Soil erosion

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Contents
Argument ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.2 Pollution - General .............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 Soil polution ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.3.1 Natural pollution .......................................................................................................................... 7 1.3.2 Artificial pollution......................................................................................................................... 7 1.3.3 Chemical pollution ....................................................................................................................... 8 2. Soil degradation ........................................................................................................................................ 8 2.1 Land Degradation ................................................................................................................................ 8 2.2 Degradation by erosion..................................................................................................................... 12 2.3 Degradation by overexploatation ..................................................................................................... 12 2.3.1 Deforestation ............................................................................................................................. 12 2.3.2 Overgrazing ................................................................................................................................ 13 2.4 Degradation of the construction of dams and canals ....................................................................... 14 2.5 Degradation by Pollution .................................................................................................................. 14 2.5.2 Pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides ..................................................................... 15 3. Safeguard soil quality .............................................................................................................................. 15 3.1 Safeguards......................................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Factors affecting soil quality ............................................................................................................. 16 4. Land reclamation techniques .................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 The purpose of the activity ............................................................................................................... 17 4.2 Irrigation Systems ............................................................................................................................. 17 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 19 5. Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 19

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but end up in human lungs where they are spread through the body causing serious diseases: anemia.Argument Motto: "The most valuable natural wealth is undoubtedly the ground" Jean Dorst One of the most important components of the biosphere is the soil. birth defects. excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. urbanization and road traffic and led to increased pollution phenomenon. various cancers. is becoming increasingly acute with the global spread of industrialization. Substances in the air are deposited on the carpet plant. drainage. deforestation. He is a natural body formed as a result of long processes of pedogenesis and has complex structure. Soil degradation is the process that causes destruction of topsoil from the area and the impossibility of his recovery. In addition to the benefits of a life in a world less polluted and more balanced the need for a rational development.improper plowing . Layer soil is loose. Environmental protection is a matter of national interest to preserve the ecological balance. A major aspect of environmental degradation. on houses. removal of large areas of land from crop production. limiting the possibilities of feeding the growing population is the irrational use of land. 1. soft and brittle. Also. preserving and improving the quality of natural factors. the environmental protection can prevent diseases caused by pollution and would not make it to the extinction of plant and animal species. Deforestation leads to nakedness unreasonable soil and disappearance of many species of plants and animals. which is found in the surface crust. to ensure conditions of living and working ever better present and future generations. in which the plants rooted. Industrialization. intensive exploitation. and with atmosphere together constitute the living environment of plants. inappropriate tourism practiced. overgrazing.1 Soil . Introduction 1. The soil is loose from the surface land cover. plowing grasslands resulted in the appearance of "bad lands" that there is no more vegetation. Anthropogenic action on the soil by clearing. The causes of land degradation due to human activity are: mining.General 3 .

out of which about one third may be regarded as harmful or toxic. viruses. But solid waste is only one aspect. Their importance is multiple: serve as nutritional support for bacteria. If them do not get into the water. An important part of soil have different chemical pollutants resulting from industrial enterprises and pesticides used in excessive quantities. It is estimated that about half of the quantities of industrial raw materials end up as residues and wastes. is an environmental factor with significant influence on health. A first aspect of soil pollution is the industrial solid waste. Polluting soil elements are grouped into three categories: *biological elements. being the most pathogenic. An important cause of soil degradation is the irrigation. They are part of different waste (household. It comes. at the drop of oil leaked from the tractor to the country field to the various landfill waste are all direct pollution of the soil. massive deforestation.2 Pollution . sanitation is poor soil solution. carried by rainwater. the action of pollutants. forming the''wash''torrents humus layers and carry water with them in soil fertility and. These substances actually are true poisons. *physical elements that disturb the soil composition: floods. Pollution is particularly evident when the soil. livestock. disposed of man and animals. Indeed. following their bare land is degraded. Each simple fold can land in a few years to become a ravine whose depths reach several tens of meters and the converging waters collected across a large pool area.General Pollution is a change in biotic and abiotic environmental factors. become laterizate (covered with a crust of iron oxide) or podzolic (without humus). From cigarettes or bus ticket to the car abandoned. in both cases being unproductive and useless. gradually accumulate in the soil and roots. *chemical elements in most of the organic. the ground is the meeting place of the pollutants. The soil is subject of action of air and water pollution. In general.Soil. Dust in the air and toxic gases into the atmosphere are dissolved by rain back on the ground. In urban spaces wastes are removed more or less systematically. represented by organisms (bacteria. or just technical means required to ensure removing the weather. Almost all solid waste is stored or disposed of sintering at random on the ground. which is a waste 4 . limiting pollution to lower areas. Water from rain generally act destructively because drip effect which manifests itself mainly in the hilly land. 1. heavy particles leads to the streams that come off the ground. insects and rodents suffering decomposition processes release toxic gas and may be involved in water sources. like air and water. even in space. are stored in certain fields. both the surface and especially of the underground. Another contradiction of civilization: with the ability to create an acceptable living environment. rain. parasites). but there is danger of seepage into the groundwater. Waste of all kinds have been discharged into the water and air cover land where exactly in crowded places is intense and every square meter multi requested where degraded lands are more fertile just where nature is wanted for her beauty . not only to remove soil erosion but also deep erodation of rock mother. getting into human food. which it degrades. industrial). The formation depends on soil quality and protecting water sources. and penetrating plant tissues.

