He knew that the first great thing for a l{sha-
triya was to take care of his intellect; for through
the right kind of intellect one could attain to the
BHARATA 159
Glory of a Tirthamkara, and through a wrong
one, be degraded into lower forms after death.
Bharata, therefore, was never upset at anything;
he always knew precisely what was the best thing
to do under any circumstances, and handl-
ed complex and complicated problems with a
grace of ease that endeared him to all !
Bharata had a missionary's zeal for the pro-
pagation of J ainism. He laid down rites ( kriyas)
for the admission of all classes of men into the
J aina Religion and the J aina Society, providing
even for the fixing of the castes of the new
converts. Even malekshas could be admitted into
Jainism without objection or hitch in his time!
Such was Bharata, the illustrious son of the
Most Illustrious father, the first Emperor of
Aryavarta, and the Founder of the Aryan Cul-
ture, who lent his name to the Land of the Noble
Race, which it still bears! Bharata will un-
doubtedly live in the memories of men, so long
as remains above the waters to
remind men of the first Great Emperor of the
current half-cycle!
CHAPTER XIII
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE
Bharata was never quite at ease in his mind
about the wisdom of the step he had taken as
regards the establishment of the Brahmai}.a class,
since he knew that his Father, who could have
done it as well, haid not seen it fit to do so. One
night he saw a number of dreams which alarmed
him a bit, and he decided to question the WORLD
TEACHER about their , import. So he proceed-
ed to Jviount Kailasa where Deva was
staying at the time, and after worshipping Him
with reverence and devotion, related his dreams,
and humbly sought their explanation from Rim.
He was told that his dreams bore reference to the
next age (the panchama kala) which would be
marked with much deterioration and misery.
The first dream was the sight of twenty-three
lions, roaming in a forest a.nd then climbing up
the summit of a hill. The W:oRr ... n TEACHER
interpreted it to mean that in the day of twenty-
three out of the Tirthamkaras,
. J a ina Saints would remain steadrfast to their
austere ideal, and prove worthy of saintship.
160
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 161
The second dream consisted in the sight of
a lion followed by a number of deers. Thjs
signified that in the time of the last Tirthamkara
all saints would not be able to adhere to t h ~ high
ideal of saintship, and there would a r i s ~ many
householders who would propagate and spread
false doctrines and recommend ' easier ' conduct.
In the third dream Bharata had seen a horse
burdened with the load of an elephant. This
meant that the Saints in the paneha!ma kala
would undertake vows beyond their capacity .and
endurance.
A number of goats were seen grazing on dry
leaves in the fourth dream, which portended that
people would generally abandon the principles of
true piety and defile their vows in the pandtama
kala (the current age) ! ·
In his fifth dream Bharata saw a monkey
seated on an elephant !in place of man J The
WoRLD TEACHER explained it to mean that
in the fifth ' age ' kingship would pass out . of
the hands of true I{shatriya races and be enjoyed
,by those who would be as far away from true
K.shatriya traditions as a monkey is from man !
In the sixth dream a swan was being attack-
ed by a number of crows. Its significance was
that the J aina Saints would be persecuted by men
of other creeds. ·
F, 11
1·62
DEVA
A gnome's dance constituted the seventh
dream, and it foretold that people wo.uld begip.
t.o worship demons in the fifth kala, in place of
the True· Divinity !
A ta.nk full of water all round, but dry in
the centre, was seen next. This meant that
Religion would disappear from the Aryavarta,
and would spread in the surrounding countries,
occupied by M alelcshas 1
A lustreless heap of gems covered over with
dust :\t"\tas seet;t This signified that in the pan-
kala saints would be unable to attain to
the purity of sukla dhyana (pure self -contempla-
tion or meditation of the higher type) l
A dog feeding on sweetmeats and being
worshipped by men was seen in the tenth dream.
Its import was that low class persons would
paTade as worshipful men and would be actually
worshipped by the people 1
A bellowing young bull was seen next. This
meant tl1at people would genera.Uy enter the holy
order in their youth in the fifth kala, instead
of in old age !
In the twelfth dream Bharata saw the Moon
surrounded by nebulous matter. This meant that
the sa.ints would be unable to acquire even clair-
voyance and teleP.athy in the kala
1
Two bullocks going together were seen next,
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 163
implying that the saints in the panchama kala
would be unable to attain to the purity of conduct
necessary to enable them to roam about singly I
The Sun covered over by clouds was seen
next. It meant that no one would be able to
to Omniscience in the panchama lciila.
A, dried-up tree that cast no shade
was the subject of the next dream. Its signifi-
cance was that in the panchama kala the
generality of men and women would abandon
religion, and become irreligious I
The sixteenth and the last dream consisted
in the sight of dried up old leaves, and meant that
the power of even great medicines would deterio-
rate in the end 1
As regards the wisdom of the establishment
of the class, Bharata was told that his
action was justified so far as regarded the require-
ments of his times, but that the class would be
filled with conceit for its high birth, and Brah-,
ma.I}.as would take to eating meat in many cases
and would become generally hostile to the true
D ( J ainism) in the panclUl!Jna kala !
We may be sure that Bharata was not quite
pleased with the forebodings or with the step he
had taken in creating the fourth, namely, the
Brahmal).a vaT'lja. He went back to his kingdom
from the Sarrw,vasa1"0/flft of the· W ORI .. D
164
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
TEACHER, and began to enjoy the fruits of his
previous good ka1·mas, as the first great cll,akra-
va?·ti king I
The panclLama (fifth) kala (time, hence the
period of time) is the one that is actually current
now. It !is the period of advanced deterioration,
characterized conditions of existence that
would slowly become very painful and distress-
ing. It commenced only 2455 years ago, and
has still got 18545 years to run. There
will be wars, famines and pestilences during this
period, with the result that men will be half-
starved and will grow stunted in size, till at the
end of the period they will be no more than one
cubit in height, and twenty years in age. All
this will take place gradually, almost imperceptib-
ly, and in some places there will even appear
periodic signs of growth. The arresting of the
downward movement will, however, be a tempo-
rary affair. The tendency generally everywhere
will be for things to go from bad to worse. In
respect of religion, will become ir-
religious, and the m.alekslta countries lying round
about it will take it up. This part of the prophe-
cy is likely to be soon fulfilled. For Religion can
only live in the land of intelligence, but Bharat-
, can only boast of about five per cent of
literacy today. And out of this small propor-
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 165
tion of literate men and women the number of
those who are really intellectual will be perhaps
one in a thousand. It may be safely taken then
that the intellectual centre of the world is shift-
ing from India to foreign lands t What is most
likely to happen next is the discovery of the soul-
nature by European and American peoples,
which is likely to be made in the course of the
current century, thus fulfilling the J a.ina pro-
phecy I
Throughout the pancltama kala, however,
Religion will continue to exist on our globe. The
continuity of the sangka (community of the faith-
ful) will be maintained r-ight up to its very end.
There will be at least one saint, one nun, one
· householder, and one pious female follower of
the Lord Jinendra in the world. When only
three moments will be left in the running kala,
1·aja (kingship), agni (fire) and dh.arma (reli-
gion) will be destroyed, one after the other, in
the order mentioned ! The last king, who will be
called Kalki,* will snatch away the food from the
* Kalki 811.so figures Hinduism; but there he is
an. :figure and, in glaring contrast with
J :umsm. He 1s the destroyer o£ dharma and a wicked
persecutor of the pious in the 1latter, but the establisher
of the :true tlha'MTJ,a and the destroyer of its foes in the
former [ This antagonism is, however, only apparent
and caused by the employment of an artistic form of
aliegory which while professing to differ
166 DEVA
hand of the last Saint, and will be destroyed by e
devas for his extreme impiety. The Saint and
the Nun will perform srillekltanii death, along
with the householder and the pious lay lady.
Fire will disappear instantly, and will
cease to exist in the next moment l
Thereafter the sixth kala, likewise of 21,000
years, will supervene. It will be the worst of
all. People will keep on deteriorating, and the
suffering and misery will be intolerable. Cook-
ing will be unknown ; for there will be no fire !
People will take to raw meat, which they will
bite off from living animals and even men. Law
and order will be replaced by lawlessness and dis-
order. At the end of the sixth kala, a great
will befall the world ; for forty-nine
days there will rain down on it fire and ashes and
burnmg cinders ; hot winds will scorch up all
the surface of the soil, and it will be ripped open
to a great depth ; ·an living nature will be des-
troyed, excepting those who are able to hide them-
selves in deep ravines and caves or who are
from the Jaina view, in reality, impiies no difference
at aU. For the Hindu KaUri is the destroyer of the
soul's internal enemies-passions and appetites and the
like-who will establish the Kingdom of God in the
human Heart, while the .T a ina Ka'lki wi'll be an his-
torica1 enemy of the Faith and of the followers of the
Faith, who will be a man of flesh and blood in the ouf.er
world!
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 16i
accorded protection by some beings of the super-
human type. Thus will end the ·sixth lriila. T:he
catastrophe, however, will not be universal aJU
'Over the universe.
At the commencement of the new order of
things in the next half -cycle of time, the Utsar-
pi'f}i. ''rhich is the reverse Oif the ascending ark,
the course of events wi:ll be changed·. It· will be
the period of prosperity, and increase and Tise.
The forty-nine davs' destrnetion will be followed
by a different and opposite kind of phenomena
·during a similar period of time. .Cold winds wiU
;blow .on the earth ; .cooling things-.curds,
mHk, etc.-will rain down on its surfa.ce; the
s1gns of destruction will disappear fr0-1n its
:f.ace ! Those who have survived wiU emerge
from their hiding places, and inhabit the earth
once more. 'The first Tirthamkara of the U tsar-
pi1J-i kala will appear at the .end of 42,000 y;ears

from its commencement. He will re-establish
Religion in the world !
The above prophecy would seem to admit of
a rational explanation. Let us .suppose* that two
huge revolving bodies .of contrary but of
.
e Or, in the alternative, llet us suppose, the earth
to run amok' fr.om .some such .cause as the depletion of its
· ,hidBen · stre·ngth-petrol, coa
1
l ·and the like-or the order
and regularity o£ the sola;r system to be disturbed fro]Jl
168
DEVA
the· comet type are slowly approaching our world,
and would come the nearest to it at the end of
the sixth kala, of 1fu.e running half -cycle. Let
us further suppose that the first one of these
bodies to draw near to the earth will be the
comet with a fiery nature, like that of the sun.
Its approach will then be characterised by all
the indications given in the prophecy-the deterio-
ration of vegetation, the disappearance of fire,
because of the lack of fuel, the blowing of hot
winds, the showering down of hot cinders, burrr-
ing dust and the like. The destroyer will remain
in the vicinity of the earth for the space of 49
days, wliich will be full of calamity for all living
nature. It will then depart and recede further
away. The other comet with the nature of the
Moon will then draw near, when there will occur
the opposite kind of phenomenar--the blowing of
cold winds, the raining down of cooling things,
curds, milk, ' ambrosia,' and the like! Hu-
manity will now reappear on the surface of the
earth, and will once more inhabit it. It will talre
them about 42,000 years to be restored to a state
of civilization which will admit of the advent
unknown cause, so that the eai·th is brought scorch-
near to the sun for the space of 49 days, after which
It IS drawn to the moon foro. similar period. Then
phenomena. of the prophecy are llikely to
occur as descr1bed.
PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 169
of a WORLD TEACHER, to enlighten them on
Religious Truth !
As regards the snatching away of the morsel'
of food by the last king from the hand o'f the last
Saint, its explanation may be sought in the
fact that cooked food shall have become scarce
long long before the end of the panchama kala. ·
Perhaps the influence of the advancing fiery
comet will be reinforced by the drying up of the
stamina of the earth in consequence of the constant
tapping to which it is being subjected, in one form
and another, so that vegetation shall begin to dry
up, fuel shall become scarce, and cooked food
a rare delicacy many hundreds of years before the
end of the 'age.' At the end of the age the only
living pious householder shall have procured the
last bundle of chips to prepare the last meal
for the Saint and the Nun ! Law and order
will have virtually disappeared long before
this time, and the last king will probably be no
more than a mere powerful bully. He will be
attracted by the sight of the smoke from the
householder's kitchen and will rush to help him-
self to cooked food, the greatest of delicacies at
the time. He will arrive just in time to be able
to snatch the first morsel from the hand of the
Saint. The devas, who do not usually interfere
in human affairs, will be unable to tolerate such
170
RI§ABHA DEVA
an insult to Saintship, and will take revenge on
the king. In the next moment the little bundle
of faggots shall have burnt itself out, and fire
will become a thing of the past ! D /tarma
(Religion), which cannot live except in the hearts
'Of men, must likewise perish when those who
cherish it and put it into practice are gone.
This is probably how the king:. fire and dll,arma
(religion) shall be destroyed. one after another,
in three successive moments of time, at .the end
of the current age (kala) !
CHAPTER XIV
'THE COMMUNITY OF THE FAITHFUL
:CUSCClli
at('Mi+( II
[Tr. The merit that may be acquired by going on·pil-
;grimage to sixty-eight Tirthas (Holy .Places), is acquir-
by the mere thinking of God Adinath.-(Risabhn
Deva) !] Hindu Adoration (untraced).
J ainism marks a distinction between the
higher and the lower orders of its followers.
The community is divided into four classes,
namely, Saints and laymen {termed house-
holders) among males, and nuns and pious laity
:among females. The division is grounded on the
principle that all men and women cannot be ex-
pected to come up, all at once, and without long
· and .adequate training, to :that high
ideal of .self-effacement that demands the selling
of all one is· possessed of. and its distribution in
charity.
171
172
DEVA
There were eighty four Apostles of the
WORLD TEACHER, amongst them being "Y
Sen, K.achha, Maha Kachha, Nami and Vinami '
whom we have already met in this narrative.
Jaya Varma was also one of the Apostles of the
Ti?·tlwmlca?·a.
There were no less than 20,000 Omniscient
Saints who followed the Holy Tirthamkara.
12,700 saints were endowed with Telepathy,
9,000 with Clairvoyance; and 4,750 lmew tb.e
entirety of the twelve departments of the Teach-
ing of Truth I There were 20,600 Saints who
enjoyed wonderful miraculous powers. Many
other saints followed the Lord. Of this vast
number by far the major portion attained nirvana,
the rest re-incarnating in the heavens. All the
most !intimate friends and companions of the
WoRLD TEACHER who were with him in the
super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi also reached nir-
vana.
Three hundred and fifty thousand nuns,
headed by Brahmi, followed the WORLD
TEACHER. No less than three hundred thou-
sand householders who were training themselves
by the observance of vows and other forms c;>f
disciplinary processes worshipped the Lord.
The number of the pious female followers was
:five hundred thousand, in round figures.
THE COMMUNITY OF THE FAITHFUL 173
Some of the members of the animal kingdom
who recollected their past lives followed the Lord,
some of them adopting some of the minor vows
()f the laity.
J aya Varma who has been named among the
Apostles of the WoRLD TEA·CHER was the
same who had married Sulochana in the svayam-
1Jara, at Varanasi, and who had taken the
Emperor's son, Arkakirti, a prisoner on the
battle-field. Many years rufterwards, he had
come to worship the Source of Dharma one day,
when he was filled with the spirit of world-flight
and vairagya (renunciation). Regarding the
world as transient, and life, as the plaything of
death, he determined, there and then, to free
himself from the eternal bondage, went back. to
his kingdom, placed his son on the throne in place
of himself, and took leave of Sulochana and of
all the other queens and kinsmen, and became a
homeless Monk.
Sulochana was much affected by the inci-
dent ; she was very sad at heart, and accepting
the counsel of Bharata's favourite queen, Subha-
dra, who was noted as much for her wisdom as
for her physical strength, she sought refuge from
the affiictions of this world of tears at the wor-
·shipful feet of Brahmi, and became a nun. At
-the end of her earthly life, she was reborn in the
174
DEVA
sixteenth heaven, prior to her last human birth
when she would attain salvation from the male
form!
With Jaya Varma many of his youngel'
brothers, Vijaya, Jayanta, Sanjayanta. and
others, and many princes gave up the life of the
world to follow the Path, and take the shaping
of their destiny in their own hands, from those
of the blind and unmerciful nature!
King Akampana, teo; e£ Varanasi, the·
father of Sulochana and the establisher of the
ceremony in this half-cycle, about
this time felt an overwhelming disgust for the
1ife of the world, a.nd sought refuge at the Wor-
shipful Feet o:f the WORLD TEACHER :from
perpetual death. He placed his son, Reman-
gada, on the throne, and proceeded to the Lord's.
Sama'Dasa?·ana, where he became a naked saint.
His queen Sup1·abha also became a nun at the-
same time.
CHAPTER XV
NIRV.A:NA
i I
• 11
ft tRif 'lli:lit' I
. .
• Iii II
[T1· ... Thus will there be the Risabha Ava.tara (incar-
nation) to me, Sanka1·a (Siva, allegorically Vairagya,
that is Renunciation); which will be the ninth incarna-
tion that wil'l take p'lace lilre the Path for the good
peop[e and as a patron of the he'lpless! The life of
is exceeding·ly pu1·e; one should hear the
of which is the giver of heaven aff.er death and
the cause of increase of fame and the length of one's
yea1·s.]-The Siva Pural}a (Hindu), IV, 47-48.
" Because of her (wisdom) I shall have immortality,
and leave behind an eternal} memory to them that come
after me."-II Esdras (Jewish Apocrypha), Cha.p. VIII.
The passage quoted above from the Jewish
Apocrypha furnishes a complete answer to the
question that has been recently raised, whether
it is selfish for a man to seek his own salvation
and to leave the others involved in suffering and
misery 1
175
176
R I ~ A B H A DEVA
No one who has not completely eradicated
all tinge of passion, even of sympathy and love, ,
I
from his nature can ever be qualified to enter
nirvana or to attain to Omniscience which must
precede it. After the attainment of Full Know-
ledge nirvana follows as a necessary consequence,
because of the extensive destruction that has been
effected in the formations of organising bodily
energies (i.e., Karmas).
It is also a delusion to think that you can
save all. As a matter of fact you cannot even
carry enlightenment to every one. It is a ques-
tion of the internal psychology of the mind
whether an individual is ready to accept the
teaching of truth or will spurn it. The souls who
are still involved in misery and suffering have not
unlikely met some of the great Teachers of the
race in the past ; but without having derived any
benefit from their association. There are many
souls that shall never be saved, as is the teaching
of almost every rational reJigion prevailing to-
day. What, then, will happen to those who
do not enter nirvana from the love of others or
for fear lest they be termed selfish 1 Their
numbers will go on swelling from day to day,
but they will never have the opportunity to enjoy
the rest and repose for which they have laboured
and which they have earned and deserved and
NIRVANA
177
which they may enjoy but for the short-comings
of others l And unless we accord them perpetual
life in the flesh which no religion really ever
preached, they would also be subjecting them-
selves to repeated births and deaths from which
they sought to escape I
The Soul that attains to nirvana cannot be
accused of selfishness by any means. Before
crossing over to the other shore the Saved Ones
impart the True Doctrine to their immediate
disciples and followers and to all who care to
hear it, and these, in their turn, hand it down
to others, thus keeping the torch burning, from
age to age, so far as it is possible to do so. Their
example !is even more forceful than their word,
since imagination is readily fired by the one and
not so much by the other. When entering ,
nirvana the Deified Man leaves three priceless
things behind Him for the eternal benefit of those
who seek the Way Out. These are : His great
Example, His Worshipful Footprints, and His
Teaching, w h i c ~ should really suffice for the en-
lightenment of all who are sincerely moved by a
desire to understand themselves and to escape
from Death' s Domain. If the counter-theory
were true, and men did not enter nirvana because
it would be selfish to do so, no one could have
obtained salvation .thus far, so that nirvana itself
F. 12
178
R I ~ A B H A DEVA
must be deemed to be quite empty of Souls even to-
day! And so far as practicability of the Doctrine
is concerned, i ~ cannot be deemed to have been
demonstrated even in a single instance, since no
one is to be deemed to have attained to ni'I''Viina
thus far! But this is too absurd to be acceptable
in any sense.
When a fortnight remained !in the life of the
WoRLD TEACHER, the Samavasarana dis-
persed ; and the Lord proceeded to accomplish
the destruction of the remaining karmic :forces
of the non-inimical type that still adhered to His
Great Spirit. It was the last (Pur7J.ama§i) day
in the month of ·Paut?a on which He seated Him-
self in the middle o:f the two summits Sri Sikhara
and Siddha Sikhara of the Mount Kailasa, and
applied Himself to pure Self-contemplation of
the higher type. He sat in the sitting posture,
facing the East.
On the night preceding the Pu'I'Tpamfi§i day,
Bharata and others had seen several portentous
dreams, towards the end of the last watch.
Bharata saw the huge Mountain Meru extend-
ing to the Place of the Perfect Ones. His son
Arkakirti saw a huge Tree possessing medicinal
properties moving up towards the heavens, after
curing living beings of their ailments I The
Chamberlain of the household of the Emperor, too,
NIRVANA 179
saw a dream, in which he saw a huge Wish .... fulfill-
ing Tree, capable of gratifying all kinds of
wishes, rising up in the sky ! J aya Varma's son,
Anantaveerya beheld the bright Moon ascending
into the higher regions of the Sky, surrounded by
a number of stars! Her Imperial Majesty Queen
Subhadra, the daughter-in-law of the WoRLD
TEACHER and the favourite .wife of the Em-
peror, saw the Indrani (the Queen of the first
Heaven) consoling Y a8asvati and Sunanda, the
two co-wives of the Lord! The Prime Minister
of Bharata saw a Jewel Island rising up in the
sky; and Chitrangada, one of the sons of King
Akampana of the swayamvara !fame, beheld the
Sun vanishing into the Sky with great lustre!
These dreams created a sensation in Ajudhya
and Vara:Q.asi. Bharata was still discussing them
with his men when one Ananada brought the news
of the dispersal of the Sam0111asarana, and of the
WiORLD TEACHER's applying Himself to the
eradication of His remaining karmas. The
Emperor immediately proceeded to the Mount
Kailasa on the aerial vehicles of his Vidyadhara
feudatory kings, and there performed the wor-
ship lmown as the llf.ahama,ha for a whole fort-
night.
At last on the fourteenth day of the dark
half of the month of Magha, at the time of sun-
180 Rif?ABHA DEVA
rise, when the moon was passing out of the
Abhijit (the tail of the constella-
tion, the Lord resorted to the third form of the
holy Sukla dhylina termed
sukshmakriylipratipati (literally having the
slightest bodily tinge) , and destroyed the three
channels of the approach of matter, namely, the
mind, speech and the body! immediately
attained to the fourteenth and tlie last g'lJIT)aS-
thana (psychological station on the Path), from
where, adopting the last form of the sellf- ·
contemplation ( vyuprata kriyanivriti, signifying
a cessation o!f all kinds of organic activities), He
passed into nirvana, in the space of time required
to articulate the five vowels a, e, u, ri and li l The
next instant marked the appearance of another
Perfect One to grace the Holy Land of the Abode
of Gods in nirvana, at the top of the Universe 1
The Perfect Souls that reach Nirva'TU1 are
free from birth, death, old age, disease, grief,
pain, hunger, thirst and worry. They have
no bodies, and do not sweat. Pure Spirit by
nature, They enjoy uninterrupteilly, and for
ever, all those incomparably divine attributes and
privileges which appertain to the simple sub-
stance of Their Being. It is impossible to enu-
merate all the virtues of even such common sub..:
st.ances as silver and gold, ·and it is equally im-
,
NIRVANA 181
,
possible to count or describe all the wonderful
properties of the Soul-substance! The Siddkas
(Gods) enjoy Omniscience, Immortality and
unthinkable, unsurpassed Bliss; They see and
hear all, as if They were present everywhere 1
They have no loves andJ hatTeds left in Them, and
do not grant boons to friends or show disfavour
to foes. Their divine Example, Their Teachings
and Their Footprints are left for those who, dis-
gusted with the world, seek a way out of this
Cannibal's (Death's) Cave! Those who walk in
Their Footsteps become in all respects like Them
as regards the innate Divinity of the Spirit sub-
stance, and speedily reach the Holy Siddka Sila,
to sit by Them!
The first WORLD TEACHER of the current
half -cycle of time, too, is now living in the
Siddha Sila, at the Top of the Universe, en-
dowed with Immortality, Perpetual Youth, Full
All-embracing Knowledge, and Supreme Bliss!
He wj.ll never come back, or fall into transmigra-
tion again!
Some fresh arrivals in the field of religious
metaphysics think that the state otf nirvana is but
a temporary one, and that the soul will have
again to fall back into transmigration, sooner or
later. But the truth is the other way. There
is absolutely no cause left for a fall in that case:
182
RI!?ABHA DEVA
for matter cannot influence the soul against its
will (see 'The l{ey of Knowledge'), and Omni-
science is a guarantee against the entertainment
of desire. As a matter of fact, it is simply im-
possible for a pure Spirit to be moved by any kind
of desires. Clement of Alexandria may be quoted
to explain the point. Writes he :-
~ , F o r it is impossibie that he who has once bePJn
made pPJrfect by love, and feasts eternaUy and insatiably
on the boundless joy of contemplation, should delight
in smal[ and g1·ove'lling things. For what rational cause
remains any more to the man who has gained the ''light
inaccessible ' for reverting to the good things of the
wor.ld? "-Ante Nicene Christian Library, V o'l. XII.
pp. 346-34 7.
On the physical side of the question, the
eternal exclusion of matter from the purified
spirit-substance it is that prevents the falling
back of a Perfect Soul into bondage and trans-
migration. The Bible has it as to this : " And
there shall in no wise enter into it anything that
defi.1eth, neither whatsoever worketh abomina-
tion or maketh a lie" (Revelation xxi. 27). This
is really the Jaina view, and the scientific ex-
planation of the fact that the Perfect Ones never
experience a fall through infinite time. '' His
dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall
not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall
NIRVANA 183
not be destroyed " (Daniel vii. 14} was said
with reference to the Perfect Soul! It is useless
to labour the point any further, suffice it to say
that the misconception will be removed as soon
·as the subject is approached in the true spirit of
scientific investigation.
But what shall we say to those good men who
find fault with the attainment of Divinity itself
on the ground that one shall have nothing to do
then 1 Let us ask them what they will like the
Gods to do 1 W!ill they have them stand behind
counters and sell dainty ribbon to pretty ' butter-
flies ' from a heavenly or earthly May Fair 1
Will you have them enter into the service of
one another, or perhaps come down to join the
staff of a big ' stores' like Selfrige's 1 Possibly
you are thinking of an insurance business, where
the Gods might be more useful than men 1 But
no insurance company will flourish if omniscience
is there to tell most of its intending customers
that they run no risk of immediate death. A
more dignified line is perhaps that of law. Shall
-we, therefore, imagine the King's Bench Divi-
sion presided over by a properly robed Divinity.
But wouldn't that be the death of the lawyer
class, who will be ready with their precedents
and protests, and object to His Lordship's
appearance, with all the rhetoric of their tongues t
184
Rlf?ABHA DEVA
Only kings and ministers and generals remain
to be thought of now. No doubt, it will be very
to have an actual God as one's worldly
patron and protector. But he will have to be
partial to one country or people in that case, for
!in the very nature of things he cannot be all over,
as an earthly king. And will not that mean the
starvation of the politicians and the ministers
who draw fat salaries and thrive on their wits 1
But the worst still remains to be said : he will
not fight your battles as a king, but advise you
to '' turn the other cheek '' and to ' give away
your coat and cloak both ' when even only one
of them is claimed, justly or unjustly, by some of
your wicked neighbours [ He will also not sanction
our attempts at keeping down certain races of
men nor the lynching of the ' niggers ' [
Let us look the facts fully in the face : when
do we feel really happy, when entering upon our
duties, or when leaving office for the No
doubt, it is very desirable and necessary that
men should learn to discharge their duties.
There are various reasons for this. Firstly, be-
cause no one can hope to attain salvation unless
he discharge his obligations as an honest man.
Secondly, because our constitution is such that
we cannot--on account of our embodiment in a
sensory-motor organism-refrain from action,
NIRVANA 185
which if not honourable and good must necessari-
ly be of the opposite type, which is not to be recom-
mended. Thirdly, we keep in a fit state of health
by action, and are thrown out of balance with
internal well-being by laziness. Lastly, an idle
' loafer ' is despised all round as he earns nothingt
and tries to fasten himself to some one else who
does. But the Gods with whom we like to find
fault have no sensory-motor organism left to
think of, and stand in no need of earning a; living.
They will not be what they are if they did that 1
There is another point in regard to which
God-life might be objectionable. For it does not
furnish opportunities for gossip and the tea-
party chit-chats! But does any one really want
an answer to this? Who needs such a diversion 1
He who is eternally happy, or he who is feeling
bored and worried, and who is out of tune with
himself? The fact that it is looked upon as a
change in itself is a strong condemnation of our
ideals of worldly IHe. Would we be seeking
' change ' if it did not bring relaxation from work,
and, therefore, also pleasure 1
It only remains to consider the case of
sciences and arts. A God surely could save man
much trouble if He instructed us in these depart-
ments. But would that suffice to save him from
the charge of eternal idleness? The instructions
186 R I ~ A B H A DEVA
can be given in no time. He would require no
laboratories, nor stand in need of exper.im.ents to
learn wisdom about nature's ways. What should
he do, then, with himself for the rest of his time,_
for the rest of all eternity 1 And how do we
know that Gods did not impart lmowledge of
useful things to men before leaving the world?
We have seen that Bharata himself imparted the
knowledge of Medicine to the Aryan race. Is a
God to be blamed because men are unable to re-
tain what they are taught 1
The very essence of Divinity consists in the
sense of Freedom. The Gods alone are truly
free I They have no work left to be done ; there
are nOt worries; no anxieties, to mar Their im-
measurable Peace. No private loves and hatreds
remain to sway Them now in one way and again
in another. They are at all times filled with such
happiness that cannot be rescribed in words. And
it is not that They have taken a leap in the dark,
or bought a pig in a poke. They have deliberate-
ly worked for Their ideal and status, life after
life, steadfastly and with unswerving fidelity.
They could have gone back at any time, if They
did not know that happiness lay that way. As a
matter of fact, ascetics feel such joy, when on
the higher rungs of the ladder, that they cheer-
fully endure all kinds of sufferings to attain to
NIRVANA
187
it finally. Let us not forget that pure spirit is a
very different kind of substance from matter and
flesh. It needs no 'healthy ' exercises to keep
itself fit. It needs no food ; nor does it ever feel
~ .
miserable or bored. Let us ask only one question
from our critics : can you have immortality at
any of your worldly stores or picnics and tea
parties 1 Has your wildest flight of imagination
ever led you, ere this, to think of the possibility
of omniscience 1 Did you ever entertain the idea
that another, and eternally satisfying kind of
delight, was, over and above your miserable sense-
gratification, within the bounds of possibility 1
If your answer is in the negative, then it is best
to leave these subjects to those who did not only
conceive these possibilities, but actually attained
to them. You may, if so advised, take to the
easier course of denying them altogether I
CHAPTER XVI
VRISABHA SEN GANAiDHARA
. .
Wilt, '!ii+R, :tm!l', l
'mf\=« U
['fr. Again and again. I salute the First (Perfect)'
Man, Sri Deva, the Lord of the Conquerors,
who is Undecaying, Immortal, Unperishing, Immut-
able and the Protector of those who have no protection!]
-(Jaina Adoration.)
The ni1·vana of a WORLD TEACHER is termed
the fifth kalyanaka (auspicious event); and devas
and men assemble to celebrate it. When
Deva attained nirvana, devas flocked on the Mount
Kailasa and celebrated the glorious Event in
their usual manner. The bodies of the Perfect
Ones are dispersed, like camphor, and only some
hairs and nails are left behind. Indra collected
the hairs and nails of Deva and created
a body with his powers of illusion to resemble the
Lord's. This body they cremated, and besmear-
ed their own bodies with its ashes. They also
cremated those Ga'ljmlharas and saints who had
reached ni1·vana with the Lord, in separate fires,
188
VRit?ABHA SEN '
the memory of which Indra commended the men
.of the seventh and the higher pratimas (stages
on the householder's path) to preserve by kindling
three fires, the Garkapatya, the Paramakavami-
yaka and the Dakshinagni. Great rej oioings and
dancings took place on the occasion, as is the
custom of the devas.
Bharata was, however, very disconsolate,
and plunged in grief. He did not participate in
the rejoicings in which men joined the devas.
Ga1Jadhara (Apostle) Sen saw
him and spoke to him: '' Surely, this is not an
occasion for grief," said he, " for the Lord has
.gone to the everlasting Abode of the Immortals,
which you and I even are also going to reach very
soon! " After a while Bharata recollected him-
self, and, touching the Holy Feet of the Leader
of Saints, proceeded to his kingdom. He lived
for many years more in the world, but always
filled with growing disgust for its toys and joys.
At last one day he discovered a white hair in his
head and taking it to be the messenger and herald
<>f old age, immediately decided to leave the world.
He appointed Arkakirtd to succeed him, and be-
came a saint. The effect of his growing vairagya
(detachment) · immediately manifested itself in
the form of Telepathy; and he even destroyed his
inimical Karmas within an antaramaku1·ta (less
190
Rif?ABHA DEVA
than 48 minutes' time), attaining to omniscience,
as the reward of his supreme sense of disgust for
the world. He then moved about teaching and
preaching the Noble Truth to the suffering
humanity, and at last attained to the purity of
Spiritual nature, that is nirvana l
Bahubali had already attained Ni1''Dii'l}a from
the Mount K.ailasa, and Sen, the
Apostle, and the other Apostles and many of the
Saints also attained ni1·vii'l}a from different places
on different dates. Those of the Holy Saints who
did not reach ni1·va'l}a at once were reborn in
heavens where also went the pious householders
who followed the Lord Deva. The
ladies of the sangha (community), too, re-incarnat-
ed in the heavens, according to their merit, and
rid themselves of the female form I Many of
them have already reached nirva'l}a in the ages
that have flown by sincel Others are bound to
reach it for a certain ; for it is characteristic of
the true Dharma (Religion) that whosoever is
once moved by [t, for howsoever fleeting a moment
it might be, is sure to be attracted to the Right
Path one day or another, and thus reach the
GoAL of PERFECTION and JOY I
END

RISABHA DEVA •
THE

FOUNDER OF JAINISM

BY

CHAMPAT RAI JAIN
VIDYA.V A.RIDBI 1 BARRISTER-AT-LAW.

