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Quality assessment of the predatory bugs Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) after prolonged rearing on a meat—based artificial diet
P. De Clercq & D. Degheele
a a a

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, University of Gènt, Coupure Links 653, Gent, B‐9000, Belgium Available online: 20 Sep 2008

To cite this article: P. De Clercq & D. Degheele (1993): Quality assessment of the predatory bugs Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) after prolonged rearing on a meat—based artificial diet, Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3:2, 133-139 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583159309355269

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Hagler & Cohen. Under laboratory conditions. 133-139 Quality Assessment of the Predatory Bugs Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab. Further. University of Gènt. B-9000 Gent. 133 . more than 15 generations of both species have been obtained over a period of more than 3 years. Using a modification of this diet. sagitta on the meat-based artificial diet did not substantially affect the quality of the predators. highly desirable for the mass production of many entomophagous insects. developmental and reproductive traits were similar to those of bugs continuously reared on live prey. Few successful attempts have been reported on rearing predaceous bugs on artificial diets. DE CLERCQ AND D. 1992a).) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) after Prolonged Rearing on a Meat-based Artificial Diet Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 P. nymphal development was prolonged by 15-40% and adult weights were 20-30% lower in comparison with rearing on live prey. DEGHEELE Laboratory of Agrozoology. So far. are important predators of phytophagous lepidopterans and coleopterans in many natural and agricultural habitats of the New World. we succeeded in producing continuous generations of the pentatomids Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab. Coupure Links 653. quality control. artificial diet. maculiventris and P. The availability of an adequate artificial diet is. Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Belgium (Received for publication 13 October 1992) The predatory stinkbugs Podisus maculiventris and Podisus sagitta were reared for more than 15 consecutive generations on a meat-based artificial diet. Several authors have emphasized their potential role in biocontrol programmes against various crop pests (LeRoux. predation rates for nymphs and adults of both pentatomids on larvae of the noctuid Spodoptera exigua were found to be unaffected by the previous diet. The lygaeid Geocoris punctipes (Say) was reared on an all-beef artificial diet for over 6 years and 50 consecutive generations (Cohen. Throughout consecutive generations on the meat diet. mass rearing. When they were returned to a diet of live prey (larvae of the pyralid Galleria mellonella) after different generations on the artificial diet. 1991).) in the laboratory (De Clercq & Degheele. 1960. The results suggest that long-term rearing of P. 1976. including predatory hemipterans (Waage et al. Khloptseva. Podisus INTRODUCTION Podisus spp. 1985). 1991).Biocontrol Science and Technology (1993) 3. 1985. Lopez et al. for many reasons. Keywords: predators.

