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Migration

Migration Strategy for Signalling Systems in the Netherlands


Maarten van der Werff / Henk Scholten / Bogdan Godziejewski The standard signalling equipment of the Dutch railway network consists of the relay-based generation of interlockings and network-wide, fail-safe ATP systems, together with the first generation of electronic interlockings. The upcoming challenges are to enable the expected growth of railway traffic and to fulfil the legislative demands of the EU. Presently the Dutch railways infrastructure manager, Railinfrabeheer, is preparing a countrywide modernisation of the signalling infrastructure, based on the life-cycle costs approach.
preparing a country-wide modernisation of the Dutch signalling infrastructure, taking into account European developments. allowed speed is transmitted to the train. Due to the necessary interface with the existing relay interlockings, it was decided to choose a system of American origin. This fail-safe, automatic train protection system was named ATB (Dutch: Automatische TreinBenvloeding). From the mid 60s, ATB was incorporated during installation of all new relay interlockings and block systems. Existing relaybased signalling systems were also equipped with ATB. It was neither an easy nor a cheap process. In many cases the existing system had to be extensively modified: the power supply had to be changed from 50 Hz to 75 Hz, some signal aspects were modified and in a number of cases the location of the signals had to be adapted. To keep the implementation costs of ATB under control, it was decided not to introduce an ATB code-level for speeds lower than 40 km/h. In this way the implementation costs of ATB at large stations as well as on the storage tracks could be significantly reduced. To eliminate the aforementioned disadvantages, a new generation of a quasi intermittent fail-safe ATB, the so-called ATBNG system (NG new generation) was introduced. The brake characteristics of the ATBNG are different. When the ATBEG (ATBEG: Dutch ATB eerste generatie first generation; the name was introduced in the 90s to distinguish between the first and the new generation of ATB) reacts, the train is stopped. The ATBNG is equipped with brake curve supervision and therefore the system can react earlier. The braking behaviour of the train driver is taken over in a natural way. The ATBNG does not stop the train, but applies the brakes gradually. When a certain speed limit is achieved, the train driver is given back control over the system again. The other difference is related to the signals received by the train from the trackside. The signals are not received via the coded track circuits but via balises. Therefore, the isolated track circuits are no longer required, which allowed more flexibility in choosing the train detection method. However, the onboard ATBNG is backwards compatible with ATBEG. The ATBNG was not introduced on a large scale in the Netherlands. New lines, for instance, were not automatically equipped with ATBNG. The considerations behind the choice of EG or NG type of ATB took into account the type of rolling stock on the line. With the ATBNG, trains are