ALLAHABAD:

THE INDIAN PRESS, LTD.

1929

Printed by X.. llittra., at the Indian Press, Ltd., Allahabacl,

QONTENTB
Fokiii\VORD INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER

i iii

I Glimpses along Life's Journey ll Obrlditions or Ehrly Existerlce

.

1 50

,

"

III Four and Twenty '.i'iHhaihli:aras . IV The First Worid Teacher

57 74
83

" ,

V Birth and Childhood
VI Family Life . VII Public Lire ; VIII WoHd Flight and Saiihyasii

89

,,
"

95
107
121
•'
I

,,"
"

IX

fJmiiisdiei:toe

X The Samavasarana XI Bahubali

126

139
147 160
171

"

x.ti

Bharata

XIII Peeping into the Future XIV The Community of the Faithful XV Nirvana; XVI
Vri~abha

,
"
il

175

Sen

Galjadhara

188

AnoJiATibN

10.ure (from the Matha Temple at Shravan Belgola) . 6.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 1. . 139 147 The Statue of Bharata in the standing posure (at Shravan Belgola} . Bahubali's Colossus at Shravan Belgola 9. The Tree whose leaves are for the healing of nations. Arrah . from an original design in bronze in one of the J aina Temples at Karanja 4. Ri~abha Deva (from a statue in the Musee Guimet. Paris) 19 L . 129 Tirthamkara 1\Iahavira in the standing post. The Colossus of Ri~abhn Deva at Ba:rwani (much damaged by age) F:re~~·74 2. 6. . 138 7. 136 8. 3. The Statue in padnzasa11a (seated) of· Ri~abha Deva in one or the Temples at Arrah . Tirthamkarn Mahavira (from a Statue in one of the Temples at Arrah) • 113 The' Couch' (samavasarmza) of Maha Vratya (from a painting in the big Jaina Temple at Seoni) 126 The samavasarana after the original in the Jaina Siddhanta Bhawan.

add: He also came to be known as Anantavirya. tary movements 150 171 186 12th 7th lOth 7th . " ..rescribed for a certain had Adinath described for certain " 190 . top Magbava without the volun- of the movements of volition. " bottom top bottom " thigh's economical bhangi thighs economic bhanqis 104 104 105 105 133 3rd lOth 6th 1st economical Harivansa Maghavavit economic Harivan~a.. bottom It hd Adinatb. that is.ERRATA Page line from for read 33 8th 9th 4th 1st 8th lOth 5th 3rd 1st top bottom strong prenatal Akamapana Akamapana Early rajabhiflel~a the strong abiding Akampana Akampana early rajyabhifleka 35 43 65 92 95 101 102 •• top .

.

the support of Dharma. the Lord of Conquerors.f m~ ~ i&trit 1 ~ ~ tm~ ~ .~ ~ :sm(hu ftr. the Supreme Teacher. Salutation I . the first most Excellent .p{ w~ ~mt n To the first PERFECT MAN.Arranger olf things.

.

Innumerable souls have benefited by his Teaching. of all lands and peoples.FOREWORD Risabha Deva was the Founder of J ainism in the present half-cycle of time. The date of Ri~abha Deva's age is simply un-fixable. but became Immortal and a Tirthamkara (Teaching God).di PuraJJ. His life story will be delineated in the following pages. Behari Lal Chaitanya. The account is based on the J aina scripture entitled the .a prepared by Mr. He flourished very very far back in the remoteness of hoary antiquity.A. and taught the Path of Perfection to others. Help has also been taken from an excellent but all too brief abridgment of the Adi Pural}. all allegories. Re was a man. . that have a rational interpretation.a. when properly interpreted. all that can be said about His time is that it was anterior to all forms of rational religion. yield only fragments of the Truth taught by Him. tfor all mythologies. There have been twenty-three subsequent Tirthamkaras who re-affirmed His doctrine.nd would be quite unintelligible and misleading without the light of His Word. . . The J a ina chronology places Him at an almost immeasurable antiquity in the past . a.

~ (cycles) have elapsed f3ince then. 19tlt ltfay. Simla. R. All that can be said defmitely about :His age. hold that he appeared shortly after the formation of the world. 19!29.11 FOREWORD but it . . who recog··nize tlie Tirthamkara as one of the incarnations of Vi~nu. MARIE VILLA. then. and that no ]ess than twenty-eight yuga. The Hindus. JAIN. and tl1at He was prior to al1 systematized forms of religion! C.is under suspicion of being too methodical !in its ct?mputations. is that He flourished very very far back in the hoariest of hoary antiquity.

Mercy and the like. or a fiction. the first dei~ tied man in every cycle of time is the founder of Religion. Religion is eternal. what cannot be conceived definitely and clearly and is consequently unreliable is not a fact I Fact is ever amenable to rational explanation and scientific treatment ! The immortal soul that is to become deified into a God later on in its migratory career. It is either a fact. Whatever is definite.INTRODUCTION Religion originated with man. Veneration. grounded on a fact. Yet as a science. Faith.Teaching Gods. need not astonish us. Love. They may be called . is led to cultivate such powerful virtues as Study. Service. iii . In this way it becomes qualified for deification. certain and reliable is always fact. for all sciences are really eternal! That Religion is a science. Amongst the Deified Ones those who have been consumed by a buming desire to remove the suffering of their fellow-beings and to carry enlightenment and comfort to their hearts become the Tirthamkaras. There is no intermediate state between fiction and fact.

IV INTRODUCTION Tirthamkaras have only appeared amongst the Aryan races. inner experience. observance. all come thus under the jurisdiction of systematized . On the attainment of Omniscience They commence their upadesa (Instruction). and . It is not the accepted teaching of any of the non-Aryan Religions that man can and does become the all-knowing. now abandoning in the presence of modern science. Their gods are all descended from . without exception. Amongst the non-Aryans no one has ever clearly claimed that humanity has attained or may attain to Full Knowledge and Godhood. all-perceiving.heavend ready-made. all-conq~ering (in the spiritual sense). It reduces everything to the iron laws of nature! Faith. so to speak. though not without a struggle. to be sure. however. refuses and has always refused to aclmowledge the existence of a creative or managing god in the universe. They are mythological. bit by bit. Indeed. The ma'TVmade Aryan Religion. They are Omniscient. ever-blissful God. they are all anxious to maintain the supremacy of a solitary imaginary god whom they regard as the creator and the manager of the 'vorld-a claim which they are. as well as emotion. and attain to all the most coveted Perfections that the imagination of man is able to conceive. like the modern science.

An1ongst the Aryans. Religion is founded by MAN. are entangled in the superstition of creative godhood.INTRODUCTION· "fr. and pray to a world-manager for their material and spiritual wants I They. and no one to grant the prayers of humanity l By following Religion man may become in all respects .inism. then. J aina Aryans. too. rather than man's discourse. Divine revelation. too. Who founded religion 1 Was he a man or some non-human being. whether amongst the Aryans or the other races of men. make no claim that religion was founded by mO!fb. and become like him in all respects 1 are questions which find no satisfactory answer outside Ja. thought. and originated amongst the Aryans. it originated with the Jains. There is no creator of the world. In J ainism alone will the seeker find a complete answer to all the above questions. It is a perfect science. is claimed by tliem as the source of their· creeds! Surely. is a science. but it did not have its origin with them. there is no feature O!f scientific thought presented in all this. This is naturally the ma1n feature of a science ! Religion. They. too. not with the nonThere are non-Jaina Aryans. who descended from heaven 1 What did he teach (in a scientific way) 1 Did any one benefit by his teaching.

staTted with the teaching of truth as taught by the Tirthamkaras. as a matter of fact. then. is the Scientific Religion. Its doctrines were bound to spread-comparatively. for the benefit of man. bOth-arise and re-affirm the principles of Truth. unabating Bliss! Jain ism alone. Immortality. the fur-- . and are now living in nir'VOIIJ-a. discovered and disclosed by man. unending. and the advantage of all other living beings! Mythological religions. rather than detailed instruction. Periodically other Teachers -small and great ones. Jainism can give the biographies otf a very large number of souls that have become deified. INTRODUCTION like the Teacher. From its very nature Scientific Religion could not have been a hole and corner affair. however. enjoying such supremely divine and worshipful attributes as Omniscience. get mere fragments. This is but natural. uninterruptable. uninterrupted. too. All mythologies.Vl . You would. will support the teaching or£ Jainism wherever they are found to· be still adhering to the grain of the truth pushed and buried under fiction and fable. very slowly in those early days of the bullock cart and the camel cara'Dan. The attainment of divinity by man was not intended to be kept and could not be kept a secret.

INTRODUCTION

vii

ther you travelled from. the Enlightening Source. This is precisely what is to be lfouna in the mythologies of the world to-day. Bits and fragments are to be found so disconnected and disjointed that it is almost a Herculean task to refit them into their proper shape. The true principles of the interpretation of the difier~nt mythologies and scriptures of the world have been explained in my earlier works,' The Key of Knowledge,' ' The Confluence of Opposites,' and others. If any one would study religion, as a science ought t<> he studied, he would not, I am confident, differ from what has been said in those books, concerning the nature of religion and the interpretation of the world's scriptures. Full, penetrating, all-elucidating light is. only to be found in Jainisrn. Let us, however, not misdirect ourselves on the subject, and look out in the existing records of Jainism for a complete or perfectly untampered account of the Instruction of Truth, as imparted by the first or even by the last Tirthamkara, Mahavira. Ma]lavira flourished something like two thousand five hundred years ago. J ainism has experienced many vicissitudes since. Bitter persecution of J ainas at the hands of the devotees and members of the rival faiths characterized many centuries Off the Jaina history in the past. Jaina Scriptures

Vlll

...

INTRODUCTION

later were used to kindle the fires in the baths of. the invading foreign potentates. Much has,· in this way, disappeared of the teaching of truth. Much had already been lost ere this on account of the growing inability of men to retain in their memories the whole of the Teaching of Truth, which was for the first time reduced to writing Interpolations, long long after Mahavira. embodying Brahmanical ritual, would also appear to have been made in some of the Jaina Books, to soften and appease Brahmanical hatred. Probably this was the only means left under the circumstances of preserving the Faith n.nd the community of the Faithful. Some of the Hindu gods also were given minor seats in the J a ina temples, about this time, with a similar motive. They are termed J(shet?·apala (the Protectors of the place). They certainly protected the temples from Hindu fury; but failed against the Muslim· onslaught. Hindu converts into Jainism were also not unlikely to introduce (quite unwittingly and with the best of motives of course) their earlier impressions of the Hindu mythology into the J aina Tradition. All this is quite natural and intelligible on natural grounds. But notwithstanding all these drawbacks, J ainism is still able to present a dignified religion and a doctrine that is altogether scientific in its exposition, and

INTRODUCTION

lX

which furnishes a practical solution of all of life's true problems that religion is concerned with. It is at once a science, a religion, a philosophy, and a soul-elevating ritual. As such, 'it is capable of raising the worst sinner to the full 'status and dignity of Divinity in the course of, comparatively speaking, a short time. The final test of real Truth, I think, should be the ability of a system to reconcile all others, that contain the truth or the grain of truUh.. This, I can say, is a feature of Jainism alone, as has been demonstrated in the books that have been named already. .A:ny one can, no doubt, claim this privilege for his faith; but we do not want mere talk of large-heartedness and all that sort of thing. No one who has pinned his faith to mythology, whether it assume the monotheistic or polytheistic form or any other, can ever reconcile himself to others or become the medium of the reconciliation otf others. The J aina doctrine of Relativity of Thought it is which is able to accomplish this feat; not.hing else ever will I J ainism originated in India. This is evident frmn the J aina Books. Besides this two other considerations fully support the J aina view in this respect. The first· is the philological, and the second mythological. Much has ·already been said on the first ·point by· earlier investigators,

X

INTRODUCTION

European and Indian both, to show that traces of Sanskrit derivation are to be found in the different languages in a great many countries of the world. Now, some of these investigators thought that the home of the Aryan race must have been somewhere in Central Asia to enable the subsequent divergences to spread out in all directions. The argument does not appeal to my mind, and has not appealed to the minds of many another thinker. There is no place in Central Asia (indeed, anywhere outside India) which can be put down as the home of Sanskrit or of any other language capable of giving birth to it. India, on the other hand, actually is the home of Sanskrit even to-day ! The other consideration which I regard as conclusive is what I have termed mythological. This is based upon the undoubted presence in the mythologies of the world of the '' grain of Truth," that is to say, of the Ti-rthamkara's teaching about the nature of the soul, about its inherent divinity, about transmigration and karma, and about the soul's ability to obtain ni1·vana. Now, it is certain that in no other part of the World than India was this teaching given out. In other countries you come across mythology, not science; and a Tirthamkara would never preach mytihology or resort to mythological language to spread His doctrine. This is so

They were fo\llowed by others. without exception. and will end completely the moment it is thrown away by men. Later a sharp division occurred between the Scientific section and the mythologists. on account of its endea. Probably the mythological allegorising took place for the first time in India. Some O!f the followers of the Tirthamkara's creed took to allegorising at a time when there were no Omniscient Teachers to warn them. All the chief religious quarrels of men have risen. those who allegorised first of all are the Hindus 1 Thus. India. This makes it quite clear that the source of Truth could never have arisen outside Jainism or outside India. then. outsiders also copying Aryan allegorists. through mythology.INTRODUCTION xi because mythology. It came to be known as Bharatvar~a after Bharata who was the first great Chakravarti (the term signifies a . is sure to mislead humanity in the end. no other country than India can be found that may be termed the birth-place of both the Sanskrit language and of the Religion of the people who spoke that tongue.vour to conceal and disguise the truth under the attractive grurb of allegory. The descendants of the tformer are termed J ainas to-day. and the pastime proved very attractive. Huge pantheons soon rose. must be the real home of the Aryans.

namely. The Hindus allegorised Religion itself as Ri~abha.' both parties settling down in the land. I. and included Him amongst the incarnations of their chief divinity. and the ' Permanent ·History of Bharatvarsha/ Vol. The other considerations are all minor ones and will not afiect the two main arguments that have been advanced above. one way or the other. The so-called aborigines are really not the original residents of India. according to J ainism.·Xii INTRODUCTION ·great Emperor) of the Aryans and the son of the Both the first Tirthamkara. according to the past tradition. Vi~:r. and no reason can be found for rejecting the account altogether. as a symbol for Religion. Then there was a very determined invasion from the north in subsequent times which. in support of this view. Hindu and the J aina traditions maintain this view. thus implicitly acknowledging Him as the founder of Religion proper (see ' The Confluence of Opposites. There have been several influxes into India in the past. however. 213). ended in a 'stale mate. p. They also make use of the Tirthamkara's distinguishing mark.tu. the bull. These mainly are the important influxes.vii. A very large number of men from other countries came into India with Bharata himselft when he returned from his worldconquest.' Lecture . . Ri~abha Deva.

in the country of Gandhila.CHAPTER I GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY SOME PRE·VIOUS INC. !ncalculably long. He did not cherish resentment or disaffection towards the authors of his being.AmATIONS. and revolted against the parental authority. Watson. Jaya Varma " Arise and conquer while ye can. The foe that in your midst resides . The parents were very fond of their younger son. Any other prince in p~ace of Jaya Varma would have resented this unkindly act. Sri Sen ·was the king of Indra puri." W. who was really very beautiful. ago. His queen' was Sundari. as the name implied. But Jaya Varma \Yas a different being. Jaya Varma and $ri Varina who was the younger. The Empire that abides. 1. and appointed him their successor. long. and did not seek to oust his . And build within the mind o£ man. From her Sri Sen had two sons. Long.

and earned much merit as a yogi (ascetic). VVhen he became old he took to sannyasn (asceticism). Sahasrabala was at one time the king of this place. and. The fruit of asceticism usually is a birth in the heavens. Mahabala Alkapuri is situated on a hill in one of the distant Provinces of the J ambu Dvipa. The incident merely filled him with renunciation. and sought refuge at the rfeet of a J a ina Saint. One day he was bitten by a serpent and died of the venom. after a long and prosperous reign. because at the moment of death he was swayed by the kingly pomp and splendour of a great VidyadhM' whom he had seen just about that time. which had made him long for similar conditions for himself in his next incarnation ! 2. to look after his spiritual well-being. internal and external. He was duly admitted in the order. He reincarnated as a son to Atibala. J aya Varma did not attempt to kill the vermin and cherished no resentment in his heart. His son Satabala succeeded him. but Jaya Varma failed to secure it. by practising the twelve kinds of asceticism.2 RI§ABHA DEVA younger brother from the throne. from his queen Manohara. king of Alkapuri. he was seized with the spirit of world-flight. followed in the foot- .

then became the king of Alkapuri.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 3 steps of his father. his son. too. Mahabala was not only a great king. He had four ministers who rfavoured four different creeds. and Svayambuddha.ati. and renounced the world. but he. Atibala was a great king. Sambhinnam. These were: . he was also a great thinker. was J ainism. who held that things were unreal. The family religion of the king. karma. as stated above. For a long time he enjoyed life and was much respected by all. took to asceticism. Satamati. . to rid himself of the enemy. Mahabala succeeded him. too. who was a materialist. They nailed him Mahabala.Mahamati. Atibala. Re married the fair· princess Manohara. The soul of Jaya Varma took birth as a son to Atibala and Manohara. but Svayambuddha felt inu. being really only so many 'ideas'. who was a J aina.appearance of the signs of old age. who maintained the doctrine of voidness.so that the possession of wealth might not stand in the way of the future prosperity of his soul. As the fruit of his previous life's asceticism. Mahabala was endowed with many great virtues and was surrounded by all kinds of splendours and the good things of the world. and wanted to turn his thoughts definitely towards dharma (religion).ch anxiety about him. at the .

Intolerable sufiertng.4 Rlf?ABHA DEVA One day the king was celebrating his birthday with great pomp. thing as a soull No one has ever seen one." . is the lot <?f those who are vicious. Let this thought spur your· 'majesty on to greater effort for the conquest of the lower nature. to religion. Svayambuddha seized hold otf a suitable opportunity to turn the conversation towards the great need for turning. friend Svayambuddha 1" bToke in Mahamati. and who do not. '' there is no good in afflicting oneself with tapaschm·a1J-a. '' All pomp and prosperity. For whosebenefit are the hardships to be endured 1 ]'or the soul's 1 Bah ! I tell you there is no such . and you cannot prove its existence to me today: Oneshould enjoy his days to the best of his ability. under him were present in his court. '' were due to merit acqui. All the leading chieftains. for there is a complete end when once the vital flame is extinguished.red in the previous life. and the splendour was unequalled. no n1erit can be acquired by the soull " ''Not so. Your glory." be said. mend their ways. Those who squander away their time in thepursuit of pleasure have to put up with much misfortune in the future. 0 king ! is. the materialist. entirely the reward of the merit earned by you in your past life. For without tapas (austerities).

What is the good of embark·ing on such a wild goose's chase as eternal life in nirvana 1 ' Svayambuddha heard all that his three ·colleagues had to say against his faith. nothing that can be said to be everlasting. what you see is only thought! Why. Look at that rbeautiful string of heavenly gems that is encircl·ing your majesty's neck! Was it not given to an ::ilJust-rious ancestor of yours by a resident of the JJevaloka (heavens) ? And who was that deva . It is ·not a mere theory that I have set before your majesty. ' There is nothing permanent. in your own illustrious family there is much biographical matter to demonstrate the -truth orf the doctrine of the creed. he said. the reality -of the soul is not open to doubt or dispute. extinction is the goal of all. '' Sire.' There are no things or ·objects." interposed Sambhinna·mati.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 5 '' And I tell you. ·then. '' what you call the reality of na:ture is only ~ bundle of ' ideas. and he was -not slow to preach his favourite doctrine of voidness. When ·they ceased talking. and make the best of it? " It was the turn of Satamati now. run after such imaginary shadows as life after death 1 Why waste your energies in thus pursuing the will o' the wisp 1 Why not be happy" -with what you have got.

no doubt. as a monster snake.imali's father the deva was called Dnnda.imali lea. and. In his human incarnation as JVIa"Q. sir.imali. and was very fond of the pleasures of life. He was a powerful ldng. iJf not his own father who had re-incarnated in heavens in his third incarnation 1 I will tell you.6 Rlf?ABHA DEVA who gave it to Ma:Q.rnt from a clairvoyant saint that his father had reincarnated in his own palace. He went to the Treasury cl1amber. At last he died. and he recovered the memory of his past life. and had also recovered the memory of b1s past life. explained to him the nature of the scientific dlta1·ma (Jainism) which alone is helpful to a soul in distress. and in consequence of the predominance of the animal nature was reborn as a huge serpent in his own treasury. so much so that he made over his throne to his son and abandoned himse1f to pleasure-seeking with his whole heart. and sense-grati- . though you have heard it ere this. amid much sorrow and regret. and was fully convinced of the folly of a life of pleasure. sat down quietly there before the snake. the story of this beautiful necklace. He was filled with sorrow. About that time Mal}. and overwhelmed with grief at the unhappy condition in which he found himself. There the sight of his own riches stimulated his recollection. The serpent followed him attentively.

and renouncing tfood and water immediately settled down to perform the sallekhana vow. He at once adopted the minor vows of the dltarma. and presented him with this divine necklace. and Danda's jiva (soul) found out that the cause of his great good luck was his son.. Can you after this doubt that there is a survival of the soul a~ter death 1 Any one in your kingdom will vouch for the truth of this matter.-eat ancestor.fai). and.imali. Nay they impressed your wise grandfather so much that he. taking to saintly litfe. which has descended to your majesty in due course! Such is the history of your gu. Danda. too. whose preaching had changed his heart. and was immediately reborn among the deva. as the result of the severe asceticism implied in the accomplishment of the sallekhana death. are lmown to one and all throughout the length and breadth of your kingdom. made over his kingdom to your majesty's grandfather. .GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 7 fica tion. renounced the world and became an ascetic. Sahasrabala. In due course he shook off his serpentine coil. The devas are all endowed with clairvoyance from birth. became omniscient and obtained salvation. ].~. How he renounced the world. as it is not a very old one. '' I will yet tell you the story of your own great-grandfather.. He then came to thank his son personally. and.

On the other hand. His soul passed into the regions known. boiling with rage. therefore. He. and was pierced with his O'Wn weapon. however. K. is now that he is dead here living in one of the higher heavens! Your majesty's own father. which he will do in this very life. who is still in the flesh.. because he had discovered.8 Rif?ABHA DEVA as clairvoyant saints will tell your majesty. with a drawn sword in his hand. whoreincarnated as a serpent. had a tank dug and filled with reddish-coloured water. Arabinda discovered the deception practised by his son. even to please his father. that blood relieved his suffering. . in consequence of abandoning himself to excessive sense-indulgence. But Kurubinda had a good heart. we have seen how evil leads to degradation in the scale of life in the case of King Danda. There is also the story of King Arabinda who was attacked with some hideous form of disease and who wanted to bathe himself in the blood of animals. His cup of evil was. is likewise seeking to enter nirvana. All this is the result of severe self-denial on the proper dl1-a1·mic pa. he fell in his haste. Atibala.th.urubinda. Accordingly he asked his son. and. accidentally. on account of the terrible condi- "=---. to kill him. now full to the brim. to dig a tank and to fill it up with tlie blood of animals. and would not sacrifice so many innocent lives. ran.

and -there he is still! " After Svayambuddha ceased speaking. who only desired the good of . there ·was complete silence for some time. did not find his anxiety ·eased. The saints told him t. as hells. irf he could. The audience were much jmpressed: but the king did not ·say anything on the subject. and related his trouble to them. and kept his thoughts -to himJself." he said.ha t the king had only a month left to live. "to give your majesty news that is very important. by my three colleagues. and saw . which they also told him. the real state of the king's thoughts on the subject. indeed. " I have.yambuddha. But first of all let me relate to you the two dreams which you dreamed last night. So Svayambuddha immediately sought the presence of his master . in the first dream.. your majesty's ministers. Sva. ::~nd sought to find out in some way. that l1e was a great soul and would become the first ·-Tirthamkara in a future cycle of time in his tenth re-birth 1 They also told him that he had seen two dreams during the night. You saw yourself thrown into deep mud and bogs. One day he met two clairvoyant saints who were called Adityagati and Arinjaya. and advised him to go to him and to -tell him his dreams and their interpretation.come.his royal master. which they described to him.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 9 -tions of existence that prevail there.

sire. the end that is sought by all the truly great. The purport of the first of these dreams. . I rejoice to tell you that you will become the first Tirthamkara of your time in Bharatvar~a in your tenth incarnation from this. made arrangements for the care of his kingdom. who was surprised to find his dreams being known to one of his ministers. gradually becoming paler. and determined from that very moment to embark on the voyage of soul's prosperity along the path of sanmyasa.10 Rlf?ABHA DEVA me help you out of it. and prepared for the noble sallekltana. The king was much affected by the information thus miraculously furnished. till it was extinguished. The interpretation of the second dream is tinged with sadness and sorrow tfor me. In the other one you saw a burning flame. in other words. It means that the spark of life in your present body will be extinguished in a month's time I " Svayamhuddha then narrated the story of his interview with the saints to the king. is to help you to attain nir'Dana. is that the doctrine that I have promulgated before your majesty. He gave away costly gifts to the deserving. the noble and ennobling creed of the Jinas (Conquerors).

that is.S of the universe. it can pass through space at a rate of speed that will put the motion of light to shame. at will. The residents of heavens possess the outer bodies of a type that is bright and resplendent. than the other is a prison-Siberia of a divine cresar or czar. and that readily obeys the impulses of the owner's will. light or heavy.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 11 3. The one is· no more a pleasure garden kept by a supreme kinglike god. All the residents of heavens are endowed with clairvo!}"- . No doubt. they drop down from a circular bell-like orifice in hells. It can become big or small. only the pain is felt and there is no permanent mutilation or deprivation of an organ or limb. but the hells are constituted by those regions which are the reverse otf heavens. there is no premature death in either heavens or hells. People rise up from a 'bed' in th~ heavens. Conditions of existence· are very very pleasant in the heavens. Souls take birth in heavens (also in hells) as they do here. but it is re-formed immediately. you can cut up or divide the body in either place. but there is no conception to be· undergone. Lalitanga Jainism shows heavens (as also hells) to be but separate regioiil. Their growth is accomplished almost at once-in less than eight and forty minutes -and the bodies are indestructible.

Panc)ta-Pa?·anz. of the Liberated Ones. it is ethereal. recitation of the great -obeisance mantram and the cultivation of the spirit _of ~etac:hment from the physical body occupied his time. of Saint-s and Preceptors a. -adoration of the Great Tirthamkaras. but we are not concerned with their description here. gradually other kinds of diet were also abandoned. He began by giving up solid food at once. All this is due simply to the fact that the material of their bodies is not gross like ours.nd the ordinary Sadhus (ascetics). collectively termed .e?tlLi. He devoted the whole of that period to the eradication of his lower nature. Holy meditation. to the exclusion of all other thoughts. and the suppression of private loves and hatreds. The latter was now his spiritual counsellor. For the present let us turn to the . the subduing of his passions and emotional propensities. as he had been his temporal councillor (minister) when he was a king. Mahabala understood full well the importance of the time that was still left to him for the shaping of his destiny for the future well-being 'Of his soul. Thereafter his sustenance con- . He vmrked under the guidance of Svayambuddha ·all the time.fate of the soul whom we left engaged in the ·observance of the sallekl~ana death. The conditions in hells are different.12 RI§ABHA DEVA ance from birth.

His mind was at rest. In this way excellence atfter excellence was attained by him in the course of that month. forgiveness. soul-force. tiny specimen of life that might be hiding about or under it. Even this he would handle extremely carefully to see that by his carelessness he should not cause hurt or harm to some. meekness. He also practised self-control with regard to the activities of his body. he. came to him. mind and_ speech. especially for those who were unable to take care of themselves. except written scripture describing the teaching of the dlzarma. strength of character. and the· like. a hater of none! It also· found him firmly established in the spirit of renunciation and filled with santi (tranquillity) that nothing could disturb. that are the characteristics of the true dhm·ma. and acquired unruffled mental calm in consequence of the. understood the nature of things. He would not touch anything of worldly goods now.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 13· sisted only of the a1nbrosia of dharma (the teaching of Truth) 1 He cultivated. the end of t:he mon~h found him a well-wisher of all. understanding ! Thus. the spirit of mercy and compassion for all. to perfection. Internal peace. He practised the ten noble virtues. . as if in exchange for worldly greatness and kingly pomp. straightforwardness.

He wondered where he was. little or no time to think. MaJlabala. " Ah. A great deva was expected to grace the heavens! Only a moment intervened between the departure of the great spirit ifrom the body of flesh and the returning of consciousness. I now recollect. it was very fascinating! He got.culminating in the separation of the old companions-the spirit and the body of flesh-a movement was noticed among the lovely ' draperies' of the birth-bed in the heavens. and took their stand in due form round it. . the organising forces were still at work furiously. however. He opened his eyes.f the devas and the heavenly nymphs l Mahabala was now called Lalitanga (literally. opened but again ' closed' his eyes at once." he said to himseltf. " I am Mahabala 1 " It was the faculty of clairvoyance which had matured in the interval. got up. But whatever it was. remem- . The splendour of deva-life was too much for his consciousness. Instantly the devas surrounded the heavenly throne. now embodied in the ethereal matter of the ·celestial regions. and was overwhelmed with the delightful scenery of the heavens and the attentions o.14 Rlf?ABHA DEVA As sallekhanii ripened into accomplishment. He got up. Perhaps it was a dream that he beheld. of attractive limbs). and.