although a source is limited. As a result. gas. chemical. the gap is due to the way in which the ecological processes. 1. which makes the area affected annually . etc.3 Soil polution Soil pollution means any action that causes disruption of normal functioning of soil as a living environment in the various natural ecosystems and man-made (anthropogenic) disturbance manifested by physical degradation. Plants are often the target of genetic alterations in an effort to increase tolerance to some chemicals such as herbicides or heavy metals. made using genetic engineering. A particular type of genetic pollution is pollution that results from genetic manipulation of organisms. which destroyed about 430 million ha of 5 . Synthetic index of soil pollution resulting effect is represented either by reducing the quantity or quality of crop production (harvest) or by the costs necessary to maintain bio-productive capacity (yield) in the event the previous quantitative and qualitative parameters of pollution. because its effects are most obvious. adaptation to extreme environmental conditions and improvement of productive characteristics. for example in the mining basin of Oltenia. ionizing radiation. increasing resistance to diseases or pests. as in the case of the mining industry. (See Annex 1 .of human activity. so some of these areas have become virtually unproductive. between the entry of pollutants into the environment and their effects is a gap in time and space. For example. and the soil was subjected to more and more requests from other sectors outside of agriculture and forestry. resulting in accumulation and rapid increase in concentration. environmental abiotic factors on pests and pathogens. human needs growth and development of new technologies. As a consequence of human activity . recoverable. have already made at the world level a series of measures to limit this adverse phenomenon. In any ecosystem that includes the soil it has two essential functions: storage and provider of nutrients and water. pollution has grown with the increase in numbers of mankind. Suitability of land affected by this type of pollution has decreased by 1-3 classes.2 photo) Soil damaged by excavation has affects. heavy metals. on the one hand and container and transformer of residues and waste. With all their vital functions is to provide food. heat. biological)affects ecosystems as a whole and also communities of organisms. marine aquatic ecosystems are subjected to intense pollution with heavy metals. physical factors (noise. The greatest loss is due to erosion. biological. synthetic organic compounds and petroleum residues. the capacity of bioproductive to qualitatively and quantitatively. being the most serious deterioration of the soil. Over time. oil. etc. in all its forms (physical.). on the other hand thus having the role of regulator of ecosystem and of purifying the environment. affecting biodiversity in all its forms. chemical.) or biological (pathogens). adversely affecting its fertility. Often. Pollution. The purpose of this is genetic or improvement of morphological and physiological characteristics or induction of resistance to various chemicals. attention has been given to a particular chemical pollution. Pollutants are chemicals (pesticides. The effects of such pollution are exacerbated by prolonged retention time of these compounds difficult or not degradable. soil.