5 cm in diameter). DEGHEELE fecundity was reduced to about half or one third of its original. So far. thus reducing their efficacy as control agents (Mackauer. sagitta was established in 1982. sagitta. was calculated for each female by dividing the total number of eggs by the total reproductive period. (1988). van Lenteren. MATERIALS AND METHODS Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 A laboratory culture of P.134 P. the number of eggs per female per day. mellonella ad libitum. Prédation on larvae of the beet armyworm.1 mg) (Sartorius AG. All ingredients were blended to a uniform paste. fresh weights of neonate males and females were measured with a Sartorius B 120 S digital balance ( ± 0. was studied for nymphs and adults returned to live prey after 15 and 17 generations on the artificial diet for P. From the second instar onwards. 24 ml sucrose solution (5%). Yu (University of Florida. When reaching the fourth instar. First-instar nymphs were only supplied with moisture via a soaked paper plug fitted into a small plastic dish (2. i. and after 6 and 15 generations on the artificial diet for P. 200 g fatty ground beef. nymphs of both species derived from insect-fed cultures were transferred to the artificial diet.e. for biological control. Developmental times. and were replaced daily. sagitta and P. 1985. over 15 generations of both species have been raised exclusively on the artificial diet. maculiventris respectively. Artificial larvae were supplied in excess from the second instar 1 onwards. furnished with absorbent paper. Development on live prey was monitored after 8 and 17.. maculiventris and P. Nymphs from eggs laid by females of above-mentioned generations on artificial diet were allowed to develop to adulthood on a diet of wax moth larvae. Goettingen. This diet was prepared as described in De Clercq and Degheele (1992a). To determine possible deleterious effects of prolonged rearing on the artificial diet. larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.e. survival in the nymphal stage and sex ratio of emerging adults were recorded. sagitta and P. Eggs of each species were collected from cultures of adults on artificial diet in each of the above-mentioned generations. Hence. Rate of oviposition. 1991). changes in the genetic profile of the population may occur. Such genetic changes may alter feeding preferences of entomophages or may lead to impaired viability and performance. Nymphs were transferred to 14 cm diameter plastic Petri dishes upon reaching the fourth instar. maculiventris than for P. particularly on artificial diets. the predators were returned to a diet of live prey. 2 g Wesson's salt mixture and 20 g fresh hen's egg yolk. Germany). Results were generally better for P. 1976. Oviposition and survival were monitored on a daily basis. Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). Forty newly hatched nymphs were placed in groups of 10 into 9 cm diameter plastic Petri dishes. A colony of P. i. using insects originally obtained from Surinam. USA). after different generations on the meat diet. 20 nymphs of each species were placed individually in 9 cm diameter Petri dishes lined with absorbent paper on the bottom.). before considering the meat-based diet as an alternative food in the mass production of Podisus spp. Gainesville. DE CLERCQ & D. J. The objective of the present study was to determine whether prolonged rearing of P. Colonies fed live prey were cultured according to the methods of De Clercq et al. Wax moth larvae and water were supplied ad libitum. maculiventris was started in 1989 from eggs supplied by S. sagitta on artificial diet affected their viability and prédation capacity. In the spring of 1989. lined with absorbent paper. Six pairs of adults mating for the first time were confined separately in 14 cm diameter plastic Petri dishes. 1 g ascorbic acid. Cylindrically shaped 'artificial larvae' were produced by wrapping the paste in sheets of Parafilm. Predators on both food sources had been in continuous culture until this study. When long-term laboratory cultures of entomophagous insects are maintained. It was composed of: 200 g beef liver. Each nymph was offered 10 early . maculiventris and P. sagitta respectively. Reproduction of females obtained from nymphs returned to a diet of insect prey after six and eight generations on the artificial diet for P. the quality of artificial-diet reared bugs should be assessed. maculiventris respectively was studied in detail. Waage et al. nymphs were presented with seventh-instar larvae of G.

sagitta previously fed on artificial food required only slightly longer to develop to adulthood than those of the control groups: 23.5±5. For each species.3 days.7a 66.5 85. maculiventris and P. and after 6 and 15 generations for P. sex ratios and adult weights became similar to those of predators bred continuously on insect prey. Values for developmental traits of predators previously reared on artificial diet which are presented in Table 1 thus represent pooled data from individuals returned to live prey after 8 and 17.0a 23. Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 fourth-instar larvae of 5. exigua.5a 11. sagitta 49. Data on development. Prior to testing.5+13. Prédation by such females on fifth-instar larvae of 5. rate of eggs Longevity of females (days) P.2a "Means + SD.05) and were therefore pooled. All experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 23 ± 1°C. Each day throughout the fourth instar. and dead larvae or larvae over 2 days old were replaced with fresh ones.0a 710±413a 64.5 82. there was a slightly higher proportion of males. sagitta respectively. data for development on live prey after different generations on artificial food did not differ significantly (p > 0.4a 11. the number of larvae killed was recorded.05.5 +2. In every generation reared on the artificial diet.r-test). All females used in these experiments were reproductively active (10-30 days old).9b 22. Each dish was supplied with castor bean foliage (Ricinus communis) to provide food for the prey larvae and moisture for the predators.QUALITY OF ARTIFICIAL-DIET REARED PODISUS 135 TABLE 1.9±0.2 +5.2b 12.7a" 23. Development of both pentatomids was not substantially affected by previous diet (Table 1).7±32.05). exigua was investigated.0a 910±222a 88.4 ± 0.5 1:1.5 + 4. Controls for all experiments consisted of nymphs and adults of P.3a 931 ± 300a 100. Survival in the nymphal stage was greater than 80% in all cases.9 ± 6. means within a column and within a species followed by the same letter are not significantly different 0>>0. reproduction and prédation of predators reared on the artificial diet versus control predators were compared using Student's Mest (p = 0.4 and 23. P.3 ± 1. Development and reproduction on a diet of G. Each dish was provided with 10 early fifth-instar larvae of S. Prédation was recorded daily for 3 days.3 +6. sagitta continuously reared on live prey (control diet) and after prolonged rearing on artificial diet Previous diet Control Artificial Control Artificial Nymphal period (days) 22. maculiventris and P.9a 49.0 87.7a 86. sagitta randomly selected from stock cultures maintained on live prey.5 +2.4 1:1.9 and 22.1 1:1 1:1 Adult weight (mg) Males Females Oviposition Total no. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION After several generations of feeding on artificial larvae.0a 67.8 + 2. in particular those of G. a relative humidity of 75 ±5% and a 16:8 (light:dark) photoperiod. when the predators were returned to their natural diet. was not lost through prolonged rearing on inanimate artificial food.6±33. 20 starved females were placed singly in 9 cm diameter Petri dishes.8a 12.2b Nymphal survival Sex ratio (%) (<?:9) 82. Nymphs of P. 1992a). mellonella. exigua and with castor bean foliage. but with access to moisture. females were isolated for 24 h without food. sagitta readily attacked and killed live prey larvae.3 days respectively. For each species. The ability to subdue mobile and sometimes actively struggling prey larvae.7 ± 2. Prédation capacity was also evaluated for female adults developed from nymphs that had been fed on live prey after extended rearing on the artificial diet. . attacked larvae and larvae over 2 days old were replaced.2±2. maculiventris and P. mellonella larvae for P.3±1. maculiventris and P. versus 22.7a 63.0a P.4±6. and adult weights were significantly lower than in cultures fed live prey (De Clercq & Degheele. maculiventris and P. maculiventris 65.5 ± 36.0a 570+150a 59.6±2.6a 86.

