- Modern Control System Tutorial
- Limit
- Control Systems and Design Problems
- ho1999.pdf
- Advanced PID Control
- Design of Anti-Windup-Extensions for Digital Control Loops
- Selftuning Techniques on PLC Background and Control Systems with Selftuning Methods Design.pdf
- Pid Controller
- 2009
- sctrl_db
- Thesis
- Design and Implementation of Discrete Augmented Ziegler-Nichols PID Controller
- 01J03_00911376
- Intelligent IoT Projects in 7 Days
- 87771
- Hydro
- Magnetic Bearings Theory and Applications
- Analysis of Liquid Level Control of Coupled Tank System by Pi Pd Pid Controller
- Minimum IAE Tuning Rules
- Process Control
- Control System
- [Doi 10.1109%2Firos.2004.1389776] Bouabdallah, S.; Noth, A.; Siegwart, R. -- [IEEE 2004 IEEERSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566) - Sendai, Jap
- 07505217.pdf
- Course Introduction
- Proportional Controller Principle and Other Topics
- Tuning of a Pd Pi Controller Used With a Highly Oscillating Second Order Process
- PID Tuning Methods-Automation Study With MathCad-A
- 30120140505012
- macar98-15
- Heating Systems and Their Controls
- PWM_F10
- Dead Time Compensation Pwm
- Dynamic Dead-time Effect Compensation Scheme for Pmsm Drive
- Controlled Multi-motor Drives85
- Ch 11 - Generator Prgenerator protectionotection.pdf
- Learn to Play Guitar3
- Electric Machines and Drives
- Labview Tutorial
- RSB_IEEE_INES02 Backlash Describing Function (2)
- Learn to Play Guitar
- Cours Labview 09
- A Master-slave Approach to Aircraft Engine Bleed Flow Sharing Control50
- Ch 8 - AVRs
- A Master and Slave Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of Three-phase UPS Systems With Different Ratings48
- Elharrachi Tab
- A Novel Load Sharing Control Technique for Paralleled Inverters
- An Accurate Reactive Power Sharing Control Strategy for DG Units in a Microgrid44604
- Integrated Optimal Control of Speed, Excitation and Load Sharing of Parallel Operating Diesel Generator Se3
- A Current-sharing Control Strategy for Paralleled Multi-Inverter Systems Using Microprocessor-based Robust Control3
- An Improved Distributed Control Strategy for Parallel Inverters
- L-37(DP)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)
- Secondary Control
- Three Degree of Freedom Robust Voltage Controller for Instantaneous Current Sharing Among Voltage Source Inverters in Parallel14
- Distributed Control to Ensure Proportional Load Sharing Voltage Regulation7047
- Review on Frequency Control of Power Systems With Wind Power Penetration51
- L-31(NKD)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)
- A Master-slave Approach to Aircraft Engine Bleed Flow Sharing Control50
- Robust Continuous Speed Governor Control for Small-signal and Transient Stability2
- L-1(SSG)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)
- L-22(DP)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)

**You Wu, Kiyoshi Fujikawa, Hirokazu Kobayashi
**

Technical Research Laboratory, Toyo Electric.Mfg.Co.,Ltd. 338-1Kami-soyagi, Yamato, Kanagawa.242 Japan rel:+81-462-64-578 1;fax:+81-462-63-2947; e-mail:wuyou@lab.toyodenki.co.jp

**Abstract: This paper proposes a control ~netlwd speed of
**

control drive system with gear (or coupling)backlash. The proposed controller consists of a PI controller and P D feedback compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer. The gains of the controller can be designed by the pole assignment o the closed loop f system. Analysis and experiment results show that the direrential feedback o the estimated gear torque is f effective for the vibrationssuppression.

driving motor and a load coupled to the driving motor tlvough a gear and a shaft. In following analyses. we will assume that the gear has a finite backlash and a higher stiffness coefficient.