Undoubtedly.000 000 tonnes of toxic gas. Undesirable effects on soil quality have it municipal waste and residues from industry. the soil becomes massive structure that breaks up into blocks on drying and becomes impermeable to air and water to moistern. various institutions and organizations. they are 6 . If pollution is evident in soil is the third environmental factor that must be protected as well as water and air. 10. arsenic. The soil formed over millions of years can be destroyed by erosion in a few days. After a poor guide for 10-20 years. The improvement is very difficult. copper. superphosphates contain a number of impurities (metals and toxic metalozi) which. Special problems are raised by solid waste and residues. just in crowded places where every square meter is intense and multiple required . which amounted annually worldwide. etc. are currently affected by salinity of large areas of land. Unanticipated consequences of long-term uses of pesticides have led to severe damage of various forms of life.) is the soil pollution by harmful biological agents. However. etc. rain and ice into tiny particles that based on size and quality are called sand. selenium. There is no life without soil. zinc. industrial platforms.. For example: in one year. chromium. focused on pollution issues. in addition to chemicals used in agriculture. 70. waste from animal heads. can accumulate in the soil. cadmium.) from various sources and reached on the ground in various ways. particularly favorable to agriculture. are stored sintering or just randomly thrown on the ground. of chemical fertilizers. degraded agricultural lands where they are most fertile just out nature where it is most wanted for her beauty. 32 billion m3 of industrial waste water. Soil is the venue of the pollutants: particulate air and toxic gases in the atmosphere is dissolved by rain back into the soil. etc. about 5 billion tons of mineral substances. mercury. commerce and agriculture. From cigarettes or tram ticket up to the car abandoned at the drop of oil leaked from the tractor running on the field. Polluted rivers flooded or irrigated areas infects almost all solid residues. together. where plants go into harm. are most important source of soil pollution. etc. Irrational expansion of urbanization. represented by pathogenic microorganisms and handed man removed from direct contact with the ground consumption of contaminated food or contaminated soil obtained. some multipurpose other specialized publications. Rock covering the earth was turned by the wind. nickel. passageways. Heavy metals (lead. Due to the inefficient use of irrigation water. including significant areas of employment of land. Another form of soil pollution. the human pathogens transmitted by direct contact with soil contaminated with excretions from infected animals and naturally occurring pathogens found in soil. A special problem raises nitrogen fertilizers. Some problems are related to soil pollution and use in large quantities every year. constitute a very serious potential risk of soil pollution. by the occupation of vast land. Interest in environmental pollution has increased for the entire population of the globe.land in different countries around the world. missing of adequate drainage or poor quality water. which has fatal consequences on nature. are all causes of reducing planted or cultivated areas. often among those with very fertile soils. A third of the planet's soil is seriously damaged. pesticides are and will continue to be an enormous human support. 250 million tons of dust. industrial growth of livestock. Residues of all kinds who have been discharged into the water and air cover land. in solving environmental problems. other pesticides have created yet undetermined size. is widely recognized that their release. 3 billion. more important in crowded areas (settlements.000 people produce so as to cover 1 ha landfill with a thick layer of 1 m.. clay or mud. the immediate surroundings of human life. Thus.

Pollen and fungal aerosols may be natural to the human population adversely affect health. 2. bacteria. chemical. iron oxides). feldspar. sandy clay). 1. sand (quartz. heat).3. Pollution is the artificial nature: physical (noise.78 kg of mineral substances. Humus soil is an important component of plant and animal remains represented by decayed synthesized by bacteria and fungi. Humus layer formation is a slow process and requires sustained several stages.18 kg water (dissolved) Containing soil minerals: * ~ 1% rock. 1.Influence the quality of groundwater sources and surface water. mica. . fungi). 2.Respond directly related to vegetation growth and development and indirect human food pollution. . ~ 0. soil. 1. carbonates. it becomes more intense as it is devoid of vegetation. ~ 9% land flora and fauna characteristics. solid particles that are transported long distances by wind and air currents. b) soil erosion caused by wind or rain. As industrial development and population explosion occurred biodegradable waste for which no enzymes exist in nature able to decompose. Soil is the layer thickness of 20-30 cm from the surface crust (topsoil) which together with the adjacent atmosphere.1 Natural pollution Has secondary importance while the contribution of anthropogenic pollutants is becoming more serious: a) deleted volcanic gases. 7 . ~ 99% earth ground (clay.Is closely connected with the climate of a region in configuration. ~ 0. structure and nature.Is an important factor in socio-economic development of human settlements. Soil organic substances contain: * ~ 81% humus. ~ 10% of plant roots.3. Ecological importance of soil resulting from the fact that: . slope or an area with a rich river system. biological (pathogens. radiation. c) plant and animal waste decomposition releases from a number of polluting gaseous substances.2 Artificial pollution Originally polluting products were readily biodegradable organic and nature of bacteria and fungi. 1. One kilogram of soil contains: * ~ 0.04 kg air. . viruses. is the living environment of plants.all direct pollution of the soil. 1.