But no one can another deva. Amongst the many wonders of the deva-life is the fact that the devas of the lowest heavens breathe but once in a fortnight. went to worship the Tirthaml{aras in the Temples of the devaloka (heavens).represented.alleviate such sufferjng. though the deva-ladies do not the . is what would barely suffice the gluttony of a sparrow on the earth. as there are no needy folk there. The troubles are only mentaljealousy at the greater brilliance and beauty of like. There is not even public work to be done in the heavens. Thence he returned and settled down to the deva-life which is like one continuous feast of pleasure. They do not have to . In the lower heavens both the sexes are . The quantity. There is nothing of labour or industry known in the abodes of devas. In the higher heavens the interval between meals and breaths increases proportionately. Fun and frolic characterise the life of those who find themselves so placed as to have nothing whatsoever to do. The food that their ethereal bodies need is not like that of the mortals.sweat themselves !for their livelihood. In the lower heavens it is taken once in a thousand years.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 15 'bering that his good fortune was due to the effect ·Of the practising of dha1·ma. . too. and .

16

RI~ABHA

DEVA

conceive or give birth to children. They form companionate marriages, and spend their time in ease and happiness. The little food that is needed is obtained from certain kinds of trees, that do not need to be grown or looked after. The softer sex, it would seem, is represented much more numerously in the heavens than the other one. It may be that women are given to the practising of self-denying austerities in a greater measure than men all the world over, and, therefore, readily reach heavens in larger numbers. However that may be, there are a larger number of deva-ladies than de-vas, in the Io,ver heavens. Mahabala, too, had four thousand companionate wives. in the second heaven. But his favourite de·van~gna (queen) was the beautiful 8vayam Prabha, who was passionately devoted to him. She was a very lovely lady. The two were almost always together, and found much joy in each other's company. Together they would resort to the celestial pleasances, and roam about, hand in hand, over hill and dale, inhaling the beauty of nature, the beauty which the mort::~.l eye has not seen nor the · mortal ear heard cf. Together, too, they would go to worship the God Arhant Deva (Tirthamkara) in the Celestial Fanes. In this way they spent the incalculably

GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY

17 ·

long time of the deva-life enjoying each other's com.pany, and linking up, unwittingly and automatically, their future destinies! It is a law mf stern nature that all thing~ that are not simple substances have sooner or later to experience dissolution. The deva-body is also a compouna, and not free from the liability to dissolution and disintegration for that reason. The soul alone is a simple, hence an immortal, item in the compound of spirit and matter termed embodied life. True, the deva-body is indestructible from external causation; but it is not eternal, and must perish when the forces responsible for the association of spirit and matter in embodied life cease to function from within. When six months of life remain, the signs o.f approaching end appea,r in the deva-body. The garland of flowers that is placed round the neck is the first to fade away. Bodily lustre is then affected and begins to deteriorate. One morning Lalitanga, too, noticed the saddening signs in his body. There was no mistafdng them; they were there to give a warning of the approaching end ! He was filled with dismay. The thought of the joys that he will be denied after six months made him sorrowful. Svayam Prabha and others, however, consoled him. The King of the sixF. 2

18

Rif?ABHA DEVA

teenth heaven who was his friend, then took him to his own region, where Lalitanga spent his closing hours, worshipping the Divinity in the Temples of Jinas (Conquerors). Svayam Prabha was much distressed by the death of Lalitanga. But she wus somewhat relieved to discover that her own end was to take place six months later, and soon resigned herself to stern fate. She spent those remaining months of her deva-life in constant worship and veneration of the Jina's statues in one of the Heavenly Temples. Thus did she prepare herself for the coming, ' dissolution ' of her deva-form.
4. Bajrajangha

In the East Videha of the Jambu Dvipa, there is a country known as Pu£?kalavati. U tp 1lakhetaka and Pundarikini are two important kingdoms in it. Emperor Bajradanta reigned in the last-named kingdom; his sister's husband, Bajrabahu, was the king of the other. On the termination of the deva-life Lalitanga was bo:rn a son to Bajrabahu from his queen Basundhara. Bajrabahu called his son Bajrajangha. The name was quite appropriate because the janghiis (thighs) of Bajrajangha were supremely beautiful and strong. Bajrabahu also had a daughter whom he called Anundhari.

GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY

'

19

Svayam Prabha's soul, too, descended from 'heaven and was born in Pu~kaHivati. She became the daughter of the Emperor Bajradanta, who ·called her Srimati. She had a brother, Amitateja. Srimati was a very beautmul girl. Her face was like the full moon in brightness. Her manners· were very engaging. She received a good education, and grew up into a very charming young lady"the daughter of the greatest king of her times. People did not marry their children at an early age in those ancient days. This practice grew up under the stress of necessity when the non-Aryans came and established themselves and their slaughter houses and 'bloody' altars all over the land. To raise man-power it was found desirable to allow no capable female to remain unproductive. It was then that people said: ' If your daughter is unmarried at the time when the flow of blood appears you will go to hell with the whole of your kinsmen and clan.' This was literally true. For if the ranks of the fighting men were not filled up, and the people were carried off captives and slaves of war, what else was to be expected 1 They would be forced to abandon their faith~ ki.ll poor innocent living beings for their master's table, and be forced to eat flesh

and the deva. Srimati grew up into loveliness and youth. One morning as sl1e awol{e from her sleep. music and voices mingling Ul) indistinctly. and not unoften of many who were no't directly concerned in not assisting in the procreation of fighting men. But this was not so in the days of purely Aryan culture. formed the hubbub that she had heard. too. knowing that the· consequences of such a terrible change can only be a descent into hell of all those concerned. without any one thinking it necessary to marry her before the appearance of the signs of full mature puberty. and learnt that during the night gri Yasodharji Saint had attained Omniscience.s frmn the Celestial regions were oomring down to worship the Holy One. She enquired the cause. combined with the l1eavenly music. and was reminded of the joys she had experi- . she heard a great commotion. It w~~ the sound of their jaya-karas (hurrahs of ' Victory') which. that every girl must be married before she become menstruant. The sight stirred her deeply. as a scriptural injunction. She recollected all at once her past life as Svayam Prabha ! She remembered Lalitanga. Srimati then saw the devas herself coming down and going up in the sky. it touched a deep-seated chord somewhere in her heart. laid it down.20 Rif?ABITA DEVA themselves ! Some wise man.

gave her a new nurse who was very highly gifted. The newcomer proved to be a real -companion and whole-heartedly entered into ·svayam Prabha's plans. and placed it on the ' wall in the picture gallery there. her mistress. too much for her to bear. finding no change in her melancholy. but she did not tell them its cause.so much overwhelmed with misery that it was impossible to explain it to any one. She was now doubly determined to leave no stone unturned in search of her past-lilfe's lover. where Lalitanga was born. Who could be expected to sympathise with such a wild goose's scheme as hers or to encourage such a resolve 1 But Svayam Prabha's was not an ordinary soul. surely. Srimati's nurse one day took a painting executed by Srimati. to this Temple. if possible. but determined in her mind to find out. She felt that the affinity between herself and her deva-lover would in all probability not -admit of. Her father one day. her taking birth far away from him. and to marry none else but him. There was a big Temple called Mahaputa ·chaityalaya in her father's kingdom. She. When she came to she was . The recoUection of such -a past was. therefore.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 21 ·enced in his company. It was a series . held her peace. she -fainted right away. Her parents noticed the change that had come over her.

over those which delineated the detail of the heavenly life of himself and Svayam Prabha together. The handsome prince Bajrajangha came one day to the Temple to worship the Jinas. mysterious and. especially. But he felt riveted to the spot. He . Till then he knew nothing of Svayam Prabha. had been subtly contrived by the lovely artist. and guessed the purpose of the display. and sauntered into the picture gallery after the devotions. and as he looked at the scenic detail a great agitation. the picture. For days the picture hung on the wall. At last the search was rewarded. or even the fact that he had been a deva in the second heaven in his previous life. But they rfailed in the test which. Two men on one occasion thought that the picture represented scenes from deva-life. some cut jokes at what they termed the ' silly ideas ' of the artist. unaccountable. Many passed by taking no notice of.22 Rif?ABHA DEVA of panels of scenes from her deva-life which Srimati had reproduced on the canvas. He was attracted by the picture. Bajrajangha's interest and fascination for the picture grew from moment to moment. with the nurse watching by its side to catch the remarks of the spectators. and went away crest-fallen before the nurse. his mind lingering over the panels. took hold of his mind.

he felt the warmth of intimacy grow in his soul ! He immediately lost conscio111sness. and stood like a statue. The chakra is a divine weapon which would seem to be attracted by the magnetism of certain really g1·eat kings. and was at once caught in the arms of the watchful nurse! In the meanwhile the Emperor had discovered the divine weapon termed cltak1·a in his arsenal. since the commencement of the present cycle. There have been only twelve chakravartis (emperors) in Bharatvar~a. fell senseless to the ground. recognition of the past shot through his recollection. reward of great meritorious work in the previous lives. He afterwards proceeded to examine the chakra that had come of its own accord. for at the very sight of the Arhant his own mind became so much purified that he acquired the gift of clairvoyance on the spot. which began untold millions of ages ago ! . He first o.f all went to worship the Saint who had obtained Omniscience as the reward of his tapaschara7Ja (austerities).GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 23 forgot himself. Still greater luck awaited him ther~. motionless and unmoving. as the . All of a sudden a ray of light came into his eyes. Its possessor is known as chakravm·ti (the owner or wielder of the cltakra).

Another marriage was arranged between Amitateja and Anundhari at tlie time. On getting home. and assured her that she would be bringing the glad tidings in the course of the day to her beloved mistress. too. in the Mahapiita Chaityalaya.24 RI~:ABHA DEVA Taking the cltalc1·a with him. He returned home on the very day when Bajrajangha was discovered as the re-incarnated form of Lalitanga by Srimati's nurse. and the general aspect of gloom· was lifted from the minds of all who were devoted to her. For months and years the story of the great love of Srimati and Bajrajangha was related in all households in the kingdom l . By the power of clairvoyance he. had come to lmow the real facts about the love between his daughter and his own sister's son in their previous lives. as already described. and there were great celebrations. he comtforted her affectionately and told her that he had come to know all about the discovery of Lalitanga by her nurse. with great eclat in Pundarildni. leaving the new nurse with his daughter. Srima ti was much rejoiced.va'rti started on the conquest of the world. In due course of time a marriage was proposed and performed of Srimati and Bajrajangha. Events shaped themselves as the Chalc1·ava1·ti had predicted. the cltak1·a.

Lakshmimati and hi~ mother Anundhari. too small yet. nay the ambition. before renormcing the world.adhar Saint initiated the Emperor later. and spent much of their time together. Many children were born to Srimati. His grandmother. enjoying the pleasures of life. At last he placed his grandson Pundarika on the throne. and also worshipping the Lord Arhant. placed the 1atter on the throne of his ancestors and became an ascetic saint under Sri Y amadhara Saint. who was the sister of Bajrajangha. and took to saintly life. Pundarika was. whom they regarded as the source otf their great good luck. Amitateja and others who were born subsequently. They all retired from the householder's life with their father. and they were all wise and healthy children. In the fulness of time Bajrabahu the royal father of Bajrajangha. Sri Gal). sent urgent messengers to Bajrajangha to take . too. of all great men in those days to renounce the world and to practise tapascltara'l}a for controlling their destiny. Srimati and Bajrajangha were devoted to each other. however. but they refused to be burdened with worldly filth that had to be given up ultjmately.· to give his kingdom to his sons. The latter sought. It used to be the practice.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 25 Lovers from the heavens and reunited lovers again now.

gathered there fearlessly and sat down. The Saints were enlightened with supernal knowledge and Bajrajangha and his queen were overjoyed at their good luck. he had halted for the da. and \Vere present at the feeding of the Saints. the commander of his fl. the saints whose names were Damadhara and Sagar Sen.ppened to come that way. Four members of the animal kingdom. While Bajrajangha was going with his queen to Pundarikini. and Bajrajangha arranged •for the management of the affairs of the kingdom. the family Pandit. Akampana. namely.rmies. and then went back to his own capital. with apparent satisfaction. a Lion and a J:ongoose. gratified the assembly with religious discourse. Bajrajangha and Srimati came to Pundarildni in con1pliance with the wishes of these ladies. Amongst the faithful adherents of Bajrajangha were his minister J:ativara. a Pig. a l:onkey. and had the privilege of giving food to two Jaina Saints who ha. and without molesting any one ! After partaking of the food in the prescribed manner. These were much attached to tJheir lcing.26 RI~ADHA DEVA care of the child. At the same time a r-aDarkable thing was noticed by the company present. and a millionaire Dhana litra. watching the feeding of saints. Ananada. Then Bajrajangha .y in a wood on the way.

GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 27 who lmew of their inner illumination. in cmisequence of her asceticism. who also told her how to expiate her sin by special fasts. a Vaisya by caste. by name Nirnama. She was in one of her past lives a Vaisya girl. when she was lmown as Dhanasri. She was told that. Bajrajangha put many questions to the Saints about the past lives of some of his friends and companions. and was o:f an exceedingly . and then described those of Srimati. One day she met an illumined Saint. and became Nirnama. sat before them with foJded hands and prayed them to narrate his own and Srimati's previous lives. and afterwards was reborn as Svayam Prabha. The Saints related the previous lives of Bajrajangha from that of J aya Varma. and asked him the cause of her ill luck. but had immediately repented of it on being gently warned by the Saint. She observed the fasts properly. in his previous incarnation. in the heavens. and finally asked one of them to narrate the previous histories of the four animals that sat so quiet and fearless among men. and lived in poverty and squalor. She had on one occasion thrown a dog's flesh before Sri Samadhigupta saint. and molested no one. the Sage Pihitasrava. The Saint said that the Lion was one U grasen.. it was the effect of her insulting an ascetic in one of her earlier lives.

He even tried to help himself to tili. He used to sell eatables in a small way. and was caught and roughly handled. and showed much disrespect even to his parents. nicknamed Lolupa. The Monkey was one Nagdatta in his previous lilfe. One day he forcibly possessed himself of certain provisions from the royal stores. to clandestinely remove some of the old big bricks that were lying in the debris. and was called Haribahana. by giving them bread and other eatables. It so happened that some of the . but in this he failed. His low criminal character has dragged him into a monkey's form after death. He was a great rogue and given to swindling others by fraud. These the workmen brouaht .r the king.ar. He had a very proud disposition. One day he induced certain labourers who were engaged in building a house fo. The Pig was a raja's son.28 RTf?ABHA DEVA irascible disposition. Pride has brought about his fall from the status of a man to that of a pig ! The Mongoose was a miser.e up vehemently. One day he was running away in defiance of the parental authority when he lmocked against a stone pillar and was killed instantly.o to his place. In consequence of the beating he then received he died and became a lion.e things that his mother had purchased for the marriage ceremony of his sister . He was easily excited and would then :B.

so that they would obtain . One day it so happened that he had to go to his daughter's village. and this was the reason why they were sitting fearlessly and without molesting any one. blinded by rage and the lust of gold. and. struck and killed him. The treasure probably belonged tothe person who had built the original structure that was pulled down by the workmen. added that the sight of giving food to the Jaina Saint in the approved manner had brought to their recollection their past lives. and made the workmen remove a few bricks every day to his place. Then he struck a blow with a hatchet on his own legs. Lolupa kept the gold to himself. and he left instructions with his son to ask the workmen for more bricks. because had they not carried him to his daughter's village he would not have failed to secure more bricks. but the latter did not do so. In the night when Lolupa got back he was furious to know that his son had not got any more bricks. without the lmowledge of any one. Their joy at the reverential offering of food would act exactly in the same way as if they had themselves been the givers. For these he gave cheap food to the men. On his death he became a mongoose ! The Saint having narrated these lives.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 29 bricks were found to contain gqld bars hidden inside them.

the residents have not to earn their bread by sweating in· any sense. which has a beginning but no end. too. had an end. The long continuous life of pleasure of Bajrajangha and Srimati. locked in each other's embrace. Every thing that has a beginning in time has also an end sooner or later. One night the servants in charge of the sleeping apartments iforgot to open the ventilators. in their turn. The sleeping eouple lay fast asleep. It came quite unexpectedly. like heavens. after lighting the incense in the braziers that used to diffuse fragrance throughout the night. The term blwgabAumi is a compound of bltoga (enjoyment) and b!tumi (land). The regions . The Bhogabhumija Bajrajangha and Srimati now appear in what is termed bkogabkumi.30 RI~ABHA DEVA very prosperous and auspicious conditions in their next lives. They were happy and did what they could to make others happy. and signifies the region where. That night's sleep did not have an awakening for them any more on this earth ! 5. except the state of nirvana.Bajraj angha and Srima ti began once more to enjoy the fruit of their previous good ka1•mas. On getting back to Utpalakhetaka .

and they take :food after three days.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 31 where men have to work for their livelihood are termed ka1''Tna bl~umis (lands of action). and the father. Their eyes a. It. and which yield the utmost of satisfaction to the senses. The true blwgablbumis are. differs from the ordinary manner of being boTn for humanity in so far as the full development of adolescence is attained only within a period of forty-nine days from the day of birth. They do not have to waste any part of their life in sleep . no doubt. however. The birth of ~he blwgabhumija is in the ma. in respect of the pleasures that the people enjoy there. they do not perspire.re always kept open. The blwgablbumijas are born twins--a male and a female together. of a yawn.nner of the flesh in so far as a conception does take place there. and are far superior to our earth. When they grow up they becoma husband and wife.s of life are the most pleasant. the mother dying of a sneeze. The quantity taken is never . and excrements are not formed in their bodies. where the conditio!D. heavens alone. But the parents are never destined to have the pleasure of beholding the faces of their progeny. The bhogabl~umis come after the heavens. They die the same instant that the children are born. Only those who have performed highly meritorious deeds are born in blwgabllumis.

are not committed by the blwga- . And if a certain number of them grow together so as to constitute a compound in the centre. if it does penetrate into the regions of the bltogabltumis. Crimes. Foods. Nature is too lavishly abundant tfor that to be necessary. musical instruments (flutes and the like) are all supplied in abundance by these m·iksha~ (trees). There is no sense of property or appropriation known in the bhogabhun-. clot'hes (from their silky barks). ornaments {flowery decorations). the systematical lines of the hollow niches in their trunks would very naturally look like rows of rooms in a mansion.is. drinks.32 Rlf?ABBA DEVA more than the weight of a plum. These trees also supply residences and pavilions for the use of the lucky residents. though it may be less in some places. flowers. too. perfumes. There are trees also that radiate powerful phosphorescence all round. plates and cups. The female bhogabhumija conceives but once. and the illumin:ltion is strong enough to outshine the light of the sun and the moon. Probably their hollow trunks have to do duty for rooms. and that only at the end of her life! There are ten kinds of special tree-like things termed kalpa vrikslws from which the lucky residents of the bkogabltumis satisfy their wants.

became husband and wife. They enjoyed long life. and gold-are wanting there.re-incarnated Svayambuddha. In seven weeks' time they grew up. On the termination of the sallekhana of l\iahabala. All the three principal causes of .3an'l1l!Jiisa (ascet..bhttmijas.crime-namely woman. The two last-named are to be had in such abundance that nobody cares to be .GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 33 .xieties of any kind to mar their . and had no worries or an. land. and began to enjoy the fruits of the merit acquired by the gift of food to the J aina ~aints.of the twins for each other is a guarantee against moral laxity of every kind. 3 . and was reborn in the first F.a and Srimati were born tw1ns in the bhogabhurni lmown as Uttarakuru.burdened with the worry that is implied in putting oneself in proprietary relationship with them. They know the arts of singing and dancing and are proficient in other accomplishments. One day they were visited by two great Baints the senior of whom revealed himself as the .]Oy. And 'woman' is not an inducement to crime inasmuch as strong pre-natal attachment .. who was the minister of Bajrajangha in his incarnation of Mahabala. are intelligent and virtuous. The bhogabhun~ijas. Svayambuddha had taken to .icism). BajrajSlngili. as a rule.

The Saint thereafter returned to his own country with his companion ascetic. the Saint proceeded to explain the principles of the true Dlull'ma to the happy twins. and this enabled him to cross the intervening oceans and continents. He was called Pritamkara. in due course of time. They were much impressed by h1s discourse. too. and expressed their unbounded · gratitude fur his extreme goodness and regard. once again.trni bodies and became embodied in the .rom the world in retirement. who heard him with full attention and delight. at last departed from the material blwgablt1. He entered the holy orders. seeking to establish him firmly in the Hight Faith.34 Rlf?ABHA DEVA heaven." 8rimati's and Bajrajangha's souls. and he determined to visit Mahabala) s soul and aid him on to the R. and acquired clairvoyant powers by hi·s severe tapa. His companion was his younger brother. From the~e he descended. and was born in the palace of a king of mortal men. Inner illumination brought back to his mind the knowledge of his former lives. fie had also acquired the power to move in the sky.ving related all the above. The blwgabltum.~cltara'l}a. The old fire of renunciation afterwards led hiin to seek refuge f. Ha.ight Path.ijas are all reborn in the heavens on the termination of the life in the " land of joys.

that is to say. He is this time called 8ridhara. Once more· the two loving souls find themselves in surroundings that are obtained only by the most fortunate among men. for which Svayambuddha must be tl1anked! The four companiOns of their earlier life. Srimati has now cast off the female form. Akama pan a. the financier. too. the Monkey.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE:S JOURNEY 35 ethereal vestments of the heavenly regions once more. and that nre to ~ . are all now in one of the superheavens (called gntiveyilcas).f the higher heavens. the master of ceremonies. but as a deva. devangnii. and Dhana :M~itra. the Lion. 11ativara. The four animals. 6. She is re-born in the same heaven as Sridhara. because of their delight at the gift of food to the Saints by Bajrajangha. Sridhara Deva Bajrajangha is now again in one o. the Pig and the Mongoose. the minister. Ananada.t1ni. the generalissimo. had been born in the bltagabh1. and reincarnated in the second heaven on the termination of their lives in that land. not as a. because of their austerities which they had performed after the sudden death of Bajrajangl)a and Arimati. This is due to Right Faith.

. Sridhara felt much pity for them. and eagerly listened to Sridhara's advice. He determined to help Satamati. The lovers of the past three lives now become intimate friends. I:Ie learnt on enquiry from the Saint.36 RISABHA DEVA . by non-J ainas and by the Right Faith alone even when unaccompanied by austerities. by the Jainas. who had now become omniscient. Their meeting was very pathetic. They worship the Lord A'rhant. W"Then Saint Pritamkara succeeded in destroying his gltatiyii (obstructive) ka7'mas by his tapascha1'01J. though two of them were quite beyond his reach and help. Their lives are spent in the usual manner of deva-life. and spend their time enjoying the heavenly pleasures. He now readilY believed the teaching of truth. and among them cnme Sridhara. the pitiable fate of his remaining three ministers of a former life wlhen he was Mahabala. and find much joy in each other's company. be had by severe asceticism. Accordingly one day he descended into the second hell and sought out Satamati to whom he revealed their former identity. the devas came down to worship him. Satamati was overwhelmed with sorrow..a. and Satimati had gone to the second hell. Mahamati and Sambhinnamati had sunk back into Nigoda which was involved in impenetrable darlmess.

and advised him not to· further entangle himself in worldly life. When he grew up. Sridhara went back to his own celestial abode. When Satamati's term of life in the second hell came to an end he was born in the house of a king among men. and thanked him for all he had done for him. coming to know of it by his avadhijnana (clairvoyance). and gave up the ghost in the appr01ved manner. He performed severe tapaschara7Ja. amidst ravishing scenes of brilliancy and splendour. His soul then reincarnated in the fufth heaven. Sub:idhi In the East Videha of Jambu Dvipa. and not much given to pleasureseeking. He went and renewed his friendship with Sridhara. Sridhara. in the province of Susim·a. 7. his father arranged for his marriage. by the sallekhana process. came down to the region of the mortal men.' Soon after this he renounced the world and became an ascetic saint. From his childhood. and refrained from marrying. After !further comforting him. there reigned once upon a . Clairvoyance enabled him to ascertain the cause of his great good luck. The youthful prince recollected his sorrowful experiences in the second hell. he was very thoughtful.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 37 and adopted the Faith that is the saviour of souls.

complished as she was beautiful. the ancient law-giver laid down the above rule in the interest of society and dhanna. The reason why marriages nmongst near kinsmen were forbidden was raU1er political than religious. His parents called him Subidhi. then ·there would be no less than 12 + 12 + 1 = 25 armies ·of so many tribes or kings to stand by him on the battlefield ! As marriage furnishes a real oppm·tunity of making lasting friendships. But if he married his children into families outside l1is own. countenance such marria geg a1nongst close relations. and married them all in his own gotra (fa. whi~h they would have done in nny case. and soon acquired ~. in the moment of need there would be only his kinsmen to fight his •foes.nd sciences When he grew up he was married to his maternal uncle's daughter whose name was Manorama. He was a very bright and handsome child.38 'Rli?ABHA DEVA time a great king who was named Sudrif?ti. His queen was Sundarananda.-life. Devi. and are blindly following .mily). If a king had a dozen boys ::1nd an equal number of girls. who was as acSridhara 's . but these were quite common in the past..mazing proficiency in different arts a. sou1 was born to Sundarananda Devi. To-day we do not. in India. To-day we have lost' sight of its reason. on the termination of his deva.

and did not take to holy orders even in old age.GI. w·ho had re-incarnated in the second heaven after the life of a blwgabhumija.lly Srimati's soul. Kesn. l{esava was rea.IMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 39 in the wake of sentiment and usage! It will be noticed that the avoidance of got'ra aimed at the Rame result. Manorama was a very entertaining girl. however.va. and observed all the -vows and the pratimas (stages of advancement on . A son. They were too proud to give their daughters to non-ruling classes. Past love again attracted him in the same family Formerly the dearly beloved ·with his friend. But be practised the Householder's dharma fully. there was no alternative left except to n1arry them in the family. and as reigning princes would not accept them. The explanation of the usage is to be found in the loss of their kingdom and the subsequent change of 'V0-1'1Ja from the Kshatriya to the Vaisya. wife of Bajrajangha. The Agrawalas of to-day. who was beautiful and brave was born to Subidhi from Manorama. but by avoiding the line of one's own an•cestor among trgra Sen's sons ! . owing to the love he bore rfor him. though professing to avoid it. and soon obtained possession over her lord's heart. she now became his son in l1is present incarnation! Subidhi was much devoted to his son. really marry in their own got1-a.

The glory of the Achyutendra is indescribable in words. The Achyutendra On the termination of the earthly lirfe. Subidhi's soul appeared in the sixteenth heaven. and enjoys unparalleled splendour and pomp.40 RI~ABHA DEVA the householder's path) regularly.. He became the· lord (Indra) in this heaven. to practise austerities. and gratification is not in the gross form. They all led saintly lives. and departed. the name of which is Achyuta. and enjoyed the dis-tinction of being the Achyutendra.A:chyuta + Indra). at times oruy conversation. and were born as princes in the same country. mere contact. absorbed in holy meditation and the contemplation of the Self! The souls of the four animals had also descended from. At the end of his life he performed the sallekkana with full severity of renunciation. (. He is invested with the most wonderful of the riddkis (miraculous faculties and powers). The sixteenth is the highest heaven. Sex-matters are also much rarefied in this heaven. . the second heaven. taking the place of the grosser forms. beyond it there are some super-heavens whereladies are not met with. and in the end withdrew themselves from the world. 8.

who had been the Liont the Pig. and was rewarded by a birth in the sixteenth heaven.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOi::rnNEY 4:1 K. as it were. in some form.b. Right Faith in itself is the greatest of boons.e death olf Subidhi. and those who acquire it attain to the highest positions in life. too. arrived in this very heaven.rigid self-denial . The dignity of a Pratendra which he attained was almost just as high as that of the Indra himself. and speedily get rid of the liability to repeated births and deaths. Most wonderful good luck results from the observance of the rules of piety and virtue when observed in the Right Way. as the result of austerities practised by them. and constituted.esava (Srimati's soul) also became Pratendra (Prati+ Indra) in this very heaven on. All of them were great friends. are secure against degradation in transmigration. the· termination of his life in Susima. He had practised austerities after t. respectively. ~ The four princes. one family ! 9. and the practising of. Emperor Bajranabhi All greatness is the result of virtue actively practised by ihe soul.. in their earlier incarnations. the 1onkey and the Mongoose. in the course of a few lives ! The reason for all this· is that the old kind of bonds are not fo\rged by the soul after the acquisition of the true insight or Faith.

and were named. The Lion. and thus now became the brothers of Bajranabhi (the Bajrajangha of a former life)! The souls of the four especial favourites of Bajrajangha. the Pig. His body was resplendent. Subahu.gacious. . the master of ceremonies. :1nd steadily raise up the will-power to defy suffering and mishap. respectively. lie had many auspicious marks on his person. The re-incarnations~ too. the generalissimo. the ~1onkey and the n1on-goose were similarly born to Rani Srikanta. of Mativara. in spite of the pleasures they afford one in the heavens and on earth. and Dhana Mitra. the financier. respectively.42 RI~ABRA DEVA destroys the existing chains of thraldom in the course of a few re-incarnations. as Vijaya. He was named Bajranitbhi. Akampana. Vejayanta. that are undergone after tl1e acquisition of the Right Faith. Jayanta and Aprajita. . Mahabahu. namely. on the termination of his life in the sixteenth heaven. Peetha and Mahapeetba. Annnada. and shone like bright gold. the minister. · The Achyutendra becnme the son of ICing Bajra Sen and Queen Srikanta. also took birth as Bajranabhi's yotmger brothers. and was unusually intelligent and sa. are all very joyous and delightful.