2 History
2.1 Relay technology The relay-based generation of interlockings was introduced on the Dutch railway network after the Second World War. The Marshall Plan was the impetus to replace the classical (mechanical) signalling systems with systems based on relay technology. This partly explains why the Dutch signalling infrastructure is technically as well as functionally strongly oriented towards American systems. The NX interlocking system at the stations and the automatic block on the lines, both based on relay technology, became over time the standard signalling equipment of the NS (Nederlandse Spoorwegen, i.e. Dutch Railways). The first phase of the introduction of the relay technology and the replacement of the existing systems continued until the mid 60s. Within a period of approx. 20 years, most of the stations were equipped with relay interlockings and more than 1000 km of the lines were equipped with the automatic block. Many of those installations are still in use today. It took time until all remaining classical installations were replaced by the relay technology; the tempo of the first 20 years could not be kept, due especially to financial problems. The plans had to be revised many times. For example, an increase in the frequency of the trains required a lot of modifications at the stations and on the lines. As a result the replacement with new types of interlockings at other locations had to be slowed down. The construction of new lines had the same retardant effect. The last mechanical interlocking was replaced by a relay interlocking in 1988. 2.2 Automatic Train Protection A serious train accident at Harmelen (1962) prompted the decision to introduce a train protection system (ATP). The manager of the railway infrastructure at that time, the company NS, was entrusted with the introduction of ATP. The NS chose a continuous train protection system with coded track circuits. Via the coded track circuits the maximum
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1 Introduction
Over the last few years SIGNAL + DRAHT has presented a series of papers describing signalling systems in several European countries. This paper briefly describes the developments of the signalling systems in the Netherlands from the middle of the last century. This retrospective [1], [2] will be used as a reference for the present signalling situation in the Netherlands. Further, reasons will be presented to explain why the Dutch railways infrastructure manager, Railinfrabeheer [L1], is Maarten van der Werff, BSc, FIRSE Manager Expert Group Signalling System Development and Migration Management at Railinfrabeheer Address: P.O. Box 2038, NL 3500 GA Utrecht E-mail: mh.vanderwerff@ railinfrabeheer.nl Henk Scholten, BSc, MIRSE Principal Adviser and Validator for implementation of electronic systems for interlockings, level crossings, etc. at Railinfrabeheer Address: P.O. Box 2038, NL 3500 GA Utrecht E-mail: hb.scholten@railinfrabeheer.nl Bogdan Godziejewski, MSc EE, MBA, FIRSE Strategic Adviser and Signalling Systems Specialist within the division International Consultancy at Holland Railconsult Address: P.O. Box 2855, NL 3500 GW Utrecht E-mail: bgodziejewski@hr.nl
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Fig. 1: Modern signals with LED

equipped with a different onboard system than with the ATBEG. Country-wide upgrade from EG to NG type of ATB was not attractive from a cost perspective. Other factors also play a role when making such decisions, i.e. European developments and the life cycle of the trackside relay technology. Since the 1990s ATBNG has been applied on the lines where rolling stock causes poor shunt conditions. To improve train detection, track circuits are replaced with axle counters. Therefore these lines are not suitable for trains with ATBEG. This causes rolling stock management problems for train operators. Although this problem initially occurred on secondary lines mainly in the North and East of the Netherlands, due to the introduction of light rail, it has now become a national issue. All in all, the entire implementation of ATB on the Dutch railway network took 40 years. 2.3 Signal aspects

there were four major and several minor modifications of the NS Signal Book [L2], which also reflected changes in the signalling philosophy (Fig. 1). Most remarkable are: - modifications of the signal aspects reflecting the differences in braking distance of various train categories and the distances between the signals, - introduction of additional light speed indicators, presenting the maximum speed in the form of digits (e.g. digit 4 refers to the speed 40 km/h), - introduction of the flashing green signal aspects taking into account UIC proposals, - elimination of overlaps, - new definitions of speed limits due to the introduction of the ATBEG system, - clarification of the priorities between ATB-cab signalling and the trackside signals, - new signals for tunnel areas (avoiding stopping of heavy freight trains in tunnels with a significant gradient). 2.4 Level crossings

of Dutch roads. Therefore, particular attention has been given to level crossings a typical bottleneck in accident statistics. More than 70% of approx. 3000 level crossings are protected by means of halfbarriers and/or light signals. The longterm policy for the level crossings issues is co-ordinated by the Dutch government. The main priorities are as follows: - lowering the number of accidents on level crossings by 50% by 2006 in comparison to 1985 (this decrease was already achieved in 2001), - reduction of the number of level crossings, - elimination of level crossings on lines where higher speed is introduced, - elimination of level crossings on lines where the number of tracks is increased, - upgrade of all existing installations with flashing light signals by adding halfbarriers deadline 2006 (Fig. 2), - applying LED technology to the light signals for road users, - improving visibility of the barriers. Studies and pilot installations are carried out to introduce new technologies aimed at reducing costs and increasing safety. 2.5 First generation of the computerised MMI and the electronic interlockings The relay technology was primarily operated from the traffic control panels with switches and buttons. The introduction of computer technology took place in 1988, when the so-called electronic control panel, the EBP-system (in Dutch: Elektronisch Bedien Post) was implemented. This system is still in use today, however, many of its functions have been modified over time. Using EBP components, the monitor and the keyboard, the operator can control and operate the relay-based interlockings. EBP does not have safety functions. In 1984 the first pilot installation of the electronic interlocking type EBS (in Dutch: Elektronische Beveiliging Simis) took place in Hilversum. EBS is of German origin and is particularly suitable for large or very large stations. The EBS has its own control panel. At the moment there are three EBS installations in the Netherlands: in Rotterdam (one of the largest interlockings in the world), in Amersfoort and in Arnhem. Additional EBS installations will soon be operational. Since 1993 a relatively large number of relay interlockings were replaced by the VPI electronic interlockings (VPI Vital Processor Interlocking). The functionality of VPI was equal to the replaced relay interlockings. The VPI is also of American origin. Since then VPI has been implemented at a fair amount of small and medium stations. Both, the EBS and the VPI are first generation electronic interlockings. Although the outputs are comparable, these systems have a different architecture. This is also reflected in the design and engineering process.
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Due to the aforementioned developments, the signal aspects underwent a specific evolution [3]. Between 1949 and 1990,

