eBOT-Light Sensing Bot

Aim: To make a robot which runs forward when light is incident on its sensor and stop when light is removed. Theory: The eBot kit uses combination of digital and analog electronic circuits with which the user can hardwire various autonomous behaviors for the robot. To create the required functionality of the robot we use some fundamental concepts which will be classified as sub activities of the experiment, whose purpose is to help understand the final circuit. Sub-Activity 1 – Make a circuit to observe the sensitivity of a photodiode A photodiode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. A photodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias.
Vcc

If a conventional silicon diode is connected in the reverse-biased circuit of figure shown, only leakage current will flow through the diode and no voltage will be developed across resistor R1.
D1 Photodiode

When the photo diode is exposed to light, its current could rise to as much as one milliampere, producing a voltage across R1. All silicon PN junctions are photosensitive. Thus a photodiode is essentially a conventional silicon PN-junction diode in a case with a transparent cover to permit light to reach its junction
Vout

R1 4.7KΩ

GND

Figure 1.1 Circuit to observe the sensitivity of a photodiode

Sub-Activity 2 – Make a comparator circuit using Operational Amplifier An electronic comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and switches its output to indicate which is larger. An operational amplifier (op-amp) has a well-balanced difference input and a very high gain. In theory, a standard op-amp operating in open-loop configuration (without negative feedback) may be used as a low-performance comparator. When the non-inverting input (V+) is at a higher voltage than the inverting input (V-), the high gain of the op-amp causes the output to saturate at

the output saturates at the most negative voltage it can output. An op-amp operating in a linear mode with negative feedback.Make a circuit to control the motors based on light sensed by the light sensor (Photodiode) As seen from the circuit diagram we use an op-amp comparator. Voltage to inverting terminal of the op-amp is supplied through a potentiometer (V2) which helps us to control the sensitivity of the . using a balanced. The op-amp's output voltage is limited by the supply voltage.the highest positive voltage it can output. split-voltage power supply. When the non-inverting input (V+) drops below the inverting input (V-). (powered by ± VS) its transfer function is typically written as: Vout=A0 (V1 .2 Op-Amp (LM358N) Pin numbering LM358 PIN CONFIGURATION OUTPUT A 1 8 Vcc INVERTING INPUT A 2 A B + + - 7 OUTPUT B NON-INVERTING INPUT A 3 6 INVERTING INPUT B GND 4 5 NON-INVERTING INPUT B Figure 1.V2) Figure 1. We use the circuit discussed in Subactivity 1 to supply voltage to non-inverting terminal of op-amp (V1).3 LM358N PIN Configuration Activity.

.robot as any variation in the resistance of potentiometer directly affects the difference of voltages on inverting and non-inverting terminals of op-amp. An LED connected in the circuit indicates whether the output voltage has more than the threshold voltage. When this output voltage is sufficient high it triggers the motor to start and any voltage less than this threshold voltage will stop the motors. Based on the intensity of the light incident on the photodiode. Thus the light intensity (or presence of bright light) actuates the motors. the output voltage of the op-amp will change.