gear torque load speed

I

gear

L

1. Introduction

It is well known that the presence of gear or coupling backlash is a destabilizing factor. If the gear backlash is holden in motor drive systems with a torsional loads, the results of a speed step response is with extended duration of oscillation. To solve the problem of backlash, different control methods have been presented in many paperslll[3]. The paper[l] proposed a fast and robust speed control method by using the state feedback technique combined with state variable observers. In the paper[2]. a collisionfree control method of servomechanism with backlash using microcomputer has been proposed. However, in either method, the controller structure are very complicated, so that the implementation of the cootroller is not easy. From a practical point of view, in this paper, we propose a simple control method of speed control drive system wit11 backlash. The controller is designed using a PI controller and feedback compensation of the estimated gear torque using a disturbance observer. Backlash compensation can be done through the feedback of the estimated gear torque. Although the control design approach is easy, it is shown that the proposed speed controller yields a robust stability system. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be shown by both simulations and experiments.

**controlled motor iuput speed
**

i ?

11

torque

Fig. 1 Motor drive system with a torsional load

If we take the effects of gear inertia and backlash into account, the motor drive system can be accurately modeled by a Three-Mass (3M) system. Fig.:! shows a block diagram representation of the 3M system, where the box containing a nonlinear element represents the model used for the gear backlash. The 3M system parameters used in this paper are listed on the Tablel.

Th

**2. Controlled System and Backlash Analysis
**

A typical structure of a motor drive system wt a ih torsional load is shown in Fig.1. The system consists of a

**Fig.2 Block diagram of the 3M system
**

0- 7803-3219- 9/96/$5.00

631

AMC ' 6 MIE 9-

O

1996 IEEE

3 Backlash nonlinearity characteristic 0 0.8 1. Ks 6 Description motor inertia load inertia gear inertia gear stiffness shaft stiffness gear backlash Value 0.s3 + k s (Jntg + J L + Kd) 4 .2.5 Block diagram representation of the 2M system For this 2M system. the Describing Function method can be used for treating any nonlinear system if oily the nonlinear system meet the requirements that the output of the nodinear element in response to a sinusoidal input is dominated by the first harmonic of a Fourier series.Table1 3M System Parameters Symbol JIn 3. and that the linear elements of the system sharply attenuate all higher harmonics. By application of the describing function method. We can see the gain N decreases uniformly from 1 toward zero as R approaches 1.3 where. R= 6 /A and A is the amplitude of the input signal d 8 .8 as the input of the backlash model. Therefore the presence of backlash in the gear is equivalent to an additional variable gain ( O S N S l ) acting on the gear stiffness gain .5.2 0. where the describing function is considered as the transfer function corresponding to the fundamental Fourier component of the backlash output. When we take the angular difference d 8 = 8 m. Finding the solutions of the equations (3)-(5). is the gear stiffness coefficient./K.4 0.6 0. 6 is the backlash and K.5 if there is not backlash in the gear (i. as the output of the backlash model. when the PID controller is used for the 3M system shown in Fig.3 K. the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system is given by 632 .In Fig. is very big.) is smaller than the motor and the gear stiffness gain ( .[5]. The transfer function of the backlash is[l]: 7 lTL Fig. a PID controller will be approximately designed for the 3M system shown in Fig. J. and the gear torque T. From a fact that the value of gear inertia (J.4 Describing function plot of backlash However. a PID controller can be easily designed with the Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM) by prof. 69). the backlash nonlinearity can be derived as a characteristic of a dead-band shown in Fig.sin-' ( R ) . J. Fig. we can treat the speed drive system with a backlash in the frequency domain. 1s' + K p K s s + KiKs a. 2000 N d r a d ldegree] Under normal conditions.079 K & . K and & can be found as following (6) N 4 K i = -Ks 11 = 11236 (7) Backlash Fig. PID Speed Control In this chapter. The PID control is design approach presented by the reference [I following: When a PID(Kp+Kils+K&) speed controller is used for the 2M system.e. (2) =a4s + als + a's + a ' s + 1 2 The conditions of the Manabe polynomial [I are GD ( j w ) = --K 8 (-2 K 2 n .4 shows a plot of the describing function gain N(=G. Manabe of T O M UNIV. the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system is given by A (s) = J L (Jms + K d ) s 4+ Kp/.R m ) L O o (1) where. [4]. most servomechanisms contain elements which act as low-pass filters and thus attenuate all higher harmonics.532 Kgmz 0. the PID i controller's gains Kp.2. Jmg(dm+Jg) the sum of the motor inertia and the is gear inertia as a equivalent motor inertia.0 R Fig. Fortunately. K) the 3M system can be similar to a 2M system as shown in Fig.) versus the parameter R. + Ki J .