Nevertheless. When transferred to a diet of G. For P. their reproductive rates were also expected to be similar. Evans (1982) pointed out that body size is a major determinant of egg production in predatory stinkbugs. . sagitta. maculiventris and P. maculiventris and P. statistical analysis revealed a significant (p = 0. maculiventris and P. continuously reared on live prey (control diet) and after prolonged rearing on an artificial diet No. maculiventris and P. Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 Although some significant differences for developmental times and adult weights were detected by /-test analysis at the p = 0. mellonella larvae after 6-8 generations of feeding on artificial diet. When nymphs were returned to a diet of wax moth larvae from the fourth and fifth instar on. 12 eggs per female per day) and had a similar total fecundity (on average 500-700 and 900 eggs per female for P. Prédation on fourth-instar larvae of S.2 and 24.e. Females of all groups had an average longevity of 2-3 months. P. they were not considered to reflect any particular trend. Developmental times for nymphs of P. DE CLERCQ & D.3 10.1 "Means + SD. Oviposition and female longevity did not differ significantly among treatments (Table 1). Female adults of both stinkbugs had killed 5-6 fifth-instar beet armyworm larvae after 24 h. reared through previous generations on artificial diet versus those maintained on insect prey are presented in Tables 2 and 3.05 level.6 P.5 5.5 + 1. /-test). This may in part be explained by the larger dimensions of the former species (De Clercq & Degheele. DEGHEELE TABLE 2.136 P. adults were obtained with weights averaging 90-95% and 83-85% respectively of those of adults which developed throughout on live prey (unpublished data). Since body weights of bugs returned to insect prey after 15-17 generations on artificial diet did not differ from weights of bugs returned after 6-8 generations or bugs maintained on live prey (Table 1). maculiventris killed a slightly higher number of prey larvae in comparison with those of P.0209) difference in prédation rate after 72 h: individuals returned to live prey had only attacked a mean of 10. In general.5 ±2. no significant differences were observed within the species (p > 0. the resulting females reproduced at the same rate as those of the control (ca. Numbers of prey larvae killed by nymphs and adults of both Podisus spp. Under laboratory conditions. no significant differences in prédation rates were observed between treatments: rearing for over 15 generations on artificial diet apparently did not affect prédation potential of these pentatomid bugs. of larvae killed during total instar0 Previous diet Control Artificial P.05. sagitta. After 72 h.6 8. exigua respectively before moulting (i. exigua by fourth-instar nymphs of P.5 + 2. In a Petri dish arena. be attributed to experimental error. after 4-5 days). those developmental durations were thus consistent with all durations found in the present study. This small difference may.2 days respectively (De Clercq & Degheele. 12 larvae for those of the control group. Preliminary trials showed that nymphs of both pentatomids reared through the previous instars on artificial diet were able to switch immediately to a diet of lepidopterous larvae. sagitta respectively). sagitta 8. fourth-instar nymphs of P. 1990).0 + 2. were previously estimated to be 23. 12. for example. fourth-instar nymphs of P. regardless of previously experienced rearing conditions. however. sagitta fed wax moth larvae at 23°C. sagitta females of both treatments had attacked ca. maculiventris 9. sagitta attacked a mean of 10 and 8 fourth-instar larvae of S. 1992b). maculiventris.5 larvae. exigua larvae versus ca.