Mativara. and along with his eight brothers.ed the crown on the head of Bajranabhi. Bajranabhi lat-er appointed him the lord chamberlain of hi& household.ra {discus) appeared in his arsenal..GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4:3 The Pratendra from the sixteenth heaven. Ananda and Dhana Mitra. the Pjg.T. and returned successfully after many many years. the four favourites of his former life. and who had only married because of the desire of his royal father. Akamapana. One day he plac·ed his son. too~ was born in the same land. the Monkey and the Wlongoose. as the result of the fruition of highly meritorious km·mas. adopted the life of austerity . He then start-ed for subduing the world. from his wife Anantamati. now found himself more and more attracted away from the world. In the meanwhile his father had attained to Omniscience and the divine status of Tirthamkarahood. when the cha. on the throne. from the concerns of the world. namely. the Lion. Bajranabhi. the ·Son of the great banker l{uberdatta. in the ·fullness of time. He· became Dhanadatta. and plac. Thus did km·1na bring the old friends together once again ! Raja Bajra Sen retired. who had been indifferent to the pleasures of life all along. and the four re-incarnated animal souls. Hajranabhi later became an emperor. Bajradanta.

the Scripture of Truth and the Saint. sown in the presence of a living Tirthamkara Himself. Love. the Teacher. too. to become a Tirtham-kara himself. Many kings and other great men folloiWed his example. generally. and entered the order along with him.44 RI~ABHA DEVA as a J a ina Saint. The seed of the Supreme Status is. These are collectively known as the solalt-kara'l}a Bhav{)Jnas (the sixteen special impulses that lead to the glory of Tirthamka1·ahood). to save all who were involved in suffering and misery in the samsara (transmigration). Henceforth to carry enlightenment and~ . a burning desire to remove the misery of the world. It is His example presumably that fires the mind and stirs up the imagination ! Bajranabhi. It is attained only by four and twenty souls in the course of half a cycle of time comprising innumerable millions of years. namely. Service. was fired with the inspiration of the Tirthamkara's example (who was his own Father). Ti?·tlLamkarapada (the status of a Tirthamkara) is the most difficult thing to obtain in the· world. to carry enlightenment and joy to the hearts of all living beings. among others. and Study (investigation of Truth). He longed. perfect faith. profound veneration for the true objects of veneration. The causes that lead to Tirthamkarahood are.

but now he redoubled his efforts to attain to perfection in self-abnegation and in impassibility. He loosened his evil ka1·mas considerably. penances and fasts. He had already succeeded in bringing his lower self under his control. also attained to the same :super-heaven. Right Faith. Religion is not begun till all superstitions-including the one that is centred -round the notion of a creator who made or makes the world and living beings-are not completely destroyed. service of saints. was characterized by watchfulness. that is ooveted by all . The Faith Bajranabhi now possessed was without superstition. Strictly speaking.seekers after emancipation from the clutches .. as the result of the practising of severe soul-purifying austerities. generally. study and investigation of Truth. and acquired the true scientific insight into the causes of embodiment and suffering. . in respect of discriminating intelligence. He rose to the region of . Dhana Mitra. that is. and steady like the edge of a sword. At the end of his life. His life.of calamity and death. and l:}y rigid self-denial. Bajranabhi performed -the auspicious sallekltana.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4:5 joy to all became his noble mission in life. as a saint. The eight brothers of Bajranabhi and the :Seth's son.the super-heavens.

000 mile~) above Sarvarthasiddhi. The land of this super-heaven itself is of a kind of material that gleams like precious stones. The Ahamindra · When the noble . in other words. They have practically reached the end of their journey. to go through. and thf\y pass their time in the enjoy-- . is.' Those who are born in this region are literally without any further ambitions. The Place of Nirvana. The name literally means ' all desires gratified.RI~ABHA DEVA 10. filled with a serenity of mind that is not easily appreciated.000 kosas. the desiring nature has been almost '\vholly eradicated. and Sarvarthasiddhi is likewise free from their presence~ The devns who are born here are rid of sexual cravings. only a few hundred yojanas (one yojana. Bajranabhi opened his eyes and found himself in the lovely surroundings of the most coveted ~arvarthasiddhi.= 2. consequently. and are. There are no ladies anywhere in the super-heavens. the Blessed Abode of the Perfect Men. and disease and decay. or 4. They know this fact.~all eklwna culminated in his soul's departure from the body of gross matter. The but·den of the soul is much lightened already in their case . except when actually realized. and have only one more earth life. of Immortal Gods. who are above death.

The effect of t-he1r meritorious work in the earlier stages of the Life's Journey. no needs. and premature death is unknown. and impossible for them. The Ahamindras have no regrets. their term of life being measured. Thus he who has brought his animal nature fully under control.Y . springing from within their Soul's be1ng. not in years.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4fl ment of peaceful serenity. :Sexual eraving is like thirst when one is suffering from lugh fever. in oceans of years. and is only felt by the man who is a slave to his senses. As he who has got no fever to make him thirsty does not regard iced water as gratifying. They all live &or thirty-three O. that still remains to be eradicated. They do not even care to visit other places in the heavens or on earth. by way of analogy. towards the Goal.s (Oceans of Years). and will not miss the excitement any more. nor longings for any kind of sense-produced pleasure. so will not he who is not afflicted with sense-craving ever regard sex-indulgence as adding to his joys. is rid of the craving. they enjoy the peaceful bliss. and are ever fi1led with the innate delight of the soul. . but. They are very very long-lived. enables them to manifest a great deal of the hidden virtue of the spiritual nature in them. although it is smnewhat tinged with the material nature.

The term altamiwb·a is a compotmd one. is only one cubit. and ugliness of feature and form is unlmown. and has no lords above him.all the different grades of the dtu:a-life. The amount of the food taken is much less than in the lower heavens. and the proportion-one meal after 24.-48 Rli?ABHA DEYA The Ahamindras take food once 111 thirtythree thousand years.'liJ. and. The same proportion. (Ocean of Years) of life requires feeding once every thousand years and breathing once a fortnight.are not liable to perspire.another as absolute equals. But his .usually wise. They treat one . One O.Y. All the Aha1nindras are gentle.body is resplendent. The size of an Ahamincha. Perhaps we have ' evolved ' out too rapidly to remain in touch with beneficent nature! The . should need only one meal u day. They pass no excrements. it would appear. dispassionate.and realizes that he is an Indra (Lord) himself. therefore. and breathe after thirtythree fortnights.one." Each Ahamindra lmows . The relation between the need for food and breathing in the heavens seems to be a definite . was intended by nature for the mortal man: we breathe twen~y­ four thousand times in 24 hours. and symmetrical.000 breaths-holds good throughout in . and uu.dlt'lts (saints) take . and . signifying '' I am Indra.

and would seem to be endowed with more energy and capacity lfor work. 4.s for their life.GLIMPSES ALONG LIFE'S JOURNEY 4'9 only one meal a day. jealousy has and can have no place in Sa rvarthasiddhi I F. Bajranabhi spent his 33 O. unlike lo~er heavens. It is to be noted that. too. They. . and enjoyed equal status.s (Oceans of Years) of life in Sarvarthasiddhi in the .Y. His friends of the previous lives were also there in .enjoyment of supreme tranquillity and joy.the same super-heaven with him. had an allotment of 33 O.Y.

blwgnblm11d. of the second. At its commencement the conditions of thing:.000 x 10.000 year~. Tl1e A vasar1Ji~d is the descending arc.00(}. The durntion of the fift]l (whieh is now running) wilJ hr 21. hccnn~ it is the nrc of deterioration. nnd of the fourth.NRiLY EXISTENCE The present half-cycle of time is known as A '"nsar71i'l}i krllri. the :-:ame a~ that of thl" fifth. and of the ~ixth.CIL~PTEH. The duration of the first.000 yenJ's. The blt. It commenced 10 korli-kori (1 korii-k01·i == 10.000. J l. Y. of the third. roughly speaking. rll'tl of our halfcycle was 4 korii-l·ori. There arc six arfls (gpokcs) in n half-t•ycle of time.~orii-kon' 0.h 50 .s le~g 39.O!fa-blmm i like felicit~r hcgnn to disappear long long ngo. 2 korii-kori. :i korii-knri. and wns completely destroyed before the commencement of the fonrt.Y.500 years ago.000} O. on om· little enrth re~cmblcd tl1ose in a.rerse of this. All things hnYe become detrriorated and will further detet·iorn tc in this period.s less 4-2. Longevity :md stature u~ well as the conditions of existence have been a O'ectcd alike. The other half-cycle will be there. II CONDITIONS OF E.

the last of whom was one of the greatest of Enlightened Men. Nabhi Roai was endowed with clairvoyance from birth. were alarmed. Her name was Maru Devi. the first Tirthamkara and the original Founder of Dharma (Religion) in this age. and kept on enlightening the people. He was called Nabhi Rai. . and was married to a young lady who has been described as the very soul of fen1ale loveliness and virtue.1·a was Pratisruti. Wise men arose from time to time. in the state of the blwgabhumi disappeared and the sun and the moon became visible. and but little need of law had till then been felt by men. It may be stated that serious crimes were quite unknown in those days. and the idea of private proprietorship gradually formed itself in their minds. who saw them for the first time. The foundation of the civilisation of law and order was not laid at once.sweat rfor their living.CONDITIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 51 m·a of our half-cycle. and she was destined to give birth to the World Saviour Sri Ri~abha Deva. the people. The number of the sages who thus appeared is said to be fourteen. and effected much reform in the condition of the society which was then beginning to form. People were then forced to . When the trees that t:hed strong light around them. The first kulaka.

" This was the only law that did duty for preventive measures. He was able to spot the constellations and may be said to be the first astronomer of the half -cycl~. explained to them that the light of the trees had been too powerful thus far to enable the sun and the moon to be seen but now that that illumination had paled they became visible. Offences were rare. but it was still very inchoate.km·as (wise men). after the lapse of a long long time.n to .Qama~i in the month of A~?adha. and even the stars became visible in the sky. who were strangers to trickery and deception. It was sufficient to deter them from a wrongful act to say '' ha.52 RII?ABHA DEVA It ·was Pratisruti who understood the cause of He their appearance by his superior wisdom. In his time animals oega. In his time the light of the trees had faded into insignificance. the people being simple folk. The division of day and night dates from his time. It was the day of Pur. and it may be taken to be the first beginning of unrecorded history and of measurable time ! In the time of Pratisruti some sort of kingship also came to be recognized and established. Then came l{shemankara. when the sun and the moon became visible in the sky. Sanmati was the second lculalcara. during the time of the first five lcula.

He was called Seemankara. Vimalabahana was the seventh manu.s (trees). The quarrels had become more intense by his time over the disa. In his time the . and every one had to look for himself.CONDITIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 53 be troublesome. The next manu was Seemanka1·a.nimals. Hitherto the feeding-trees had supplied men and animals with enough food. I{shemandhara was the fourth manu who followed Kshemankara after a long interval of time. the bridle and the like to keep them under control. Chakshuf?mana then appeared after the lapse of another long period . He taught men how to utilise the services of domestic animals. The distinction of domestic and wild animals dates from Kshemankara' s time. and he also set marks on them. Quarrels arose in his time over the kalpa trees. of which only a few were left now. but now the conditions were changing. and invented the tethering rope. He fixed the proprietary zones over them cfor different groups and communities of men. Seemandhara was the next in order to appear.of time.ppearing kalpa vrikslw. because he had fixed the seemas (boundaries) of proprietorship. He laid the !foundation of individual ownership over the trees. He devised weapons of wood and stone to drive away wild a.

signifying the moon). ~Iarud Deva also taught men the art of navigation and built different kinds of skiffs and boats. Tl1e twelfth man?t was Marud Deva. Tn his time state-control was established over all the kalpa trees that had still remained in the land. in whose time the old order of things underwent still further changes. He taught men how to regard their children as their own. and to bless them. which he explained. in whose time children came to be looked after better. The tenth man.u was Abhi Chandra.Sasvana.umi was so far changed that the parents did not die at the birth of their progeny.ogabl1.. The eleventh m.anu was Chandrabha. rivulets and lakes were formed . His guidance was also very beneficial for manldnd in certain other ways.54 Rlf?ABHA DEVA old order of bll. The people now lived to play with their children. Some people were astonished at this and enquired the cause of the change from Chakshu~­ mana. the ninth k'Ltlaka1·a. Ya. Because Abhi Chandra was the first to play with his rhildren in moonlight he came to. Many small hills. Men now took to scaling high walls and hills. was then born after the lapse of another long period. they also began to give them useful instruction.be lmown as Abhi Chandra (clwruh·a.

as well as fruit trees. Spontaneous cultivation also appeared in the time of the fourteenth ma'TIIU. The last of the kulakaras was Nabhi R. In his time children came to be. Before his time children were not born wrapped in a membrane. whence his name. the first five kulaka1YlR fo~nd it enough to rebuke . but in his time rain sometimes fell. He earned his epithet (Nabhi Rlai) from the fact that he taught men how to cut the navel chord termed nabhi (the navel). and by the time of the fourteenth manu both rain and clouds became a regular feature of the natural aspect of things. inimical to cloud-formation) had pre-vented rain clouds in the sky. He was the wisest man of his age. As regards penal laws there was no need for elaborate measures thus far. and there was some scanty and irregular rainfall for the first time. Prasenaj it. as already stated. It would appear that perhaps up to the time of Marud Deva the existence of the lcalpa trees (or may be some other natural force. Prasenaj it was the last but one of the lc'ltlaka?·as. which had now got to be cut.CONDlTIONS OF EARLY EXISTENCE 55 in his time.ai. Thick rain clouds now began to gather in the sky freely. As already stated. born with the prasena (the amnion or membrane in which a child is born).

But regular laws had to be laid down in the day of Bharata of whom we shall ha:ve to speak later on. to express their abhorrence of the evil deed. as if to say : '' I regret that you should have done such a thing as this ! " This was enough to keep the culprit straight for the future." to reinforce the effect of disapproval. next five had need of '' mii . ' Ma ' signified regret. .56 RH]ABHA DEVA the wrong-doer with '' hii " I The. The remaining k'ltlalca1·as added '' dltilca " to the existing code of penalties.

c. Vi~l}. even that digambara (undraped) fo1'ID.RAS qomi{)sftt aa:tiUh ~ tftllfq•n~ if~ 1 ~=am~=~~ ~Mil= q"Uieilf~a-: ~". and worshipped it! This he did to attain to the fu'lfi~ment of the wish of his heart: this wish was fulfilled! That Vamana named Nem. There is a special fascination in the number four and twenty.i Nath Siva!] -The 81rande Purana (Hindu): Prabhasa Part.W'i41ft'IQ" CI'R=R~ II u iiwitSifteN' ~ ~: m~~ISO:CI~ I i~R!illtl Riq~ci ifmil~ g qm. The (true) form of Siva.. he established the Image of Basara. 94-96.s: u [Vamana regarded the place as a Tirtha. the Hindus have twenty-four avata1'as (incarnations) of their favourite god.CHAPTER III FOUR AND TWENTY TIR!THAMIU. seated in the padmasana (the sitting yoga posture with legs crossed) which is the embodiment of tranquitllity itself.. was seen in the Image in the Sun l Recalling the form of the Lord. there ~ere twenty-four counsellor gods of 57 ...lleqr ~a ~a:i(WJ:: 1 .u. xvi. •t >Ua5•~ ~ '(.

pages 96.his ag·e.west which had tweh·e steps haTing two human faces which changed their ap}learance-now this laddet• is t. The explanation given is as follows:" The 'ladder which thou sn.) Of course. the language would not have been apocryphal had it been a little more lucid! But the true interpretation of the passage is not . which acknowledges exactly four and twenty " faces " on the Ladder of Jacob. the Buddhists posit fourand twenty previous Buddhas. Under these kings will be tried (thy children's children and the line of). . !l.\· nud Ma~da (at·e one). But the more remarkable case of identity of thought between Jainism and a non-Jaina creed is furnished by Jewish Apocrypha. teaching gods.i. Piet. The Zoroastrians a1so have twenty-tfour A:huras who are regarded as ''the mightiest to . advance desire and Dominion of blessings t " These Great Ones are thus addressed in one of the sacred books of the Parsis : " Your blessings sha11. " (The Lost Apocrypha. of ilte Old Testament. ye give us. that is. thy sons . all ye that are one iu will. according to promise ghing your aid when worshipped witJ1 reYerence " (Y nsna. with whom right good thought. and the twelve stepR are the times of this age. 20). 98 and 99.58 Rl~ABHA DEVA the ancient Babylonians. . . and the twenty-four faces are the kings of the lawless heathen of this age.

are the lawless. that is to say.Jlegorical vogue. who must raise themselves to Their standard to be ' saved.' the ~ Confluence of Opposites' and the ' Glimpses' of A Hidden Science in . which is the only true side of their religion. In other words. by whose standard. Let the reader read' The K. leaving men gaping at each other.:. When the true interpretation. of the world's apocrypha is reached.FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 59 difficult. Hence. Original Christian .ey of Knowledge. those who have realized the Self. which has estranged us from one another and from the Truth.. shall be judged all those who seek to attain salvation. the mere rules and regulations of the scriptures. that is to say. i. 'Its true merit has been lost sight of owing to the a. the divinity of their Soul. and their four and twenty kings are the four and twenty TmTHAMKARAS under whom shall be judged. and the lawless are those who have risen above the dead letter of the law. who conform to the spirit of the teaching and who have rid themselves of the petrifying outer encrustation.e. in sheer astonishment and wonder!. namely. the four and twenty Tirthamkaras are models of Perfection for men. the differences will sim·ply n1elt away. The term heathen refers to the non.' ' Such is the testimony furnished by the Jewish Esotericism. Israelites.

A detailed elucidation of it is to be found in the tenth chapter of ' The Key of Knowledge ' and the seventh and the ninth lectures of the ' Confluence of Opposites ' . the third has the appearance of a calf. but keep on blessing the One on the Throne. In front of the Throne are four remarkable beasts : one of them is like a lion. robed in white and wearing crowns of gold. But the most remarkable case of this doctrinal identity is furnished by the Christian Apocalypse.' to realize this great truth fol' himself. and they rest not night and day. and are full of eyes all over. The beasts represent the difierept kinds of souls that are em- . and the fourth has the face of a man. Such is the scenic imagery of the hall of initiation. In this Assembly is introduced the Lamb (the symbol of the soul characterized with supreme humility) that is to be initiated. laid in allegorical style. An initiation scene is. but a brief explanation may be attempted ·here.60 RII?ABHA DEVA Teachings. In the centre of a huge hall is placed a throne on which is placed Life (J iva) that is Divine. round about the Throne are four and twenty seats on which sit four and twenty Elders. another resembles an eagle. These beasts have six wings each. where the scene and the surroundings are purely J ainist.

are only four and twenty in each half-cycle of time. The Siddhas are exactly like the Tirthamkaras in all respects in so far as innate virtues and attainments are concerned. They are all omniscient.. But the number of Siddltas is very great. and the fire-bodied (represented by the sun which is painted as the face of a man).FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTRA. and the number six is descriptive of the six aras of a half-cycle in which four and twenty Tirthamkaras appear and preach the Truth. and preach the Noble Truth to and for the benefit of the souls embodied in material bodies i ·Why these higher truths were couched in the mystery language that is generally unintelligible to men. consisting of six aras. namely.S 61 bodied in the four elements (of matter). since it flies. who appear in a half-cycle of time. will be found explained in the books named above.and cannot be repeated here. and its divinity is mani!fested most perfectly and fully in the case of four and twenty Tirthamkaras. The Tirtkamlcaras. Plainly put. and endowed . ·the air--bodied (represented by the eagle who flies in the air). the earth-bodied (represented by the lion. Wings are a symbol for time. which is the young of the sea-mammals).MKARA. the waterbodied (represented by the calf. since he walks on the earth). ing is only this that Life is Divine. the significance of the secret teach:. then.

ly.lothing. whereat I marvelled great. It is the sou o£ God. 'fhese be they t. · Briefly the explanation of the above halfplain half-mystic account is this: by following the Ideal (in Jewish and Christian terminoloay·' ~ the Son of God) souls are crowned into Divinity. "What young man is he that setteth crowns· upon them. W'h. The Siddll.at are these. So I asked the angel. taller than all the I'est and upon eve1·y one of their heads he set crowns. II. whom they hn'"e confessed in the world. my lord? He answered und said unto me. and therefore They are not surrounded by the Pomp with which devas and men surround the latter.ltut have put off morta'l c." -II Esdras. and was more exalted.A.as are also referred to both in the Jewish and the Christian Apocrypha.that of the Tirthamkaras. and they all Jll'Uised the lord with song-s.nd in the midst of them the1·e was a young man of high stature. But They differ from the latter in this that teaching is not Their 1nission in life in the same way as it is . • and the number of Those that have freed and . In the former it is said :" And I Esdras ::mw UllOll the mount Sion a great multitude whom I could 1•ot number. and put on the immorta1. . and ha\e confessed the name oi God: now nre th~y crowned. und receive palms. and giyeth them palms in tl1eir hands? So he ~mswe1·ed and said unto me. Chap. 'l''hen "aid I unto the angel. \llld said.62 Rlf?ABHA DEVA :with exactly ·the same attributes as the Tirthamkaras.

. " After this I beheld. . These are the Siddhas of J ainism ! The Christian description of the Siddhas is given in the seventh chapter of the Book of Revelation in the 9th and 13th to 17th verses. And hi· said to me. and made them white in the blood of t. " 'fherefore are they befo1·e the th1·one qf God. . 13. what nre these that are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? . and ~erve him day and nig·ht in his temple and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them. Hil·. thou lmowest. " And one of the elders answered. clothed with white rohes. For ." This is undoubtedly the true desorip~ion of the status of Siddhaliood. " ~'or the J. and lo u. und have washed their robes. . neither thirst any more. . l:itood before the tht•one. and palms in their hands. neither shaH the ~un light on them. g·rcat multitude which no man could number .Jamb that is in the midst of: the th1·one shal'l feed them and shall lead them unto living :fountains of water. these are they wh1eh came out ot great tribulation.he Lamb. . saying unto me. . 15.FOUR AND •rwENTY TIRTHA:M:KARAS 63 ·shall thus free themselves from subjection to the inimical forces is countless. " They shaH hunger uo more. 16. nor any heat. " And I said unto him. and God shal'l wipe away aU tears from their eyes. · 17. and runs as follows : 9. in mystic script. 14.

like as the apostles .c. (in Christian terminology. and deYeloped to the beneficence of gnostic perfection.he angels. be made to the books already mentioned. . nnd like the sun shining in the exercise of beneficence. He writes (see the Ante Nicene Christian Library. elaboration of allegorical exegesis. men shall have to judge themselves if they want to attain to divine Perfection. . pp.64 Rlf?ABHA DEVA a detailed elucidation of the passage reference must. was an immediate disciple of St. who. Vol. he will sit down on the four and twenty thrones. XII. Peter himself. again. by whose standard.•e oi God to the sacred abode. as John says in the Apocalypse." These thrones. according to Methodius.edge through the lo. judging the people. he speeds by righteous knowil. 365-366) :" He then who has first moderated his passion and trained himself for impa~sibility. then. says as to the four and twenty Elders of the Christian Apocalypse. Luminous already. the Saved . But it will interest us to know what Clement of Alexandria. These are the Tirthamkaras whose number is identically the same as that of the thrones and of the Elders who are seated on them ! Concerning the excellence of the condition of the Siddlta. And nlt1:ough here upon earth he be not honoured with the chief seat. or norm. are intended for the greatest Teachers among men. is here equal to t. for this is no place for the. .

5. . nor pain. " For the incorruptible nature is not subject to generation. 88. su:ffereth not. . . neither sorrow nor cryiug.5 . nor coiTuption. is not wearied. 50. Lib. nor day measured by time . . sleeps not. take it that the number of the Perfect Ones. which are '•isible and perishing. Of such kind are the natures of angels and of souls released from the body."Reveilatton xxil. and difierent from these creatures of our world. is very large..N. nor night. then. these are of another kind. drops npt with blood. part ii. p. it grows not. . ix. Vol. For . nor care. an~ tl1ey shall reign for ever and ever. the things which God has prepared for them that loYe him. . "-Revelation xxi. the Siddkas.C. diea not. eye has not seen nor ear heard."-A. " .FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 65 Ones) the Early Chflistian teaching mentioned the same characteristics of Their Existence in Nirvana as are given in the Jaina Scriptures:" There shall be no mor ~ death. neither has entered into the heart of man. is not pierced by nails and spears."-Ibid. hungers not.tion it !is said :u • . • • . while the Tirthamkaras are only four and twenty. in which there is neither sleep. ueither shall there be any more pai~. The correspondence is marvellous in each detail! We may. p. About the permanence of the condition of Libera. sweats not. . 4. F. .. .

and placed His time almost at what they conceived to be the commencement of the world ! They recognised His Divinity fully. There is even an old inscription in the . that was deemed to have arisen in the sixth century of the Christian era! But to-day the historicity of Parsva Nath is beyond dispute. they even agree that His son was the Emperor Bharata who lent his name to India.66 Rlf?ADHA DEVA But what are we to say to those wiseacres who think that Jainism only came into existence in the time of Mahavira or at the earliest in that of Parsva Nath. that is to say. indeed. What is really remarkable about the J aina account is the confirmation of the number four and twenty itself from non-J aina sources. and counted Him amongst their avataras. acknowledged that He was Omniscient. The Hindus. If this is not historv and historical confirmation I . after whom India came to be known as Bharatvar~a. do not lmow what else would be covered by these terms. and the earlier two and twenty Tirthamkaras are the outcome of the J a ina imagination ? Some of these intellectual giants had at one time relegated the J aina Creed to the position of an offshoot of Buddhism. never disputed the fact that J ainism was founded by Rif?abha Deva in this half-cycle. They give the same parentage of Ri~abha Deva as the Jainas do .

. and that was brought back to Kaling~ (Orissa). by Kharvale. The Hindu scripture. too. iii. is to be found in the Buddhist literature . This Statue most probably dated bac\c prior to Mahavira's time.FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 67 Khandagiri Hill in which there is a mention of a consecrated Statue of the first Tirthamkara. and possibly even to that of Parsva Nath. pp. Modern opinion is now veering round to regard Nemi Nath as a real historical person (see "Lord Ariahtanemi " by H. from Pabiliputra (modern Patna). In the Rig and the Yajur Vedas. but was generally known as Nemi Nath. As for the other Ti'l'tha?nkaras. established by other references. the Prabhasa (Skande) Pural}a distinctly acknowledges Nemi Nath. however. 88-89). there is a mention of the Lord (see the J aina Patha PradarShak. Ari~?ta Nemi is a name which is quite familiar in' the Hindu literature including the Vedas. that had been carried off by King N anda Vardhana about 2400 years ago. in the 2nd century B. Ri~?abha Deva. as is evident from the quotation at the top of this chapter. but no historical details are given to fix the identity. Bhattacharya. A reference to the seventh Tirthamkara.C. which is. Sri Sup&rsva Nath. and he would appear to be identical with the twenty-second Tirthamkara who bore that name. 94--1 07) .

• by name (Rig VeQ.68 RI~ABHA DEVA which shows the existence of a temple of "Sappu" in Rajagrihi in Buddha's time (Lord Arishtanemi. 280).JifT: ... 76.q: cnoC!. The term '' arhan" repeatedly occurs in the oldest of the Vedas. Webber admits.. not wanting who have sincerely felt the identity to be undeniable (Historical Glean· ings.r.(J. 86) . XXX. however. p. X.a. . Ri~?abha Deva. III. p. Hindu scholars are.manas. though the Hindus now interpret the text in a way to obliterate the reference. There is also the text ~. p. Further references to J ainism are to be found in the Hindu books under various names." . in the Rig Veda.12. Vol. In the Rig Veda itself mention has been made of the first Tirthamkara. Vveeding has very likely been carried out on a large scale. It is interesting to note that J aina writers have quoted many other passages from the Vedas themselves which are no longer to be found in the current editions.. the Jaina Pathapradarsak. p. of sramanas. 136-2 and Indian Antiquary. Vol. This may be accounted for by the bitter hostility of the Hindus towards J ainism in recent historical times. Part 3.. as Dr. who interfered in the Hindu sacrifices ('-' Bhagwan Parsva Nath. which is descriptive of J aina Saints (Rig Veda X. 106). and there is a mention. 168). Jaina saints were also termed sr.

499): " The Lichchhavis ruled opposite Patalil_)utra in the 9-istrict of Muza:ffarpur. who acquired the Imperial posit. The devas are also said to . and by Babu Kamta Prasad Jain in '' Bhagwan Parsva Nath" (see the Introduction).FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 69 p.. J ayaswal gives the following account of the Vratyas in the Modern Review for 1929 (seep.mong them. the saints and the householders. they patronized Jainism . Prof. their nonVedic worship. they had their own shrines. In the fifteenth part of the Atharva Veda there is a mention of a Mana (great) Vratya who must be one of the Ti'rthamka1·as. The sect of Vratyas mentioned in the Atharva Veda can. . their own religious leaders. they had a republican from of government. in the Jaina Gazette (Vol. P. after which at the request of certain devas." . The Vratyas"" were of two kinds. the first. he occupied a seat furnished by them. and presumably Ri~a­ bha Deva. Chandragupta's son. They are called Vratyas or un-Brahmanical Kshatriyas . K. proudly describes himself as the ifouhiflra (daughter's son) of the Lichchhavis. Mahavira was born. XXI Part 6). a. again. Mr. be the Jainas and none else. 21). He is said to have stood in one (yoga) posture for a whole year. The term means the observer otf vows. A. . Samudragupta.ion for himseH and his family by establishing an a!NIndia Empire. as distinguished from the performer Oif sacrifices which applied to the Hindus at the time. and has been commented upon by a learned scholar. Chakravarti. Mnnu condemns them as degenerates.

in mine own self. I wish to attain. and the emancipation of souls.' As we shall see later on all this tallies with the life of the first Tirtlt~nkara in a very remarkable manner..r: ' :ur. Not the least significant is tl1e reference in the Yoga V asi~tha (xv. ·as has been explained in my works on comparative religion.. said : I am not Ram a. i.nt mir . Rama. they are nevertheless at one with one . nor (am I free from) desires . (object of meditation for yogis). e.it ~r +rA~ . It is precisely what is to be expected if its teaching is really concerned with Truth. the tranquillity of the Jina (Conqueror.:a omf?it~~~ijrlir ~it.it qqr 11=11 [Tr. where Rama himself says : . The truth is that different on their outward surface. The explanation of the differences of the other religions with J ainism as well as with · one another among themselves.inism '~as flourishing at the time of Rama which is very very ancient according to Hindu reckoning. The confirmation from outside J ainism of its sacred tradition is not to be wondered at.r.r :q ~ .70 RI~ABHA DEVA have attended upon him in his ' rambles. 8) to J ainism. is to Ee found in their resort to allegorical style.ft~ ftr. Tirthamkara) l] This shows that J a..

in any sense. They will tell you to go away elsewhere if you want boons from Them ! They only have Their teaching to give. are not worship:-seeking. then. the larger the number of gods. and present the same doctrine and teaching with Jainism. prayer-granting. and will not. Their religion forbids all these things. These World-Teachers. wish-fulfilling deities. the better it would be ifor mankind. or Tirthamkaras. there could . But that is not the case here. As for the lustre of antiquity. His example and footprints wHl be enough for men's needs ! If the question was of granting boons or the prayers 'Of the devotees. the historicity o:f the first Holy Lord being established from the unassailable testimony · of the Scriptures of Hinduism ·which comes from a rival faith. wliich at once demands the renunciation of all the ' good ' things of the world. the thirst for which is said to have moved the Jainas to invent the first twenty-two of the Tirthamkaras. why the J ainas should falsely insist on positing all the four and twenty Jinas! One World-Teacher would be quite enough for the Teaching. Those who come to worship Them have to take leave of the world one day ! There is no reason.FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 71 another at the core. it is to be noticed. encourage one's crying for them. the Jinas. psalm-loving.

the gaze being fixed on the tip of the nose. abundantly shows the prevalence of Jainism long long before the age which the modern investigators have assigned to the oldest of the Vedas. .72 RI!?ABHA DEVA have been no occasion for . 1929. . . Important evidence." pages 243-244) :"All Upper. said years ago (see " Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religion. the people of the Indus Valley in the Chaloolithic period not only practised yoga but worshipped the images of the yogis. vears hevond . recently unearthed by the Archaeological Department of Indja.Jainas to be worried over the matter. North Central India was * See the " Survival of the Pre-historic Civiqizati~~ of the Indus Valley." The Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India)." and the Pioneer. Forlong. which was carried off by N anda Vardhana in the fifth century B. as they are outside the Vedic Pantheon and Cult. dated November lOth.C.G.~ This takes us several thousandR of . " These statuettes clearly indicate that . But all this merely confirms what an astute and recondite scholar. "\Vestern. Major J. A number of Statuettes have been recovered at Mohenjo-daro which are characterised by half-shut eyes.R. the date of the Statue of the first Tirthamkara. These human StntnE'ttes mu&t be Jaina relics. .