.. .7 Root loci of the closed loop system using PID controller....... .. the gearresonance poles which are weakly damped move toward the imaginary axis and the shaft-resonance poles move toward the origin as shown in Fig..............................6....... .......................6 Simulation results using PID controller for the 3M system with backlash Fig.......... yLwzcl.+KpO........ . ................. j .... .... the nonlinear element of the backlash is replaced by the equivalent gain NKg..(. ... . Real .. ....... .. ................. in this chapter..... where the backlash is replaced by the equivalent gain Nkg and the nonlinear gain N is vaned between zero and 1........mcc L i x--............ and a strong torsional vibration of the shaft caused by the stepwise disturbance input............ ........................... We can see the vibrations in the gear speed w and the load speed w caused by gear backlash.... . Proposed Speed Control In order to heighten the damping of the mechanical resonances.. Parameter: N d ........ i ...7..N=o 200 ji i A--..........2 > -J.............. we take the differential gain & as K d = -0... .... a- Fig.... ...... we can examine the stability of the closed loop system with backlash using PID controller...where.. therefore in order to form a robust stability system.8.... +........................... : -100 -...... ~+-....... ... .. K.. we proposed a simple control method of the speed control drive system with backlash by consulting the Resonance Ratio Control [6] and reference [7]......8 Block diagram of speed controller 633 ........... 200 ......N=J...... The input we used in this simulation were speed command: w * is a ramp signal ( 40radlsec2 ) disturbance: T...........1 4...... The pole assignment shows that as N decrease............................... Fig. ........... By looking at the poles of the closed loop system...... From equation (9)............ a essential condition for stabilizing the closed loop system is J.... Fig... .... is a stepwise impact 20" at t=3[sec] The simulated time response of the PID controlled system with a gear backlash ( 6 = 1 degree.7 shows the root loci of the system including the 3M plant and the PID controller... .. The controller is designed using PI controller and PD (proportional and derivative) feedback compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer as shown in Fig.......... ................... i. .I........ ..... -200 ....................=2000 Nmlrad) is shown in Fig........cl:mce: *$ 0 1 !................. I - (10) We simulated the time response of the PID controller used for the 3M system with a backlash..