The Dutch railway network is one of the busiest in the world; the same can be said

Fig. 2: Level crossing with half barrier and light signals

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Migration

The application of VPI is based on Boolean logic all signalling principles and functions for a location are presented in the form of Boolean expressions (equations). For the EBS all signalling principles are included in so-called basic software, which was specifically developed for NS. For each location an adjusted set of software will be generated with the help of the socalled design procedure. In summary, it can be stated that on the Dutch railway network there are at the moment: - interlocking and automatic block systems based on relay technology, - and two types of electronic interlockings, VPI and EBS, introduced over the last 15 years as a result of technological progress and the ever increasing train traffic. The operators control the relay and VPI systems via EBP. Electronic traffic control was introduced over the last 20 years on the whole of the Dutch railway network. This traffic control system, called VPT (in Dutch: Vervoer Per Trein - transportation by train), interfaces on the operational level with the EBP and EBS. The EBP and the control part of EBS are not only the functional interface between interlockings and the VPT traffic control system, but can be used as a fallback control system in the event that the VPT does not function. The only exception is the EBS interlocking in Rotterdam which is not yet but will be soon connected to VPT. VPT is driven by the train number system, which together with the timetable creates the inputs for automatic route setting. The schematic presentation of the architecture and migration of the Dutch signalling systems is given in fig. 3 [4]. The operational and disposition layers of the VPT are not described in this paper. Issues related to GSM-R and ERTMS components (e.g. RBC) will be presented separately.

Fig. 3: Architecture and migration of the Dutch signalling systems

3 Organisation of the railway undertakings in the Netherlands


At the beginning of the 90s, the Dutch government decided that, in accordance with EU directives, the Dutch Railways organisation NS had to become a private organisation in the long run. As a first step, the users of the rail infrastructure (train operators) were separated from its management. Then the Engineering Department of NS was reorganised into private railway engineering bureaus. The NS now focuses on the transportation of railway passenger, as its core activity. Railinfrabeheer is the railway infrastructure management organisation, which originated from one of the former NS divisions but is at present subordinate to the Dutch Ministry of Transport. The mission of Railinfrabeheer is to manage and maintain the existing structures as well as build and install railway infrastructure in the Netherlands.
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Railinfrabeheer is in charge of signalling systems. However, the train operators remain responsible for the rolling stock including the onboard ATB installations. Due to the reorganisation of the NS, the contacts between the new organisations (originating from former NS divisions) became formalised. The agreements between those various organisations are based on a commercial approach. In the Netherlands, the independent, certified engineering bureaus carry out the design and engineering work. The initiative to build modern signalling systems is in the hands of Railinfrabeheer. The certified engineering bureaus support the suppliers in the preparation of designs. Railinfrabeheer supervises these activities and requires the use of CENELEC standards. The installation and modernisation of the signalling systems, the construction of signal boxes and installation of all trackside equipment is carried out by specialised companies under the authority of Railinfrabeheer (Table 1). Therefore, during design and construction work, many parties are involved. This requires extensive and thorough co-ordination between various companies.