This ascetik Order continued in Brahmanism and Buddhism throughout distant Baktria and Dacia .C.aJ·ly in the sixth century B. that is. .' more especiaUy a J aina Order. conveniently called Dra'vids. . and. . and of several scriptures even then lmown as PUI'Vas or Puranas. philosophikal. ' ancient. and given to tree. severely enforced by all their ' Boclhas ' and particu\l. from -pnk.C.nown by Turanians. by the twenty-fourth and last. but there also then existed throughout upper India 'ln ancient and highly organized religion. Mahavira of 598-526B. serpent and pha!lik worship . .'' times-~ruled It would thus seem~ that the moderns have to revise their methods of !easoning and research if they wish their inferences to a<. Long before Aryans reached the Ganges or even the Sarasvati..cord with solid facts. saints or Tirthamkaras. Vanaprnsthas or ' forest recluses. J ainas had been taught by some twenty-two prominent Bodhas. viz. prior to the historical twenty-third Bodha Parsva of the eighth or ninth century B. indeed. and he knew of all his predecessors-pious Rishis diving at long interva~s of time. ethikal and severely ascetikal. . .C..C.FOUR AND TWENTY TIRTHAMKARAS 73 then-say 1500 to 80() H. . Jainism out of which cleatly deve'loped the early ascetikal features of Brahmanism and Buddhism.' which had be •n handed down for ages in the memory of recognized anThis was chorites.

ilike Ri!}abha.. which is the epithet of the first W or. 166). 1 ~t· ~a. let Him become the destroyer of the enemies !]-The Jaina Patha Pradarsaka. and the emulation of de'DaS and men to glorify the vrORLD TEA!CHER. ill. Virupaksha Beriyar. a Great God.rt of the aspiring Soul. who are like Them in all other respects~ are innumerable. ~ ~mt ~ mftffi 1(~ u (Rig Veda X. When six months of the long life of the * The above is the English rendering of the reading by a lea:ned Hindu Scholar. -·the aspiration to carry happiness and joy and enlightenment to all living beings on the pa. M. Prof. by becoming A:rhan. one internal and the other external.A. 3. .CRAPTERIV THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER ~ m«~Tiflifr ~f fcAr 9ft.• The reason why the Tirthamkaras are onay four and twenty while the Perfect Ones (the Siddllas). consists of two factors. Deva.amongst us. 0 Rudra-like Divinity ! do thou produce . Veda T1rth. 106. of high clescent. [Tr. 12.ld Teacher.

S A'r ARR.r!.\ H .STATUE OF RI~IAJJIIA DEVA IN ONE OF 'rilE TEl\IPJ.

THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER 75 Ahamindra remained to him in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi.the way stated. but this time he was quite unmoved by them.. was the capital of Nabhi Raja's kingdom. in the country of Kausala (modern Oudh). the lord of the celestial treasury then began to rain down choice gems in the Palace of the fourteenth Manu. For six months Kubera celebrated the coming of the Lord in advance. and Qther unmistakable s~gns of the coming transformation . He knew that that would be his last . gave orders to his subordinate devas to get ready for the glorification of the. who always takes the ·lead in such matters. coming WoRTAD TEACHER. nobody knew where ! In the Sarvarthasiddhi. Kubera. Even the walls of many mansions and palaces were now studded with lustrous gems. All A judhya loaded themselves with wealth in this period. Everywhere there were signs of affluence and wealth. the Indra (ruler) of the first heaven.. to announce the coming of the Master I Ajudhya. with the advice of the heavenly devas. in . Nabhi Raj a. and it had been built. Bajranabhl's great Soul perceived his garland losing lustre. to represent the capital of th~ heavenly Kingdom of Indra in the first heaven. while poverty and squalor had flown away..

The seventh dream consisted in the sight of the Rising Sun in the East. In the sixth dream she saw the Full Moon surrounded by her satellite stars. The Goddess Laksbmi was seen next. if anything. with their fragrance. Hindus call him t His great soul was. Maru Devi next saw two garlands of fragrant flowers. now all the more eager to enter on his divine mission. and rising gloriously in the sky. in ihe Temples appertaining to his region. destroying the darkness. with black bees hovering over them. as an ahamind1·a. as the ' . She saw first of all a white celestial elephant. making deep sounds. Her third dream consisted in her seeing a white lion with red shoulders. the ethereal deva body was ' dispersed' in all directions.n the holy dharma-dhya'TIIL (religious m'editation). He devoted the rest of his days. golden . the A ltOimindra was dead ! At that same moment the lovely queen of Sri Nabhi Raja dreamt sixteen wonderful dreams. and that he would become a WoRLD TEACHER the Ri. the Arhant. intoxicated.sa1Jha Deva avatm·a. and the worship of the God of gods. i. She next saw a great white bull of beautiful form. as rapidly as it was formed. In the eighth dream she saw two. At last at the end of the six months.76 Rlf?ABHA D~VA incarnation. with two large elephants who were performing her abhi[ielca (bathing) with golden pitchers.

Soon she woke up. of the Residence of the Nagendra who is the Lord of the devas of the Naga Kumara clan. and with a light step and a wildly-beating heart proceeded toShe· found him wards the ldng's apartments. She next saw an effulgent Lake filled with a pale yellow fluid which shone like liquid gold. the fourteenth. In her ninth dream she saw fishes sporting in a lovely tank. with gentle sounds. She next saw a very big Throne that was set with bright stones. a heap of glittering Jewels. resplendent like gold. . Her thirteenth dream was the sight of a heavenly Palace . She understood ber dreams to be the herald of a great joy that was to come into her life. and the last a Blazing Fire that burned smokeless and bright 1 After these she saw one more dream which was the sight of a large beautiful bull. entering her open mouth I It was the morning time when the virtuous Queen of Nabhi Raja saw the above dreams. Who was there in all her great kingdom who might be ignorant of the great Event that was going to take place1 She performed her toilet as usual. on the top. full of joy. In the eleventh dream she saw a great Ocean agitated with waves which broke. bedecked with different kinds of lotuses. into small spray. the fifteenth.THE FIRST ~ORLD TEACHER 77 vases with a large golden lotus each.

That He will be strong as a lion. 0 goddess ! " exclaimed Nabhi Ra. by his side. She then related her wonderful dreams that augured such good luck. The significancy of the goddess Lakshmi whose abhi~eka was being performed by the two elephants is that devas will come to perform the abhi~eka of thy Son. the second. The pair of fishes is indicative of the bliss that thy Son will enjoy.n predicts that He will be the . on the Throne. The ministers and others who were present at the time were filled with wonderment and extreme joy. and she sat down. a. Nabhi Raja was endowed. The king received her with affectionate esteem. is clear from the dream of the big Lake which thou sawest. is implied in the third dream.nd the fact that He will be further endowed with all the innumerable excellent virtues. like all truly pious and advanced Souls. That He will be bright like the Sun is to be understood from the next dream. '' presages the birth of an Excellent Son.78 Rlf?ABHA DEVA seated in the great Assembly Hall. The full Moon foretells the fact that the Boy will be the giver of Joy to the world.j a. with clairvoyance. The Ocea. The garlands indicate ·that thine Son will be the Founder O!f the True Faith. '' Thy first dream. and she desired to hear the interpretation of her dreams from his lips. that of His Seniority over all others.

import of the heavenly Palace which thou sawest. That he is coming from the heavens to be born to thee is the. explain the mystery of the heavenly dreams to his beloved queen. and :the sight of the Palace of the Nagendra shows that He will be endowed with Clairvoyance from birth. to congratulate one another. The heap of glittering Jewels signifies that He will be possessed of all Divine attributes. Men and women gathered round street corners to express their great joy. The announcement of the good tidings was received with acclamation throughout the length and breadth of the royal capital. All were overwhelmed with gladness and delight. while the smokeless conflagration that thou sawest indicates that He will burn up all the host of karmas that hold the soul in bondage and subject one to transmigration. to bless the great Queen ! All of a sudden strains of heavenly music struC'k the ears of the delighted residents of Nabhi TEACHER. ·- . Their companions who heard all this were much astonished.THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER WORLD 79 and the Lord of Divine Sovereignty. The additional dream that was seen by thee indicates that Sri Ri~abha Devaji has been conceived in thine womb ! '' Thus did Nabhi Raja who was near to burstjng with extreme joy.

! It was the deva hosts that were coming to celebrate the Great Event. and their enthusiasm was unbound7 ed at the prospect of the speedy arrival of Him who was going to show them the way to Immortality ! What wonder then that devas came down to join men in the celebration of the Great Event 1 They. The mortal world had long hankered after Immortality. to do reverence to the Mother of God t There were great celebrations in Ajudhya that day.so Rlf?ABHA DEVA Raja's capital. On the Royal Throne of Gems in the great Hall of Audience were installed the Parents of the Lord. the sky itself became darkened with myriads of ethereal forms. They had come to know of the Descent into Queen Maru Devi's Womb of the Coming WoRLD TEACHER. with full devotion. But whom should they come down to see here today1 Who is superior to them in lmowledge or power or greatness on the earth 1 Should they come down to smell . and feel the approach of death even more poignantly than ourselves. too. because of their having so much more to lose. Today we wonder why the devas do not come down to see us on the earth. are mortals. in all becoming ways. a great rising hum of voices was heard . and had turned out. The splendour was such as the residents had never even dreamt of. in haste. and were worshipped.

or kings and em~ perors who respect neither their word nor their signatures? Devus have extremely delicate· senses. No one is expected to deliberately walk into an atmosphere reeking with filth and effluvium. dishonest traders.. to do.he devas exist ? Of course. first instance.· the mea. in the.THE FIRST WORLD TEACHER . lying statesmen.· shops. The devas do come when there is an adequate cause. bloated self-complacent tyrants. but will not enter the atmosphere of corruption and filth otherwise I Do . cannot all be deemed to have been hoodwinked throughout ages as to their existence. ·unless for some good and adequate cause. If they did not.t. the world's scriptures wHl not be filled with accounts of deva life! The Jainas.reverence to a WoRLU TEACHER.g. 6 . which they know wi1l not be attained till they confess a lie like . sti. they do. e. and the stench from the world's latrines and cess-pools must be quite nauseating to them. 81 the stench of the slaughter houses. too..nking kitchens and reeking restaurants 1 Will you have them come down to ignorant priests. But have they not invented the story to impress others? But who could be impressed with such a fiction if totally false 1 They seek. only their own salvation.this and perform adequate penance I Let us honestly recognize that there are many wonderF.

or that there can be no differences of bodies. is quite enough to settle the point. and built an Assembly Hall for Them to preach the Noble Truth.82 Rif?ABHA DEVA fu1 things in the world. under the circumstances. of most of which we are still ignorant. . including perhaps man l But can we say that there can be no life on any other planet than the earth. functions and faculties in other regions of space 1 The testimony of the ancients. especially when we find it strongly confirmed by the fact that the limit placed on the number of the Tirthamkaras is quite unexplainable otherwise than on the supposition that devas took part in celebrating thetr kalyanakas (principal events of life). and a few kinds of larger animals. The blind ant may perhaps imagine that the range of life can embrace nothing more than a few species of insects and moths.

Ri~abha Deva gave Hima. and a great Hero.. Prompted by the spirit of wor!ld-fl...r~ ~~ I ~ ~m~ "'. on Maru Devi. as we have already seen. The moon was at the time tin the constellation known as the Uttaraqadlw.CHAPTER V BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD ill~ P-ra~i'~ ~ ftm{sll+eA1.he country called Hima .C.ra !Nabhi Rai. I shaill re'late the famiJly of Nabh1: know· thai. Bharata. ii{ISieliiq~T a~Q': I ~ C{~· iftf ~mq ~qq:_ U~~II [Tr. To Ri~abha was born.~~~~~~ Sftq'~~q-~cl. Ri~abha Deva of bright radiance. ]-The Brahmanda Pural}-a (Hindu).. 83 . In the morning the celebrations were held.... to his son Bharata. XIV.r: ~ eft{: gw<~al!t~SU uq_ou • c. It was in the last part of the night of the dark half of the second of the month o:f A !Jiid/~.qf ~fa. he begot. which is in the south.O.ijr~ t itmt~e~~~f ~... the eldest of n hundred sons.. he flourished in j.a that the WoRLD TEACHER was conceived by the illustrious Queen of the l(ulaka.ight. ~ q 911411<:t~q. 59-61.... who was the best of Kings and the Ancestor of the Kshatriya clan.

already keen and penetrating. even the denizens of hells experiencing its electric thrill for a passing moment.ight.tion of a wireless wave ! · Again the devas joined with men in celebrating the Birth of a God. at the instance of the Lord of the first Heaven. of their own accord.br. The birth of Bhagwan Ri~?abha Deva was marked with many wonderful signs-the directions were clarified . and kept her cheerful and . she was cheerful and bright all the time. Ri~?abib.she now discarded the looking glass and began to look at her face in the lustre of a naked sword ! In this way the days of pregnancy {nine months and seven days) were passed. the thrones of the Indras of heavens shook as if by the invisible agita. The would-be Mother of the greatest Hero that was to be born. They assembled in the . . and her intelligence. a wave of peace passed over the entire universe. . They assisted Maru Devi in all ways. There is always something different in a WORLD TEACHER to distinguish Him from the rest of humanity.ed by many wonderful signs. There were no signs of pregnancy apparent in the body of the Mother .84: RI!?ABHA DEVA Many celestial maidens came to attend on the Mother of God.a Deva's embryonic growth was also mark. grew further with the growth of the Divine Child in her womb.

fi.ation asre· born· in their last earthly inca:rnation with. The little div.nd~ there performecli the divine abhi!felca.eached this rocky. All those who are destined to attain to salv.ur.' Then Sachi.ast r0cky platfGrm on. a. This is the effect of. amid' great rejoicings. Sachi· decorated the person of the Lord of the Three Yv orlds with her own hands. the top of Mount Meru on whieh the ceremGny ef bathing the Gods takes place.a: bony: :fi0rmation1 that is. follawec1 by the entire host of deva tribes and.Uing the earth and the sky. teok the new-boJ!n Babe in her anms~ and ear:vied Him to her Consort. Together they started for the A:bM~eka ceremony. and poured many pitchersful of water from a distant ocean over His head. platform.ine Baby was· not affected· inj. clans. the· great austerities they have performed in their previous lives I The Tirthamkaras have also got the adamantine formation of the bony skeleton. the Queen: of the First Heaven. the Indra. possessed of adamantine strength. There is a v.· and. external physica. pierced or destroyed in any way. The· celestiaili precession soon r. and uttering ceaseless cries of ' Victory. after the .iously· by the ceremonial bath. CHILDHOOD 85 Roya1 Palace. They searted the Divine Child on a Throne set with· precious stones.l forces or calamity. They cannot be cut. are not affected oy.BIRTH AND.

so to speak. some de·vas remained behind to keep the young Lord company. Many heavenly jewels were· put on the person of the Lord. The lord of a body that instantly obeys all impulses of the will. They transformed themselves into· children. Then the processionists returned to the Palace of Nabhi Raja. in His being. and became the playmates of Ri~abha Deva. sheer joy. Great celebrations followed in the Palace.86 abl~i~eka RI~ABHA DEV-~ (ablution). The· devas organized private theatricals.s. his dance was a wonder in itself. The child Tirthamkara was endowed by birth with clairvoyance and the knowledge of all kinds of arts and sciences. Excrementurine. each one more Such joy. was unheard of In Ajudhya before I When the heavenly devotees were gone. such wonderful than the rest. freces and the like-were not !formed in . looking after Him in ever~r possible way. happiness. The Indra himself executed a brilliant dance out of. He changed many forms in the course of his movements. and much excellent singing and acting were seen by tlie mortal man that day. All the noble virtues had their abode. to the great delight of all. He needed no instruction to acquire wisdom or the knowledge of the three R.

If it were not the wish of His royal father. that is to say in other words. and a delightful fragrance emanated from his person. and the monosyllabic 'Om. accompanied by a very sunny smile. for Thou art the Preceptor of all living beings. As for His disposition. His blood was white. All the marks of Sainthood and Greatness were present in His person.* like milk. through sheer inability to follow the example of great Celibates t " Thus addressed. who set up the fact that his own veins contained no fluid blood. Thou really art the Father of the Three V.ith silence. He would probably have refused to enter into matrimony. " 0 Lord.t on!ly ashes against the white blood of certain Saints. saying. Nabhi Blaja had asked Him. I am Thy father merely like an accompanying cause l Be pleased to recognize the need for the establishment O!f the marriage sacrament. inasmuch as it signifies the burning up of a'll kinds of desires. the reducing of eve1·ything to ashes ! . from His very childhood He had the fewest desires. T:he justification for Siva's boast is furnished by tapaschara'T)a (vmragya=austerities) which he aUegoricadlly represents.' Two accomplished and beautiful ladies. Ri~abha Deva gave His consent w. ba.l orlds. the " The Hindu acknowledgment of the fact is to be found in the chal1lenge of their god Siva. and come to grief. so that humanity may not misdirect themselves in that regard. and was like a saintly recluse at heart.BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD 87 His body .

indeed. But Great Men must be deemed to be an exception to the rule. and He was married to them under auspicious constellations. as they are above misfortune and ill luck I . have a role of their own to play in the a. but they are regarded as lucky when they become associated with such great events as constitute the land-marks in the life of a WORLD TEACHER! No doubt. stars. because. like other th[ngs. too.88 Rlf?ABHA DEVA ' sisters (but according to another version. they affect and are themselves affected by other things in nature.ffairs of the world . are neither lucky nor unlucky in themselves . The constellations. the daughters) of the brothers Kachha and Mahakachha were soon found for young Ri~?abha Deva.

She first of all saw the enormous 1!Iountain Meru swallow up the whole world . These were interpreted for her by her Husband the next day. IJXI. l [Tr.~ •ni u~•+rtmter: 1 ~qq~s~~ ~~ ~ f6 ~ SfttUtl=&.would be surrounded by the greatest glory and lordly pomp. Srimati Ya~asvati Devi was the senior queen of Ri~abha Devaji. In the ·)and culled Hirua Ri~nbha of great brilrliance was born to the Great Nabhi from Maru Devi. One night she conceived and saw four wonderful dreams.. that he would be endowed with all 89 . and last of all an Ocean agitated with wa:Ves.CHAPTER VI FAMILY LIFE ~~ :zrr.a (Hindu). and u great hero. that he. then she saw the Sun and the Moon and the Mounttt~in named .«fl ~=' cfR: ~i(l61!4'ii:. ]-Tlte Kurma Pural}. To Ri~abha was born Bharata. thereafter. 37-38. the eldest of a hundred sons. and meant that her son would be· the lord of the whole world. a Lake dotted with white swans.

who ·was the king of Vatsakavati in the East Videha of the Jambu Dvipa. on the ninth of the dark half of the month of Chaitra. the minister of Bajraja. His previous history from the time when he was Mativa. one Atigridha. But a few lives earlier he was. Deva called his name Bharata. He gave up all food at once.in salvation in that very life. from that. when the moon was in the Uttara~?a. and resolv- .90 Rlf?ABHA DEVA the. is already known.dha constellaRil?abha. on the same day as that on which Bhagwan Ri~?a­ bha Devaji Himself was born (namely. and then became a lion.).ra.ngha. whose sight brought back to him the knowledge of his past. and died with 1'aud1·a dl~yana (immersed in highly evil thoughts). most excellent qualities and virtues.aminlha-companions of Sri Ril?abha Deva in the Super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi. tion. He found himself cast into the fourth hell. and resolved to desist from evil. One day he saw the Saint Pihitasrava. moment. and at once sobered down by the knowledge. and that he would obta. I-Ie was given to much sense-indulgence. Bharata was one of the all. There he remained for a very very long time. He was filled with dismay. Yasasvati was overwhelmed with joy. on hearing the above description of her coming son from her illustrious Husband. In the fullness of time a son was born to her.

Sasvati. Bharata's li. The result was that he became a deva in the second heaven.FAMILY LIFE 91 ed to die in the approved wa:y. the minister of Lalitanga who was re-born as Bajrajangha. Kings literally go to hell. and the two were thrown together. No ·one is privileged here . (the Pandit) Ananada. there is no enemy of the soul greater than falsehood. He. He had a hundred sons from Y a. for he became in his next life. was in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi. whom we have already met in his incarnation of Bajrajangha's Master of Ceremonies. no one is secure against ill-luck and mishap. The friendship then formed continued and grew thereafter . and of some of their most intimate companions. no one can be said to be a favourite of Dame Fortune . The number is actually confirmed by the testimony of the Hindu scriptures. · Dhana Mitra's so til whom we recall as the . too. We already lmow the subsequent history of these great Souls.fe may be taken as a fair illustration of the rise and fall which souls experience in the course of transmigration in the world. at the time when Lali. First after Bharata came Vri~abha Sen. and no friend more helpful than Right Faith ! Ri~abha Deva lived for an enormous number of yea~s.tanga was there. while fierce animals become devas! Truly.

and the other friends and companions of the previous lives EJ·f Ri~abha Devaji and Yasasvati Devi. The 1\!l:ongoose appears as Varavira .n. The girl was given the name of Sundari by her worshipful father. who was filled with joy at the gift of food to a Jaina Saint. took birth in their family as the remaining ninety-three sons of the TiTthamkar. The son was Bahuba]i. who was none other than Akampana.a from the senior Queen.. whom we have already met in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi. The ferocious king of beasts.CHER.a Sen). as Sri Sen (also named . From his other wife. The Monkey's soul now becomes Vira (also. The soul of the Pig is also born in the same family. whose histories have not l)een given here.chyuta).) H. Bajrajangha. He is younger than Anantavijaya.amadeva (Apollo) in this age. Gu:Q. is now born as a son to the WoRLD TEA. and his name is Maha Sen.as exceedingly handsome. of. He is now called Anantavij aya. the generalissimo. He w. was the next son of Y a8asvati and Ri~abha Deva. Sunanda. and possessed aU the most excellent . who was called Brahmi. 1\. She also gave birth to a daughter. Ri~abha Deva had one son and one daughter.. Bahubali was the first K..o RI~ABHA DEVA Financier of Bajrajangha. .

Music and singing were naturally included in their attainments. Bharata also displayed a taste ·for dancing. that they resolved not to marry at all. who was the first to learn it. As the sons and daughters grew up they were given suitable education by their father. The daughters of the WoRLD TEACHER proved very intelligent.U household matters. He was taught other things with his brothers . and c~arming . The education of Bharata received the greatest attention from his parents. and became very efficient in the art. In due course of time they became efficient in a. They also understood the Science of Religion well . and acquired a knowledge of the various arts and sciences as well as all the accomplishments that their parents desired them to acquire.CTIER. The alphabet ~ame to be known as the Brahmi script. but he was especially instructed in Law and the Science of the polity of kings by the WORLD TEACHER. after Brahmi. and speedily mastered their lessons. who knew all sciences and arts. In accomplishments he was unrivalled. untaught. and were so much impressed with the transitory nature of the world. the WoRLD TEA. and also taught them the figures.rata. He wrote out the alphabet for his daughters. Among the younger brothers of Bha.FAMILY LIFE 93 qualities.

in drama. with the . Anantavirya. and their opinions will not be lachlng in weight I . The evolutionists are not likely to accept these statements readily. visa-vis. archery.94 Vri~abha Rif?ABHA DEVA Sen excelled in music. Then perhaps they will be qualified to talk on the subject. floriculture.gorilla and the chimpanzee. and the knowledge of precious gems. and how religion came to wear the scientific aspect in the prehistoric antiquity of the past I The sanest bit of advice that ca. Bahubali in medicine. But they have not shown how men came to att8Jin to omniscience when they should be chatting on the branches of forest trees.rn their library-loads of wisdom and to devote at least a couple of years to the study of books that deal with religion as a science.n be given to modernity is to unlea. He was also clever in finding out the characters of men and women from their bodily marks.

and. L. Bharata had a virtuous son by name Sumati !]-The Marka1.CHAPTER VII PUBLIC LIFE ~.:n~~ ~ cftt: ~trfit: msftr~~= 9. Ri~abha's son was Bharata.la (Hindu}. was given to Bharata by his Father. Ri~?a­ bha Deva. after his name.ta. to be known as Bharatavar~a.1~eya Pur&J. and the spontaneous cultivation also was not yielding sufficient food for the growing populace. The kalpa trees of the bkogabltumi age had by this time completely disappeared. He laid the founda5 . and came therefore.~ il(tstli41ii£1il~: trtffif~ ~: ~TW~Wll: ft+U~ ~RJ~ ~~~~~=.r 'Cilfiiiii: I aan=a ~ ~ .if: ilfaqf. and entered sannyasa (asceticism). the Fortunate One performed austerities! The country of Rima. abiding in the vanaprastha stage. which is to the south. Cf1i ·~ eN ~oN fiRn ~')I ~ ifmrT ~re~: ~ u [Tr. 39-41. Ri~abha performed the rajabht§cl~a (installlation ceremony} of Bhara. taught them agriculture (cultivation of _sugarcane and other crops) and other useful crafts ·and arts. therefore.

.. into towns and villages. and varpilca (trader). and arts such as singing.96 Rif?ABHA DEVA tion of civic life. and finally Sudras. dancing and painting. Those who fought came to be known as Kshatriyas. There were no Brahma1)as then. culti. the rest were at first called jagharvyaja (small).t first Vaisyas were also called by different names. . The country was divided into provinces. professions (such as carpentry. these into divisions and districts. later.rrangement was .. such as a1·yya (gentle).nd chieftains were appointed to govern and to regulate the routine of civic life. all were at liberty to pursue literature and none were debarred from education. and the like). and taught men how to cooperate with one another for mutual benefit. wrestling were also counted among the Sudras. trades. which this a.The date on. the traders earned the title of Vaisyas. The occupations and crafts that were taught to the people comprised fighting. In all this Ri~abha Deva was assisted by the Lord of devas. Kings a. and the districts. . and who served the Those who took to Kshatriyas and Vaisyas. whose advice was found very valuable. goldsmith's work.·ation. avfh-a (lowest or last).t\. letters. The Sudras included all those who earned their living by manual labour or handicraft..

corresponding to what may be described as the army. for carrying on trade .PUBLIC LIFE 97 made was the first of the dark half in the month of A [fiidha. Three 1Ja'l''!}as. It'WaS merely a threefold conscription. A class was set apart for warfare and the maintenance of order. It was some time after the installation ceremony that the WoRLD TEACHER laid down the foundation of Aryan stability in the form of varrpa-v1tavastha (the rale of the caste). They were very grateful to the WORLD TEACHER for all that he had done for them. and himself retired from the active concerns of kingship.nts. Great celebrations again took place. stretcher-bearers. . were luid down. or order of things) . in~rnal and external . not four.. .. and never wearied of singing His praises. The people were now happy. attenda. and the third was to prevent disruption for the want of servants. Some time after this Nabhi Raja installed Ri~abha Deva on the throne. '7 . and prosperity reigned generally in the land. the trades and ]abour (in a comprehensive sense). The system owed its existence to political foresight rather than anything else.tmi (sweating) lfri~ti (creation. another.. in which devas participated. which is the commencement of the lcarma-bh?.

as was found out by nct. There is none so humble in this group who may not be able to recall some sort of glorious ancestry to fire his imagination. berause. for education was neyer a ~ . Secondly. it is incapahle of training the mind. irrespective of the question who is to feed the armies and of labour. The true martial spirit that is wanting in a general conscription because of the lack of fa. of instilling the rea. general conscription concerns itself merely with man-power. The conscription that was adopted by the WoRLD TEACHER made a provision for the preservation of trade and labour at the same time as it aspired to make every soldier a hero. The rule has a very great advantage over general conscription . especially in times of stress. without which it is impossible to do anything practical. In times of war especially have all these three functions of the society to be maintained. Brahmal)as have really no place in this scheme.98 RI~ABHA DEVA and the men who knew the arts and crafts. . is acquired at home and early ·in childhood by the mere incident of being born in the military class. general conscription attends to the physical side only of the problem of man-power . firstly.mily traditions in the great majority of cases.J military instinct in the soldier· s heart. that is to say.ual exparience in the last Great European vVar (of 1914-18).

and made them look to the dispositions of the stars before marching out against a foe! Fanatical spirit. throughout the long ages that have rolled by. No country in the whole world can show such long stability of indigenous culture as the Abode of the Aryan race! The downfall of Aryan Culture within recent historical times is due to the failure on the part of the Kshatriyas to maintain their traditions. and no one was denied literary accomplishment. led them often to disregard the rules of good generalship. for which the Brahmal}as are to be blamed whole-heartedly. and fell fighting with one another oftener than in defending the mother-land.nds. as professing to be the sole custodians of the spiritual science. it enabled the Aryan Culture to rear its proud head over the din and fury of wars and the crash of empires in non-Aryan la. due to chronic intellectual degeneration. and were cut up individually. with the result that they could not generally combine against powerful foreign foes. had· !its part to play in the downfall of the Aryan Empire. too. The merit 01f the va?''Tfa-vyavastl~a is great . They lost the disposition that would breed amity and good-fellowship. Superstition.PUBLIC LIFE 99 monopoly of any one class in the remote past. Generals . They were filled with arrogance.

No doubt. but it seems impossible to think that we shall ever succeed in completely ridding the country of the undesirable things and customs and institutions that have established themselves in our midst. the face of things will be changed at once. to make no scruples in obtaining the upperhand . yet were they always treated as if imbued with the spirit of Aryan chivalry. but the account they .100 Rif?ABHA DEVA are found constantly disregarding the rules of military strategy ·and sacrificing away their own and their soldiers' lives in sheer madness of impetuosity. Religion is able to accomplish miracles! If the whole world accepts the Teaching of Truth and begins to live up to it. Another cause which played no mean part in the disruption of the Aryan Empire was the failure to benefit by experience. and true military honour I Will the past glory of the Aryan Culture be ever re-established in this unfortunate land 1 India may become an equal partner in the Briti 1-1h Empire or she may even obtain complete independence. as if by a magician's wand! But it is easier said than done. The foreign invaders repeatedly gave evidence of their determination to stick at nothing. The Hindus hold that they were the . that is to say.founders ·of the caste-system.

is mythological in its nature-Brahmal}.l. The . recognise the basis of the system to be grounded on occupation.Jainas. ed Bharata's action in undisguised language.as originating from the mouth of Brahma. Vaisyas from his belly. empire ! As for the origin of the BrahmaJ)a caste. Those who would not tread on the grass he called Brahmal}. His object was to find out those who were the most tender-hearted among men. if not an everlasting. and who recognized the presence of a soul even in the lowly blade of grass. from his arms. and explain its need to lie in the establishment of stable. He one day invited the male residents of his capital to visit him at his palace. but not on blood. unless they chose to go over the extensive grass plots on either side of the way. . the . and the Sudras from his thigh's-r. attribute its origin to man. on the contrary. and probably in the Jaina scheme of things. The WoRLD TEACHER condem. and so arranged things that only a small path was left for the people to pass along. Kshtriyas. because of their knowledge of Brahman (the divinity of life). it seems to have come into existence later on under Bharata.PUBLIC LIFE 101 give of it fails to explain the need for its origU:. on the ground of blood-inferiority.nd ends in making one section of mankind eternally hate another.as.

who seems to have again laid some emphasis on the distinction. It could not well have been laid down by the WORLD TEACHER. till the thne of the author of the Adi Pural}a. and were thenceforth denied social intercourse with the higher va1'7Ja8.102 Rif?ABHA DEVA Brahmal}a class had no place. The distinction of the touchable and the untouchable among Sudras seems to have grown much later. their exclusion was originally based on economical factors rather than en any considerations of blood-inlferiority. . Divine Lawgiver declaring all of a sudden that certain sections of men who had up to that jnstant been all as much touchable as any o. time.J ainas against bitter persecution at the hands of their co-religionists (Hindus). those of the Sudras who ·followed such professions and trades as the sweeper's. as an integral part of the caste system. the duration of which cannot be now fixed by any known definite land-marks. Those who today preach a general levelling down of an differences at once .f the highest men that could be named. to placate the Brahmanical hatred and win them over to protect the . Jmagination is not comforted by the idea of a. the shoe~maker's and the like. fell into filthv habits as a class. should thenceforth be deemed pa1·iahs and social outcasts 1 What seems most likely to have happened is that after a. Probably.

but all the twenty four hours of his life.n! It is very desirable that these people should be treated as human beings . The effect of suggestion is wellknown. and if you go back to his past you will always find his ancestry filthy and unclea. Let us raise the depressed classes by all means . one thing: : that the sweeper of India is not only a sweeper while he works as such.l of actual filth! This is a powerful law of nature. his clothes.PUBLIC LIFE 103 forget. even his person. as everv one familiar with the theory and practice ' of hypnotism and auto-suggestion knows. name or even voice is suggestive of filth and filthy surroundings will act exactly as if it consiste<. are all a mass of filth from one end of the year-rather from one end of life-to the other l Before him his father was exactly like him . so that the food that is taken from the hands of a person whose appearance. but it is not to be supposed that the cause of cleanliness (said to be a virtue Dnly next to godliness) can be advanced in any way by eating food from hands that are covered with filth or from those that suggest the association with filth. His house. There are i~ Europe no such sweepers who can boast of a filthy ancestry as the Indian ~ . his surroundings. his furniture. The case of the European sweeper is not an instance in point. but let us not lower those who are not depressed.