...................... proper design result.......................g(c)..................... the mechanical vibrations including the gear vibration and the shaft vibration can be suppressed...........e................................ we taken the gain Kp as a change parameter and described the root loci of the closed loop system as shown in Fig.......... we take the gain K P as Kpr-1............ . Ki=llo and 200 ........ i I t ...9(b)....... i ... ...... we taken the gain Ki as a change parameter and described the root loci of the closed loop system as shown in Fig. i ............... poles ' ................ f 2 Kdf=o...... : x--.. we taken the feedback gain Kdf as a change parameter and described the root loci of the closed loop system as shown in Fig.......... . therefore the differential feedback of the gear torque is very effective for the suppression of the mechanical vibration............ ....... ........ K w h ~ 0 Parameter: I+O-W ...................................... where Kp=19.... * 0 i .....36 from eq......=112.............. therefore if the poles of the closed loop system corresponding to N=l can be placed far from the imaginary axis (i...... i...... we taken the feedback gain K P as a change ~ parameter and described the root loci of the closed loop system as shown in Fig.................................. ........ (c) Kpz19.......... .............- -200 -30 -20 -1 0 1 10 Real (a) K............. We can see in Fig........... . \ I j ........................................ Ki............. we take the gain Ki as &=140... \ ...... Kp=O A--~p=19 /... if the value of gain K P is taken too big....In Fig........ -20 -10 0 -30 IO Real (b) Kp=19....... the shaft-resonance damping will be ~ reduced. (b) In this step....................W ....................... ...............9 Root loci of the closed loop system(N=l) 634 .............Kif140 ! ........ As a +........ Parameter: Kp=O^........ where Kp=19 and KwGfrO..9(c).................9(a)..._ A--.............. . -200 -200- ... Fig9(d) shows that the gear-resonance damping can be greatly added by the gain Kdf.......... . . ZOO y 23 3 2 _ ..... ............. Parameter: K d ...... &=140 and K w l . We can see when the gain Kp is taken as Kp=19......... ..........7.......... $--- 1 & 7 ' 1 d 9 O -100 . ...... A--.... i..........._ i .7.................. ... K w 1 .. +...9(b)..... moreover a proper value of the gain &f can add the shaft-resonance damping.. %--- Kpf=O 1 gear-resonance.... Ki=140... the mechanical resonance's damping do not very change with the gain K.. .. ....a i 0 Ki=o : ............ 100 ... . therefore as a compromise design result....... ........... ~ (d) In the last step........... . we take the gain &fas I 0 0 5 -150 i : ........ where Kp=19.w -100 -5 0 0 Real (d) Kp=19........................ - ..........9(d)... the gear-resonance damping can be weakly added when K p O ...... d 0 0 : : -100 1: gJ: 1 .........K p f m l I poles ...... We can see in Fig. (c) In tlis step.................................. Kpf=I+O....... ........... .... The designing approach of the controller's gains focuses on the following (a)-(d) four steps: (a) In the first step............ however. KR and &f........................ :.............. .36. ........ Parameter: K&)-o3 Fig................... where Ki=ll2.................................... .. 4 i i ....cy : .. ......... the mechanical resonance's damping can be weakly added. we can see the pole's positions of the closed loop system continuously change with the nonlinear gain N (4 -1).............. 4/ . Q F O ....(7) and KP~=K~FO........: i ... ) ... ................ 4... the mechanical vibration's damping are added)......... _ ... The following analyses will show that the mechanical vibration's damping can be controlled by designing the controller's gains Kp...... therefore to speed the time response speed................. j -200'- .................... &=140..

. x 0 1 I J 8 5 r h d .10Hz) are the shaft-resonances and the resonant peaks in the higher frequency range (17-3OHz) are the gearresonances.10 Root loci of the closed loop system using the proposed controller. the resonant peaks can be so reduced that the stability of the open loop speed control system be added. 5: 2 .13. the resonant peaks illustrate the effects of the mechanical resonances.. Parameter: N=O-1 Frequency tiizl Fig. Comparing Fig.- 3 t. we can see the damping of the mechanical vibrations can be greatly added by using the proposed control method.. Fig.e. its control performances hardly change with the parameter deviations in the 3M system.0. a 0 0. The resonant peaks in the lower frequency range (8.5..25. Using the proposed controller. the simulated time response of the controlled system with a gear backlash ( 6=1 degree. 11 shows the gain frequency response bode plots of the open loop speed control system from the input motor torque to the motor speed with and without the gear torque feedback compensation for three values of the nonliuear gain N (N=0.2I . 1). Fig..f=Kdf=O). 6 ..10 shows the root loci of the closed loop system using the proposed controller where the change parameter is N (=0&1).. 12 Simulation result using the proposed controller for the 3M system with backlash -150 -100 -50 0 Real Fig. as shown in Fig. 10 with Fig.7.13 Simulation result using the proposed controller for the 3M system with parameter deviations 635 . 12.. To clarify the effectiveness of the gear torque feedback compensation. 200 I stable command response characteristic without the gear vibration and its disturbance rejection effect is also excellent. When without the gear torque feedback compensation (i.Fig. to W. It has a quick and 1 l I l( r .c . 11 Frequency responses of the open loop speed control system from T. However it can be seen that with the backlash compensation using the gear torque feedback. Kg=2000 Nmlrad) is shown in Fig. ( Fig. Moreover. .we can see the control performances are clearly superior than those of the PID controller. By comparison with ~ i g . K.

