* (2) Copper gets deposited at the cathode when a current is passed through aqueous solution of copper chloride.

(March ’08 – ’09) Ans. (1) Aqueous solution of copper chloride is an electrolyte. When a current is passed through an aqueous copper chloride, copper ions (Cu2; ) and chloride ions (Cl 9 ) are produced. (2) Copper ions (Cu2; ) are positively charged ions (cations) which move towards the cathode – negatively charged electrode where they accept electrons and get deposited at the surface of the cathode. CuCl ; Cu(aq) ;2Cl(aq)  2; At the cathode : Cu(aq) ;2e 9 ; Cu(s)
2; 9

(2) During electrolysis oxygen is produced at the anode, where it combines with aluminium resulting in the formation of a blackened film of aluminium oxide on its surface. Q. 33. Distinguish between : * (1) Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte :
Electrolyte Nonelectrolyte

At the anode :

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2Cl(aq) ; Cl (g) ;2e 9 

9

(3) Glucose is non-electrolyte. (Sept. ’09) Ans. (1) Glucose is a covalent compound. (2) It does not form ions when dissolved in water. Therefore, it aqueous solution does not conduct electric current. Hence, glucose is non-electrolyte.
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1. An electrolyte 1. A nonelectrolyte conducts electricity does not conduct through its solution electricity through in water or in its its solution in water fused state. or in its fused state. 2. It produces free 2. It does not produce cations and anions ions either in its soluin its solution in tion in water or in its water or in its fused fused state. state. 3. Generally, electro- 3. Generally, nonlytes are electroelectrolytes are valent compounds. covalent compounds which do not dissociate in water. * (2) Cathode and Anode : Cathode 1. The negatively charged electrode is called a cathode. 2. Cations (positive ions) are attracted towards a cathode. 3. Electrons enter the solution at a cathode or a cathode supplies electrons. Anode 1. The positively charged electrode is called an anode. 2. Anions (negative ions) are attracted towards an anode. 3. Electrons are accepted by an anode.

* (4) During the electrolysis of aqueous solution of copper chloride using carbon electrodes, the colour of the electrolyte gets faded. Ans. The fading of the blue colour of aqueous solution of copper chloride during the electrolysis using carbon electrodes is due to a decrease in the concentration of the solution as copper is deposited at the cathode by decomposition of copper chloride.
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*(5) When a brass article is silver plated, it is used as the cathode. (Sept. ’08) Ans. (1) For silver electroplating, the article to be plated is used as the cathode. (2) Here, a brass article is used as the cathode and the anode is less active silver metal of which the plating is to be given. (3) When electric current is passed through the electrolyte the cations of the silver metal (Ag;) move towards cathode. They coat the brass article which is used as cathode.
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(3) Electric current through a metal and Electric current through an electrolyte :
Electric current through a metal 1. In a metal, electric current flows due to the motion of free electrons. 2. In this case, the electrons move through the metal from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of the cell. Thus, the flow of charge is unidirectional. Electric current through an electrolyte 1. In an electrolyte, electric current flows due to the motion of ions. 2. In this case, the negative ions move towards the anode, while the positive ions move towards the cathode. Thus, there is a motion of ions in both the directions.

*(6) When aluminium article is anodised, its surface gets blackened. Ans. (1) For anodising an aluminium article, dilute sulphuric acid is used as an electrolyte. 28

NAVNEET SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIGEST : STANDARD X (PART ONE)