Habitual association with actual filth will be required to produce an effect that is to accompany the soul after death and to lead to nicha gotra (status). It is not blood prejudice that is really working against them. ancestry and living! At the same time we must be on our guard against stretching the point too far. which ca. for a suggestion can always be eradicated from the mind as easily it can be formed.a (low) status in ~he future rebirth . and so arrange matters that their appearance should no longer be suggestive of the extreme filth that it does today. to suffer an exaggerated sentiment to mar the progress of an aspiring soul. it is difficult to say . but it is .nnot but be productive of evil result in our own case. let them get rid of their filth and the filthy surroundings. And it is not every suggestion even that will lead to nicl1. To what extent the acute economical problem that is facing us will admit of.nliness. isolation. If the untouchables will change their condition and rise higher.104 RI§ABHA DEVA b·hangi can do ! There a man may do the work otf a sweeper but he is not a bl~angi by birth.their ridding themselves oi filth. but their own unclea. It is not every passing thought that takes effect as a suggestion . intensity and persistence are necessary for the purpose.

000 of whom do not get one full meal a day! Individual exceptions there will aways be to this as to all other rules. and was known as ICururaja. Somaprabha. who changed his name into Sridhara. about 200. after a year's probation. namely.000. In J ainism varna is to be fixed for a new convert. to rule over a thousand chieftains each. impulses). founded the Nathavansa. Sri Ri~?abha Deva then appointed Kachha. After establishing the var~a-system the WoRLD TEACHER appointed four great Kshatriya warriors. The Adhirajas . is the starting point of Kuruvansa. Kasyapa became the founder of U gravansa. Change of va1·~a has always been permitted within certain limits which aimed at securing what may be termed appropriate samskaras (mentality. Maha Kachha and many other ICshatriya princes as Adhirajas -(smaller chieftains) to rule over five hundred feudat?ry chiefs each. and the change of appearances and surroundings. Hari came to be known as Harikanta. Kasyap3 and Somaprabha. Akampana. impressions.PUBLIC LIFE 105 certain that they are not very likely to outstrip the generality of people. and his house as Harivansa Akampana. Hari. according to his occupation. the name adopted by Maghavava.

tion! The Surya and Chandra vansas arose out of the Ikshvaku vansa somewhat later. because of His being the creator of the (arrangements of the) J(m·mabh'ltmi (sweating) civHiza. the first-named b~r Bharata's son Arka Kirti. The Ikshvaku vansa arose in this way: the first thing that the WORLD TEACHER had taught men. . and the second. by Bahubali's son Somakirti who was also called Mahabala. which earned for him the title of ' Ikshvalrn. was the use of the ikshurasa (cane-juice). Vidhata. They were founded by two of the grandsons of the vVORLD TEACHER. The Wonr.' Subsequently in the course of a few yea.rs the term came to be applied to the family of Rif3abha Deva.106 Rif?ABHA DEVA were themselves placed und~r the 1\fahaTaJaS.. which all signify creator. S:ri~?ta and the like. on the disappearance of the Kal7Ja trees. whence the Ikshvaku vansa. n TEACHER also earned the ·titles of Brahma.

and took to austerities . naked. practising religious penance.* " Ri~abha Deva having ruled with equity and wisdom . II (Book II. tihey have . until. went the way of the ' great road ' (tR(I64111+{). . resigned the soTereignty of the ear+h to ·the het·oic Bhat·ata. . And having nothing. . LXI. so as to be left n coUection of skin and fibres. "t Great men cannot remain idle . adopted the life of an anchoret. though not of lanes. . .their work to do. Purat~a.CHAPTER VIII WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNY. t See "\Vilson's Vishnu Chapter I). His body became very feeble on account of austerities. yet hath all ! " -Sir H. Lord of himself. " Giving His kingdom to His son Bharatn.ASA '' T'hil-> man is freed from senile hands 0£ hope to rise. . or fear to fall. . 103-104. . Ri~abha entered the Va7Japrastfza Rtage.a. (Hindu). and performing all prescribed ceremonies. Vol. . 38-39. and. . pp.t. 10i . which they have set before them. . emaciated by his austet·ities. TF afton. whether in this life or in the previous one or ones! ~Vhen a major portion of the life of the WORLD * rrhe Kurma Pura:t.

and arranged a dance in the Assembly Hall. and stopped. She was called Nilanjana. All at once. then reeled back. and the next instant her form ' dissolved ' and was no ' more I Nilanaj ana was dead! The incident filled the assembled men and women with a sense of instability of life. she staggered. The presence of the WORLD TEACHER in the closing moments of litfe filled her with courage and contentment and joy. At a. the Indra of the first heaven came down one day with the materials for· worship. All present. while still in the middle of a process of crazy vigorous movements and turns.108 Rlf?ABHA DEVA TEACHER vvas spent. They- . enjoyed her superb performance. she rose to dance. Knowing that the time for the WoRLD TEACHER's Great Renunciation was ripe. She probably knew the reason why she of all others had been asked to dance at that particular moment. and entertained the audience with her superb performance. and cared for nothing else. her with him to inflame the spirit of vairiigya (detachment or world-flight) in the mind of the Lord. One of the celestial dancers was a certain nymph whose clock of life had only a few moments left to run. Indra had brought. and she danced as she had never danced before. she knew that her end was quite safe. signal from the Indra.

_After they had gone seven steps it was carried by . He took leave from His parents. in the secret. First of all certain human kings carried the palanquin. in the heart now leaped into a flame. and appointed Bahubali the heir-apparent to the Thro!D. and gave away much wealth in charity. and worshipped Him. Having done all this.e. He made up his mind there and then to say good bye to the world and to the good things of the world! Deva-sages who had been watching the proceedings from the end region of the fifth heaven. 'They adored Him in suitable terms that were calculated to fill the mind with serenity and a sense of detachment from the perishable world. in reality. The assembled devas and men then Jlerformed His abhi$eka. The fire that had been smouldering. wives and kinsmen. immediately appeared to worship the WoRLD TEACHER and to strengthen him in his resolve. Ri~abha Deva then rose and stepped into the celestial palanquin (Sudarsana by name) which the devas had brought for the occasion. to detach Himself front the world.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 109 looked on it aghast ! The WORLD TEACHER needed no reminder. He gave His lands and territory to His other sons and relations. The WORLD TEACHER placed Bharata on the royal seat. according to their fitness and needs.

It was the ninth of the dark half of the month of A. filled with the spirit of voi·rii.gya (world-flight) in the sitting yoga posture. After pulling out His hairs in the manner described above. as the former was something like 96 miles long and 72 wide. The Lord of the celestials picked up these hairs. Kshira Sagar. . facing the East. It was now the evening time.110 RI:?ABHA DEVA the kings of the Vidyadhara class from the distant Videha Kshetra. and full of cheerfulness and great enthusiasm pulled out. then the devas carried it to the Siddharthaka forest. In those days the boundaries of Ajudhya and Prayag (Allahabad) were probably conterminous. He saluted the Perfect Souls who had reached safety and ni1'vana before Him . The Lord sat under a banyan tree. The palanquin was placed on a huge transparent stone slab which had been placed there for the occasion. which is close to Allahabad. the LoRn stepped out and took His seat on it.~iidha with the Moon in the Utta1·ii· ~adlw constellation when the \VoRLD TEACHER turned His back for the last time on the world. and placed them in a jewelled casket. They were subsequently dropped into the distant Ocean. and . in five handfuls. Ri~abha Deva proceeded to remove His clothes and the jewels that He wore. the hairs of His head and face.

No less than four thousand chiefs and chieftains followed Him on the Path . and the Lord looked like an immovable Mountain as He stood ·absorbed in holy meditation.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 111 He kept nothing with Him of the Worldly goods. and became a Digambara (destitute of all vestiges of clothes) . By birth He was endowed with Clairvoyance in addition to the usual forms of knowledge with which humanity is endowed . resolving not to break His fast before the end of six months. that had been developed through many lives in the past. immovable like a rock. He discarded not only all external burdens alone. in consequence of the great Renunciation. or through a fit of passing enthusiasm. the WoRLD TEACHER became immersed in Holy meditation. but they merely did so either out of the regard they had for the "'N ORI~n TEACH:ER. tranquil and undisturbed all the time I Humanity in that far distant age all attained to giant stature. He stood in the standing yoga posture. but also as much of the internal burdens as He could at the time. Knowing the powers of His Great Spir~t. . without really realizing what they were doing and why. and He now acquired Telepathic Perception (the power to read the innermost thoughts of living and dead personages) .

Many of them put on aprons nnd loin-strips made of bark and leaves. The greatest difference between them lay in regard to the sense of freedom which stirred the WORLD TEACHER and filled Him with indescribable inward joy. one after another. His imitators were merely regretting the ' foolish ' step they had taken! .nd there doing nothing.112 Rif?ABHA DEVA The four thousand followers of the Lord whose hearts were not illumined with knowledge or faith. They left the place. soon began to feel uneasy. but sadness and sorrow at tlieir ·_destitution! The result was that while the WoRLD TEACHER enjoyed inner happiness all the time. each following his own fancy for becoming like the \VonLn TEACHER. but were unable to sta. They tried to restrain themselves as long as they could . and dispersed in the forest. and did not experience the Joy of Freedom. their ·fear of the men's ridicule and of Bharata's displeasure preventing them from appearing again in the world. difference between the tapasclta?'a?Ja of the WORLD TEACHER and of those who had merely taken to it in imitation of Him. and lived in the forests. and were overpowered by hunger and thirst. The others had not given up the world of their own accord. It would be wrong to suppose that there was no real.

_~TATUE 01!' MAHAVIRA IN ONE OF THE ' ' TEMPLES AT AnRAH .------- ::-I r-: .

The WoRLD TEA. because· of their aunts who were ~is wives. who ultimately became the last Tirthamkara.CHER's · . territory amongst His sons and kinsmen. and failed to· withstand the affliction of hunger and thirst that assailed· him. . They had got nothing at the tim~ when the WoRLD TEACHER had partitioned His. He fell· from· the high position that he aspired to attain. 8 . Two impetuous youngsters·. th~y felt ' that they had a claim on Him. tapasckana'lfa was a wonderjul sight for all who saw it.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYA~A ' 113 There was amongst those who. preaching aU sorts of silly ~. ~hey came. became a wandering mendicant. had taken to sannyiisa with Him· one Marichi. but they were struck with the amazing steadiness of that dhyana (meditation) which nothing could disturb. sought Him with a view to obtain some boons from Him·. who was one of the sons of Bharata. Mahavira . a few incarnations later·. He was a great soul. determinF. but at the time he was quite unable to understand and re'alize the Truth. the· sons of Kachha and Maha Kachha.nd senseless· doctrines~· in consequence of which he had to 1·eincarnate even in hells many times. and. People did not understand the wllly and the whm·ejo1·e of the process :at the time . inspired by the example mf the \VORLD TEACHER. Once there was some disturbance.

They caught hold of His legs. the new-comer now assumed his deva-form. The newcomer worshipped the Lord in a suitable way. and offered Him adoration from his heart. He then left for his own place in the Patala-loka. own business. asking them not to molest the Divine Yogi . He then turned to the young men. He thus discovered the cause of the disturbance of the 'VORLD TEACHER. and flew at once to the Siddharthaka forest to see if he could do anything to remove the element of disturbance. F!inding them obdurate. and took them with him to the Mount Vijyardha. but they in effect told him to mind his. in a distant continent. and began to pester Him with their verbal petitions for gifts. . That day the ruler of the devas of the Underworld (Patala) was sitting !in his Palace when he felt his throne shake and quiver.114 RI!?ABHA DEVA ed not to leave Him without getting a boon from Him. where he established two kingdoms for them among the Vidyadhara residents of that place. The youngsters were still pressing their claims on their Uncle-in-law. With his clairvoyant vision he scanned the worlds to see what was happening in the universe that might account for the incident. when another devotee appeared on the scene in humble form. though they used much flowery style and charming expression.

precious stones. Wherever He went people brought cash. But at that time no one knew what to give to the Divine Saint. Maha I(achha's son. was taken by the Lord. The WoRLD TEACHER passed through many villages and towns. Some did bring food to Him also . If death occur for want of nourishment.inces. and how. Even ordinary saints are expected to remain unaffected by the non-obtainment of food. and could not be accepted. water to bathe. In this manner did the WoRLD TEACHER continue with His meditation for the space of six: months. but no one was able to offer Him food in the way in which it could be accepted. He then set out to seek some kind of nourishment. They were also instructed in certain mysterious arts by the deva. But it was a mere incident for Him . but it was not prepared and offered in the proper way. and no more ! He who has put his hand to the . but He did not wa~t any of these things. and Vinami. lands. He was not disturbed by it in the least. and even offered to give Him.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 115 The son of Kachha. thus became the king of fifty prov. of sixty. through which no food or water. it will be only an inoident. who was known as N ami. Six months more passed away like this. and acquired certain strange faculties and powers.

it is a positive gain . and never once bestowed a thought on the subject.int die under the circumstances. " they signify the arrival of great gooi ." said the court Pandit who happened to be present at the time and who heard them all. Sreyansa. on no account. and asked for their interpretation from his brother to whom he related them all. In the morning. He moved about still occupying Himself with Self-contemplation. Only once in the morning when people take. The latter had seen during the preceding night. In this way He reached the city orf Hastinaput where lived king Soma Prabha with his younger brother. and paying no heed to the physical needs. if he yield to the impulse of hunger. " Tl1ey signify. look back. Even in the morning He would merely pass through towns and villages without uttering a word and without asking for food from any one. it is a ' fall ' ! Ri~abha Deva was absolutely unmindful of the pangs of hunger. towards the early hours of the morning. unmoved and unaffected by the wa. and spend the rest of the time in holy meditation. when he got up he found himself stili thinking of them.nt of food. If the sa. their breakfast would He visit the habitations of men. several stra~ge dreams.116 Rif?ABHA DEVA plough must. or die grumbling and cursing his hard luck.

" Only a few hours after this the WoRLU TEACHER entered Hastinapur. in the approved way. and now Sreyans1 ! All these were but three phases. and how he was there. by the side of Bajrajangha l It was an old affair . accompanied by his brother and others. still the memory came back with a rush. and proceeded towards the royal palace.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 117 luck to your royal house. an internal commotion possessed him for the moment. Sreyansa saw Him coming from a distance. proceeded to offer the refreshing juice of the sugarcane to the WoRLD TEACHER. and ran out to do obeisance to Him. The next instant Sreyansa lmew ·himself. of one and the same soul ! Who said that the lot of woman in J ainism was hopeless 1 Sreyansa knew it to be otherwise ! Full of affectionate devotion. · There are many kinds of gifts which people make to one another . vivid and clear-at first Svayam Prabha. several times since he had re-incarnated in different forms . or complexions. Srevansa now . there was a rush of some powerful emotion . He recalled how Bajrajangha ha:d given the gift of food to two holy saints in a forest one day. Some great Soul should ~orne to you this day. The sight of the Lord agitated him greatly . which he now recollected fully. but of all of them the gift of food to a . then Srimati.

heavenly flowers and small gems on the assembly. the Monkey and the Mongoose. namely. merit does not lie in the articles that are given .i thereby ! Of course. for they might be worth a couple of farthings and no more. of his dharma as the true Path.118 RI~ABHA DEVA true saint is the most meritorious. The devas witnessed the sight from the upper air. and as the Tirthamkara is the greatest of all saints. the Lion. the Pig.rt that is illumined with the light of Jnana (knowledge divine) and filled with reverence and devotion for the Ideal is the most meritorious of all. of his example. as must have been . the giving of food to him with a pure hea. They uttered loud shouts of '' victory ! victory " and beat the heavenly drums! We have already seen the effect of the gift of food to two J aina Saints in the case of four animal souls. There is bltogabltumi in the gift only when the giver looks upon it as his greatest good luck to be able to serve those in whose footsteps he himself .the actual market-value of the sugar-cane juice that the WORLD TEACHER consumed! It lies in the purity of thoughts-the recognition of the recipient as the true Guide. and rained down fragrant water. who reached a blwgabhum. as the true acltar~a (Conduct or Life )-and the enthusiasm and delight ~ith which the act of giving is accompanied.

them Sreyansn related his previous history ::tnt:l that of the WoRLD TEACHER. when food is offered to some great Saint or a WoRLD TEACHER. From this time onward there was no difficulty felt in this regard by men. The· food-whatever it be-should . and entertain the same noble thoughts which :fill his mind. ' dust thou art to dust returnest.' Those who do not give the food themselves but who rejoice in the act of giving by another. and understood the reality of Life-surely. Even Bharata came To down from Ajudhya to congratulate him. They were all filled with wonder. All assembled praised Sreyansa for his keen . This is the reason why the de'Vas come rejoicing on such occasions.intelligence in finding out what was to be done on such an occasion and in succeeding where others had failed.WORLD-FLIGHT AND SANNYASA 119 has a longing to fol~ow. Ri~abha Deva strolled away again into the forests after the partaking of the iksl~u-1·asa (the cane j nice). for it is only a question of the purity of thoughts and feelings. There will be no merit in it if it only amount to the throwing o:f a morsel to a beggar or a ' dog. also attain to the happiness of a blwgabhumi. People now understood the manner in which food should be offered to a Saint. when offering food to the WoRLD TEACHER. was never said of the soul ! ' .

and should be given with reverence and respect and in a manner which does not imply the recipient's lowering himself in the least degree.120 RI~ABHA DEVA be pure in regard to its materials. in the least degree. in their own estimation. It was the third of the bright half in the month of Baisakh when the WORLD TEACHER broke I·Iis fast at Hastinapur. which is known as the A kha11a (inexhaustible) Ti1a fthirrl) I . That day the royal kitchen could have fed the whole humanity. through the merit of the "'\VORLP TEACHER'S presence. and pure in regard to the actual giving. the preparing and the giving of it will lower them. or expose them to ridicule or conten\. it should be free from himsii (offence or injury to a moving living being). The event is still commemorated on the dat'e mentioned. pure in regard to its preparation. because food became inexhaustible miraculously. For saints will rather starve than take anything when the procuring_.pt.

.o get dominion over all things. and delivered him out of his own transg·ressions.T ewislt Apocrypha) Chapter X. They are known as knowledge-obstructing. of Omniscience. and gave him strength :f:. deluding) and power-obstructing energies of karmas.t\.xh. perception-obstructing. " }i'or as the lightning c. The fourth [(alyiinaka in the life of a Tirthamkara is the attainment of Full . 27.e. so sha:ll also the coming of the son of man be.."-II Eco.dras (.h out of the east.omet. and shineth eYen unto the west.. serenity-obstructing (i.. These inimical forces come into being by the fusion of spirit and ~a. and are reinforced from 121 . There are four kinds of karmas termed ghiitiya (inimical or obstructive) which are responsible for the loss of this great and divine attribute in our case. by the destruction of the forces that keep it from blazing forth.CHAPTER IX OMNISCIENCE "' Wisdom guarded to the end the first-formed Father 'Of the world that was created alone. which is continually taking place in the case of the unemancipated soul. "-Matthew :x.11-embracing Knowledge.tter. in other words.

' Right Knowledge is really presupposed in Right Faith. and of the worst forms of the four principal passions. But it does not arise before the acquisition of Right Faith. so long as it is not characterized by Right Faith. and ignorance that is termed Right Knowledge. namely. doubt. he is qualified to acquire the Right Faith. No one who is filled with fanatical spirit. or to study Religion in the spirit of sobriety and rationality. deceit and greed are destroyed.122 RI!i!ABHA DEVA moment to moment. pride. of anger. or is agitated by the most malignant form of the passions named. to be able to take a truly rational view of things.ergies of fanaticism. These seven kinds of km·mic energies gone. It becomes Right Knowledge as soon as the seal of belief is placed on it. since belief (faith) follows knowledge. . Right l{nowledge and Right Conduct. these five kinds of forces have to be destroyed. The seeker has also to rid himself of the tendency to compromise between fiction and fact (mixed truth and falsehood) and of his superstitions. so that before that staae !is reached • 0 knowledge is merely tantamount to information. Right Faith is acquired only when the en. to acquire Right Faith. Therefore. or subdued. will ever be induced to listen to reason. inasmuch as it is only knowledge free from error. eliminating the elements: of agnosticism and doubt.

it does not matter a bit. He was even able to live without food and water for the whole period that He remmned immersed in holy meditation. and for six months more thereafter when no one knew how to offer Him food propert . Ri~abha Devaji brought much accumulated merit of ta11asckara?Ja with Him from His previous lives. that is to say. a beginning has to be made in respect of Right Conduct sooner or later. His Soul's inner forces were developed to such an extent that He possessed the most indomitable will. for the future. against which calamity and trouble knocked their heads in vain. The forces that stand in the way of progress on the path now are the lesser degrees of passions which are nevertheless still very powerful. renouncing the world in the !fullest sense of the term. These can only be destroyed by one's turning the back. and is so much actual gain.OMNISCIENCE 123 Right Faith and Right Knowledge being acquired. The merit acquired is carried over by the immortal soul. If death intervene before success is attained. that is. on. to refuse absolutely to be swayed by its temptations. Tapasckara?Ja signifies the determination to have absolutely nothing to do with the good things of the world. for without action nothing can be accomplished. and the energies that interfere with perfect serenity of mind.

~ and therebv to . self-centred. engaged in holy meditation. bore the desired fruit .124 Rlf?ABHA DEVA ly. According to tradition. on fuiler investigation. of nn imprint in st. wl1o was in charge of the expedition. Death had itself received a death-blow . half of the month of Phala. Professor Cipriani. 1929 Is not unlikely to prove interesting.from His hand . on the eleventh of the first. to eradicate his km·m. in regard to the ai'legecl falmlous ages and heights attained by men in the remotest past : " It is claimed that a highly important nnthropologicn:l disco. . At la~t His tnpal:clut7·nnrt. the dark. self-controlled." no .guna in the Uitara!?ad11a Nakslwt1·a (constellation) ~~> Great long·ev'ity beems to haYe been associated with huge stature of humanity in the remote past. thp~tsan~s of .rears. The following item of news recently publi~hed in the (Indian) Statesman in its issue of the 16th October. is convinced that the foot-print da. the VvoRLD TEACHER moved about for a long period of time. and is undoubtedly the most pnmit1ve In ex1stence. separate His Soul from matter.•ery has been made on the I Jimpopo bv an Italian scientific expedition whirh has nnived at Bullwayo~ This discovery consist-.one of an enormous human foot. that is to say. if it could destroy His body I Fea.n.rless.tes back hundreds of. of Florence Universit'###BOT_TEXT###quot;'. and starvation could only release Him for ever from the tyranny of the flesh. indicating a type of prehistoric man of which trace has hitherto been found. He spent altogether 999* years 11 months and 2 days in performing the kanna-destroying austerities. He performed the severest austerities and tapascltn1'mw.

all-embra. Here did the devas and men who learnt of the Illumination of the Lord flock together to worship the SouRcE of LIFE and LIGHT! . that is.OMNISCIENCE 125 the veil of the Temple of Divinity was destroyed completely. The details of the tapascha1'a"fa need not detain us here. a heavenly Pavilion was erected for the Lord's Preaching. The \VoRLD TEACHER sat in this Pavilion. flooded His Consciousness from within ! He was then sitting under a banvun tree in the Sakata forest close t~ " the town of Purimatala. placed on a throne of heavenly gems. full. above a . sitting about a couple of inches above the lotus in the air. Under instructions from the Lord of the first heaven. by celestial artisans. But such an event as the acquisition of omniscience was not likely to remain unobserved. and the Effulgence of Knowledge Divine. The devas perceived it from the specific signs which accompany it in their regions. now become really qualified to teach and preach the Truth. and flocked to worship the WORLD TEACHER.cing OMNiSCIENCE. huge golden lotus. which like lightning. but so as not to touch it. shines in one part but reveals the whole universe.

The hosts of Gods were his attendants. and at -another as a human wanderer in need of food and ~odging . and excelled everything that the human "* Griffith has the fol'lowing note on the legend in his translation of the Atharva Veda {see p. solemn vows his messengers.NA "For a whole year he stood erect. The Vratya ascended the couch. . in consequence of tbe observance of the vratas (vows). "~-The Athal'Va Veda. and who bec[Ulle. oD!ly a human wanderer at first. V\Thy standest thou. nn alq-knowing (metaphorically. Vol. . It was the work of devas. But the story iits. into the framework of the Life of Ri~abha Deva. . 0 Vratya P He answered and said. 199. most l1eautifullly. . Let them bring my couch. The Gods said 11nto him. Chapter XV. The descr·iption of the heavenly Pavilion erected by the devas for the WoRLD TEACHER's preaching is beyond words. and I do not attempt to explain. II):" It is hard to understand. and was then attended upon by devas (gods} and worshippFd by all creatures. . who was. aU-"Pervading) God. . undoubtedly. 126 . . the ideaHzation and the grotesquely ex. and all creatures his worshippers .t1·a.CHAPTER X THE SAMAVASARIA. They brought the .vagant glorification of the Vratya or hereticail nomad who appears at one time to be a supernormal Being endowed with the attributes of aN-pervading Deity.couch for that V1·atya . .

E AT 8F.J.Trn·. VRATYA (FROli A PAIN'l'ING IN TilE DIG .UNA T.ONI) . ' Coucu ' (s.mrPJ.uuvASARANA) OF MAH-\.

wa~ raised a huge column.THE SA'MAVASARANA 12. . of 12 yojanas (a small yojana is equal to 8 miles. Then came . so elegant and so -costly was it in construction. suspended from them. so lotfty. The platform itself was surrounded by three enclosures made of precious metals. circular in form. crossing the border of crushed gems. On their tops were fixed banners and flags that fluttered in the breeze. which glistened in the sun. led into the centre.:>f all a row of gold pillars surmounted with crocodiles' heads.the world! It stood above ground. and a big one to 4-000 miles). with a diameter. which held strings of dazzling white pearls in their mouths. with doors in every direction. After the border of gems. Each of these columns stood on a raised platform of gold which was reached by a flight of sixteen steps. called Manasthamba (literally. pride pillar). one in each direction. There was first . There were four wide roads. producing rainbow effects all round. ana festoons of pearls and precious beads were.a wide border made with crushed gems of different colours. Pretty festoons of pearl-strings hung from these golden pillars and produced an extremely pleasing effect. eye had ever beheld in. filled with crystal water. Four beautiful lakes. which. on each side. the sight otf which sufficed to lower the pride of the greatest of mortals.

\Vithin the gates there was a theatre on either side of the road wl1ere devas and deva-ladies reproduced scenes from the previous lives of the V-lORLD TEACHER. Bordering the forest was a wall. which was decorated with paintings of animals and female figures. which were decorated with costly festoons of pearls and precious beads. leaves.128 HT~ABHA DEVA surrounded each enclosure on the four sides. Beyond the lakes was a moat that encircled the entire area. filled with fragrant incense. mango· and sazJtapm·1}a* trees led townrds the Hall of the :r The sapta11aT~Ja is a ldnd of tree whoso leaves l'auge themselvs in clusters of seven. seven nnd pa1'1)a. As you proceeded further along the road you came to the place where two huge vases were placed on the two sides. and set with precious stones. On the other side of the moat. It was filled with clear water. one in each direction. in thick columns. clw7npa/ca. ''hence its nmne. From this place wooded avcnneR of the loveliest asoka (jones-ia asoca). made of pure gold. and studded with lovely lotuses. This was dotted with wooded bowers and raised platforms in the midst of clear spaces. was a forest. from sa]Jta. which was crossed by the four roads. (micheUa cha7npaca). . to the sky. of the way. There were four big gates in this wall. exhibiting a mountainous scenic effect. whose smoke rose.

~ I 'i- .. r ·¥~...1 ~:J~ ··~_..

a peacock. Towards the end of the wood. a bull. the lotus flower. at a suitable distance was a wall made from pure silver. on its four sides.each direction. which had a silve. on the inside. There were 108 flags O!f each specific 1 mark in . and also had a theatre on each side of the gate way.r gate in every direction. from the theatres were again-•·--pla:ced ·. an elephant and the discus. At a little distance. On emerging from the wood the traveller cam~ across a row of fluttering banners which floated from golden staffs. There were four Statues of the worshipful Arhant on each peetl~ika. were four raised platforms on which devas were engaged in producing excellent music.on each side. This was like the first rampart in all respects. Behind the row of flags. a swan. an ~agle. The doors of the enclosures of these platforms were of pure ·silver.THE SAMAVASARANA 129 Grand Assembly. and which the visitors worshipped with devotion. a garland. totalling 1080 of all kinds . a lion. a ·piece of cloth.ge Incense Pitchers that filled the aimosphere w~tJi r F. which attracted devas and men by their supreme lustre. namely. the walls being made from pure gold.9 . and 4320 in all the four directions. They bore ten kinds of marks. In the centre of each of these avenues was a peethikii (platform with an enclosure-like construction) on whioh stood its specific tree.two"'~h:li.

surpassing all that the human imagination is able to conceive in the shape of fine displays of illumination and fireworks. in the centre. in suitable places on all the four sides. and beyond the habitations arose a line of nine stupas. and looked extremely pretty. Ten kinds of heavenly trees were scattered about in the wood in elegant confusion.130 Rif?ABHA DEVA fragrance. transparent . one. under trees of bewitching beauty. and from their decorations and illumination. Bordering the Wood was a row of houses made from precious metals and stones . Beyond the wall was open space. produced a fairy scene of exquisite loveliness. Sabhii Mandap (pavilion) on golden pillars. The ground of the entir~ enclosure was composed of blue sapphire. Statues of the Holy Tirthamkaras were !installed on platforms of gold. The top of this inq. In the centre of this open space was erected a . Wa. which were made of saplLatilc mani (white gem) and had gates of ruby-red gem. yojana by one yojana (a yojana= 8 miles usually). which was set apart for the Grand Assembly.Ils of gold formed the enclosures of the wooded tract. the road passed through a forest of kalpa trees of unsurpassed loveliness. Beyond the Incense Pitchers. The light-trees in themselves produced the most enchanting scenic effect.ndap -was of the purest.

which rose up in three terraces of gold. and live· in secluded' p'laces in t~e world.. that was of the finest design and made with the· costliest of gems. on a raised platform. by means of walls of gold.THE SAMAV'AS ARANA 131 gem. emanating from it. On the topmost terrace of this platform was erected a gandkakuti (bower) that attracted every eye by the loveliness of it-9· design. His face shone radiant like a. Exquisite !fragrance from lovely censers in which burned heavenly incense. In the gandltakuti was placed the Throne of God. (2)' the dwellers in the suns and moons an'd the stars. (3} the vya'7itaro:s who loiter abou-t. separately.s are: (1) the residen~s of heavens. Sixty. nuns and women in general in tlre third' hall. shining in one place. waving ckamaras.four Indras (Heavenly Kings) stood iu attendance on Him. filled the atmosphere.yoti$i (the ste~la. three other classes of devct ladies· in the· next three halls·. thousand suns. one class of de'Da ladies• in tlie second haJll.r}. Around Him sat the ya'f}adharas {Apostles) and Saints in the~ first liall. The Throne was placed in the middle. without touching it-about two inches above it. set with precious stones. Th:e WoRLD TEACHER eat on this Throne~. and it was divided into twelve compartments or halls. termed . and those who' reside· in tb:e· 1lower region (the . the four(f classes of devas in the next «' The four cl'asses of devo.

which are obtained as the result of the destruction of the lcarmic energies that stand in the way of ~he manifestation of the Divinity of the soul. Some . They live without food and water. may be mentioned the following : They are able to conquer gravitation and possess the power of Ieviitation . men in the eleventh hall and animals in the last one. produced independently patala loka).mne k1n. shadow .132 Rlf?ABHA DEVA four halls. It is. The speech of the Lord is like the roar of many waters. .n all the four directions. They are not liable to be assailed by trouble or distress in any form.listie phenomena. and at times not averse fu enjoying a• JOke at. . which might account for .d of. Among the wonderful· acquisitions of the Tirthamkara. Some of tl1e 'VYf!ntaraa and . and ' peace and plenty ' preva. is not cast by Their bodies. of them are :Pl~yful and V1c1ous. Their eyelids are never closed. though He only sits facing the East.a'DO. a Tirthamkara a.sa?'ana. the uppermost story of the topmost heltl.ppears to be looking i.the gen.il wherever They go! Naturally-hostile animals become as friends in Their presence . separately. the ~xpense o~ ·}Ilan. and Their hairs and nails do not grow ' any more.the residents of the piitala loka are so~~~1mes seen by men. and is distinctly heard by every one present. sp1ntuo. ferocious natures are tamed! Flowers and fruits appear out of season wherever They go! '\Vhen seated in the Sam.