3.1 A need for change With the exception of a few secondary lines, the whole Dutch railway network is equipped with the automatic train protection (type ATB) system. The existing signalling systems also still comply with current functional and technical requirements. Not withstanding this, the Netherlands need, similar to other European railways, new or modernised systems, which explore the technical and commercial possibilities of today and tomorrow and which fit into the European framework. Some reasons are indicated below. 3.2 Reasons for change In the Netherlands, research was carried out to identify the need of railway transport in the coming years. The National Transportation and Traffic Plan (NVVP) considers various scenarios [5], [L3]. In every case a strong increase in railway transport is expected. For example, the increase in train-kilometres by 2020 varies between a minimum of 60% and a maximum of 100%. These expectations are higher than the average European forecast [6]. Such an increase of railway traffic requires better use and more flexible network ca-

2809 km lines, of which 70% are main lines and approx. 30% are secondary lines; the total track length is almost 6505 km, 384 stations, more than 1100 locomotives and train sets from a total of 2300 units of rolling stock, approx. 70 electronic interlockings; more than 200 stations are still equipped with relay interlockings, more than 8000 trackside signals on both stations and the open line, 2144 protected level crossings (with barriers and/or with light signals) as well as 860 unprotected level crossings, approx. 7000 points with position check.

Table 1: Some basic statistical data for the Dutch railway infrastructure network (2001)
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a different approach towards signalling systems. The realisation of these plans depends on the availability of financial funding as the development and implementation of new systems would need a significant investment. 3.3 Preparation for a change Railinfrabeheer has started to develop its strategy for the vital signalling systems under the name MISTRAL (Integral migration of vital signalling systems). With this strategy a framework is presented to entirely implement new or modified vital signalling systems within 25 30 years. This framework is prepared in such a way that the ERTMS can be introduced whenever desired. MISTRAL makes clear that a considerable effort in the preparation of designs and implementation will be required. First of all, the organisation of the signalling department must be prepared for these fundamental changes. Railinfrabeheer has chosen to integrate the management of the existing systems (including small modifications to them) and the migration to new systems as much as possible within one department. The know-how acquired during the modernisation should be safeguarded within the management organisation. Also, this migration cannot be carried out without knowledge of the existing systems. Therefore, both activities must be strictly co-ordinated to achieve a successful implementation of the new generation of signalling systems and to avoid discrepancies in the future. To make the entire implementation of a new signalling system possible in the long term, the roll-out has to be prepared now. In practice it means that Railinfrabeheer has to develop the business cases, plans and procedures to start the migration on time. The business case scenarios are the basis for strategic choices to carry out the roll-out successfully. All the necessary steps are defined in migration plans. The migration study shows a desirability to use the corridor approach, which has the following advantages: - possibility to choose an optimal scale, - possibility to reduce the number of interfaces between new interlockings and existing installations, thus limiting the modernisation costs, - possibility to agree on developments of surrounding areas between train operators and the infrastructure manager, - possibility for considerations on the basis of the life cycle costs. The first stage of the migration introduces initial projects for each type of system. This approach supplies important data for the business cases. The corridor approach is put into practice within the initial projects of Railinfrabeheer. At first these projects will be carried out in the form of upgrades to existing electronic systems. These will be carSIGNAL + DRAHT (94) 10/2002