Death of plants and animals in the soil.1 Land Degradation What is soil degradation? Soil degradation means reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity.3. It is considered imperative that the identification and estimation of soil pollution intensity to be 8 . Effects of soil pollution: Reduces soil fertility. because the self-purification processes are much slower. The causes of land degradation are either natural or related directly or indirectly to human activity. Erosion.1. adverse effects are particularly strong on pollution by heavy metals (especially Cu. Soil degradation 2. industrial waste or misuse of chemicals in agriculture. Cd) and sulfur dioxide .3 Chemical pollution Chemical pollution of the soil affects about 0. It is caused by land use (anthropogenic factor). due to the random removal and disposal of residues resulting from human activity. Oil pollution and salt water from oil exploitation and transport is present Suitability of land affected by this type of pollution has decreased by 1-3 classes. Zn. but it is harder to recover compared to water and air. Plants underdevelopment.2 million ha of excessive pollution. Soil cover solid waste and waste caused sealing of many ha of agricultural land and meadows. so some of these areas have become virtually unproductive. The soil is subject to pollution as the other elements of the environment. Soil is considered a result of unhygienic habits or improper practice. 2.9 million ha. of which 0. Decreased amounts of O2. Pb. a natural process or a combination of natural processes. Direct economic damage due to the restrictions on agricultural production is estimated by reducing it by about 20% per year.

ozone depletion. agricultural waste. thermal. leading to degradation and damage to water and related ecosystems. and the nature of the soil. carbon monoxide and suspension that is released along with other elements harmful to human health. The greenhouse effect. energy exists in various forms: mechanical. efficient but more toxic to the environment. non-biodegradable in most centers along food chains. The impact is felt most strongly on agriculture. natural sources. Pollution not only due to the continuous increase of solid fuel combustion in power stations or industry because of motor vehicles and household energy consumption and population. always followed by adverse environmental and human health. They wash in the general atmosphere of pollutants and deposited them on the ground. but the costs are very high. oil and natural gas are non renewable and conventional. For example the introduction of modern energy production from biomass could act on the market price of biomass and makes it profitable for the restoration of areas affected by the degradation of productive potential and turning them into so-called "energy farms" with critical pollution . but also wash and soil. Statistics indicate an overall degradation of 2. Soil contamination level depends on the rain regime. Acidification is the process by which the earth's surface is "poverty" in an ongoing basis and undergoes increased acidity. another is washed by rain. Covering energy consumption continues to increase determines a continuing to discover new sources of energy. an area equivalent to one third of the global agricultural area and the area occupied by forest. have demonstrated the increasingly dramatic in recent years.000 million hectares of land. and requires the creation of new synthetic substances. Production of energy (including biomass and biogas) are major causes of soil degradation. some of them is taken by the wind. The man began to understand that progress especially in recent decades human society gradually turned into instruments of destruction. Energy effects have been felt due to increased growth in production and consumption of energy. heavy metals. acid rain.considered its capital position. with disastrous effects on nature. which particularly affect the poor. In fact. and the rest is 9 . This is very important to follow the persistence of pesticides and artificial fertilizers on agricultural land. To some extent depends on soil and vegetation pollution they cover. Forecasts show that soil acidification produce significant damage particularly on agriculture. With the advent of human civilization emerged and brutal human intervention through rational exploitation of nature and pollution affect the environment by industrial activities. Also. pests become resistant to pesticides. Methods to combat its effects exists. Burning solid fuels contributes essentially to the contribution of air pollution by sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Economic interest and environmental protection requires that both fertilizers and pesticides to remain as firmly in the ground. that support and environment for terrestrial plants. nuclear. electrical. is toxic to plants and animals. on the contrary it can play a positive role in stopping the phenomenon. helping the circulation of pollutants to the envoys. a primary crop production in the human existence itself. control of emissions of CO2. Agriculture chemical processing leads to excessive soil disturbance that balance and accumulation in soil and groundwater of minerals (eg nitrites that affect human and animal methemoglobinizant destroy atmospheric nitrogen fixing bacteria). In nature. finding ways to protect non-renewable sources. Soil characteristics are directly related to agricultural productivity. It should however be noted that the rains favors and depth of soil contamination. Coal. Over 300 million hectares are at a level of degradation so that it is considered that the phenomenon is irreversible. Pesticides.