The Apostles arrange the teaching of the Truth under twelve main heads (angas). All this. devoid of thorns. and place golden lotuses under His feet when He walks. as They have been! The Hindu Atharva Veda has already been cited to show that devas attended upon and furnished a "'seat'· to a 'great Vratya (Jina=Conqueror). but as stated above the Tirtltam. nor are Their devotees all helpless and powerless like man. The devas. not have been acknowledged in other religions. no doubt. and it is termed Sruti or Sruta J 'Tliina.ari Speech of the God into different tongues. contribute their quota to the glory of the Tirthamkara. But for the glories appertaining to the Divine status of these Holy Ones They would. reads like a romance.. too. and is for tliat reason termed anakshari (without letters). because of its having been heard (from the TEACHER). They also translate the atnaksll. . victory) are also raised by the ·devas~ men joining them in swelling the diapason. raining flowers and fragrant water all the time ! The cries of '' jaya. jaya" (victory. making the ground look like a polished surface.karas are not ordinary beings . They claDify the directions for a considerable distance all rouna.THE SAMAVASARANA 133 of the movements of the glottis.

meaning general. so cooling. indicating that He had now nothing more left to sweat for! He was truly what is termed k1·ita-k1·it11a (one who has nothing further left to accomplish) ! Bharata.134 Rlf?ABHA DEVA who is none other than Rzi~abba Deva. so satisfying was it to all! The voice of the .amrita (ambrosia). one on the top of the other. in the attitude of complete relaxation and rest. a dispassionate state. with His hands placed. in the alternative. and sang His praises for a long time. He then took his seat in the Men's Hall. and avasa1·a. whQ then began His Discourse. presumably. or. and asked to be enlightened on the Spiritual Science by the WoRLD TEACHER. With reverence and affection and enthusiasm he offered adoration to the Master. came to worship Him. in his lap. signifying opportunity. where souls get the opportunity to attain to dispassion. The word samavasarana is derived from sama. so tranquillizing. that is common. The ·Discourse Divine was like a shower of . or. the first WoRLD TEACHER. hearing the good tidings of tiie attainment by his Divine Father of Self-realization. The WoRLD TEACHER sat in Padmiisana (a sitting posture). and meant the place where all have a common opportunity of acquiring the Wisdom Divine.

as Religion may be termed. It dealt with the nature of the existing substances and their attributes . Amongst the substances the most important are Spirit and Matter.karas do ·not in. dulge !in metaphor and parable. to hide the import of a doctrine. Those who were present were filled. The Lord described the true tattvas (essentials of knowledge). Their questions were answered there and then. and gave a detailed description of . and it was also' being rendered into different spoken tongues by the devas. and compri~ed all the eleven angas and the fourteen purvas of the Science of Salvation. in the un-akshari speeCh which · has been described above. and showed how different properties came into existence when substances· got intermingled. and never· resort to allegory. whose fusion is the cause of all the misery that there exists in the world.the entire subject of bondage and release of the souls. no one misled I Tirtham. Every one understood what the WoRLD TEACHER said. no one was mystified . The knowledge imparted.. Every one understood what was said in . The Lord's Discourse described the mysteries of the world in plain terms. in different parts of the Great Hall.THE SAMAVASARANA 135 Lord could be heard distinctly all round. constitutes what is lmown as S1-uta Jnana.

. of it ·." What this means becomes clear with reference to another ·part of the Bible itself {Proverbs.136. Knowledge and Conduct-of the Way. iii. As a m·atter of fact. the Truth and the Life. the Presence of the Teacher in itself furnished an answer to good many questions of the assemblage. Her ways are ways of pleasantness. and is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches. RI~ABHA DEVA answeri.g his question. . It is this Tree of Wisdom Divine which is the real friend of the seeker aJfter release from the pain and misery of embodied life. . . His illimitable Knowledge was reflected to a certain extent iii the Halo of Glory which surrounded Him and which depicted the past seven lives of all living beings l To see Him was to see God. . which is gathered up by the Chief Disciples.. as some have said! One had simply to see Him to understand what Salvation meant.D. . ~ ·was there the tree of life. He was Religion personified in Himselfl He was also the embodiment of Faith. to hear Him was to be filled with heavenly joy 1 The Lord's Discourse. comprises twelve a'T}gas (departments). a .. and it is not a mere coincidence that we read in the Bible : '' In the midst . and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 13-18): "Happy is the man that findeth wisdom. . which bare twelve manner of fruits .

riONS .1':J:m TREE WIIOSE LEAVES ARE FOR 'rHE HEALING OF NA'.

He was the first to obtain nirva'l)a in this half·cycle of time. He became the first Apostle of the God. ·sundari. one of the -younger brothers of the Emperor Bharata.. Soma Prabha and Sreyansa.THE SAMAVASARANA 137 and all her paths are peace. whos~ name was Anantavirya. We have met him ere this already and know his life-story from the Lion's incarnation I Many others joined the Sangha (Commu·nity of the Pious). the second daughter of the Lord. at whose Palace the WoRLD TEACHER ·had broken His first fast likewise became two of the. He was the same who was the favourite pandit af ·the WoRLD TEACHER in His Bajrajangha·s incarnation. by nama Priyavarta. Apostles. and joined the sisterhood of Nuns. . became the first female saint. A man by name Srutakirti became the first Householder. the elder daughter of the WORLD TEAICHER. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her. and bad luck." Immediately ad:ter the divine preaching. became the first lay female follower of the Lord. l3rahmi. The foremost among them was Vri~abha Sen. also· ·renounced the world. to Death. ·many men and women determined to follow the Lord on the Path. at once became a monk. all desirous of attaining release :from perpetual slavery. Another 01f Bharata's brothers. and a pious lady.

now came · back .rately as a teacher. 0 Protector of Life. and set himself up sepa. 0 Preserver of _ Souls. . 'which wither without rain and are l'evived by it-! · Do.the departure of Bharata.l ORLD TEACHER. which the residents·:of··hea~ens brought togetlier to glorify the V. by devas and men. the realizable potentiality of divinity in their nature) in other parts of the world are in need .· the Lord' proceeding on His Divine mission. 0 Giver of Joy to all ·Living Beings ! the . kept a. tlirough their Leader.bha'Dyas (those who possess. in the midst of scen~s ~f great enthusiasm and heavenly pomp.of Thine D. Mter . the Indra of the first Hea:ven stood up to chant the praises of the Lord. surrounded. to Him and entered the Sa'Tbg ha_ Marichi.way. however. He composed an adoratipn in which he described the Holy One by one thousand and eight auspicious names.138 Rl~ABHA DEVA The four thousand chiefs and chieftains who· had renounced the world with Ri~?abha Deva and who had slunk away from tapaschara7JD. in t!he following words :-" 0 ·Ma.Ster Divine.iscourse Divine. then. supplicated the WoRLD TEACHER. The devas. Tliey are like parched crops. Thou now proceed to enlighten them! '' 'A· procession was fo~rmed at once.

llAVIRA IN STANDING PosTURE .\.STATUE oF :M.

:--·· !..: .\ ..GOI•.u.z AT Snu 'Y.s oF B.:.oss'(.\ B:~<:I.urun._--=-~--~- C'm.\X....

binger of unparalleled joy. endowed with Lakshmi.~ll ['fr. the WoRr.n TEACHER. -11-12. endowed with Lakshmi (Excellence) Bharata attained toDivinity at Shaligram !]-The Agneya Pu~al}. the second was the appearance in his arsenal of the ·heavenly wea. to 189 . to worship the WORLD TEACHER.a (Hindu).:tEl~ II ~ ~: ~qnml ~·· mt: ll. . From Maru Devi was bo:rn Ri~abha.. and the har. Each of them was pregnant with momentous import.qf 'if ~J:mt(l' • 5ft"ql11'irofis~ 1I tJ(I': ' ~ q-a: ~= ~ ~i (ft. One of them was theattainment Full Knowledge by His Divine Father. ' as described in the last chapter. Ri~abha attained to Divinity (Nill'11a'f}a) at Shaligram l From Bharata came Bharatvarf?a and Sumati.po11.. q'f 0\! ~§+I Fa . Three great events had occurred simultaneously in the life of Bharata before his_ departure. To Ri~abha was born Bhareta.CHAPTER XI BAHUBALI 5ftt:r'f1 tU'&q). CVIII.

It would cause too much commotion and disturbance in the Temple and in the pro. to Worship the Divinity Incarnate. know what had. the Worshipping of the Deva of devas (God of gods) would appear to be the harbinger of all good luck and auspiciousness. however. ·as the worship of God was the source of all good in the world. Men would be eager to . He. even when the event occur at a great distance or in foreign land. happened. The reason of the prohibition against visiting a public place of worship under the aforesaid circumstances is not far to seek. and the third was the birth of a son to himself I He was literally overwhelmed with joy on bearing the news.cess of worship if men went there fresh on the top of an event like the death or the birth of a member in their family. Today we shall be told that by the birth of a son as well as by the death of a member of his family a mah becomes impure and disqualified to worship God for a certain number of days. Bharata did not stop to trouble himself about such matters. and not likely to be forbidden on any occasion. at once decided to proceed to the Lord's Samavasarana. and would be prone to . Certainly. and did not know at first which event to celebrate before the others. . Perhaps the injunctions were unlmown in his time.140 Rlf?ABHA DEVA the irresistible chak'ra (discus).

whom he married. life to subdue the world. and to the transgressor and to everybody else I When Bharata reached home. To avoid all this hubbub and commotion was the object of the rule against the admission of worshippers likely to furnish an occasion tfor disturbance in worship. and afterwards proceeded to his Court House. he first· visited his arsenal where he beheld the glorious discus. and that is why we look upon every infringement of s:uch an injunction as at once fatal to the Dharma. He welcomed the new-comer with paternal affection. ~d accompanied by many princesses. SimilaT in nature would ba the explanation of the exclusion of the women suffering from the monthly effusion of blood.. daughters of the A go~d vanquished foe.BAHUBALI 141 discuss the particulars of the event. laden W!i.th booty and costly gifts from the numerous kings who had paid homage to him. For the presence of blood on a slovenly woman's clothPs or of blood drops on the floor of the Adytum and the courtyard of the Place of Worship can:not but be an unsightly thing. whether good or bad. Today the reasons for these rules have been forgotten. and . . then went to see his son. From the world-conquest Blharata returned home after ~he lapse of very many years. where he determined to take to camp.

the daughter of the· Greek General Saleukus Niconar. generally. in the converse case. maleksha princess was Chandra Gupta who :flourished about two thousand two hundred years ago. but we must not be carried1 away by pure sentiment and place arbitrary va:luation on the higher standards.142 Rlf?ABRA DEVA many of these ladies belonged to the 1na} ekt~ha race. The last J aina King to marry a. that is indirectly) 1 Here is real food for reflection for those who pin their faith to bloodsuperiority. but Bharata did not hesitate to accept them for wife I At one time such marriages were quite common. wlierea:s·. as history points· out. For the girl that enters into a purer atmosphere is cut off from her lowlier associations. And Chandra Gupta was· no ordinary Jaina. It will be noticed that the girl passes completely out of her paternal . and who married. h~ was the favourite· disciple of Sri Bhadrabahu. There is a great deal to be said in favour of the comparative cleanliness of different professions and of the habits of men . it would seem. the girl entering into a lower class must become per-manently debased herself. It is enough if a girl is allowed to marry high. though a man may not do so. the last SrutaKe'Vali (literally all-knowing· by hearsay. and is soon im'proved1. but now they have·become obsolete..

hurled open defiance at the Emperor and challenged him to a fight. But the ex·amples of Bharata and Chandra Gupta show ·what the practice used to· be in the past. and marched against him at the head of a large army. except in so far as the general prejudice against traders has ·everywhere led the aristocracy to close the doors of society against them. Many instances are to be !found in the Purai).as.aS of V aisyas marrying Kshatriya girls and even the daughters o'f Brah·mai). Bha:rata was indignant at what he regarded as unbrother-ly conduct of Bahubiali. Kshatriyas !and V aisyas) are concerned. ·on the other hand.ltcepting Bahubali. placing their· sons on their thrones in thei'r ·own places to avoid the humiliation. but not so the man! Sa far as the upper ·classes (Brahmal). f~lt. Bahubali.that they c(juld not faee Bharata on the battle-field. But all of them. the . On returning to his capital. be·fore the commencement of open hostilities.rata de·manded submission from his own brothel's. e. The tw«> armies ~at last came face to face with each other. Bha. The difficulty is only experienced in ·dealing with the cases of inter-marriage between Sudras and the higher Var7Jas..as.BAHUBALI ' 143 family on her marriage. But. which was naturally refused. and renounced the world. the discussion is ·almost a purely academical one.

They came to an agreement that it would be quite useless to proceed with the war in the ordinary way.bly. and he immediately possessed himself of the irresistible cl~akra. and then came to rest in front of him! Bahubali had won ! The explanation of the str~ge behaviour on the part of the terrible thunderbolt (the chak1·a) prob.14. they are in their last incarnations in transmigration.not be avoided in any way. " The brothers themselves." they said. lies in the . and possess bodies which no weapon may mortally wound in warfare! Let them fight out the issue by themselves in other ways. The weapon whizzed through empty space like a flash of lightning ~ but it did not strike Bahubali.rata in all the three contests. he lifted him up on his shoulder and then gently placed ·him on the ground. Bahubali overcame Bha. '' cannot be killed by any means." It was decided that they should settle their dispute by means of three kinds of contests. it merely circled round him. but instead of throwing him down on the ground in the last one (wrestling). out of an affectionate regard for his seniority and rank.4 Rl~ABHA DEVA ministers on both sides met together to see if the undesirable bloodshed could .a. namely. water-fight. and wrestling. This infuriated ·Bharata all the more. staring (at each other). Instead of striking him.

and did not admit of his destroying his four kinds of inimical karmas. went to the WoRLD TEACHER. • who had gone to Mount Kailasa in the meanwhile. Bahubali was filled with disgust for the world. but could not dissuade him from his firm resolve. At last at the end of the year.. This stood in his way. he apologised for his rashness. For a whole year Bahubali performed the severest austerities. But notwithstanding these austerities he could not get rid of the irksome little thought that he stood on Bharata's land. " The kingdom." he said. ant hills sprang up about him. worshipped the Holy Feet of the Lord. Bharata' s action was disliked by all present. Creepers grew up round his legs in this period . and discarding all clothes and everything else of the world. entered the order of homeless monksl Bharata's heart was softened at his brother's renunciation . standing motionless immersed in contemplation. 10 . "is for you.BARUBALI 145 personal magnetism of Bahubali which even overmastered and turned off the fiery discus. it occurred to him that common lands were not capable of exclusive proprietary possesF. brother mine I I will have nothing more to do with this ~orld of tantalizing shadows I " Saying this he left the world. whose infatuation could produce such intoxicating effect even on a good man like Bharata.

About the same time Bharata himself came. Bahubali attained Omniscience. the thought that was disturbing Bahubali's ·meditation was a kind of painful regret that he had been the cause of h~s elder brother's humiliation.146 RII?ABHA DEVA sian and that saints could use such lands without lowering t1iemselves in any way. Perpetual Youth. According to another version. in all humility. and finally obtained Complete Release at Mount Kailasa I He is now abiding eternally. He preached the Noble Doctrine for some time. and soon succeeded in his effort to destroy the karmas named. Omniscience and all other Divine attributes I And He will stay in the same state till the End of Time I . as the result of complete dispassion and the supreme tranquillity of the mind I Devas and men now came to worship Him and to hear His discourse. Bahubali was then able to quell the disturbing element in his thoughts.· persed when Bharata came and worshipped him with reverence and affection. to him. and worshipped him with veneration and respect. which was dis. in the uninterrupted enjoyment of Eternal Life.

STATUE OF BnARATA IN STANDING PosTURE SnRAVANA BELGOL.\ .

Much sa:fer . )'' ~J. His horses. for they shall inherit the world ' .r . Huge armies followed him when he went on war.t Bahut '11Ulzbut ghar hai aqebat l~a dar-i-du'lllilua se : Utha lena yahan se apni daulat oor wahan rakhna! [Tr. Bharata.. but it was Bharata who realized itl Men hear that the fruit of renunciation is a hundred million fold.c) '-Sii' t!LJLfr. Thousands of great kings.js the House o:f the next world than that of this one . his elephants. ~ LQS. There was none who could count his treasures.. (! ~c) ) 'c) IS' ~Lc ~ .. actually enjoyed the abundance of' it J Bharata's wealth was immense.&S'") cJLso.o ~-1 li. his war and other kinds of chariots were counted in millions. He possessed a countless number of precious gems of great value. and place it in the next wozild !] Many people read ' blessed are the meek. and tens of thousands of smaller chiefs and chieftains were proud to be 147 .CHAPTER XII BHARATA..b~. You should withdraw your wealth from here.

He had crossed ·high mountains and carried his campaign successfully on the other side. But he repented of it almost immediately. he was exceedingly forgiving and peaceful. his authority was acknowledged both on land and sea. Bharata was undoubtedly one of the greatest of human kings tha. and made ample amends for it subsequently by going to worship the latter when he· had become a saint. Probably the only time when he forgot himself ' was when he felt irritated after his failure in the trial of strength against Bahubali. The pick of the best of everything was ahyays at · his command. There was no' independent king in those days to be a rival to Bharata. and brought the lands under his sceptre.n hidden passages in the mountains by means of which he had emerged in new continents.t have ever ruled in the world. This shows that he cherished no resentment in his . and possessed a spirit of gentility that was very captivating. His dominions were scattered all over the world . His splendour has never been surpassed. Great generals and kings vied with one another in showing him respect I Bharata had a very amiable nature .O. There is a mention of certa.148 Rif?ABHA DEVA among his followers. and but rarely equalled. His court was just one d~zzling blaze of brilliancy.

threw the garland of flowers round the neck of J. the son of Soma Prabha of Hastinapur. at whose House the WoRLD TEACI~ER had partaken of the sugarcane JUice. The incident had occurred at the swayamvara of a certain young princess where his son Arkakirti was also present. Many princes and chiefs came to the gathering. Bharata was a perfectly just king. The king of Vara:Q.BHARATA heart. Sulochana. the Emperor's son. agreeably to the world-old practice of the Warrior r·aces. the selection of a bridegroom by oneself) . His name was Akampana.asi (modern Ben ares) in those days was the founder of the glorious Natha Van. At this Arkakirti became .~a. and convened a swa.yamvara (literally. His sense of impartial justice won for him the esteem of all his subjects when he reprimanded his own son and condemned his unwise deed in the spirit of uncompromising severoity. and he had a daughter. the fit of irritation haYing completely passed off without leaving a scar. for thl. who was accomplished and beautiful beyond words. and Jiayavarma. conspicuous amongst them being Arkakirti.ayavarma. as a mark of her preference for him. When she grew up her father took counsel of his friends and well-wishers.s was the name of the lovely Princess.

Finally. to dissuade him from the course he desired to take. and bestowed much praise on Jayavarma and Akampana for their restraint. considering it an insult to himself and to his illustrious father.150 Blf?ABHA DEVA excited. But all their efforts were fruitless. the incident only came to be regarded by all the parties concerned as a happy mishap that ended in permanently cementing the friendly relations between the two royal·liouses of Ajudhya ann Hastinapur! ' · Bharata was the first law-giver of the current half-cycle. He instructed the men of the Kshatriya and Brahmal). But Akampana hd really the heart of a Jaina! He conciliated the youthful prince. Akshamala. In the fight that took place the allied armies of the kings of Hastinapur and Varal}. and married his ·younger daughter.asi were victorious.a classes in the duties . and would not listen to their entreaties. These kings who entertained a great deal of respect for the Emperor and love for his impetuous son. with due pomp. he was very angry with him. to him. When Bharata heard of the misbehaviour of his young son. and challenged both Jayavarma and Akampana to a· fight. in every way. After the departure of Arkaldrti with his bride. tried. Arkakirti was bent on fighting. J ayavarma and Sulochana were united.

even might boorish and unmannerly arrogance. were known in the time orf Bharata. He encouraged partition as it tends to increase the mer1t of individuals. It would seem that the three kinds of punishments. For this he came to be known as the sixteenth Manu. namely. but it would have nothing to support itself upon in the other. In the J aina family the rule was work. who knew how to temper justice with mercy.. Devaji. The law he gave forms part of the Upa. and taught them many things.BHARATA 151 pertaining to their var'l}as. which is now only ava. and endowed him with pleasing mannerism ! In a joint family the rule is for the sons to loll about in idleness . and recognized wills and trusts. efficiency and fitness I Arrogance. . and placed her before the son 1 The effect was wonderful . for it saved the son from idleness.sakadhyayana Anga. corporal punishment. and taught him to acquire proficiency in work and trade. physical detention and monetary fine. exceptions are rare. He made her a full heiress of her husband's property.ilablle in fragments. and taught others to do so. the fifteenth being Ri~abha. develop under the one system. The one great point in respect of which the law he gave to the people differs from all the other systems that are now prevailing in India concerned the position of the woman.

as with distinctive sacred threads. the pen. These were described at the time when he brought the Brahmal}. He invested the Brahmal}. (2) they might earn their living by the sword. and he who wore one with eleven strings was on the eleventh.as included. amongst others.152 Rl~ABHA DEVA Bharata is said to have laid down what are known as the fifty-three kJ·iyfis (rites) for the followers of the Path. or the last. and only one step removed from sannyasa which he would enter as soon as he is able to discard the small strip of the loin cloth that marks the boundary between the hous~holder's and the saint's careers. comprising one or more strings. stage of the householder's path. according to the ·number of the p1·atimli (stage. on the householder's path) the wearer had attained.a varna into being. the following:(1) they must devote themselves to worship. Thus a man who wore a thread of seven strings was a brahmachari (celibate) on the seventh p1·atima. but not by handicrafts or such other professions as music and singing. The ideals originally set before the Brabmal}. both regular and· special . . or trade. agriculture.

all rolled into a single being 1 Another point in respect of which the modern Brahma~1a differs from his ancestor of the past is about the sacred thread which was not to be worn unless ·on~ attained a. ( 5) they should practise equanimity and self-control. not a disgrace in themselves were nevertheless not adopted by the· higher classes.a to carry on a trade. protecting the 'different kinds of lives . bavarch'i (cook). It was thus not forbidden to a Brahmal). should practise charity . and a ~har (donkey). Today all this is changed.t least the first pratimii. and (6) they should practise tapa8cha?·a'l}a (austerities) in some form. a bl~ishti (water-carrier). and the modern Brahmal). if he did not wish to accept gifts from others. but which is now worn by not only all Brahmal)as but also by all the members_ of the . He was only required to refrain from pursuing those occupations which though. or to enter on a inilitary career. a. His self-respect was thus assured to him.a is very near satisfying Akbar's description of a pir (saint).BHARATA 153 (3) they. or to take to literature or even to plough the land. (4) they must apply themselves to study (the scriptures) .

to be viewed as grounded on birth-dis- .a class at the time of Bharata Chakravarti. None who did not excel in the practising of the D ll.. Bharata. '' By birth. when the original natureof. who wanted to earn merit for himself." says the author of the Adi Pur8J}. by makingproper use of his immense wealth. it not being forbidden to Sudras to observe the pratimlis. the teaching underlying the allegory was lost sight of. '' are all men. after the lapse of a long time. but they differ in resP. and gave them the sacred threads to indicate theirrise !in the spiritual scale. or rather the order of the pious men. established the class. for any one could qualify himself for the sacred threa~ by observing the p1·atimas. who are really J ainas-not J aina dissenters. As a matter of fact there was no Brahmal}.a1'1na (religion) were to be considered Brahmal}. The reason for the establishment of theBrahmal}. but J aina Allegorists-and the originators of the Allegorical vogue. strictly speaking.ect of the progress they might make on the spiritual path I '' The llindhs. equal unto one another .a class lay in the necessity of finding out suitable donees for gifts which householders are enjoined to make every day.a.154 RIE?ABHA DEVA three higher var7Jas. allegorised the va1''1Jli8rama institution. which came.as.

a. The author of the Adi Pural).of vows becomes a Kshatriya !" The conferment of special privileges· in regard to criminal responsibility on Brahmal)." he makes Bharata say. but it might as well be due to an impulse on the part of Bharata himself. of being the destroyer of the caste system. but he distinctly says even with regard to them that merit.as might thus be the work of the Brahma. when they got into power later on . and not birth.as were all saintly householders.a." that is. is the principle of excellence.ta opinion in times of persecution. who would be eager to r confess their crimes and to make ample amends for the deed. who was alive to the need of propitiating Brahma:r. This is the reason why Hindus have been eternally finding fault with the Jainas and accusing them of " caste-lessness. Bharata's preference for the Warrior class is obvious from the term~ in whicli he speaks of tJhem in the forty-second parva (part) of the Adi Pural).a caste to paci. '' Whosoever is admitted into the J"aina Dharma. we can readily !imagine justice tak- . "and takes to the observance .BHARATA 155 tinction.as themselves. and is for that reason forced to have recourse to a language which is ambiguous to say the least of it.J). If we remember that Bharata's Brahma-Q.!fy them a bit. probably laid stress on the importance of the Brahmal}.

There can be no doubting the fact that a child that l1as grown up under the influence of such powerful suggestions must. and' a pious king pardoning the unfortunate offender altogether. and of the . and the Principles of Dharma. convictions) it were that counted the most . acquire and display something of that greatness which his Imagination has been impressed with. and a Tirthamkara I The ma. in which t:he injured man.n. sooner or later.of· these rites. which are uttered and recited on ceremonial occasions are intended to serve the same purpose. In the Aryan Culture samskaras (impressions. too. and that he is going to be a great ma. Probably there would be in such a case a general petition for mercy. without a doubt I Here again it must be said that the moderns have completely misunderstood the purpose.nt1·as. would not unlikely join 1 The scheme of the rites which Bharata taught his subjects is grounded entirely on what is lmown to the moderns as the Law of Suggestion.156 Rlf?ABHA DEVA ing a lenient view of their guilt. at the same time ns they tend to inculcate a belief in the Divinity of the Soul. From the very inception of life an endeavour is made to impress it on tiu~ mind of the individual tl1at he belongs to the noblest of all races. or his heirs. the Aryan. and may even become a cl1akravarti. they could make or mar a life.

after the ceremony at home. but how can misunderstood formulas help any one in acquiring greatness 1 Mere sounds (mOJnt'l·as in a tongue that is not understood) count for nothing . a dullard and a dunce. as a matter of fact.s a big idiot.BHARATA 15'7 mant1·as with which they are accompanied. much less on that of a small child. it would be foolish to expect them to make a proper impression on any one's mind. takes deep root and produces men that are nothing but burning libels on the Aryan name I This is because it is persistent and intelligible. And what force can a few muttered or mumbled sounds possess against persistent intelligible suggestion to the contrary which is dinned into one's ears daily 1 For no sooner does the mystified child go out 1nto the world outside.CHER. Let us be warned in time. before further damage is done l Bharata was endowed with clairvoyance which he evolved out on one of the occasions when he went to worship the WORLD TEA. while the really healthy one is lost in the mist of unintelligibility and 'hieroglyphics. conveyed in the vulgar language of the street. and an impudent imp ! Today the harmful suggestion. They think that power lies in the matntras themselves. . than his friends and associates do not leave a stone unturned in impressing upon his mind that he i.

early in his career. without blemish and faltering.. where he worshipped Him day and night. Filled. He lived in the world but without being attached to it as ordinary men are. from his childhood. throughout life. perfect judge of the elephant and the horse . He knew that the first great thing for a l{shatriya was to take care of his intellect. and understood all about their marks and 'ailments. and observed them. irrespective of the fact whether he was at home or on the battlefield. In regard to religion Bharata was devoted with all his heart to His Divine Father whose Image he had installed on the altar of his heart. which is not the art of !foretelling future but that of predicting the occurrence of certain events by means of their appropriate characteristic forerunners (signs). with the spirit of world-flight. whenever he got time to do so. for through the right kind of intellect one could attain to the . He also instructed men in the Sciences of astronomy and medicine. or allowed his better nature to be overpowered by the animal in him. A saint at heart.158 RI~ABHA DEVA He taught men the science known as N imitta Jnii/fUJ. he adopted the five vows of the householder's course. Bharata was an accomplished master and a. in which he also instructed his people. he never abandoned himself to sense-indulgence.

providing even for the fixing of the castes of the new converts. the first Emperor of Aryavarta. and the Founder of the Aryan Culture. the illustrious son of the Most Illustrious father. Bharata. and handled complex and complicated problems with a grace of ease that endeared him to all ! Bharata had a missionary's zeal for the propagation of J ainism. He laid down rites (kriyas) for the admission of all classes of men into the J aina Religion and the J aina Society. and through a wrong one. who lent his name to the Land of the Noble Race. he always knew precisely what was the best thing to do under any ~iven circumstances. which it still bears! Bharata will undoubtedly live in the memories of men.BHARATA 159 Glory of a Tirthamkara. be degraded into lower forms after death. so long as Bharatvar~a remains above the waters to remind men of the first Great Emperor of the current half-cycle! . was never upset at anything. therefore. Even malekshas could be admitted into Jainism without objection or hitch in his time! Such was Bharata.