Fig. 4: Cost positions for existing interlockings

pacity and services in comparison with the present situation. Increasing traffic intensity, traffic mix and the speed of trains on the railway network will require new and additional regulations regarding railway safety. These regulations have to be harmonised with the technologies applied and at the same time fulfil the legislative framework. An important rule in this respect is the so-called stand-still principle. It requires that even if the number of train-kilometres per year increases (and with it also a chance for an incident or accident), the risk should not increase (risk = chance x effect). In addition, due to the increased number of train-kilometres, there will be higher requirements regarding the performance and the maintenance of the systems. The full capacity of the existing system is almost exhausted. Therefore, it will be necessary to make use of new and different technologies to allow more trains and more mixed traffic on the railway network. Existing interlockings in the Netherlands are characterised by a unique design per location, following generic application rules. It should be clear that, especially for the relay technology, no scale effects are possible and that system changes show an unfavourable price/performance ratio. Therefore, also from cost effectiveness considerations, the preference lies with the design of new systems, which will allow far-reaching standardisation and economies of scale. This creates an opportunity to introduce a unified architecture for the new generation of interlockings. In comparison with the existing systems, by this approach, the life cycle costs should be considerably reduced. Next, the ageing of the existing installations plays a role. The first relay-based systems were built almost 50 years ago. They are approaching the end of their technical

life cycle. At the moment these systems offer enough performance, but with the increasing train traffic intensity they will become a bottleneck. Moreover, it will be increasingly difficult to retain the knowhow acquired in the various phases of life cycle. The last, but not least reason, is the policy to follow European developments. The pan-European introduction of ERTMS should allow standardisation and guarantee interoperability. It is also expected that the Euro-Interlocking project will contribute to the standardisation of European railway infrastructures. The Netherlands contributes eagerly to these developments, as the common European architecture will bring advantages when introduced on a large scale: - financial - cheaper price per unit (economies of scale), - availability of components from several suppliers, - sharing of know-how and experience between infrastructure managers. With the introduction of the Interoperability Directives for high-speed and for conventional lines [7] together with the respective TSI standards, the European Commission is prescribing the direction towards European standardisation. From 2004, all issues regarding safety and interoperability will be co-ordinated on a European level by the specialised European Agency for Railway Safety and Interoperability [8]. Taking into account the aforementioned developments, the economic, operational and technical suitability of the first generation of electronic interlockings, introduced in the 90s, will have to be considered. To fulfil its mission and to respond to increasing demands for a high-capacity and flexible railway network, Railinfrabeheer recognises the need for modernisation and
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ried out step by step in conjunction with the current suppliers. Similar to other infrastructure managers, Railinfrabeheer has to start with the existing systems of the current suppliers. This is dictated by the following reasons: - country-specific technical interfaces with the trackside elements (signals, points, etc.) and with the operators panel, - country-specific safety requirements (flank protection, overlap, speed limits, etc.) Additionally, in the Netherlands it is not directly a matter of a completely new system but of an upgrade of existing systems. During the entire migration process, the set of requirements is kept up to date. For Railinfrabeheer it is also important to stay in line with the developments in Europe. Active participation in the ERTMS developments and in the Euro-interlocking project can be seen as preparation for the upcoming migration. Exchange of knowhow with other infrastructure managers is of strategic importance in this phase. At the end, a generic set of basic requirements should enable various suppliers to make an offer. In summary, Railinfrabeheer is working to develop migration scenarios for three sets of issues: - new generation of electronic interlockings and their interfaces, - replacement of train detection and ATB, trackside and onboard, by the introduction of ERTMS, - modernisation of trackside elements In the following sections focus turns to the migration of interlockings. However, it should be underlined that the reasons for the introduction of ERTMS are different than elsewhere. The Netherlands has country-wide coverage of fail-safe ATP systems (ATBEG, ATBNG). The decision to introduce the ERTMS is based on a SWOT analysis, which highlighted that: - disadvantages, like ageing of technology and many SPADs, can be eliminated, - advantages will be gained: interoperability, expected improvement of availability and line capacity, - there is a need for clarification of the status of responsibility for safety and investment in relation to the onboard equipment between train operators and Railinfrabeheer as the infrastructure manager.