which can significantly disrupt the ecological balance. In regions of moderate soil fertility is rarely deeper than a meter. Soil degradation is the removal of humus layer and / or amend it. the very first millimeters of the soil have a great capacity for mineralization of organic matter and vigorous action to destroy pathogens. -By 29% by adding aromatic plasticizer. Since the movement of pesticides and fertilizers were given the place that the environment is a serious risk of environmental pollution. the rock is rapidly decomposed in the tropics and thus form a very thick base and 50 meters. Superficial layers. Water is the dissolution and driving. Microorganisms provide plant nutrients degrading organic pollutants. For instance persistent heptachlor in soil was increased: -By 18% by adding mineral oil lubricant. Wind erosion occurs more rarely and even then only in dry regions. tropical forests are cleared. If trees in mountainous regions.broken down over time due to oxidation in air or the action of enzymes secreted by bacteria in soil. Soil erosion occurs due to wind and water action. A drop of rain fallen on the ground can break ground in all directions. Regardless of depth in most soil layer closest to the most fertile area. Degradation process is the result of two main phenomena: 1. Irrigation channels established in developing countries are quickly filled with silt and become unusable. Several million tons of earth were moved by the wind. Its effect is much more worrying. 2. Exceptions are Mississippi River banks. In the tropics the soil is displaced by the flood-like rains. where deposits can reach and depth of 30 meters. continued growth of the arable area and the demand for firewood. Tourism is a beautiful and clean job search. to produce deviations from health and education. Even today. villages and roads. pulp industry. the soil is pushed to the valleys. unlike the 10 . -With 52% by adding Piccopale resin. but camping inside as outside. construction (furniture). -With 30% polystyrene by adding alkylate. deforestation. because in one hour wind can move a quantity of soil water could be moved in a few years. which is most affected by erosion. As a result of this phenomenon in case of heavy rainfall. have tried to increase their persistence by means of chemical additives. clay) than in organic substances. The following table presents some data related to persistence in soil of some common insecticides. the rain will wash the top layer of soil found along the way will be flooded valleys and pastures. The soil. -By 21% by the addition of heavy aromatic petroleum fractions. a top layer 150 feet off the ground is carried by winds. Due to heat and heavy rains. increased surface area for agricultural and construction. Experience has shown that the persistence of pesticides is dependent on the nature of the ground: it is smaller in richer soils containing inorganic (sand. an opportunity for physical and mental comfort in nature.

flotation. If the soil is a pollutant subject to aggression.atmosphere and water. This is called erosion and shifting soil animals can erode soil and thus unintentionally threaten their own habitat. washing. 11 . air injection pressure etc. oxidation. based physical extraction of pollutants in the environment contaminated by excavation. Infertile steppe formation of the Mediterranean can be explained in particular by increasing the proportion of goats in an area much larger than the possibilities. stabilization. After the general technical principles for remediation of soil are distinguished: Physical methods: based on physical restraint of pollutants in the contaminated environment or in isolation (seals. In the past. and seals. Soil as a gift of nature. thermal desorption and vitrification). pumping. always will be investigated and the underground aquifer. which may be contaminated by pollutant transfer from soil surface to depth. bioventring site. At ground level. oils smother vegetation. fenced. has no power to disperse. However. especially in regions where they are kept on small pastures. Farn Islands seal population lived and one of Alce (Alca Tord). leading to soil degradation by erosion. Chemical Methods: the separation. biosparging's) methods biolixiviere and bioaccumulation of pollutants. pollute the atmosphere through evaporation and presents a potential risk of explosion and fire. hydraulic lock). rolling in the mud and thus destroyed the upper soil layer. or immobilize pollutants extracted by subjecting the contaminated material at high temperatures (incineration. in situ biodegradation. Huge volumes of silt in rivers and streams worsen their quality. although this invaluable disappears at an alarming rate. In a few countries have introduced laws to limit the growth of goats to protect vegetation. Goats can produce significant damage in hilly regions. Seals have been deliberately driven out and succeeded in scaring as their colony on the island and rescuing birds and herbivorous animals contribute to soil erosion. reduction. Any surface must be compromised to remind us that in order to form three inches of soil are naturally 300-1000 years of the required physico-chemical and biological processes. The warning is even more severely for actions change the planet's surface. an aquifer and contamination with a toxic substance. Biological methods: biodegradation of pollutants is under the action of microorganisms (bioreactor biodegradation in bulk. and a 20 cm arable layer is formed in 7000 years. causing degradation is immediate and irreversible. which penetrates deep soil contamination can occur through evaporation and capillary rise of water pollution. and precipitation ) Thermal Methods: destroy. the birds were plucked grass to build nests. destruction or pollutants into less harmful forms (chemical extraction.