160 . related his dreams. . roaming in a forest a. since he knew that his Father.CHAPTER XIII PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE Bharata was never quite at ease in his mind about the wisdom of the step he had taken as regards the establishment of the Brahmai}. n TEACHER interpreted it to mean that in the day of twentythree out of the twenty-~four Tirthamkaras. and after worshipping Him with reverence and devotion. . The first dream was the sight of twenty-three lions.nd then climbing up the summit of a hill. He was told that his dreams bore reference to the next age (the panchama kala) which would be marked with much deterioration and misery. The W:oRr. who could have done it as well. import. and humbly sought their explanation from Rim. haid not seen it fit to do so.a class. J a ina Saints would remain steadrfast to their austere ideal. and prove worthy of saintship. and he decided to question the WORLD TEACHER about their . One night he saw a number of dreams which alarmed him a bit. So he proceeded to Jviount Kailasa where Ri~abha Deva was staying at the time.

PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 161 The second dream consisted in the sight of a lion followed by a number of deers. of the hands of true I{shatriya races and be enjoyed . and there would aris~ many householders who would propagate and spread false doctrines and recommend ' easier ' conduct. Its significance was that the J aina Saints would be persecuted by men of other creeds. 11 . A number of goats were seen grazing on dry leaves in the fourth dream. · F.shatriya traditions as a monkey is from man ! In the sixth dream a swan was being attacked by a number of crows. which portended that people would generally abandon the principles of true piety and defile their vows in the pandtama kala (the current age) ! · In his fifth dream Bharata saw a monkey seated on an elephant !in place of man J The WoRLD TEACHER explained it to mean that in the fifth ' age ' kingship would pass out . This meant that the Saints in the paneha!ma kala would undertake vows beyond their capacity .and endurance.by those who would be as far away from true K. Thjs signified that in the time of the last Tirthamkara all saints would not be able to adhere to th~ high ideal of saintship. In the third dream Bharata had seen a horse burdened with the load of an elephant.

and it foretold that people wo. and would spread in the surrounding countries. was seen next.nk full of water all round.o worship demons in the fifth kala. instead of in old age ! In the twelfth dream Bharata saw the Moon surrounded by nebulous matter. This signified that in the pancl~ama kala saints would be unable to attain to the purity of sukla dhyana (pure self-contemplation or meditation of the higher type) l A dog feeding on sweetmeats and being worshipped by men was seen in the tenth dream. This meant tl1at people would genera.Uy enter the holy order in their youth in the fifth kala.uld begip. occupied by Malelcshas 1 A lustreless heap of gems covered over with dust :\t"\tas seet. A . Its import was that low class persons would paTade as worshipful men and would be actually worshipped by the people 1 A bellowing young bull was seen next.1·62 RI~ABHA DEVA gnome's dance constituted the seventh dream. in place of the True· Divinity ! A ta. but dry in the centre. This meant that the sa.t ne~t. This meant that Religion would disappear from the Aryavarta.athy in the panc/~ama kala 1 Two bullocks going together were seen next. t.ints would be unable to acquire even clairvoyance and teleP.

namely. and meant that the power of even great medicines would deteriorate in the end 1 As regards the wisdom of the establishment of the Braluna~ta class.. the Brahmal). He went back to his kingdom from the Sarrw. Its significance was that in the panchama kala the generality of men and women would abandon religion.I}.vasa1"0/flft of the· W ORI. ma. Bharata was told that his action was justified so far as regarded the requirements of his times.a vaT'lja. It meant that no one would be able to ~ttain to Omniscience in the panchama lciila. and Brah-. but that the class would be filled with conceit for its high birth. dried-up tree that cast no shade was the subject of the next dream.PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 163 implying that the saints in the panchama kala would be unable to attain to the purity of conduct necessary to enable them to roam about singly I The Sun covered over by clouds was seen next.D .as would take to eating meat in many cases and would become generally hostile to the true D i~a1·ma (J ainism) in the panclUl!Jna kala ! We may be sure that Bharata was not quite pleased with the forebodings or with the step he had taken in creating the fourth. and become irreligious I The sixteenth and the last dream consisted in the sight of dried up old leaves. A.

and in some places there will even appear periodic signs of growth. It !is the period of advanced deterioration. And out of this small propor- . ~ar~a can only boast of about five per cent of literacy today. Rlf?ABHA DEVA and began to enjoy the fruits of his previous good ka1·mas.alekslta countries lying round about it will take it up. There will be wars. and the m. and twenty years in age. however. In respect of religion. Bharatvar~a will become irreligious. almost imperceptibly. It commenced only 2455 years ago. as the first great cll. For Religion can only live in the land of intelligence. characterized b~ conditions of existence that would slowly become very painful and distressing. The tendency generally everywhere will be for things to go from bad to worse. and has still got 18545 years to run. All this will take place gradually.164 TEACHER. be a temporary affair.akrava?·ti king I The panclLama (fifth) kala (time. famines and pestilences during this period. This part of the prophecy is likely to be soon fulfilled. till at the end of the period they will be no more than one cubit in height. with the result that men will be halfstarved and will grow stunted in size. but Bharat. The arresting of the downward movement will. hence the period of time) is the one that is actually current now.

who will be called Kalki. three moments will be left in the running kala. The continuity of the sangka (community of the faithful) will be maintained r-ight up to its very end. It may be safely taken then that the intellectual centre of the world is shifting from India to foreign lands t What is most likely to happen next is the discovery of the soulnature by European and American peoples. which is likely to be made in the course of the current century. Religion will continue to exist on our globe.so figures i~ Hinduism. but the establisher of the :true tlha'MTJ. only apparent and caused by the employment of an artistic form of aliegory which while professing outwo. There will be at least one saint. one after the other. thus fulfilling the J a. He 1s the destroyer o£ dharma and a wicked persecutor of the pious in the 1latter. in glaring contrast with J :umsm. but there he is an.rd~y to differ .arma (religion) will be destroyed. ~Ilegorica~. 1·aja (kingship). :figure and.a and the destroyer of its foes in the former [ This antagonism is. and one pious female follower of When only the Lord Jinendra in the world. one nun. however.ina prophecy I Throughout the pancltama kala.PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 165 tion of literate men and women the number of those who are really intellectual will be perhaps one in a thousand. one · householder.* will snatch away the food from the * Kalki 811. agni (fire) and dh. in the order mentioned ! The last king. however.

At the end of the sixth kala. Fire will disappear instantly. Cooking will be unknown . For the Hindu KaUri is the destroyer of the soul's internal enemies-passions and appetites and the like-who will establish the Kingdom of God in the human Heart. and it will be ripped open to a great depth . The Saint and the Nun will perform srillekltanii death. and dl~arma will cease to exist in the next moment l Thereafter the sixth kala. likewise of 21. People will keep on deteriorating. hot winds will scorch up all the surface of the soil. Law and order will be replaced by lawlessness and disorder. will supervene. for forty-nine days there will rain down on it fire and ashes and burnmg cinders .T a ina Ka'lki wi'll be an historica1 enemy of the Faith and of the followers of the Faith. excepting those who are able to hide themselves in deep ravines and caves or who are from the Jaina view. which they will bite off from living animals and even men. along with the householder and the pious lay lady. and the suffering and misery will be intolerable. ·an living nature will be destroyed. in reality. while the . who will be a man of flesh and blood in the ouf. a great calami~y will befall the world . and will be destroyed by e devas for his extreme impiety. impiies no difference at aU. for there will be no fire ! People will take to raw meat.er world! .166 RJ~ABHA DEVA hand of the last Saint. It will be the worst of all.000 years.

ace ! Those who have survived wiU emerge from their hiding places. It· will be the period of prosperity.PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE 16i accorded protection by some beings of the superhuman type. Let us . the course of events wi:ll be changed·.suppose* that two huge revolving bodies .blow . but of . the s1gns of destruction will disappear fr0-1n its :f.r system to be disturbed fro]Jl . coa1l ·and the like-or the order and regularity o£ the sola. . Thus will end the ·sixth lriila. the Utsarpi'f}i. At the commencement of the new order of things in the next half -cycle of time.cooling things-.ce. He will re-establish Religion in the world ! The above prophecy would seem to admit of a rational explanation.000 y. and inhabit the earth once more. and increase and Tise. ''rhich is the reverse Oif the ascending ark. T:he catastrophe. etc. 'The first Tirthamkara of the Utsarpi1J-i kala will appear at the . will not be universal aJU 'Over the universe. the earth to run amok' fr.some such . in the alternative.of contrary ~natures. however.on the earth .curds.end of 42.Cold winds wiU .-will rain down on its surfa.om .hidBen · stre·ngth-petrol.ears • from its commencement. mHk. e Or.cause as the depletion of its ·. The forty-nine davs' destrnetion will be followed by a different and opposite kind of phenomena ·during a similar period of time. . llet us suppose.

the showering down of hot cinders. It will talre them about 42. the blowing of hot winds. and would come the nearest to it at the end of the sixth kala. milk.' and the like! Humanity will now reappear on the surface of the earth. after which It IS ~ome unknown cause. The other comet with the nature of the Moon will then draw near. Its approach will then be characterised by all the indications given in the prophecy-the deterioration of vegetation. similar period. like that of the sun. the disappearance of fire. curds. of the prophecy are llikely drawn ~eo. It will then depart and recede further away. when there will occur the opposite kind of phenomenar--the blowing of cold winds. ~n ~he terribl~ phenomena.168 RI~ABHA DEVA the· comet type are slowly approaching our world. burrring dust and the like.e running half-cycle. so that the eai·th is brought scorch- occur as descr1bed. ' ambrosia. because of the lack of fuel. Let us further suppose that the first one of these bodies to draw near to the earth will be the comet with a fiery nature.000 years to be restored to a state of civilization which will admit of the advent ~n~y near to the sun for the space of 49 days. and will once more inhabit it.rer to the moon foro. of 1fu. The destroyer will remain in the vicinity of the earth for the space of 49 days. wliich will be full of calamity for all living nature. the raining down of cooling things. Then to .

PEEPING INTO THE FUTURE

169

of a WORLD TEACHER, to enlighten them on Religious Truth ! As regards the snatching away of the morsel' of food by the last king from the hand o'f the last Saint, its explanation may be sought in the fact that cooked food shall have become scarce long long before the end of the panchama kala. · Perhaps the influence of the advancing fiery comet will be reinforced by the drying up of the stamina of the earth in consequence of the constant tapping to which it is being subjected, in one form and another, so that vegetation shall begin to dry up, fuel shall become scarce, and cooked food a rare delicacy many hundreds of years before the end of the 'age.' At the end of the age the only living pious householder shall have procured the last bundle of chips to prepare the last meal for the Saint and the Nun ! Law and order will have virtually disappeared long before this time, and the last king will probably be no more than a mere powerful bully. He will be attracted by the sight of the smoke from the householder's kitchen and will rush to help himself to cooked food, the greatest of delicacies at the time. He will arrive just in time to be able to snatch the first morsel from the hand of the Saint. The devas, who do not usually interfere in human affairs, will be unable to tolerate such

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an insult to Saintship, and will take revenge on the king. In the next moment the little bundle of faggots shall have burnt itself out, and fire will become a thing of the past ! D /tarma (Religion), which cannot live except in the hearts 'Of men, must likewise perish when those who cherish it and put it into practice are gone. This is probably how the king:. fire and dll,arma (religion) shall be destroyed. one after another, in three successive moments of time, at .the end of the current age (kala) !

CHAPTER XIV 'THE COMMUNITY OF THE FAITHFUL
~~~ :CUSCClli ~~ ~~I
SJft'4tlf<\WCilf~qW, ~t1itci'IIIQ at('Mi+( II

[Tr. The merit that may be acquired by going on·pil;grimage to sixty-eight Tirthas (Holy .Places), is acquir~d by the mere thinking of God Adinath.-(Risabhn Deva) !] Hindu Adoration (untraced).

J ainism marks a distinction between the higher and the lower orders of its followers. The community is divided into four classes, namely, Saints and laymen {termed householders) among males, and nuns and pious laity :among females. The division is grounded on the principle that all men and women cannot be expected to come up, all at once, and without long · and .adequate pr~vious training, to :that high ideal of .self-effacement that demands the selling ~off of all one is· possessed of. and its distribution in charity.
171

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RI~ABHA

DEVA

There were eighty four Apostles of the WORLD TEACHER, amongst them being "Yri~abha Sen, K.achha, Maha Kachha, Nami and Vinami ' whom we have already met in this narrative. Jaya Varma was also one of the Apostles of the Ti?·tlwmlca?·a. There were no less than 20,000 Omniscient Saints who followed the Holy Tirthamkara. 12,700 saints were endowed with Telepathy, 9,000 with Clairvoyance; and 4,750 lmew tb.e entirety of the twelve departments of the Teaching of Truth I There were 20,600 Saints who enjoyed wonderful miraculous powers. Many other saints followed the Lord. Of this vast number by far the major portion attained nirvana, the rest re-incarnating in the heavens. All the most !intimate friends and companions of the WoRLD TEACHER who were with him in the super-heaven Sarvarthasiddhi also reached nirvana. Three hundred and fifty thousand nuns, headed by Brahmi, followed the WORLD TEACHER. No less than three hundred thousand householders who were training themselves by the observance of vows and other forms c;>f disciplinary processes worshipped the Lord. The number of the pious female followers was :five hundred thousand, in round figures.

and life. Sulochana was much affected by the incident . and became a nun. to his kingdom. Regarding the world as transient. who was noted as much for her wisdom as for her physical strength. J aya Varma who has been named among the Apostles of the WoRLD TEA·CHER was the same who had married Sulochana in the svayam1Jara. some of them adopting some of the minor vows ()f the laity. and accepting the counsel of Bharata's favourite queen. she was reborn in the . as the plaything of death. at Varanasi. a prisoner on the battle-field. she sought refuge from the affiictions of this world of tears at the wor·shipful feet of Brahmi. and became a homeless Monk. At -the end of her earthly life. she was very sad at heart. he determined. and took leave of Sulochana and of all the other queens and kinsmen. and who had taken the Emperor's son.THE COMMUNITY OF THE FAITHFUL 173 Some of the members of the animal kingdom who recollected their past lives followed the Lord. Many years rufterwards. Subhadra. when he was filled with the spirit of world-flight and vairagya (renunciation). Arkakirti. he had come to worship the Source of Dharma one day. went back. placed his son on the throne in place of himself. to free himself from the eternal bondage. there and then.

the· father of Sulochana and the establisher of the s~vayam'Dara ceremony in this half-cycle. He placed his son. His queen Sup1·abha also became a nun at thesame time. a.174 RI~ABHA DEVA sixteenth heaven. on the throne. and many princes gave up the life of the world to follow the Path.nd sought refuge at the Worshipful Feet o:f the WORLD TEACHER :from perpetual death. about this time felt an overwhelming disgust for the 1ife of the world. Sanjayanta. prior to her last human birth when she would attain salvation from the male form! With Jaya Varma many of his youngel' brothers. teo. and take the shaping of their destiny in their own hands. Jayanta. e£ Varanasi. . and others. Sama'Dasa?·ana. Vijaya. where he became a naked saint. Remangada. from those of the blind and unmerciful nature! King Akampana. and proceeded to the Lord's.

allegorically Vairagya.A:NA ~· ~ ~li¥lfS461{1liiim i I Q'Qmffl~htiii•S4-cnr: lliltra~er. 'lli:lit' ~q:_ I Iii ~a: II ~ . 47-48. whether it is selfish for a man to seek his own salvation and to leave the others involved in suffering and misery 1 175 .tara (incarnation) to me. [T1· . one should hear the ~ife of Ri~~bha which is the giver of heaven aff.p.er death and the cause of increase of fame and the length of one's yea1·s. IV. The passage quoted above from the Jewish Apocrypha furnishes a complete answer to the question that has been recently raised. Cha.r 11 !l:'f~~ ~· ·~ ft tRif ~ii'Rl ~:ffi:cU"fl~ ~•a~ .. and leave behind an eternal} memory to them that come after me. " Because of her (wisdom) I shall have immortality. VIII. that is Renunciation)."-II Esdras (Jewish Apocrypha). which will be the ninth incarnation that wil'l take p'lace lilre the Path for the good peop[e and as a patron of the he'lpless! The life of Ri~abha is exceeding·ly pu1·e..]-The Siva Pural}a (Hindu). Thus will there be the Risabha Ava. Sanka1·a (Siva.CHAPTER XV NIRV.

Karmas).e. The souls who are still involved in misery and suffering have not unlikely met some of the great Teachers of the race in the past . It is a question of the internal psychology of the mind whether an individual is ready to accept the teaching of truth or will spurn it. because of the extensive destruction that has been effected in the formations of organising bodily energies (i. but without having derived any benefit from their association. will happen to those who do not enter nirvana from the love of others or for fear lest they be termed selfish 1 Their numbers will go on swelling from day to day. even of sympathy and love. . from his nature can ever be qualified to enter nirvana or to attain to Omniscience which must precede it.176 RI~ABHA DEVA No one who has not completely eradicated all tinge of passion. but they will never have the opportunity to enjoy the rest and repose for which they have laboured and which they have earned and deserved and I . There are many souls that shall never be saved. What. as is the teaching of almost every rational reJigion prevailing today.. It is also a delusion to think that you can save all. After the attainment of Full Knowledge nirvana follows as a necessary consequence. then. As a matter of fact you cannot even carry enlightenment to every one.

so that nirvana itself F. in their turn.thus far. If the counter-theory were true. since imagination is readily fired by the one and not so much by the other. Before crossing over to the other shore the Saved Ones impart the True Doctrine to their immediate disciples and followers and to all who care to hear it. These are : His great Example. and His Teaching. hand it down to others. thus keeping the torch burning. His Worshipful Footprints. from age to age. nirvana the Deified Man leaves three priceless things behind Him for the eternal benefit of those who seek the Way Out. so far as it is possible to do so. When entering . and men did not enter nirvana because it would be selfish to do so. 12 . whic~ should really suffice for the enlightenment of all who are sincerely moved by a desire to understand themselves and to escape from Death' s Domain. they would also be subjecting themselves to repeated births and deaths from which they sought to escape I The Soul that attains to nirvana cannot be accused of selfishness by any means. Their example !is even more forceful than their word. no one could have obtained salvation . and these.NIRVANA 177 which they may enjoy but for the short-comings of others l And unless we accord them perpetual life in the flesh which no religion really ever preached.

When a fortnight remained !in the life of the WoRLD TEACHER. too. He sat in the sitting posture. On the night preceding the Pu'I'Tpamfi§i day.ama§i) day in the month of ·Paut?a on which He seated Himself in the middle o:f the two summits Sri Sikhara and Siddha Sikhara of the Mount Kailasa. Bharata and others had seen several portentous dreams. It was the last (Pur7J. since no one is to be deemed to have attained to ni'I''Viina thus far! But this is too absurd to be acceptable in any sense. and the Lord proceeded to accomplish the destruction of the remaining karmic :forces of the non-inimical type that still adhered to His Great Spirit.178 RI~ABHA DEVA must be deemed to be quite empty of Souls even today! And so far as practicability of the Doctrine is concerned. towards the end of the last watch. . Bharata saw the huge Mountain Meru extending to the Place of the Perfect Ones. after curing living beings of their ailments I The Chamberlain of the household of the Emperor. and applied Himself to pure Self-contemplation of the higher type. i~ cannot be deemed to have been demonstrated even in a single instance. the Samavasarana dispersed . facing the East. His son Arkakirti saw a huge Tree possessing medicinal properties moving up towards the heavens.

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179

saw a dream, in which he saw a huge Wish. . fulfilling Tree, capable of gratifying all kinds of wishes, rising up in the sky ! J aya Varma's son, Anantaveerya beheld the bright Moon ascending into the higher regions of the Sky, surrounded by a number of stars! Her Imperial Majesty Queen Subhadra, the daughter-in-law of the WoRLD TEACHER and the favourite .wife of the Emperor, saw the Indrani (the Queen of the first Heaven) consoling Y a8asvati and Sunanda, the two co-wives of the Lord! The Prime Minister of Bharata saw a Jewel Island rising up in the sky; and Chitrangada, one of the sons of King Akampana of the swayamvara !fame, beheld the Sun vanishing into the Sky with great lustre! These dreams created a sensation in Ajudhya and Vara:Q.asi. Bharata was still discussing them with his men when one Ananada brought the news of the dispersal of the Sam0111asarana, and of the WiORLD TEACHER's applying Himself to the eradication of His remaining karmas. The Emperor immediately proceeded to the Mount Kailasa on the aerial vehicles of his Vidyadhara feudatory kings, and there performed the worship lmown as the llf.ahama,ha for a whole fortnight. At last on the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month of Magha, at the time of sun-

180

Rif?ABHA DEVA

rise, when the moon was passing out of the Abhijit (the tail of the Uttara~?adha) constellation, the Lord resorted to the third form of the holy Sukla dhylina (s~lf-contemplation), termed sukshmakriylipratipati (literally having the slightest bodily tinge) , and destroyed the three channels of the approach of matter, namely, the mind, speech and the body! ~e immediately attained to the fourteenth and tlie last g'lJIT)aSthana (psychological station on the Path), from where, adopting the last form of the ho~y sellf- · contemplation (vyuprata kriyanivriti, signifying a cessation o!f all kinds of organic activities), He passed into nirvana, in the space of time required to articulate the five vowels a, e, u, ri and li l The next instant marked the appearance of another Perfect One to grace the Holy Land of the Abode of Gods in nirvana, at the top of the Universe 1 The Perfect Souls that reach Nirva'TU1 are free from birth, death, old age, disease, grief, pain, hunger, thirst and worry. They have no bodies, and do not sweat. Pure Spirit by nature, They enjoy uninterrupteilly, and for ever, all those incomparably divine attributes and privileges which appertain to the simple substance of Their Being. It is impossible to enumerate all the virtues of even such common sub..: st.ances as silver and gold, ·and it is equally im,

NIRVANA ,

181

possible to count or describe all the wonderful properties of the Soul-substance! The Siddkas (Gods) enjoy Omniscience, Immortality and unthinkable, unsurpassed Bliss; They see and hear all, as if They were present everywhere 1 They have no loves andJ hatTeds left in Them, and do not grant boons to friends or show disfavour to foes. Their divine Example, Their Teachings and Their Footprints are left for those who, disgusted with the world, seek a way out of this Cannibal's (Death's) Cave! Those who walk in Their Footsteps become in all respects like Them as regards the innate Divinity of the Spirit substance, and speedily reach the Holy Siddka Sila, to sit by Them! The first WORLD TEACHER of the current half-cycle of time, too, is now living in the Siddha Sila, at the Top of the Universe, endowed with Immortality, Perpetual Youth, Full All-embracing Knowledge, and Supreme Bliss! He wj.ll never come back, or fall into transmigration again! Some fresh arrivals in the field of religious metaphysics think that the state otf nirvana is but a temporary one, and that the soul will have again to fall back into transmigration, sooner or later. But the truth is the other way. There is absolutely no cause left for a fall in that case:

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for matter cannot influence the soul against its will (see 'The l{ey of Knowledge'), and Omniscience is a guarantee against the entertainment of desire. As a matter of fact, it is simply impossible for a pure Spirit to be moved by any kind of desires. Clement of Alexandria may be quoted to explain the point. Writes he :~,For it is impossibie that he who has once bePJn made pPJrfect by love, and feasts eternaUy and insatiably on the boundless joy of contemplation, should delight in smal[ and g1·ove'lling things. For what rational cause remains any more to the man who has gained the ''light inaccessible ' for reverting to the good things of the wor.ld? "-Ante Nicene Christian Library, Vo'l. XII. pp. 346-347.

On the physical side of the question, the eternal exclusion of matter from the purified spirit-substance it is that prevents the falling back of a Perfect Soul into bondage and transmigration. The Bible has it as to this : " And there shall in no wise enter into it anything that defi.1eth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination or maketh a lie" (Revelation xxi. 27). This is really the Jaina view, and the scientific explanation of the fact that the Perfect Ones never experience a fall through infinite time. '' His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall

or perhaps come down to join the staff of a big ' stores' like Selfrige's 1 Possibly you are thinking of an insurance business. therefore. A more dignified line is perhaps that of law. imagine the King's Bench Division presided over by a properly robed Divinity. with all the rhetoric of their tongues t . suffice it to say that the misconception will be removed as soon ·as the subject is approached in the true spirit of scientific investigation. But wouldn't that be the death of the lawyer class. where the Gods might be more useful than men 1 But no insurance company will flourish if omniscience is there to tell most of its intending customers that they run no risk of immediate death. 14} was said with reference to the Perfect Soul! It is useless to labour the point any further. and object to His Lordship's appearance.NIRVANA 183 not be destroyed " (Daniel vii. Shall -we. who will be ready with their precedents and protests. But what shall we say to those good men who find fault with the attainment of Divinity itself on the ground that one shall have nothing to do then 1 Let us ask them what they will like the Gods to do 1 W!ill they have them stand behind counters and sell dainty ribbon to pretty ' butterflies ' from a heavenly or earthly May Fair 1 Will you have them enter into the service of one another.

justly or unjustly. for !in the very nature of things he cannot be all over. when entering upon our duties. But he will have to be partial to one country or people in that case. as an earthly king. Firstly. Secondly. No doubt. because no one can hope to attain salvation unless he discharge his obligations as an honest man. or when leaving office for the day~ No doubt. . it is very desirable and necessary that men should learn to discharge their duties. There are various reasons for this.184 Rlf?ABHA DEVA Only kings and ministers and generals remain to be thought of now. by some of your wicked neighbours [ He will also not sanction our attempts at keeping down certain races of men nor the lynching of the ' niggers ' [ Let us look the facts fully in the face : when do we feel really happy. And will not that mean the starvation of the politicians and the ministers who draw fat salaries and thrive on their wits 1 But the worst still remains to be said : he will not fight your battles as a king. it will be very gratifyi~g to have an actual God as one's worldly patron and protector. because our constitution is such that we cannot--on account of our embodiment in a sensory-motor organism-refrain from action. but advise you to '' turn the other cheek '' and to ' give away your coat and cloak both ' when even only one of them is claimed.

therefore. and are thrown out of balance with internal well-being by laziness. They will not be what they are if they did that 1 There is another point in regard to which God-life might be objectionable.NIRVANA 185 which if not honourable and good must necessarily be of the opposite type. living. and who is out of tune with himself? The fact that it is looked upon as a change in itself is a strong condemnation of our ideals of worldly IHe. For it does not furnish opportunities for gossip and the teaparty chit-chats! But does any one really want an answer to this? Who needs such a diversion 1 He who is eternally happy. Would we be seeking ' change ' if it did not bring relaxation from work. and stand in no need of earning a. also pleasure 1 It only remains to consider the case of sciences and arts. A God surely could save man much trouble if He instructed us in these departments. But the Gods with whom we like to find fault have no sensory-motor organism left to think of. we keep in a fit state of health by action. Thirdly. Lastly. and. which is not to be recommended. an idle ' loafer ' is despised all round as he earns nothingt and tries to fasten himself to some one else who does. But would that suffice to save him from the charge of eternal idleness? The instructions . or he who is feeling bored and worried.

or bought a pig in a poke. What should he do. nor stand in need of exper. He would require no laboratories. when on the higher rungs of the ladder. ascetics feel such joy. They are at all times filled with such happiness that cannot be rescribed in words. No private loves and hatreds remain to sway Them now in one way and again in another. no anxieties. there are nOt worries. They could have gone back at any time. to mar Their immeasurable Peace. And it is not that They have taken a leap in the dark.ents to learn wisdom about nature's ways. As a matter of fact. then. if They did not know that happiness lay that way.im. The Gods alone are truly free I They have no work left to be done . They have deliberately worked for Their ideal and status._ for the rest of all eternity 1 And how do we know that Gods did not impart lmowledge of useful things to men before leaving the world? We have seen that Bharata himself imparted the knowledge of Medicine to the Aryan race. with himself for the rest of his time.186 RI~ABHA DEVA can be given in no time. steadfastly and with unswerving fidelity. Is a God to be blamed because men are unable to retain what they are taught 1 The very essence of Divinity consists in the sense of Freedom. that they cheerfully endure all kinds of sufferings to attain to . life after life.

Let us ask only one question from our critics : can you have immortality at any of your worldly stores or picnics and tea parties 1 Has your wildest flight of imagination ever led you. miserable or bored. over and above your miserable sensegratification. It needs no food . was. then it is best to leave these subjects to those who did not only conceive these possibilities. take to the easier course of denying them altogether I ~ . Let us not forget that pure spirit is a very different kind of substance from matter and flesh. It needs no 'healthy ' exercises to keep itself fit. You may. to think of the possibility of omniscience 1 Did you ever entertain the idea that another. ere this.NIRVANA 187 it finally. if so advised. within the bounds of possibility 1 If your answer is in the negative. nor does it ever feel . but actually attained to them. and eternally satisfying kind of delight.

in separate fires. Sri Ri~abha Deva. Immutable and the Protector of those who have no protection!] -(Jaina Adoration. They also cremated those Ga'ljmlharas and saints who had reached ni1·vana with the Lord. 188 . and devas and men assemble to celebrate it. ~Pclwti=tft. '111'~. who is Undecaying. Indra collected the hairs and nails of Ri~abha Deva and created a body with his powers of illusion to resemble the Lord's. Immortal. I salute the First (Perfect)' Man. like camphor. and only some hairs and nails are left behind. devas flocked on the Mount Kailasa and celebrated the glorious Event in their usual manner. :tm!l'. This body they cremated. The bodies of the Perfect Ones are dispersed. and besmeared their own bodies with its ashes. wPct~ l '!641~S<N 'mf\=« ~ ~ q"R~ U ['fr.CHAPTER XVI VRISABHA SEN GANAiDHARA . '!ii+R.) The ni1·vana of a WORLD TEACHER is termed the fifth kalyanaka (auspicious event). Again and again. Wilt. the Lord of the Conquerors. When Ri~abha Deva attained nirvana. Unperishing. .

At last one day he discovered a white hair in his head and taking it to be the messenger and herald <>f old age. but always filled with growing disgust for its toys and joys. proceeded to his kingdom. immediately decided to leave the world. Ga1Jadhara (Apostle) Vri~abha Sen saw him and spoke to him: '' Surely. as is the custom of the devas. which you and I even are also going to reach very soon! " After a while Bharata recollected himself. The effect of his growing vairagya (detachment) · immediately manifested itself in the form of Telepathy." said he. the Paramakavamiyaka and the Dakshinagni. " for the Lord has .gone to the everlasting Abode of the Immortals. the Garkapatya. this is not an occasion for grief. touching the Holy Feet of the Leader of Saints. Great rej oioings and dancings took place on the occasion. however. He did not participate in the rejoicings in which men joined the devas.VRit?ABHA SEN GA~ADHARA 1~9 ' the memory of which Indra commended the men .of the seventh and the higher pratimas (stages on the householder's path) to preserve by kindling three fires. Bharata was. and became a saint. He lived for many years more in the world. and plunged in grief. and he even destroyed his inimical Karmas within an antaramaku1·ta (less . He appointed Arkakirtd to succeed him. and. very disconsolate.

the Apostle. re-incarnated in the heavens. and Vri~abha Sen. for it is characteristic of the true Dharma (Religion) that whosoever is once moved by [t. and thus reach the GoAL of PERFECTION and JOY I END . and rid themselves of the female form I Many of them have already reached nirva'l}a in the ages that have flown by sincel Others are bound to reach it for a certain . Those of the Holy Saints who did not reach ni1·va'l}a at once were reborn in heavens where also went the pious householders who followed the Lord Ri~abha Deva. too. and at last attained to the purity of Spiritual nature.190 Rif?ABHA DEVA than 48 minutes' time). He then moved about teaching and preaching the Noble Truth to the suffering humanity. according to their merit. that is nirvana l Bahubali had already attained Ni1''Dii'l}a from the Mount K. and the other Apostles and many of the Saints also attained ni1·vii'l}a from different places on different dates. for howsoever fleeting a moment it might be. attaining to omniscience. as the reward of his supreme sense of disgust for the world. is sure to be attracted to the Right Path one day or another.ailasa. The ladies of the sangha (community).