4 Cost structure of an interlocking


The aforementioned practice explains that for cost reasons it is attractive to develop new interlocking systems. Railinfrabeheer has analysed what kind of cost advantage can be achieved in the Dutch situation. The following cost structure of an interlocking during its life cycle was considered (Fig. 4): The purchase of a suppliers system At present, the typical procurement is
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related to single installations. With the new strategy (corridor approach), the expected economies of scale should lower the total investment costs. Additionally, the experience shows that in the Dutch situation, applying modern technology will result in lower costs. Engineering As described above, during the process from the designing to the implementation of a signalling installation a sophisticated co-operation between several parties is required. A specific design methodology has existed since the introduction of the relay technology. Due to the lack of experience, it was not changed during the introduction of the first generation of electronic interlockings in the 90s. The design is work-intensive and, in comparison with some other countries, the level of its automation (use of tools) is rather low. There is a need to start with design reengineering, i.e. the introduction of additional computer tools that will support the design work, similar to other industrial branches. Only then can the design work be carried out faster and up to 70 % cheaper. Railinfrabeheer will encourage the engineering bureaus to invest in tooling. Only by assuming a higher level of automation of design processes and higher production volume can the targets of the described migration be achieved as planned, i.e. within 25-30 years. Interface costs The cost position for interfaces are still very expensive. Relay technology is still used as interface between the existing and new system. This produces high engineering and hardware costs. Calculation show that by applying the corridor approach the costs of interfaces will be considerably reduced (up to 50% or more). System changes and their implementation during the life cycle Changes to the generic supplier systems, due to new requirements of Railinfrabeheer and the ensuing functional modifications on site, are very expensive. When the migration strategy is taken into account during system development, the implementation of new software releases will cost less. It is expected that it will take time until the ERTMS platform as well as the results of the Euro-interlocking project will be available in their optimal form. Therefore, during the life cycle of future installations, some upgrades will be necessary. Although, unlike today, more changes will be made in the software than in the hardware, some reservation for future investments should be taken into account. Maintenance It is expected that by making the suppliers of the installations responsible for the maintenance too, will lower costs
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for Railinfrabeheer. At the moment the new concept for the maintenance is being prepared. It is based on a methodical analysis using the know-how of Railinfrabeheer and its contractors related to the performance of installations. This new concept should lower the costs of repair and maintenance. Local changes When carrying out local modifications, Railinfrabeheer and its contractors have to go through the same processes as those involved in the construction or modification of installations. The cost advantage described above can also apply to local changes. Validation and verification activities The costs of verification and validation are calculated in the total life-cycle costs. Compliance with CENELEC procedures will be a standard requirement of Railinfrabeheer in the near future. Exchange of experience with other infrastructure managers should enable optimisation of the Dutch approach. Conclusion: Railinfrabeheer expects to achieve cost savings of 50% over the next five years, assuming that the processes will be optimised and the available knowhow as well as the new technology will be applied in an optimal way. The savings should be considered over the whole life cycle of a system. Simulations indicate that the necessary development investments will be paid back over a few corridor projects.

5 Outlook for ongoing and future activities


To date Railinfrabeheer has had to stick to the requirements imposed by the existing systems. It is expected that shortly new possibilities can be used (e.g. requirements specifications from the Euro-interlocking project). Also, the existing interlocking functionality will be implemented in the new generation of electronic interlockings. Thus the development risks will stay limited, and the first application can be easily carried out. The aim of this approach is to avoid a high degree of development risk in the first migration step, which might jeopardise a successful realisation for both Railinfrabeheer and the supplier. The functional requirements specifications (FRS), independent from suppliers, will be the basis for system requirements specifications (SRS) for the migration steps in this corridor approach. The first migration phase is realised by the initial projects. They will be followed by the smaller migrations, agreed upon and executed in the framework of the corridor-related contracts. The requirements of Railinfrabeheer will undergo a specific change management process to keep the specifications up to date, in line with the acquired know-how on migration. This procedure of co-opera-