N.86-87.Nanai.Ito and KOzaki. “Novel Control Strategies of Torsional Vibq ration System: Resonance Ratio Control” National Convention Record 1EE. All controllers are implemented with the digital signal processor. Moreover.No. where the 3M experimental system parameters are also the Tablel.Dhaouadi.ll. “Three-Mass-SystemControl Based on Differential Feedback of the Estimated Disturbance” National Convention Record 1EE. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by b t simulations and experiments.Sugiura and Y.1791-1797. Kg=KgnX25%.Umida. Kgn.Japan-Industry Applications Society.Hon. the gear vibration was suppressed well and the shaft vibration was suppressed to a certain extent as shown in Fig.13 were JL=J. we proposed a simple control method of speed control drive system with a torsional load and a gear backlash.14 and Fig. 271-277. Due to the handicaps of the experiment conditions.pp. oh References [l] R. load speed and gear torque detected by torque meter. the time constants of the disturbance observer and the differentiator used in the experiment are slower than that used in the simulation. Fig. l . respectively. “Novel Control Strategies of Torsional Vibration System: Coefficient Diagram Method” National Convention Record 1EE.Hori. We think that as a result of the slow time constants.Futami. the measurable physical variables are only motor speed.1993 [2] S.Japan-IndustryApplications Society. and the torsional vibration of the shaft caused by the stepwise disturbance input.Tobise.. “A Collision-freeControl Method of Servomechanism with Backlashusing Microcomputer” JSPE.Kubo and M. & . S. [ T.l. vo1.1994 [T K.1994 636 . “Control and Analysis of Torsional Vibration with Backlash” National Convention Record IEE Japan. 274. vol. 6 used the values of the table 1. when using the proposed controller. The simulation result in Fig.1994 [4] S. Conclusion In this paper.X66%. 15. & = K n X 66%. 13 confirms that the proposed speed controller well stabilizes the 3M system with gear backlash in spite of parameter variations. in order to kill the high frequency noise. H.The parameters of the 3M system used in Fig.Kyura and S.pp.124.9d).15 show the experimental results of the speed response to the speed reference and the disturbance torque by using the PID controller and proposed controller.50. 15 Experimental results using the proposed controller 5. the shaft vibration was not suppressed well. Same as the simulation results.14 Experimental results using the PID controller ensation of Speed Drive Systems with Torsional Loads” PCC-Yokohama. The analysis results on the pole assignment of the closed loop system show that the differential feedback of the estimated gear torque is very effective for the suppression of the mechanical vibrations including the shaft-resonance and the gear-resonance (Fig. “Analysisand Comp Fig. Fig. K. The time constants used in the experiment and the simulation were 10[ms] and 1[ms] respectively.1984 [3] H. TMS320C14E.Murakami. pp.1994 [qY . However. 6 = 6 n X200%. Jg=JgnX50%.Japan-Industry Applications Society. S. in Fig14 we can see the gear vibration in the command response of the load speed due to the gear backlash.Manabe.llS-D.. 12-7. where J J. 666.No. “Controlof 2-Inertia System only by a PID Contr1995 oller” T E E Japan.