Landslides are also very devastating. Erosion has affected the whole world in the last century 20 million km2 of cultivated land. of which 5.3 million ha of forests. As measures to avoid erosion. especially after World War led to a reduction in the area of nine million hectares from 6.4 billion m3. which over time degrades the texture. limited cultivation terraces retain water ditches. Massive deforestation for recovery of wood is a key issue of land degradation through erosion. Forest vegetation help reduce leakage of the surface. always cover the soil with a layer of plant debris or crops to restore the chemical balance in the soil. destroyed soil texture on bare in front of solar radiation and depleted natural plant associations. In 1975 the annual world wood production was 2. Due to 12 . wind and man through agricultural work.3. poor soil. keeping litter.3 Degradation by overexploatation 2. through misuse of land has led to a decrease in water holding capacity in soil. 28% of their area. acid rain. Man.Nature is clearly in front of an ecological decline. especially in Asia. 2. representing an ecosystem with regenerative capacity of 3-5 times higher than any other natural ecosystem. man has used since ancient times. climate and water. This erosion is due to pollution by pesticides and chemical fertilizers. causing frequent floods. The litter is the main source for the return of mineral elements in soil and organic matter.as a form of degradation of soil or rocks. especially on sloping land. indirect. 2. the anthropogenic factor was decisive role as a factor of damage by means of direct.1 Deforestation Woods is the determining factor in maintaining ecological balance. It evaporates or is running on the surface. because it lacks tree vegetation layer to "cushion" the effects of strong precipitation.5% are now affected by pollution and pests.2 Degradation by erosion Erosion . close or distant. plowing the furrows. is due to actions rain. multiple and complex. contour following. Massive cuts in the last 80 years. massive cutting forests. the herbaceous vegetation cover and water retention.

this fact by destructive human intervention. the Portuguese introduced goats in 1513. In the world are countries like Spain and Greece wich has reduced forest cover to 15%. the ground breaking. purification of air and improved climate. the UN has taken steps to protect forests at global level. 2. While we have made with softwood and eucalyptus afforestation in various parts of the world. and savanna in Kenya vite(cattle)/km2 only 3500 kg. 13 . the Middle East . many interspecific relationships and ecological stability ensured in a hundred years.3. increases the frequency of diseases and parasites. In domestic animals. In this context fall planting of forest belts.Spain. In North America. which loses its possibilities for regeneration. For example. due to massive cuts in Canadian pine NV California have produced numerous floods with hundreds of thousands of hectares of land destroyed. plant species and environmental categories. Iran and North America. which resist drought and high temperatures. as phytophagous insect populations are in relative balance with the environment. industrial or agricultural lands required for the release. overcrowding is exacerbated passions and denudation of the biota. and Accacia Cyanpiphylla Accacia Cyclops. or locking of the soil in Northern Africa (Tunis. it leads to soil compaction and crushing plant cover. To maintain the protective coating of the ecosphere. water.2 Overgrazing Destruction of vegetation cover in an ecosystem process occurs as a result of intensive grazing by herbivorous animals. Such vegetation gradually disappears on certain areas which are subject to gradual erosion and degradation. arid and vegetation destroyed by accidental embossing occurs in the Apennines . construction. Tropical forests in Africa were reduced by two thirds and necessary areas for plantations of cocoa and other exotic plants.Italy. The same situation eroded soils. Helena. which calls for wood as fuel. the island of St. Forest has the function of recreation and a source of ozone to humans. Morocco) by various species of Tamarix articulate. which remain outside the ecological factors and anthropogenic factor subject. If these limits are exceeded. Currently there is widespread concern around the globe to rescue the suprapăşunare vegetation. autoregulation occurs in wild animal populations predator activity. which is protected from erosion and aridity.000 kg. In the Argentine pampas limit the capacity of natural pastures vite/km2 amounts to 14. It is known that in the future need for wood will increase by 17% and tropical forests are likely to disappear at the beginning of this millennium. the plateau of Castile .Syria. undergoing oscillations in the light of its fluctuations. these forests have not arranged artificial or age diversity. In the Texas prairie vite/km2 11. to preserve soil. Domestic animals kept in confined areas. in 1909 was completely destroyed flora.000 kg.

2. fed by the dam at Aswan in Egypt. communication means. Since 1950 he reported in Norway. power generation. leading to installation of the intermediate host gastropods bilhariozei agents. the decrease in fish production of over 200 existing lakes. These constructions lead to flooding of alluvial land and change the quantitative and qualitative composition of local flora and fauna.4 Degradation of the construction of dams and canals To ensure safe drinking water.process of changing biotic and abiotic environmental factors in the environment of pollutants by type of waste from human activity. Manson. an impoverishment of soil nutrients and bulk dry forests. In some cases. new lakes are sources of diseases by developing many parasite. under the influence of anthropogenic factor. Initially there were fewer polluting products. Soil pollution is caused by dust and harmful gases from the air. 2. The harmful effects of acid rain are: 14 . especially chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture. Enigma was solved until 1960.1 Acid rain Acid rain is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of sulfur and nitrogen oxides.5 Degradation by Pollution Pollution . Here malaria vectors appear as onchicercozei causing blindness. the man spoke in aquatic ecosystems by building canals and dams. waste waters from industrial or domestic waste. which in the presence of water vapor under the influence of ultraviolet radiation is converted into highly toxic acids corresponding to: sulfuric acid and nitric acid. 2. irrigation. Thus the development of aquatic vegetation in irrigation canals. such as trematodes Schistosoma hematobium and S. such as organic and easily degraded by environmental microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). with harmful effects on animals.5. Artificial pollution first appeared with the development of urban settlements. when it turned out that rainwater contains acids.