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tion between Railinfrabeheer and the supplier is called Rapid Application Engineering. At the moment work is being carried out on the implementation of the following modified functional requirements: - integration of the functionality for a safe working place in the interlocking installation for the persons working on the track, - introduction of local operation of the signals on the open line, to increase availability in case of irregularities, - additional safety measures, to lower the risk for light rail trains, on the tracks used normally by heavy rail trains - better utilisation i.e. taking measures within interlocking installations to increase the capacity of tracks. A migration plan for the country-wide introduction of ERTMS will be prepared when a set of sufficiently developed system configurations to choose from, is available. In summary, Railinfrabeheer is pursuing the following advantages, which will be achieved via migration steps (adhering CENELEC standards): - measurable reduction of the life cycle costs of systems (the decisions will be based on Life Cycle Management analysis), - faster, simpler and more efficient procurement strategies (including specification, validation and commissioning), - reduction of human resources by introducing specific tools and simulations for specification, design, installation, diagnostics and validation, - improved flexibility of the new systems, allowing adjustments due to ongoing migration, - lower repair and maintenance costs, - sharing of know-how between various infrastructure managers, - co-operation with suppliers and contractors, - achieving economies of scale by standardisation (Euro-interlocking),

- pan-European implementation of interoperable signalling platforms (ERTMS). It is a policy of Railinfrabeheer that within 30 years the whole network will be equipped with a new generation of signalling systems that are based on European standards. It is expected that this approach will be based on ERTMS and Euro-interlocking. During the implementation, priorities will be given to the corridors where the need for upgrade is highest. This need will be driven by the ageing of existing conventional systems or by the added value offered by the new systems. In particular, the new systems should help to increase the capacity on existing tracks so that expensive track extensions can be limited. An analysis shows that the aforementioned migration approach is put under pressure by the following major risks: - lower than expected funds made available, - lower availability of necessary knowhow, - slower than expected development of the European platforms, - organisational difficulties during the country-wide roll-out. Time is money. Railinfrabeheer continues to base its strategy for signalling systems on several feasibility studies aimed at optimising the technical, organisational and financial issues. A clear focus on an integral migration plan should allow faster results by means of a step-by-step roll-out of a new generation of signalling systems, which will contribute to the expected growth in train traffic.
Literature
[1] De beveiligingen bij de Nederlandse Spoorwegen, Op de rails, NVBS series 1984-1991 [2] European Railway Signalling, IRSE, 1995, ISBN 0-7136-4167-3 [3] Peter Middelraad: Prehistory, origin and evolution of the NS light signals system, issued by Railinfrabeheer, 2000 (in Dutch) [4] Managing the interface a special booklet for

the IRSE technical visit in The Netherlands on 26-27 February 1999 [5] National Traffic and Transportation Plan (NVVP), Dutch Ministry of Transport [6] ERRAC strategy, June 2002, EU Transport Conference, Valencia [7] Directives on interoperability for high speed lines (EC 96/48) and conventional lines (EC 2001/16) [8] Towards an integrated European railway area, EC COM 2002/18

Internet links:
[L1] Railinfrabeheer site: http://www.railinfrabeheer.nl [L2] NS Signalling book: http://www.railned.nl [L3] Dutch Ministry of Transport: http://www.minvenw.nl

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Migrationsstrategie fr Signalsysteme in den Niederlanden Die Standard-Signalausrstung des niederlndischen Eisenbahnnetzes besteht aus relaisbasierten Stellwerken, sicheren Zugbeeinflussungssystemen im ganzen Netz sowie aus den elektronischen Stellwerken der ersten Generation. Die bevorstehenden Herausforderungen resultieren aus dem erwarteten Verkehrswachstum sowie aus den legislativen Forderungen der EU. Zur Zeit bereitet der Betreiber des niederlndischen Eisenbahnnetzes, Railinfrabeheer, eine landesweite Modernisierung der Signaltechnik vor, die auf dem Life-Cycle Costs Verfahren beruht.

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