and equal fertility compared with insect-fed specimens.3+1. a slightly smaller size and lower fecundity.7a 12. female adults attacked a considerably greater number of prey during the first day than in the following days. Oetting & Yonke. The reactive field of Podisus adults to active prey was observed to be 5-10 cm. maculiventris 5. Prédation by nymphs was greatest on days 1 and 2. exigua by female adults of P. Prédation on fifth-instar larvae of S. When both nymphs and adults of the predators in our study were confronted with high prey densities. when stinkbugs are disturbed during feeding on captured prey. 1972.5 +1. unpublished data). they attacked and killed considerably more prey larvae than needed to meet their specific food requirements. Nymphal Podisus stop feeding from a few hours to a few days before moulting. 1991). In conclusion.1 +1. whereas with immobilized prey it was almost nil (Tostowaryk. over 50 generations) of G.3a P. maculiventris and P. sagitta. sagitta on the meat-based artificial diet were slightly inferior to those obtained with living prey. it is imperative to measure prédation under conditions experienced by the predators in the field (Wiedenmann & O'Neil.e. means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (p > 0. At high prey densities. Such tests may result in a better understanding of the trophic biology of the predators. at which time they have attained a maximum body weight. 1988). the nutritional . Prédation rates measured under laboratory conditions. From then onwards. In order to predict the impact of these pentatomids in an integrated pest management programme. and thereafter declined markedly. and may consequently allow for making appropriate dietary adjustments to improve the nutritional value of the artificial diet. Mest).4 ± 1. Following starvation for 24 h. punctipes on an all-beef artificial diet.5a 72 h P. Many killed prey were abandoned unconsumed or only partly consumed. sagitta 12.6 ± 3. sagitta 5.QUALITY OF ARTIFICIAL-DIET REARED PODISUS TABLE 3. who successfully reared the predatory heteropteran G.4 ± 4. may not be realized in the field. Only in a few cases were prey attacked on day 3. predators may become more disturbed by prey because of more frequent contacts. punctipes on inanimate diet packets. 1965. Cohen and Urias (1986) and Hagler and Cohen (1991). continuously reared on live prey (control diet) and after prolonged rearing on an artificial diet No. they will subsequently attack fresh living prey rather than return to the prey they have already subdued. On day 3. Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 prédation rates of adults of both species on last-instar larvae of S. and may consequently abandon captured prey. particularly when using limited Petri dish arenas. Podisus bugs are noted to have poor eyesight.05. Furthermore.3a 137 "Means + SD. The results of our studies are generally consistent with those of Cohen (1985).7 ± 1. These workers found that artificial-diet reared predators had a similar developmental period. De Clercq & Degheele. De Clercq et al. maculiventris and P. 1971.3a 10. their predatory activity and feeding preferences were identical with those of their wild counterparts. nymphs do not attack prey and spend most of their time resting until moulting (Mukerji & LeRoux. prédation rate was only about 50% of that on day 1.8b P. although results obtained for rearing of P. quality control of predators reared on artificial diet should also include immunological procedures and metabolic tests. Hence.3a 5. after long-term rearing (i.1 ± 2. Cohen (1992) pointed out that besides the evaluation of behavioural performance. they are mainly attracted to the movement of the prey.4a 5. exigua were found to be similar. maculiventris 12. moreover. of larvae killed after" 24 h Previous diet Control Artificial P. 1969.