waste from food industry waste. K) .in harmful concentrations.Washing the soil of nutrients. prevents or reduces the mineralization processes. raw materials. through which.Reducătorilor destruction of soil by water of low pH and high concentration of precipitation in Al. be returned to the mineral elements needed trees for organic synthesis. 3. . Another consequence is the accumulation in soil and groundwater of minerals . waste from animal farms. 2.5. the first frames that suffer a major role in ensuring soil fertility Other products that pollute the soil are solid wastes from mining.1 Safeguards Providing world population. Mg. reducing their supply and slowing growth in Ca. Increasing quantities of fertilizers and soil humus. with greater efficiency and economic efficiency as high. but there are differing views in this regard.2 Pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides Excess chemical processing lowers the production potential. metallurgical and slag from power plants. Chemical fertilizers for a long time may stop the recycling of organic matter in cultivated soils. Highly toxic pesticides can also degrade soil biocoenosis. these products occupy large areas of land or other economic interest. This results in deterioration of soil structure. vital tree (Ca.. 15 . thereby contributing to the decline of absorbent clayhumulos complex. Of these. It is known that pesticides can harm wildlife reached the ground which contributes to the incorporation of organic matter in soil. rapidly growing industry with products and processed food. seriously threatening their fertility. Irrational by storage. necessarily requires that all resources on the ground to be protected and recovered fully. to attach the fine roots of trees.nitrates .Existing aluminum salts in the soil mineral acids is set free water contained in precipitation and may compete with As. Safeguard soil quality 3.

of which 2. -insurance poor to very poor soil phosphorus on the phone about 6. from 1. with a worsening trend in the irrigated or drained and exploited. the emergence of escese or weaknesses in some nutrients. most recently in our country. P2O5. especially zinc deficiencies. After MAFF data. 3. this along with landslides (about 0.4 million ha.000 tons active substance). Minister of Agriculture and Food has introduced technical standards for the protection of soil quality binding on all owners of agricultural land on the prevention of soil degradation due to excess water. -significant deficiencies in micro-areas. Soil salinization affects almost 0.7 million ha) causes loss of soil of 41.295 million tons to 293 tons in 1998 and a slight increase in 1999 (305. the total consumption of N.5 t / ha / year. Accordingly. -ensuring low soil nitrogen on about 5. in order to maintain and enhance fertility. Precisely for this purpose. water erosion and wind. the risk of extension. sărăturării side. primary compaction is present on about 2 million ha of arable land and tend the soil surface crust formation. analyzed on 66% of the agricultural land. must be made regularly track the quality status of soils. The contents of frame on top of the soil affects about 0.For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the best land management measures to prevent and control degradation phenomena. Wind erosion occurs on about 0.2 Factors affecting soil quality Erosion by water is present on 6. contamination by various substances and harmful organisms. -ensuring very low to low soil humus on about 7.5 million ha. At the same purpose. the total apparent consumption of fertilizer (N.5 million ha of agricultural land. K2O) continuously decreased since 1986. Agrochemical status.8 million ha of agricultural land. on about 2. affected the corn crop on about 1.has the following negative aspects: -strong acidity and moderate soil about 3. some forests were cleared and protective curtains in areas to this degradation process. Deterioration of soil structure and compaction occurs on about 6.5 million ha. K kg / ha in the same period fell from 86 kg / ha 16 .3 million anti-erosion works in strongly damaged at most. soil physical degradation. that their productive capacity.3 million ha.1 million ha of agricultural land.3 million ha of agricultural land.6 million ha. to know the trend of development of soil quality by decision makers at various levels. knowing that in recent years. an additional 0.4 million ha of agricultural land and moderate-strong alkalinity 0. degradation of soil acidification due to the systematic application of increasing doses of nitrogen fertilizer with the potential for acidification. -poor insurance mobile potassium soil on about 0. or other areas with potential secondary salinization.3 million ha .3 million ha. effects of forecasts and warnings about possible adverse or danger of soil degradation.6 million ha.2 million ha of agricultural land. P.