- Modern Control System TutorialUploaded byUtn Leo
- LimitUploaded byAnonymous alvdxU3
- Control Systems and Design ProblemsUploaded by12onn1e
- ho1999.pdfUploaded byAnonymous WkbmWCa8M
- Advanced PID ControlUploaded byAldrian Macua
- Design of Anti-Windup-Extensions for Digital Control LoopsUploaded byfrank_grimes
- Selftuning Techniques on PLC Background and Control Systems with Selftuning Methods Design.pdfUploaded byEnio Diaz
- Pid ControllerUploaded byFrans Gultom
- 2009Uploaded bykhalafgaeid
- sctrl_dbUploaded byRidir Zolkefle
- ThesisUploaded bySlavisa Kondic
- Design and Implementation of Discrete Augmented Ziegler-Nichols PID ControllerUploaded byIDES
- 01J03_00911376Uploaded byMohit Bathla Monty
- Intelligent IoT Projects in 7 DaysUploaded byAmir Alizadeh
- 87771Uploaded byIzza Anshory
- HydroUploaded bygoitom01
- Magnetic Bearings Theory and ApplicationsUploaded byYüksel Kurtalan
- Analysis of Liquid Level Control of Coupled Tank System by Pi Pd Pid ControllerUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Minimum IAE Tuning RulesUploaded byjgkrishnan
- Process ControlUploaded bySuleman Tariq
- Control SystemUploaded byashutoshsinghjss
- [Doi 10.1109%2Firos.2004.1389776] Bouabdallah, S.; Noth, A.; Siegwart, R. -- [IEEE 2004 IEEERSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566) - Sendai, JapUploaded byMikoto Rifky
- 07505217.pdfUploaded byRAJEEV RANJAN SILMANA
- Course IntroductionUploaded byM Faizan Farooq
- Proportional Controller Principle and Other TopicsUploaded bythestarkid
- Tuning of a Pd Pi Controller Used With a Highly Oscillating Second Order ProcessUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- PID Tuning Methods-Automation Study With MathCad-AUploaded byTio S
- 30120140505012Uploaded byIAEME Publication
- macar98-15Uploaded byVera Gardasevic Mitrovic
- Heating Systems and Their ControlsUploaded bycsharpplus

- PWM_F10Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Dead Time Compensation PwmUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Dynamic Dead-time Effect Compensation Scheme for Pmsm DriveUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Controlled Multi-motor Drives85Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Ch 11 - Generator Prgenerator protectionotection.pdfUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Learn to Play Guitar3Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Electric Machines and DrivesUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Labview TutorialUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- RSB_IEEE_INES02 Backlash Describing Function (2)Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Learn to Play GuitarUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Cours Labview 09Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- A Master-slave Approach to Aircraft Engine Bleed Flow Sharing Control50Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Ch 8 - AVRsUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- A Master and Slave Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of Three-phase UPS Systems With Different Ratings48Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Elharrachi TabUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- A Novel Load Sharing Control Technique for Paralleled InvertersUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- An Accurate Reactive Power Sharing Control Strategy for DG Units in a Microgrid44604Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Integrated Optimal Control of Speed, Excitation and Load Sharing of Parallel Operating Diesel Generator Se3Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- A Current-sharing Control Strategy for Paralleled Multi-Inverter Systems Using Microprocessor-based Robust Control3Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- An Improved Distributed Control Strategy for Parallel InvertersUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- L-37(DP)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Secondary ControlUploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Three Degree of Freedom Robust Voltage Controller for Instantaneous Current Sharing Among Voltage Source Inverters in Parallel14Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Distributed Control to Ensure Proportional Load Sharing Voltage Regulation7047Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Review on Frequency Control of Power Systems With Wind Power Penetration51Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- L-31(NKD)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- A Master-slave Approach to Aircraft Engine Bleed Flow Sharing Control50Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- Robust Continuous Speed Governor Control for Small-signal and Transient Stability2Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- L-1(SSG)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- L-22(DP)(PE) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMohamed Berriri