& DEGHEELE. DE CLERCQ. (1982) Consequences of body size for fecundity in the predatory stinkbug. A. 1213-1217. 171-176. HAGLER. & URIAS. M. 369-385. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75. (1992a) A meat-based diet for rearing the predatory stinkbugs Podisus maculiventris and Podisus sagitta (Het. pp. DE CLERCQ & D. D. DEGHEELE value of this diet proved to be sufficient to produce consecutive generations in the laboratory (De Clercq & Degheele.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). (1976) Comparative efficacy of four insect predators of the bollworm and tobacco budworm.. MUKERJI. P. March 1991.R. Entomophaga 37. Declerck for assistance with the statistical analysis. the results of the present study suggest that prolonged rearing on the artificial diet had no lasting detrimental effects on the quality of the predatory stinkbugs.J. (1988) Laboratory rearing of the predatory stinkbug Podisus sagitta (Fab. viability and predatory activity were in general similar to that of predators continuously reared on live prey.C.F. Ed. & LEROUX. Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). and L. & PINNELL. & DEGHEELE.L. pp. exigua. (1976) Genetic problems in the production of biological control agents. P. DE CLERCQ. D. Boulder. R. R. N. Environmental Entomology 5. E. 201-205. 77-91. R. Eds) Westview Press. Canadian Entomologist 103. 387-403. & LEROUX. Moreover. COHEN.. (1992b) Development and survival of Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab. MUKERJI. Canadian Entomologist 122. & DEGHEELE. (1969) A quantitative study of food consumption and growth of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The Netherlands. (1992) Using a systematic approach to develop artificial diets for predators. . EVANS. (1985) Simple method for rearing the insect predator Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) on a meat diet. Southwestern Entomologist 11. & DEGHEELE. 1160-1164.K. 149-157.E. P. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 This research was supported by grant no. Additional studies are needed to examine field performance of bugs reared on artificial diet.. 870028 from the IWONL (Instituut tot aanmoediging van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek in Nijverheid en Landbouw). 87-121. Phytoprotection 46.D. G. J. 125-133. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 59. REFERENCES COHEN. (1971) Immature stages and biology of Podisus placidus and Stiretrus fimbriatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). R.D. in Advances in Insect Rearing for Research and Pest Management (ANDERSON. (1991) Prey selection by in vitro and field-reared Geocoris punctipes. 40-60.C. When returned to a diet of live prey after more than 15 generations on the artificial diet. Canadian Entomologist 124. JR. G. Van Laecke for supplying larvae of S. & LEPPLA. A. in Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the IOBC Global Working Group 'Quality Control of Mass Reared Arthropods' (BIGLER. 418-420.: Pentatomidae).C. DE CLERCQ. OETTING.. MACKAUER. (1990) Description and life history of the predatory bug Podisus sagitta (Fab.E.K. J. (1960) Effects of 'modified' and 'commercial' spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Quebec.. & YONKE. KHLOPTSEVA. The authors thank K. KEPPENS. vAN (1991) Quality control of natural enemies: hope or illusion?. LOPEZ.I. E.C. P.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) at various constant temperatures. M. Biocontrol News and Information 12. E. T. Journal of Economic Entomology 78.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). 1-14.. N. D. 1149-1156. J. 1992a). & COHEN. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec 6.C.J. (1965) Laboratory rearing of a Quebec strain of the pentatomid predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). M. LEROUX.) Wageningen. A. DE CLERCQ. RIDGWAY. E. D. Canadian Entomologist 101.J. A.M. (1986) Meat-based artificial diets for Geocoris punctipes (Say). 1505-1516. 243-246.W. LENTEREN. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 53. ANTHONIS.C. Given the fact that this artificial diet can easily be produced. it may be considered as an alternative food in the mass production of predatory stinkbugs of the genus Podisus.R. (1991) The use of entomophages in biological pest control in the USSR.138 P. 1173-1175. T. COHEN. Annual Review of Entomology 21.

(1991) Laboratory measurement of the functional response of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). W. Vol. (SINGH. N. Canadian Entomologist 104.. MILLS. P. 61-69. R. WAAGE. I. 45-66.J. K.F. (1972) The effect of prey defense on the functional response of Podisus modestus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to densities of the sawflies Neodiprion swainei and N.QUALITY OF ARTIFICIAL-DIET REARED POD1SUS 139 TOSTOWARYK. pp.J. in Handbook of Insect Rearing. R. pratti banksianae (Hymenoptera: Neodiprionidae).. & GREATHEAD. 610-614. (1985) Rearing entomophagous insects..N.K. J. Amsterdam. Eds) Elsevier.P. Downloaded by [Yale University Library] at 23:41 11 February 2012 . & O'NEIL. R. WIEDENMANN. CARL. & MOORE. Environmental Entomology 20.J. D.