-Fighting excess water through adjustments. or local character. Large systems are composed of several parts: -water intake. -collection and distribution network: channels of earth.to 21 kg / ha in 1999. increasing areas with very low content of N. 4. This decrease is reflected in the corresponding soil dynamics. drainage and drainage. 4. pipes. land ecology and land improvement techniques contribute to the preservation and improvement of agricultural land characteristics.2 Irrigation Systems Irrigation systems are complex abstraction works for a given source. watering the land. water intake facility. bringing water to the land to be irrigated. Development of agriculture production to ensure that soil conservation is very high. 4. drainage and drainages). Land reclamation techniques Given the food requirements of the human population and the normal functioning of the soil is execution: along with other scientific and technical areas.1 The purpose of the activity Land Improvements is a set of technical and biological processes used to exploit the benefit of land unsuitable for agriculture or low-productive for creating and maintaining a favorable ratio of land and soil water deficiency or excess water and prevent soil erosion. 17 . K. according to their purpose: -Tackling the lack of water in the soil by irrigation. -Soil erosion. concrete gutters. Qualification of land reclamation workers. Irrigation systems are large systems that serve large areas of agricultural land (eg dry areas in southern Romania and in Dobrogea) systems. dams. and the collection and removal of excess water. the application of scientific measures and land classification agricultural workers work. -Increasing soil fertility of low productivity by combating salinization and acidification by clearing and leveling. P. -Land reclamation works are used for a long time (especially dams. requires high costs for construction and complexity.

irrigation causes negative effects. Slowly. pipelines crossing etc. increases the amount of housing. so irrigation starts and stops. dust in the 18 . Negative effects can be controlled if the technical rules with great exactness. Advantages of the system: The irrigation is accomplishing a nice atmosphere. . unfit for agricultural crop. practical.When the system is not in use they do not mind mowing the lawn or sports activities. Some of it is land salinization.By which water reaches the sprinkler. Electronic control system: . small dams to keep the land irrigated -collection and disposal network: acquiring open channels excess water. not only for irrigation but also to remove excess water.-surface irrigation facilities. irrigation channels and drains. So far.Impulse control is received from the control panel.During irrigation amounts they automatically (water pressure) above the ground and after irrigation termination automatically retire at ground level. . the valve opens and closes. Salts contained in soil is gradually deposited on the surface . . dominate irrigation networks (sprinkler or surface) with distribution by rotation to different cultures. Water can be avoided if the irrigation system is operating normally. and the soil irrigated overload has suffered as a result of increasing accumulation of substances such as nitrates or nitrites. . the soil becomes salty.Irrigation of land at the time made and precisely determined quantity of water. What is the irrigation system? Pipes (tubes) underground: . -various hydraulic structures: weirs. water containing pollutants should release them in the spaces between the grains. a centralized. Rain sensor: .Which avoids using irrigation during rain. It is known that the river water used for irrigation. .The system is automatic and works without supervision.Operates at 24 volts. If the rules corresponding irrigation soil absorption capacity for a theoretically homogeneous soil. slowly. Although absolutely necessary.Retire after working at ground level. Water used for irrigation can come from a polluted river or pond and then additional problems relate mostly to the status of groundwater.During the operation are visible. Sprinklers: . in Romania as in other countries with large agriculture. Solenoid: . In many cases.In case of power failure keeps a battery system using the program.are removed by evaporation and filed. has the same chemical composition as compared with rainwater. .

Dust in the air and toxic gases into the atmosphere are dissolved by rain back on the ground. Environment. especially in recent decades human society gradually turned into instruments of destruction. Alpopi C. is an environmental factor with significant influence on health. Economic Publishing House. Pollution and protection. S. The man began to understand that progress. Almost all solid waste is stored or disposed of sintering at random on the ground. University Publishing House. a primary crop production in the human existence itself. Bucharest. Bibliography Matthew E. 1988.. the ground is the venue of the pollutants. we need to stop polluting the soil. Conclusions In conclusion. Uniform growth of plants is achieved through irrigation . both the surface and especially of the underground. Visan. if we want to eat as healthy as possible. If we all want to live in a healthy environment. Indeed. Cretu. that support and environment for terrestrial plants. Soil erosion 19 . called soil pollution because with pollution we will "pollute" ourselves. human ecosystems.atmosphere is retain and air is purifyed resulting in a temperature recreation. we must fight for be far from this "chaos". S. air and water. 5. with disastrous effects on nature. Soil. The formation and protection of water sources depends on soil quality. Bucharest. It is considered imperative that the identification and estimation of soil pollution intensity to be considered its capital position. 1998.

Waste disposal on land 20 .

Drought Landslides 21 .

Deforestation 22 .